Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Norepinephrine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of noradrenergic neurons. They remove NOREPINEPHRINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. It regulates signal amplitude and duration at noradrenergic synapses and is the target of ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Receptors, Serotonin: Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2A: A serotonin receptor subtype found widely distributed in peripheral tissues where it mediates the contractile responses of variety of tissues that contain SMOOTH MUSCLE. Selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonists include KETANSERIN. The 5-HT2A subtype is also located in BASAL GANGLIA and CEREBRAL CORTEX of the BRAIN where it mediates the effects of HALLUCINOGENS such as LSD.Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1A: A serotonin receptor subtype found distributed through the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM where they are involved in neuroendocrine regulation of ACTH secretion. The fact that this serotonin receptor subtype is particularly sensitive to SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS such as BUSPIRONE suggests its role in the modulation of ANXIETY and DEPRESSION.Serotonin Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate serotonin receptors, thereby blocking the actions of serotonin or SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2C: A serotonin receptor subtype found primarily in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the CHOROID PLEXUS. This receptor subtype is believed to mediate the anorectic action of SEROTONIN, while selective antagonists of the 5-HT2C receptor appear to induce ANXIETY. Several isoforms of this receptor subtype exist, due to adenine deaminase editing of the receptor mRNA.Serotonin Agents: Drugs used for their effects on serotonergic systems. Among these are drugs that affect serotonin receptors, the life cycle of serotonin, and the survival of serotonergic neurons.Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2B: A serotonin receptor subtype found in the BRAIN; HEART; LUNGS; PLACENTA and DIGESTIVE SYSTEM organs. A number of functions have been attributed to the action of the 5-HT2B receptor including the development of cardiac myocytes (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) and the contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE.Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT2: A subclass of G-protein coupled SEROTONIN receptors that couple preferentially to the GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS resulting in increased intracellular levels of INOSITOL PHOSPHATES and free CALCIUM.Serotonin Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate SEROTONIN RECEPTORS. Many serotonin receptor agonists are used as ANTIDEPRESSANTS; ANXIOLYTICS; and in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1B: A serotonin receptor subtype found at high levels in the BASAL GANGLIA and the frontal cortex. It plays a role as a terminal autoreceptor that regulates the rate of SEROTONIN release from nerve endings. This serotonin receptor subtype is closely related to and has similar drug binding properties as the 5-HT1D RECEPTOR. It is particularly sensitive to the agonist SUMATRIPTAN and may be involved in mediating the drug's antimigraine effect.Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT1: A subclass of G-protein coupled SEROTONIN receptors that couple preferentially to GI-GO G-PROTEINS resulting in decreased intracellular CYCLIC AMP levels.Serotonin Syndrome: An adverse drug interaction characterized by altered mental status, autonomic dysfunction, and neuromuscular abnormalities. It is most frequently caused by use of both serotonin reuptake inhibitors and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, leading to excess serotonin availability in the CNS at the serotonin 1A receptor.Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of SEROTONIN or SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTOR AGONISTS. Included under this heading are antagonists for one or more specific 5-HT2 receptor subtypes.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of adrenergic transmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. The tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) and amphetamines are among the therapeutically important drugs that may act via inhibition of adrenergic transport. Many of these drugs also block transport of serotonin.Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT3: A subclass of serotonin receptors that form cation channels and mediate signal transduction by depolarizing the cell membrane. The cation channels are formed from 5 receptor subunits. When stimulated the receptors allow the selective passage of SODIUM; POTASSIUM; and CALCIUM.Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that specifically stimulate SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are agonists for one or more of the specific 5-HT2 receptor subtypes.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Tryptophan Hydroxylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of TRYPTOPHAN to 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN in the presence of NADPH and molecular oxygen. It is important in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN.Desipramine: A tricyclic dibenzazepine compound that potentiates neurotransmission. Desipramine selectively blocks reuptake of norepinephrine from the neural synapse, and also appears to impair serotonin transport. This compound also possesses minor anticholinergic activity, through its affinity to muscarinic receptors.Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that specifically stimulate SEROTONIN 5-HT1 RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are agonists for one or more of the specific 5-HT1 receptor subtypes.Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT4: A subtype of G-protein-coupled SEROTONIN receptors that preferentially couple to GS STIMULATORY G-PROTEINS resulting in increased intracellular CYCLIC AMP. Several isoforms of the receptor exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate SEROTONIN 5-HT1 RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of SEROTONIN 5-HT1 RECEPTOR AGONISTS. Included under this heading are antagonists for one or more of the specific 5-HT1 receptor subtypes.Fluoxetine: The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Hydroxyindoleacetic AcidBiogenic Monoamines: Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Dopamine beta-HydroxylaseReceptors, Adrenergic, alpha: One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.Citalopram: A furancarbonitrile that is one of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS used as an antidepressant. The drug is also effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics and is used in depressed patients who also suffer from tardive dyskinesia in preference to tricyclic antidepressants, which aggravate this condition.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Receptors, Adrenergic: Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.5-Hydroxytryptophan: The immediate precursor in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN from tryptophan. It is used as an antiepileptic and antidepressant.Raphe Nuclei: Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Locus Coeruleus: Bluish-colored region in the superior angle of the FOURTH VENTRICLE floor, corresponding to melanin-like pigmented nerve cells which lie lateral to the PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY.Tyramine: An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.Serotonergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is SEROTONIN.Ketanserin: A selective serotonin receptor antagonist with weak adrenergic receptor blocking properties. The drug is effective in lowering blood pressure in essential hypertension. It also inhibits platelet aggregation. It is well tolerated and is particularly effective in older patients.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Paroxetine: A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of depression.Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit the transport of neurotransmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. For many transmitters, uptake determines the time course of transmitter action so inhibiting uptake prolongs the activity of the transmitter. Blocking uptake may also deplete available transmitter stores. Many clinically important drugs are uptake inhibitors although the indirect reactions of the brain rather than the acute block of uptake itself is often responsible for the therapeutic effects.Adrenergic Agents: Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.Monoamine Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 188.8.131.52.Methysergide: An ergot derivative that is a congener of LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE. It antagonizes the effects of serotonin in blood vessels and gastrointestinal smooth muscle, but has few of the properties of other ergot alkaloids. Methysergide is used prophylactically in migraine and other vascular headaches and to antagonize serotonin in the carcinoid syndrome.Methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol: Synthesized from endogenous epinephrine and norepinephrine in vivo. It is found in brain, blood, CSF, and urine, where its concentrations are used to measure catecholamine turnover.Fenclonine: A selective and irreversible inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin (5-HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE). Fenclonine acts pharmacologically to deplete endogenous levels of serotonin.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin: A serotonin 1A-receptor agonist that is used experimentally to test the effects of serotonin.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Biogenic Amines: A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.Sympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.Phentolamine: A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Yohimbine: A plant alkaloid with alpha-2-adrenergic blocking activity. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.Prazosin: A selective adrenergic alpha-1 antagonist used in the treatment of HEART FAILURE; HYPERTENSION; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; RAYNAUD DISEASE; PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY; and URINARY RETENTION.Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1D: A serotonin receptor subtype that is localized to the CAUDATE NUCLEUS; PUTAMEN; the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS; the HIPPOCAMPUS, and the RAPHE NUCLEI. It plays a role as a terminal autoreceptor that regulates the rate of SEROTONIN release from nerve endings. This serotonin receptor subtype is closely related to and has similar drug binding properties as the 5-HT1B RECEPTOR, but is expressed at low levels. It is particularly sensitive to the agonist SUMATRIPTAN and may be involved in mediating the drug's antimigrane effect.Reserpine: An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine: Tryptamine substituted with two hydroxyl groups in positions 5 and 7. It is a neurotoxic serotonin analog that destroys serotonergic neurons preferentially and is used in neuropharmacology as a tool.Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic: Substances that contain a fused three-ring moiety and are used in the treatment of depression. These drugs block the uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into axon terminals and may block some subtypes of serotonin, adrenergic, and histamine receptors. However the mechanism of their antidepressant effects is not clear because the therapeutic effects usually take weeks to develop and may reflect compensatory changes in the central nervous system.Adrenergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.PropylaminesAdrenergic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. Adrenergic antagonists block the actions of the endogenous adrenergic transmitters EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Normetanephrine: A methylated metabolite of norepinephrine that is excreted in the urine and found in certain tissues. It is a marker for tumors.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate SEROTONIN 5-HT3 RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of SEROTONIN or SEROTONIN 5-HT3 RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Adrenergic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate adrenergic receptors.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Clonidine: An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation: A structurally and mechanistically diverse group of drugs that are not tricyclics or monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most clinically important appear to act selectively on serotonergic systems, especially by inhibiting serotonin reuptake.Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Fenfluramine: A centrally active drug that apparently both blocks serotonin uptake and provokes transport-mediated serotonin release.Synaptosomes: Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Octopamine: An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.PiperazinesPineal Gland: A light-sensitive neuroendocrine organ attached to the roof of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain. The pineal gland secretes MELATONIN, other BIOGENIC AMINES and NEUROPEPTIDES.Imipramine: The prototypical tricyclic antidepressant. It has been used in major depression, dysthymia, bipolar depression, attention-deficit disorders, agoraphobia, and panic disorders. It has less sedative effect than some other members of this therapeutic group.N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine: An N-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as MDMA or ecstasy.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 184.108.40.206.Droxidopa: A precursor of noradrenaline that is used in the treatment of parkinsonism. The racemic form (DL-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine) has also been used, and has been investigated in the treatment of orthostatic hypotension. There is a deficit of noradrenaline as well as of dopamine in Parkinson's disease and it has been proposed that this underlies the sudden transient freezing seen usually in advanced disease. Administration of DL-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine has been claimed to result in an improvement in this phenomenon but controlled studies have failed to demonstrate improvement. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)Sympatholytics: Drugs that inhibit the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by any mechanism. The most common of these are the ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS and drugs that deplete norepinephrine or reduce the release of transmitters from adrenergic postganglionic terminals (see ADRENERGIC AGENTS). Drugs that act in the central nervous system to reduce sympathetic activity (e.g., centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, see ADRENERGIC ALPHA-AGONISTS) are included here.Clomipramine: A tricyclic antidepressant similar to IMIPRAMINE that selectively inhibits the uptake of serotonin in the brain. It is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and demethylated in the liver to form its primary active metabolite, desmethylclomipramine.3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid: A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.p-Chloroamphetamine: Chlorinated analog of AMPHETAMINE. Potent neurotoxin that causes release and eventually depletion of serotonin in the CNS. It is used as a research tool.Cinanserin: A serotonin antagonist with limited antihistaminic, anticholinergic, and immunosuppressive activity.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Amphetamines: Analogs or derivatives of AMPHETAMINE. Many are sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulators causing excitation, vasopressin, bronchodilation, and to varying degrees, anorexia, analepsis, nasal decongestion, and some smooth muscle relaxation.Fluvoxamine: A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is used in the treatment of DEPRESSION and a variety of ANXIETY DISORDERS.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Hydroxydopamines: Dopamines with a hydroxy group substituted in one or more positions.Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS.Adrenergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is EPINEPHRINE.Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.alpha-Methyltyrosine: An inhibitor of the enzyme TYROSINE 3-MONOOXYGENASE, and consequently of the synthesis of catecholamines. It is used to control the symptoms of excessive sympathetic stimulation in patients with PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins: A family of vesicular amine transporter proteins that catalyze the transport and storage of CATECHOLAMINES and indolamines into SECRETORY VESICLES.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Vasomotor System: The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.Nerve Tissue ProteinsChromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Cyclohexanols: Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.3-Iodobenzylguanidine: A guanidine analog with specific affinity for tissues of the sympathetic nervous system and related tumors. The radiolabeled forms are used as antineoplastic agents and radioactive imaging agents. (Merck Index, 12th ed) MIBG serves as a neuron-blocking agent which has a strong affinity for, and retention in, the adrenal medulla and also inhibits ADP-ribosyltransferase.Idazoxan: A benzodioxane-linked imidazole that has alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist activity.Methyltyrosines: A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Methoxamine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist that causes prolonged peripheral VASOCONSTRICTION.Tryptamines: Decarboxylated monoamine derivatives of TRYPTOPHAN.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Autoreceptors: Transmitter receptors on or near presynaptic terminals (or varicosities) which are sensitive to the transmitter(s) released by the terminal itself. Receptors for the hormones released by hormone-releasing cells are also included.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.TritiumAdipose Tissue, Brown: A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.Homovanillic AcidSertraline: A selective serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used in the treatment of depression.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Dihydroxyphenylalanine: A beta-hydroxylated derivative of phenylalanine. The D-form of dihydroxyphenylalanine has less physiologic activity than the L-form and is commonly used experimentally to determine whether the pharmacological effects of LEVODOPA are stereospecific.Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Methiothepin: A serotonin receptor antagonist in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM used as an antipsychotic.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Stellate Ganglion: A paravertebral sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Sympathectomy, Chemical: Sympathectomy using chemicals (e.g., 6-hydroxydopamine or guanethidine) which selectively and reversibly destroy adrenergic nerve endings while leaving cholinergic nerve endings intact.Cyproheptadine: A serotonin antagonist and a histamine H1 blocker used as antipruritic, appetite stimulant, antiallergic, and for the post-gastrectomy dumping syndrome, etc.Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: Semisynthetic derivative of ergot (Claviceps purpurea). It has complex effects on serotonergic systems including antagonism at some peripheral serotonin receptors, both agonist and antagonist actions at central nervous system serotonin receptors, and possibly effects on serotonin turnover. It is a potent hallucinogen, but the mechanisms of that effect are not well understood.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Oxidopamine: A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Ephedrine: A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.Pargyline: A monoamine oxidase inhibitor with antihypertensive properties.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 220.127.116.11.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Sympathetic Fibers, Postganglionic: Nerve fibers which project from sympathetic ganglia to synapses on target organs. Sympathetic postganglionic fibers use norepinephrine as transmitter, except for those innervating eccrine sweat glands (and possibly some blood vessels) which use acetylcholine. They may also release peptide cotransmitters.Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Receptors, Catecholamine: Cell surface proteins that bind catecholamines with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The catecholamine messengers epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine are synthesized from tyrosine by a common biosynthetic pathway.Benzylamines: Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Clorgyline: An antidepressive agent and monoamine oxidase inhibitor related to PARGYLINE.Trimethaphan: A nicotinic antagonist that has been used as a ganglionic blocker in hypertension, as an adjunct to anesthesia, and to induce hypotension during surgery.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Shock, Septic: Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
... particularly of serotonin and norepinephrine. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most widely used ... Serotonin-norepinephrine re-uptake inhibitors (SNRIs) act by blocking both SERTs and NETs. Triple re-uptake inhibitors (TRIs) ... The norepinephrine transporter, NET. The serotonin transporter, SERT. DAT is responsible for the Na +/Cl − -dependent reuptake ... It has been recently observed that serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine may all be involved in depression. Therefore, drugs ...
H1 antagonism blocks serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. Patients with increased histamine levels have been observed to have ... The atypical antipsychotics integrate with the serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (α, β), and dopamine (D) receptors in order to ... Blockade of the 5-HT2C receptor increases serotonin, releasing norepinephrine and dopamine within the brain. But neuronal ... which is why weight gain occurs with some antipsychotics if the norepinephrine is not inhibited. Inhibition of norepinephrine ...
... differ in that they are much more balanced reuptake inhibitors of serotonin and norepinephrine. To demonstrate, the serotonin: ... Levomilnacipran is selective for the serotonin and norepinephrine transporters, lacking significant affinity for over 23 off- ... Saraceni MM, Venci JV, Gandhi MA (December 2013). "Levomilnacipran (Fetzima): A New Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor ... Sansone RA, Sansone LA (March 2014). "Serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors: a pharmacological comparison". Innov Clin ...
Korn, Martin L. "Serotonin and Norepinephrine Antidepressant Effects". Medscape. Ongür D.; et al. (2004). "A role for glia in ... serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (venlafaxine), dopamine reuptake inhibitors: (bupropion), tricyclic ... "Depression: Beyond Serotonin". Psychology Today Magazine. Archived from the original on 2006-03-18. Johnson, M.R.; Morris, NA; ... Only a minority of patients given the serotonin-depleting drug reserpine became depressed; in fact reserpine even acted as an ...
Hainer, V; Kabrnova, K; Aldhoon, B; Kunesova, M; Wagenknecht, M (2006). "Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition and ... Norepinephrine is both a neurotransmitter and a hormone; abnormalities in either capacity may affect eating behavior. Dopamine ... Jimerson, DC; Lesem, MD; Kaye, WH; Hegg, AP; Brewerton, TD (1990). "Eating disorders and depression: is there a serotonin ... Blundell, JE; Lawton, CL; Halford, JC (1995). "Serotonin, eating behavior, and fat intake". Obesity Research. 3 Suppl 4: 471S- ...
Serotonin reuptake inhibitor Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor Serotonin- ... Hyperforin and adhyperforin are wide-spectrum inhibitors of the reuptake of serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, glutamate, ... Barker, Eric L.; Randy D. Blakely (1995). Norepinephrine and serotonin transporters: molecular targets of antidepressant drugs ... Most known reuptake inhibitors affect the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine (and epinephrine), and dopamine ...
Monoamine reuptake inhibitor
Serotonin-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (SDRI) Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI) Serotonin-norepinephrine- ... including the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and almost ... A new serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 318 (2): 657-65. doi:10.1124/jpet.106.103382. ... which include the serotonin transporter (SERT), norepinephrine transporter (NET), and dopamine transporter (DAT). This in turn ...
... serotonin) and NE terminals. 5-HT and NE were shown to inhibit bladder activity. The author[who?] used serotonin norepinephrine ... The motoneurons in Onuf's nucleus contain a dense array of serotonin and norepinephrine receptors and transmitters and are ... Thor, KB (2004). "Targeting serotonin and norepinephrine receptors in stress urinary incontinence". International Journal of ... "Targeting serotonin and norepinephrine receptors in stress urinary incontinence", International Journal of Gynecology and ...
A new serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 318 (2): 657-65. doi:10.1124/jpet.106.103382. ... a broad spectrum dopamine/serotonin/norepinephrine receptor antagonist for the management of psychotic disorders". ... serotonin receptor subtypes". Biochem. Pharmacol. 65 (3): 435-40. doi:10.1016/s0006-2952(02)01515-0. PMID 12527336. Roth, BL; ...
Generalized anxiety disorder
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), such as venlafaxine and duloxetine. Newer, atypical serotonergic ... followed by serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (43%), and pregabalin (35%). Preferred second-line treatments ... Overdose of an SSRI can result in serotonin syndrome. Benzodiazepines are most often prescribed to people with generalized ... norepinephrine and substance P. Its therapeutic effect appears after 1 week of use and is similar in effectiveness to lorazepam ...
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRIs) include venlafaxine and duloxetine drugs. Venlafaxine, in extended release ... Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of compounds typically ... Antidepressant medications can reduce anxiety, and several selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been USFDA approved to ... serotonin and adrenergic activity. Mebicar decreases the brain noradrenaline level, exerts no effect on the dopaminergic ...
Goldenberg et al suggest that tramadol works via its serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition, rather than via its ... "Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors for Pain Control: Premise and Promise". Current Neuropharmacology. 7 (4): 331-336 ... Inconsistent reports of decreased serum and CSF values of serotonin have been observed. There is also some data that suggests ... Narita M, Nishigami N, Narita N, Yamaguti K, Okado N, Watanabe Y, Kuratsune H (November 2003). "Association between serotonin ...
Monoamine releasing agent
Serotonin-norepinephrine releasing agent (SNRA) Serotonin-dopamine releasing agent (SDRA) Serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine ... MRAs act to varying extents on serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Some induce the release of all three neurotransmitters ... Selective for one neurotransmitter Serotonin releasing agent (SRA) Norepinephrine releasing agent (NRA) Dopamine releasing ... norepinephrine transporter (NET), and serotonin transporter (SERT). Some, such as exogenous phenethylamine, amphetamine, and ...
They are found in close association with serotonin (5-HT) and neurons containing norepinephrine that are targeted by the ... "Neurokinin 1 receptor antagonism requires norepinephrine to increase serotonin function". European Neuropsychopharmacology. 17 ... This protozoan was found to secrete serotonin as well as substance P and neurotensin. Despite strong preclinical rationale, ... serotonin, opioid, and/or acetylcholine receptor signaling. NK1Rs are stimulated. In turn, a fairly complex reflex is triggered ...
Rapid eye movement sleep
The monoamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin and histamine are completely unavailable. Injections of ... serotonin, and norepinephrine. REM sleep is physiologically different from the other phases of sleep, which are collectively ... 6 in Brain Norepinephrine: Neurobiology and Therapeutics. G.A. Ordway, M.A. Schwartz, & A. Frazer, eds. Cambridge UP. 157-195. ... Aston-Jones G., Gonzalez M., & Doran S. (2007). "Role of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system in arousal and circadian ...
Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry
... norepinephrine, adenosine, oxygen, pH changes in vivo in rats and mice as well as measurement of dopamine and serotonin ... FSCV is used to study dynamics of exocytosis of noradrenaline and adrenaline from chromaffin cells; release of serotonin from ... norepinephrine) and in vivo in anesthetized or awake and behaving animals (dopamine). Further refinements of the method have ... release of norepinephrine in brain of anesthetized and freely moving rodents. Bard. Encyclopedia of Electrochemistry. Wiley. ...
Norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter that is involved with learning, memory, and physical arousal. Like serotonin, an imbalance ... Serotonin is one such neurotransmitter that is involved with sleep, moods, and emotional states. A slight imbalance of this NT ... of norepinephrine may also result in depression. Anabolic steroid abuse Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Autism or ...
... serotonin:dopamine = 2:3, serotonin:norepinephrine = 2:5). The most extensively studied effect of cocaine on the central ... Cocaine acts by inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. This results in greater concentrations of ... Cocaine's affects certain serotonin (5-HT) receptors; in particular, it has been shown to antagonize the 5-HT3 receptor, which ... The lack of normal amounts of serotonin and dopamine in the brain is the cause of the dysphoria and depression felt after the ...
Prenatal cocaine exposure
... is a serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (SNDRI) with Ki values of 117, 150, and 2698 nM for the ... it is a serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent (SNDRA). In addition to actions at the monoamine transporters, 6-APB ... norepinephrine transporter (NET), dopamine transporter (DAT), and serotonin transporter (SERT), respectively. In addition, 6- ... Canal CE, Murnane KS (2017). "The serotonin 5-HT2C receptor and the non-addictive nature of classic hallucinogens". J. ...
... such as tricyclic antidepressants and SSRIs block reuptake transporters causing increased levels of norepinephrine or serotonin ... Serotonergic psychedelics act through modulation of serotonin. Most of these drugs share a high affinity for the 5-HT2A ... These drugs block dopamine receptors and some also block serotonin receptors (such as chlorpromazine, the first antipsychotic ... Cocaine, amphetamines, methylphenidate and ephedrine block the reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine. With increasing doses, ...
These include norepinephrine, serotonin, acetylcholine, substance P, ATP, TRH, somatostatin, dopamine, endorphins, and ... A lack of serotonin binding to the serotonin receptor 2 leads to the inability to autoresuscitation due to the lack of drive ... Serotonin plays a critical role in altering the pacemaker neurons involved in gasping and normal respiratory activity. Blocking ... When Substance P is coreleased with serotonin, it plays a crucial role in hypoxic response. This occurs because substance P ...
They are found in close association with serotonin (5-HT) and neurons containing norepinephrine that are targeted by the ... "Neurokinin 1 receptor antagonism requires norepinephrine to increase serotonin function". European Neuropsychopharmacology. 17 ... role of serotonin". Science. 221 (4612): 762-4. doi:10.1126/science.6308760. PMID 6308760.. ... serotonin, opioid, and/or acetylcholine receptor signaling. NK1Rs are stimulated. In turn, a fairly complex reflex is triggered ...
GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator
Receptors for serotonin show a high affinity for cathinone, suggesting this chemical is responsible for feelings of euphoria ... The action of cathine and cathinone on the reuptake of epinephrine and norepinephrine has been demonstrated in lab animals, ... a subset of the phenethylamines related to amphetamines and the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine. In fact, ... being believed to act upon the adrenergic receptors causing the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine. It has a half- ...
... and increases levels of norepinephrine (noradrenaline), dopamine, and especially serotonin. in neuronal cells as well ... Serotonin syndrome has been reported when moclobemide has been taken in combination with other serotonin enhancing drugs; ... or other serotonin reuptake inhibitors, such as SSRIs may result in the development of a serotonin syndrome. SNRIs, ... blocking the decomposition of norepinephrine, serotonin and, to a lesser extent, dopamine. No reuptake inhibition of any of the ...
... serotonin and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). There is evidence that an increase in oxytocin, resulting for instance from ... Serotonin (5HT) appeared to be the active neurotransmitter involved in mediating stress responses, and increases in serotonin ... Epinephrine and norepinephrine (E/NE) are produced by the adrenal medulla through sympathetic stimulation and the local effects ...
Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor
... norepinephrine transporter (NET), and serotonin transporter (SERT) proteins. Amphetamine itself has comparatively low affinity ... A norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI) is a drug that acts as a reuptake inhibitor for the neurotransmitters ... The section only lists compounds that are selective for NET and DAT relative to the serotonin transporter (SERT). For a list of ... Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors are used for clinical depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), ...
Serotonin (5-HT). *Tryptamines (e.g., 2-Me-5-HT, 5-BT, 5-CT, 5-MT, Bufotenin, E-6801, E-6837, EMD-386088, EMDT, LY-586713, N-Me ... Under physiologic conditions, however, nitric oxide attenuates norepinephrine vasoconstriction. Botanical sources of ... Serotonin antagonists and reuptake inhibitors (e.g., etoperidone, hydroxynefazodone, lubazodone, mepiprazole, nefazodone, ... serotonin (5-HT)(1A), 5-HT(1B), 5-HT(1D) and dopamine D(2) and D(3) receptors. Significance for the modulation of ...
ICD-10 Chapter V: Mental and behavioural disorders
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
... such as serotonin and norepinephrine) and hormones (such as cortisol) which are implicated in anxiety. The epigenetic signature ... In the central nervous system (CNS), the major mediators of the symptoms of anxiety disorders appear to be norepinephrine, ... Increased flow in the right parahippocampal region and reduced serotonin type 1A receptor binding in the anterior and posterior ... serotonin, dopamine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Other neurotransmitters and peptides, such as corticotropin-releasing ...
Sensory processing sensitivity
Licht, C., Mortensen, E. L., & Knudsen, G. M. (2011). "Association between sensory processing sensitivity and the serotonin ... "Neurogenetic Variations in Norepinephrine Availability Enhance Perceptual Vividness". The Journal of Neuroscience. 35 (16): ... genetic studies provide evidence that higher levels of SPS are linked to the serotonin transporter 5-HTTLPR short/short ... genotype, polymorphisms in dopamine neurotransmitter genes, and the ADRA2b norepinephrine-related gene variant. ...
... , being similar to amphetamine in its action at their common biomolecular targets, releases norepinephrine and ... dopamine and serotonin but their rates of synthesis are equivalent to those of noradrenaline and dopamine and they have a very ... norepinephrine, adrenaline, tyramine, and others) - are substituted phenethylamines. Several notable recreational drugs, such ...
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency
... such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, as well as a marked increase in the availability of trace amines, such as ... with even weaker potency for norepinephrine and serotonin release.. Tranylcypromine has also been shown to inhibit the ... Concomitant use of serotonin-enhancing drugs, including SSRIs, serotonergic TCAs, dextromethorphan, and meperidine may cause ... Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors prevent neuronal uptake of tyramine and may reduce its pressor effects. ...
Posttraumatic stress disorder
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) may have some benefit ... First-line pharmacotherapy agents include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and the selective serotonin-norepinephrine ... Most people with PTSD show a low secretion of cortisol and high secretion of catecholamines in urine, with a norepinephrine ... Hyperresponsiveness in the norepinephrine system can also be caused by continued exposure to high stress. Overactivation of ...
CRH - Wicipedia
Triptamina - Viquipèdia, l'enciclopèdia lliure
... s synthesize the hormone melatonin by first converting the amino acid tryptophan to serotonin. The serotonin is then ... Norepinephrine causes the production of melatonin in the pinealocytes by stimulating the production of cAMP. Because the ... As Type 1 cells contain serotonin, Type 2 cells contain melatonin and are thought to have similar characteristics as endocrine ... Research has also shown that Type 1 pinealocytes contain the neurotransmitter serotonin, which later is converted to melatonin ...
Antidepressant, ang malayang ensiklopedya
Nagpipigil ng muling pagsisipsip ng serotonin-norepineprino (serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors o SNRI) : Ito ay ... Selektibong tagapigil ng muling pagsisipsip ng serotonin (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors o SSRI): ito ay klase ng mga ... ng serotonin ng presinaptikong neuron upang mapanatili ang mataas na lebel ng serotonin sa sinapse. Ang unang drogang SSRI na ... Ang isang posibleng sanhi ng depresyon ang hindi sapat na halaga ng serotonin na isang neurotransmitter na ginagamit upang ...
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor legal definition of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
What is selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor? Meaning of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor as a legal term. What does ... Definition of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and ... Current therapies: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and ... Developers of triple reuptake inhibitors -- which inhibit the reuptake of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine -- are ...
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor - Wikipedia
Agents with dual serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition (SNRIs) are sometimes called non-tricyclic serotonin and ... 2005). "Discovery and structure-activity relationships of novel selective norepinephrine and dual serotonin/norepinephrine ... which act upon serotonin only. The human serotonin transporter (SERT) and norepinephrine transporter (NET) are membrane ... while milnacipran is three times more selective for norepinephrine than serotonin. Elevation of norepinephrine levels is ...
Serotonin-norepinephrine releasing agent - Wikipedia
A serotonin-norepinephrine releasing agent (SNRA) is a type of drug which induces the release of serotonin and norepinephrine ( ... agent Serotonin releasing agent Norepinephrine releasing agent Serotonin-dopamine releasing agent Serotonin-norepinephrine- ... A closely related type of drug is a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI). Monoamine releasing ... Fenfluramine/phentermine (Fen-Phen), a combination formulation of fenfluramine, a serotonin releasing agent, and phentermine, a ...
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor - Wikipedia
Dual serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. Agents with dual serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition ... Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Redirected from Serotonin-norepinephrine ... Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs that treat major depressive disorder ( ... while milnacipran is three times more selective for norepinephrine than serotonin. Elevation of norepinephrine levels is ...
Serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor - Wikipedia
They are an extension of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors ( ... norepinephrine, and dopamine. It does this by concomitantly inhibiting the serotonin transporter (SERT), norepinephrine ... A serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (SNDRI), also known as a triple reuptake inhibitor (TRI), is a type of ... They are also very similar to serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agents (SNDRAs) like MDMA ("ecstasy") and α- ...
Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs)
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors work by inhibiting the reabsorption of not one but two important brain chemicals. ... About Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors. Medically reviewed by Lindsay Slowiczek, PharmD on. December 6, 2016. - ... Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) were first introduced in the mid-1990s as a class of antidepressant drugs ... They do this by stopping serotonin and norepinephrine from going back into the cells that released them. ...
benzodiazepines and serotonin reuptake inhibitors norepinephrine
KudoZ) English to Spanish translation of benzodiazepines and serotonin reuptake inhibitors norepinephrine [drugs - Medical ( ... benzodiazepines and serotonin reuptake inhibitors norepinephrine. benzodiazepines and serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)and ... benzodiazepines and serotonin reuptake inhibitors norepinephrine. Spanish translation: benzodiazepinas e inhibidores de la ... The reabsorption of a neurotransmitter, such as serotonin or norepinephrine, by a neuron following impulse transmission across ...
Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors
... , Selective Norepinephrine Re-uptake Inhibitor, SNRI. ... Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors. Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors Aka: Serotonin Norepinephrine ... Serotonin Antagonist and Reuptake Inhibitor Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors Serotonin Syndrome Sertraline Sexual ... antidepressants serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs). ...
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor - Wikipedia
Dual serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitorsEdit. Agents with dual serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition ( ... 2005). "Discovery and structure-activity relationships of novel selective norepinephrine and dual serotonin/norepinephrine ... Selective Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSNRIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs which are used in the ... while milnacipran is three times more selective for norepinephrine than serotonin. Elevation of norepinephrine levels is ...
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor - Wikipedia
Dual serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitorsEdit. Agents with dual serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition ( ... Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs that treat major depressive disorder ( ... while milnacipran is three times more selective for norepinephrine than serotonin. Elevation of norepinephrine levels is ... "Discovery and structure-activity relationships of novel selective norepinephrine and dual serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake ...
Category:Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors There are 4 pages in this section of ... Pages in category "Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors". There are 4 pages in this section of this category. ... https://www.bionity.com/en/encyclopedia/Category%3ASerotonin-norepinephrine_reuptake_inhibitors.html ... Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors Pages in category ... Category:Serotonin-norepinephrine_reuptake_inhibitors. Category ...
Norepinephrine and Serotonin Transporters: Molecular Targets of Antidepressant Drugs
The monoamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT) play important roles in an array ... Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors in the Acute Treatment of Depression and Standard Antidepressant Pharmacotherapy for the Acute ... Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors in the Acute Treatment of Depression and Standard Antidepressant Pharmacotherapy for the Acute ... alterations in serotonin neurons as targets in affective disorders (22). Cocaine is a nonselective, competitive antagonist of ...
Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors
SNRIs work with norepinephrine as well as serotonin and SNRI specific side effects can occur. Medications that inhibit the re- ... Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs) are a class of antidepressants used in psychiatric treatment. They are ... Serotonin can elevate mood and cause a calming effect. Norepinephrine can increase alertness, concentration and motivation. ... SNRIs are used to correct imbalances of serotonin and norepinephrine levels in the brain. SNRIs achieve this by blocking the ...
Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors(SNRI) - Pipeline Insights, 2017
Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors(SNRI) Assessment by Stage and Route of Administration. Serotonin-Norepinephrine ... Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors(SNRI) Assessment by Stage and Molecule Type. Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake ... Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors(SNRI) Assessment by Stage and Route of Administration. Serotonin-Norepinephrine ... Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors(SNRI) Filed and Phase III Products. Comparative Analysis. Serotonin-Norepinephrine ...
PubMed Journals Articles About 'Fenfluramine Induced PVAT Dependent Contraction Depends Norepinephrine Serotonin'
Fenfluramine Induced PVAT Dependent Contraction Depends Norepinephrine Serotonin PubMed Journal Articles published on ... Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor use and risk of fractures ... To evaluate the association between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and selective serotonin and norepinephrine ... Selective serotonin (norepinephrine) reuptake inhibitors (SS(N)RIs) are used in the treatment of depression. The aim of this ...
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor Archives - Progressive Radio Network
Desvenlafaxine Succinate: A New Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor | Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental...
... serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor; SSRI, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor; WAY-100635, N-[2-[4-(2- ... Desvenlafaxine Succinate: A New Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor. Darlene C. Deecher, Chad E. Beyer, Grace ... Desvenlafaxine Succinate: A New Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor. Darlene C. Deecher, Chad E. Beyer, Grace ... Desvenlafaxine Succinate: A New Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor. Darlene C. Deecher, Chad E. Beyer, Grace ...
Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor | definition of serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor by Medical...
What is serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor? Meaning of serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor medical ... What does serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor mean? ... Looking for online definition of serotonin and norepinephrine ... reuptake inhibitor in the Medical Dictionary? serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor explanation free. ... Related to serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor: SSNRI. serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. ...
MDMA (Ecstasy) and the human dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin transporters
MDMA (Ecstasy) and human dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin transporters: implications for MDMA-induced neurotoxicity and ... and norepinephrine (NE) transporter (NET) in stably transfected human embryo kidney (HEK)-293 cells. RESULTS: The human DAT, ... induces significant decrements in neuronal serotonin (5-HT) markers in humans, nonhuman primates, and rats as a function of ... affinity of MDMA for the human SERT in transfected cells does not clarify the apparent selective toxicity of MDMA for serotonin ...
Fluoxetine-induced recovery of serotonin and norepinephrine projections in a mouse model of post-stroke depression
10.1038/s41398-020-01008-9Fluoxetine-induced recovery of serotonin and norepinephrine projections in a mouse model of post- ... Fluoxetine-induced recovery of serotonin and norepinephrine projections in a mouse model of post-stroke depression. *. ... 10.1038/s41398-020-01008-9Fluoxetine-induced recovery of serotonin and norepinephrine projections in a mouse model of post- ...
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor | NASGP
J Clin Psychiatry/Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Critical...
Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Critical Review. ... Objective: To critically review the antiobsessional properties of serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) ( ... as an alternative to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which are currently considered the first-line treatment ...
The FDA alert on serotonin syndrome with use of triptans combined with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or selective...
... inadequate data are available to determine the risk of serotonin syndrome with the addition of a triptan to SSRIs/SNRIs or with ... syndrome with use of triptans combined with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or selective serotonin-norepinephrine ... or selective serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). This American Headache Society Position Paper further ... due to concerns for serotonin syndrome (Level U). However, given the seriousness of serotonin syndrome, caution is certainly ...
DailyMed - ADD HP (gaba (gamma-aminobutyric acid), l-dopa, norepinephrine (bitartrate), serotonin- hydrochloride,...
NOREPINEPHRINE. 6 [hp_X] in 1 mL. SEROTONIN HYDROCHLORIDE (UNII: GKN429M9VS) (SEROTONIN - UNII:333DO1RDJY) SEROTONIN ... Label: ADD HP (gaba (gamma-aminobutyric acid), l-dopa, norepinephrine (bitartrate), serotonin- hydrochloride, ... ADD HP (gaba (gamma-aminobutyric acid), l-dopa, norepinephrine (bitartrate), serotonin- hydrochloride, adrenocorticotrophin, ... ADD HP (gaba (gamma-aminobutyric acid), l-dopa, norepinephrine (bitartrate), serotonin- hydrochloride, adrenocorticotrophin, ...
Recent advances in the understanding of the interaction of antidepressant drugs with serotonin and norepinephrine transporters ...
... serotonin and norepinephrine into cells. These transporters are targets for therapeutic agents such as antidepressants, as well ... serotonin. and norepinephrine. transporters Jacob Andersen,a Anders S. Kristensen,a Benny Bang-Andersenb and Kristian ... serotonin. and norepinephrine. transporters J. Andersen, A. S. Kristensen, B. Bang-Andersen and K. Strømgaard, Chem. Commun., ... serotonin. and norepinephrine. into cells. These transporters are targets for therapeutic agents such as antidepressants. , as ...
Aggressive behavior and altered amounts of brain serotonin and norepinephrine in mice lacking MAOA - Infoscience
In pup brains, serotonin concentrations were increased up to ninefold, and serotonin-like immunoreactivity was present in ... In pup and adult brains, norepinephrine concentrations were increased up to twofold, and cytoarchitectural changes were ... Pup behavioral alterations, including trembling, difficulty in righting, and fearfulness were reversed by the serotonin ... an enzyme that degrades serotonin and norepinephrine, has recently been shown to be associated with aggressive behavior in men ...
How AMORYN Works | AMORYN | Natural Reuptake Inhibitor - Serotonin, Norepinephrine, Dopamine, GABA
By providing an all-natural boost to serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, the ingredients in AMORYN can help you feel happy ... By working together to boost the activity of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, AMORYNs natural ingredients can help ... AMORYN also supplies an amino acid called 5-HTP that is thought to increase serotonin levels. As a precursor to serotonin, 5- ... the activity of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, all four of the neurotransmitters that regulate mood and emotion. Few ...
Serotonin-norepinephrine receptor interactions in the brain: implications for the pharmacology and pathophysiology of affective...
Because this norepinephrine receptor system is linked to an amplifier system, small changes in the number of receptors or in ... Evidence is presented suggesting that the delayed down-regulation of the linked 5-HT/norepinephrine beta-adrenoceptor system by ... serotonin (5-HT) receptors are linked to phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis (5-HT2 receptors in cortex, 5-HT1C receptors in ... reduce the sensitivity of the norepinephrine-sensitive adenylate cyclase in brain which, in turn, is associated with a down- ...
SIMILAR ACTIONS OF CLONIDINE AND FENTANYL ON [3H]-NOREPINEPHRINE AND [3H]SEROTONIN RELEASE IN SPINAL CORD | Anesthesiology |...
SIMILAR ACTIONS OF CLONIDINE AND FENTANYL ON [3H]-NOREPINEPHRINE AND [3H]SEROTONIN RELEASE IN SPINAL CORD. Anesthesiology 9 ... A Maytorena, V C Gandhi, D Jones; SIMILAR ACTIONS OF CLONIDINE AND FENTANYL ON [3H]-NOREPINEPHRINE AND [3H]SEROTONIN RELEASE IN ... SIMILAR ACTIONS OF CLONIDINE AND FENTANYL ON [3H]-NOREPINEPHRINE AND [3H]SEROTONIN RELEASE IN SPINAL CORD ... SIMILAR ACTIONS OF CLONIDINE AND FENTANYL ON [3H]-NOREPINEPHRINE AND [3H]SEROTONIN RELEASE IN SPINAL CORD ...
SNRI's: Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors ⋆ Your Nursing Tutor
Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs) have very similar results as Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors ( ... SNRIs: Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors. May 2, 2013. by Nicole Whitworth Leave a Comment ... SNRIs work by preventing the body from "cleaning up" excess serotonin and norepinephrine. Some common examples of SNRIs are ...
Selective Serotonin-norepinephrine Re-uptake Inhibition Limits Renovas-cular-hypertension Induced Cognitive Impairment,...
Title:Selective Serotonin-norepinephrine Re-uptake Inhibition Limits Renovas-cular-hypertension Induced Cognitive Impairment, ... Serotonin- norepinephrine reuptake transporters take part in the control of inflammation, cognitive functions, motivational ... Serotonin- norepinephrine reuptake transporters take part in the control of inflammation, cognitive functions, motivational ... Selective Serotonin-norepinephrine Re-uptake Inhibition Limits Renovas-cular-hypertension Induced Cognitive Impairment, ...
InhibitorsTreatmentSNRIsSSRIsTransporterNeurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrineVenlafaxineDepressionAnxietyAcetylcholineSNRI'sMoodEffect of norepinephrineReuptake of norepinephrineAntidepressant drugsSelective norepinephrineGABAInhibitorRelated to alertness and energyReports of serotonin syndromeAlertnessChemicalsActivity of serotoninMechanismPrecursorNoradrenalineDiagnosing serotonin syndromeSepsisMedicationsMonotherapyZoloftAffect serotoninToxicityModulate
- Avoid concomitant use of ProvayBlue ® with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. (americanregent.com)
- Most reports have been associated with concomitant use of serotonergic drugs (e.g., selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors). (americanregent.com)
- SNRIs are used to correct imbalances of serotonin and norepinephrine levels in the brain. (treatment4addiction.com)
- SNRIs achieve this by blocking the 'reuptake' of serotonin and norepinephrine. (treatment4addiction.com)
- By blocking the reuptake process, SNRIs allow more serotonin and norepinephrine to be available in the brain. (treatment4addiction.com)
- SNRIs are believed to relieve depression and other mood disorders by increasing the effect of norepinephrine and serotonin in the brain. (treatment4addiction.com)
- With only Class IV evidence available in the literature and available through the FDA registration of adverse events, inadequate data are available to determine the risk of serotonin syndrome with the addition of a triptan to SSRIs/SNRIs or with triptan monotherapy. (nih.gov)
- The currently available evidence does not support limiting the use of triptans with SSRIs or SNRIs, or the use of triptan monotherapy, due to concerns for serotonin syndrome (Level U). However, given the seriousness of serotonin syndrome, caution is certainly warranted and clinicians should be vigilant to serotonin toxicity symptoms and signs to insure prompt treatment. (nih.gov)
- SNRIs work by preventing the body from "cleaning up" excess serotonin and norepinephrine. (yournursingtutor.com)
- In the case of SNRIs, the neurotransmitters affected are serotonin and norepinephrine. (healthline.com)
- Like SNRIs, they help to increase levels of norepinephrine and serotonin your brain. (healthline.com)
- Similar to SSRIs are SNRIs which modulate norepinephrine as well as serotonin. (healthyplace.com)
- Each of the above medications (triptans, SSRIs, and SNRIs), cause an increase in serotonin levels. (drugs.com)
- FDA requested that all manufacturers of triptans, SSRIs and SNRIs update their prescribing information to warn of the possibility of serotonin syndrome when these medications are taken together. (drugs.com)
- SNRIs increase levels of serotonin and norepinephrine by inhibiting their reabsorption into the brain cells, which improves mood. (familywize.org)
- The SSRIs affect brain serotonin levels. (rxlist.com)
- SSRIs affect serotonin, which is a neurotransmitter that plays a role in many things, including your mood. (healthline.com)
- SSRIs decrease the amount of serotonin that goes back into the cell that released it, leaving more available in your brain to communicate with other cells. (healthline.com)
- SSRIs have fewer side effects than tricyclic antidepressants and MAOIs, perhaps because they act only on one body chemical, serotonin. (healthyplace.com)
- SSRIs relieve depression and anxiety symptoms by blocking the reabsorption of serotonin by certain nerve cells in the brain, making more serotonin available, which improves mood. (familywize.org)
- SSRIs are believed to balance out the brain's serotonin. (dualdiagnosis.org)
- 1 Although the FDA has not received cases of serotonin syndrome to date involving vilazodone, the pharmacology of this drug places it in the SSRI category and suggests that it possesses a risk comparable to that of the SSRIs. (fda.gov)
- The human serotonin transporter (SERT) and norepinephrine transporter (NET) are membrane transport proteins that are responsible for the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine. (wikipedia.org)
- It does this by concomitantly inhibiting the serotonin transporter (SERT), norepinephrine transporter (NET), and dopamine transporter (DAT), respectively. (wikipedia.org)
- The human serotonin transporter (SERT) and norepinephrine transporter (NET) are membrane transport proteins that are responsible for the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine from the synaptic cleft back into the presynaptic nerve terminal. (wikipedia.org)
- Serotonin and norepinephrine transporter occupancy of tramadol in non-human primate using positron emission tomography. (bioportfolio.com)
- Tramadol, a centrally acting analgesic drug, has relatively high affinity to serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and norepinephrine transporter (NET) in addition to μ-opioid receptor. (bioportfolio.com)
- Competitive radioligand binding assays were performed using cells expressing either the human serotonin (5-HT) transporter (hSERT) or norepinephrine (NE) transporter (hNET) with K i values for DVS of 40.2 ± 1.6 and 558.4 ± 121.6 nM, respectively. (aspetjournals.org)
- METHODS: We investigated the interaction of [(3)H](+/-, RS)- (+, S)- and (-, R)-MDMA with the human SERT, dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT), and norepinephrine (NE) transporter (NET) in stably transfected human embryo kidney (HEK)-293 cells. (mdma.net)
- The finding of this study indicates that specific modulation of the serotonin-norepinephrine transporter perhaps regarded as potential interventions for the management of renovascular hypertension provoked VaD. (eurekaselect.com)
- Depletion of cardiac catecholamine stores impairs cardiac norepinephrine re-uptake by downregulation of the norepinephrine transporter. (tripdatabase.com)
- In heart failure (HF), a disturbed cardiac norepinephrine (NE) homeostasis is characterized by depleted cardiac NE stores, impairment of the cardiac NE re-uptake by the neuronal norepinephrine transporter (NET) and enhanced cardiac NE net release. (tripdatabase.com)
- Increased norepinephrine and serotonin concentrations are obtained by inhibiting both of these transporter proteins. (avesisland.info)
- Increasing the electron-withdrawing nature of the aromatic ring provides more potent inhibitory effect of norepinephrine uptake and improves the selectivity for norepinephrine over the serotonin transporter. (avesisland.info)
- We investigated norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT) uptake inhibition using human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) cells that express the respective human monoamine transporter, the drug-induced efflux of NE, DA, and 5-HT from monoamine-preloaded cells, and binding affinity to monoamine transporters and receptors. (nih.gov)
Neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine2
- Depression is associated with low levels of serotonin and norepinephrine. (healthline.com)
- Serotonin and norepinephrine are two neurotransmitters that are involved in mood, and are thought to be connected to depression. (medcyber.com)
- 13.08.2013 · What is the Role of Norepinephrine in Depression? (medcyber.com)
- Both dopamine and norepinephrine are in tricyclic antidepressant medications which are used to treat depression. (medcyber.com)
- Experts aren't completely sure about the role serotonin plays in depression. (healthline.com)
- This type of depression medication acts on neurotransmitters like serotonin and other chemicals as well. (healthyplace.com)
- Medications such as antidepressants act by preventing the uptake of serotonin by the neurons, keeping more of it available in the brain to improve mood and relieve symptoms of depression. (livestrong.com)
- 18 Depression may arise when low serotonin levels promote low levels of norepinephrine. (uspharmacist.com)
- Clinical studies suggest that compounds that increase the concentration in the synaptic cleft of both norepinephrine and serotonin are more successful than single acting agents in the treatment of depression. (avesisland.info)
- Among the neurotransmitters that are widely implicated in regulating this process are serotonin and norepinephrine, levels of which are modulated by stress, depression and clinical antidepressants. (jneurosci.org)
- unlike Zoloft, Effexor targets both norepinephrine and serotonin, which is why it's making you nuts -- norepinephrine is a stimulant more useful for people suffering from pure depression, not anxiety. (medhelp.org)
- Medications that inhibit the re-uptake of norepinephrine can sometimes cause anxiety and elevated blood pressure. (treatment4addiction.com)
- Low levels of serotonin may contribute to feelings of sadness and anxiety. (amoryn.com)
- Buspirone may reduce anxiety by stimulating serotonin and dopamine receptors on nerves, thereby altering the chemical messages that nerves receive. (medicinenet.com)
- These medications affect the way your brain uses the chemical serotonin to send messages that control mood and anxiety. (webmd.com)
- Anxiety disorders are associated with certain chemical imbalances in the brain involving neurotransmitters such as serotonin , norepinephrine , and gamma aminobutyric acid or GABA. (rxlist.com)
- A serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor used to treat generalized anxiety disorder, neuropathic pain, osteoarthritis, and stress incontinence. (drugbank.com)
- A selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor used in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and other select psychiatric disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). (drugbank.com)
- SNRI's work by increasing the levels of two of the three neurotransmitters in the brain - serotonin and norepinephrine. (outofthefog.website)
- SNRI's have reportedly increased efficacy over SSRI's - which only work on serotonin - with comparable side effects. (outofthefog.website)
- I would think that SNRI's wouldn't help because my norepinephrine is already normal? (prohealth.com)
- The monoamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT) play important roles in an array of behaviors including sleep, appetite, memory, and mood. (acnp.org)
- Serotonin can elevate mood and cause a calming effect. (treatment4addiction.com)
- Two other important neurotransmitters - dopamine and norepinephrine - also affect mood. (amoryn.com)
- By working together to boost the activity of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, AMORYN's natural ingredients can help improve mood and restore emotional balance. (amoryn.com)
- Hyperforin, 5-HTP and Rhodiola - each acting through its own distinct mechanism - work together to enhance the activity of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, all four of the neurotransmitters that regulate mood and emotion. (amoryn.com)
- This suggests that self-imposed changes in mood can increase the level of serotonin. (livestrong.com)
- Additionally, stress often has a negative affect on mood and sleeping patterns, leading to more stress and affecting both dopamine and serotonin levels. (livestrong.com)
Effect of norepinephrine1
Reuptake of norepinephrine1
- A serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (SNDRI), also known as a triple reuptake inhibitor (TRI), is a type of drug that acts as a combined reuptake inhibitor of the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. (wikipedia.org)
- Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor use and risk of fractures in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. (bioportfolio.com)
- To mimic chronic selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment and to block the inhibitory 5-HT 1A autoreceptors, a 5-HT 1A antagonist, N -[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]- N -2-pyridinylcyclo hexanecarboxamide maleate salt (WAY-100635) (0.3 mg/kg s.c.), was administered with DVS (30 mg/kg orally). (aspetjournals.org)
- Pup behavioral alterations, including trembling, difficulty in righting, and fearfulness were reversed by the serotonin synthesis inhibitor parachlorophenylalanine. (epfl.ch)
- Synonyms for Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor in Free Thesaurus. (medcyber.com)
- Antonyms for Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor. (medcyber.com)
- What are synonyms for Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor? (medcyber.com)
- A norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine reuptake inhibitor indicated to assist with weight loss in obesity. (drugbank.com)
- A norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor used in the treatment of ADHD in conjunction with other therapies. (drugbank.com)
- Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor, ClinCalc DrugStats Database, Version 19.0. (clincalc.com)
Reports of serotonin syndrome2
- Using the Sternbach Criteria or the Hunter Serotonin Toxicity Criteria, the 29 cases used as the basis for the FDA alert were assessed in addition to a more recently published clinical review of 11 case reports of serotonin syndrome resulting from monotherapy, and one report of combination serotonergic agents. (nih.gov)
- FDA is providing additional information about the reports of serotonin syndrome. (fda.gov)
- Regular exercise increases the amount of tryptophan, which is a precursor of serotonin. (livestrong.com)
- Mechanistically, we provide evidence that β 3 -adrenergic receptors, which are preferentially expressed on a Hes5-expressing precursor population in the subgranular zone (SGZ), mediate this norepinephrine-dependent activation. (jneurosci.org)
- Whether serotonin or norepinephrine has a direct effect on adult hippocampal precursors, and the cellular and molecular identity of such a precursor population, therefore remains unknown. (jneurosci.org)
Diagnosing serotonin syndrome1
- while your attending instructs you to wait and see how she responds to the fluid bolus, you remember reading an article in one of the "throw away" journals you receive suggesting that there was a benefit to early norepinephrine administration in sepsis, initiated concomitant with fluid resuscitation. (tripdatabase.com)
- To measure changes in medullary and cortical renal blood flow during experimental hyperdynamic sepsis and the effect of subsequent norepinephrine infusion on such flows. (tripdatabase.com)
- Collectively, 40 case reports are available in the literature for subjects receiving either combination or monotherapy of serotonin agonists, all of which are limited to Class IV level of evidence. (nih.gov)
- One case published since the original report does not meet either criteria, and subsequently reported cases involving triptan monotherapy include insufficient details to confirm a diagnosis of serotonin syndrome. (nih.gov)
- Prospective, open-label trial of early, concomitant vasopressin and norepinephrine therapy versus initial norepinephrine monotherapy in septic shock. (tripdatabase.com)