A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.
A serotonin receptor subtype found widely distributed in peripheral tissues where it mediates the contractile responses of variety of tissues that contain SMOOTH MUSCLE. Selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonists include KETANSERIN. The 5-HT2A subtype is also located in BASAL GANGLIA and CEREBRAL CORTEX of the BRAIN where it mediates the effects of HALLUCINOGENS such as LSD.
A serotonin receptor subtype found distributed through the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM where they are involved in neuroendocrine regulation of ACTH secretion. The fact that this serotonin receptor subtype is particularly sensitive to SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS such as BUSPIRONE suggests its role in the modulation of ANXIETY and DEPRESSION.
Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate serotonin receptors, thereby blocking the actions of serotonin or SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
A serotonin receptor subtype found primarily in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the CHOROID PLEXUS. This receptor subtype is believed to mediate the anorectic action of SEROTONIN, while selective antagonists of the 5-HT2C receptor appear to induce ANXIETY. Several isoforms of this receptor subtype exist, due to adenine deaminase editing of the receptor mRNA.
A serotonin receptor subtype found in the BRAIN; HEART; LUNGS; PLACENTA and DIGESTIVE SYSTEM organs. A number of functions have been attributed to the action of the 5-HT2B receptor including the development of cardiac myocytes (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) and the contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A subclass of G-protein coupled SEROTONIN receptors that couple preferentially to the GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS resulting in increased intracellular levels of INOSITOL PHOSPHATES and free CALCIUM.
Drugs used for their effects on serotonergic systems. Among these are drugs that affect serotonin receptors, the life cycle of serotonin, and the survival of serotonergic neurons.
A serotonin receptor subtype found at high levels in the BASAL GANGLIA and the frontal cortex. It plays a role as a terminal autoreceptor that regulates the rate of SEROTONIN release from nerve endings. This serotonin receptor subtype is closely related to and has similar drug binding properties as the 5-HT1D RECEPTOR. It is particularly sensitive to the agonist SUMATRIPTAN and may be involved in mediating the drug's antimigraine effect.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate SEROTONIN RECEPTORS. Many serotonin receptor agonists are used as ANTIDEPRESSANTS; ANXIOLYTICS; and in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.
A subclass of G-protein coupled SEROTONIN receptors that couple preferentially to GI-GO G-PROTEINS resulting in decreased intracellular CYCLIC AMP levels.
An adverse drug interaction characterized by altered mental status, autonomic dysfunction, and neuromuscular abnormalities. It is most frequently caused by use of both serotonin reuptake inhibitors and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, leading to excess serotonin availability in the CNS at the serotonin 1A receptor.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of SEROTONIN or SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTOR AGONISTS. Included under this heading are antagonists for one or more specific 5-HT2 receptor subtypes.
A subclass of serotonin receptors that form cation channels and mediate signal transduction by depolarizing the cell membrane. The cation channels are formed from 5 receptor subunits. When stimulated the receptors allow the selective passage of SODIUM; POTASSIUM; and CALCIUM.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that specifically stimulate SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are agonists for one or more of the specific 5-HT2 receptor subtypes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of TRYPTOPHAN to 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN in the presence of NADPH and molecular oxygen. It is important in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that specifically stimulate SEROTONIN 5-HT1 RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are agonists for one or more of the specific 5-HT1 receptor subtypes.
A subtype of G-protein-coupled SEROTONIN receptors that preferentially couple to GS STIMULATORY G-PROTEINS resulting in increased intracellular CYCLIC AMP. Several isoforms of the receptor exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate SEROTONIN 5-HT1 RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of SEROTONIN 5-HT1 RECEPTOR AGONISTS. Included under this heading are antagonists for one or more of the specific 5-HT1 receptor subtypes.
Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) is a major metabolite of serotonin, a neurotransmitter, formed by the action of monoamine oxidase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, and its measurement in urine is often used as a biomarker for serotonin synthesis in clinical and research settings.
The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.
A furancarbonitrile that is one of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS used as an antidepressant. The drug is also effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics and is used in depressed patients who also suffer from tardive dyskinesia in preference to tricyclic antidepressants, which aggravate this condition.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is SEROTONIN.
A selective serotonin receptor antagonist with weak adrenergic receptor blocking properties. The drug is effective in lowering blood pressure in essential hypertension. It also inhibits platelet aggregation. It is well tolerated and is particularly effective in older patients.
The immediate precursor in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN from tryptophan. It is used as an antiepileptic and antidepressant.
Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of depression.
A serotonin 1A-receptor agonist that is used experimentally to test the effects of serotonin.
An ergot derivative that is a congener of LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE. It antagonizes the effects of serotonin in blood vessels and gastrointestinal smooth muscle, but has few of the properties of other ergot alkaloids. Methysergide is used prophylactically in migraine and other vascular headaches and to antagonize serotonin in the carcinoid syndrome.
A selective and irreversible inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin (5-HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE). Fenclonine acts pharmacologically to deplete endogenous levels of serotonin.
A serotonin receptor subtype that is localized to the CAUDATE NUCLEUS; PUTAMEN; the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS; the HIPPOCAMPUS, and the RAPHE NUCLEI. It plays a role as a terminal autoreceptor that regulates the rate of SEROTONIN release from nerve endings. This serotonin receptor subtype is closely related to and has similar drug binding properties as the 5-HT1B RECEPTOR, but is expressed at low levels. It is particularly sensitive to the agonist SUMATRIPTAN and may be involved in mediating the drug's antimigrane effect.
Tryptamine substituted with two hydroxyl groups in positions 5 and 7. It is a neurotoxic serotonin analog that destroys serotonergic neurons preferentially and is used in neuropharmacology as a tool.
Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate SEROTONIN 5-HT3 RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of SEROTONIN or SEROTONIN 5-HT3 RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.
A centrally active drug that apparently both blocks serotonin uptake and provokes transport-mediated serotonin release.
A serotonin antagonist with limited antihistaminic, anticholinergic, and immunosuppressive activity.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
A structurally and mechanistically diverse group of drugs that are not tricyclics or monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most clinically important appear to act selectively on serotonergic systems, especially by inhibiting serotonin reuptake.
An N-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as MDMA or ecstasy.
A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor that is used in the treatment of DEPRESSION and a variety of ANXIETY DISORDERS.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Decarboxylated monoamine derivatives of TRYPTOPHAN.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.
Analogs or derivatives of AMPHETAMINE. Many are sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulators causing excitation, vasopressin, bronchodilation, and to varying degrees, anorexia, analepsis, nasal decongestion, and some smooth muscle relaxation.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Substances that contain a fused three-ring moiety and are used in the treatment of depression. These drugs block the uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into axon terminals and may block some subtypes of serotonin, adrenergic, and histamine receptors. However the mechanism of their antidepressant effects is not clear because the therapeutic effects usually take weeks to develop and may reflect compensatory changes in the central nervous system.
A serotonin antagonist and a histamine H1 blocker used as antipruritic, appetite stimulant, antiallergic, and for the post-gastrectomy dumping syndrome, etc.
Semisynthetic derivative of ergot (Claviceps purpurea). It has complex effects on serotonergic systems including antagonism at some peripheral serotonin receptors, both agonist and antagonist actions at central nervous system serotonin receptors, and possibly effects on serotonin turnover. It is a potent hallucinogen, but the mechanisms of that effect are not well understood.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.
A selective serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used in the treatment of depression.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
The prototypical tricyclic antidepressant. It has been used in major depression, dysthymia, bipolar depression, attention-deficit disorders, agoraphobia, and panic disorders. It has less sedative effect than some other members of this therapeutic group.
A tricyclic antidepressant similar to IMIPRAMINE that selectively inhibits the uptake of serotonin in the brain. It is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and demethylated in the liver to form its primary active metabolite, desmethylclomipramine.
Piperazines are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds containing a seven-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 4, often used in pharmaceuticals as smooth muscle relaxants, antipsychotics, antidepressants, and antihistamines, but can also be found as recreational drugs with stimulant and entactogen properties.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of noradrenergic neurons. They remove NOREPINEPHRINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. It regulates signal amplitude and duration at noradrenergic synapses and is the target of ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.
A serotonin receptor antagonist in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM used as an antipsychotic.
Chlorinated analog of AMPHETAMINE. Potent neurotoxin that causes release and eventually depletion of serotonin in the CNS. It is used as a research tool.
A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)
A selective and potent serotonin-2 antagonist that is effective in the treatment of a variety of syndromes related to anxiety and depression. The drug also improves the subjective quality of sleep and decreases portal pressure.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
Drugs that block the transport of adrenergic transmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. The tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) and amphetamines are among the therapeutically important drugs that may act via inhibition of adrenergic transport. Many of these drugs also block transport of serotonin.
An anxiolytic agent and serotonin receptor agonist belonging to the azaspirodecanedione class of compounds. Its structure is unrelated to those of the BENZODIAZAPINES, but it has an efficacy comparable to DIAZEPAM.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate SEROTONIN 5-HT4 RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of SEROTONIN or SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that specifically stimulate SEROTONIN 5-HT3 RECEPTORS.
'Nerve tissue proteins' are specialized proteins found within the nervous system's biological tissue, including neurofilaments, neuronal cytoskeletal proteins, and neural cell adhesion molecules, which facilitate structural support, intracellular communication, and synaptic connectivity essential for proper neurological function.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that specifically stimulate SEROTONIN 5-HT4 RECEPTORS.
A subtype of enteroendocrine cells found in the gastrointestinal MUCOSA, particularly in the glands of PYLORIC ANTRUM; DUODENUM; and ILEUM. These cells secrete mainly SEROTONIN and some neuropeptides. Their secretory granules stain readily with silver (argentaffin stain).
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.
A dopamine agonist and serotonin antagonist. It has been used similarly to BROMOCRIPTINE as a dopamine agonist and also for MIGRAINE DISORDERS therapy.
A family of vesicular amine transporter proteins that catalyze the transport and storage of CATECHOLAMINES and indolamines into SECRETORY VESICLES.
Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.
The S-isomer of FENFLURAMINE. It is a serotonin agonist and is used as an anorectic. Unlike fenfluramine, it does not possess any catecholamine agonist activity.
Tryptamine substituted with two hydroxyl groups in positions 5 and 6. It is a neurotoxic serotonin analog that destroys serotonergic neurons preferentially and is used in neuropharmacologic research.
5-Hydroxy-indole-3-ethanol.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
Transmitter receptors on or near presynaptic terminals (or varicosities) which are sensitive to the transmitter(s) released by the terminal itself. Receptors for the hormones released by hormone-releasing cells are also included.
A spiro butyrophenone analog similar to HALOPERIDOL and other related compounds. It has been recommended in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Drugs that inhibit the transport of neurotransmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. For many transmitters, uptake determines the time course of transmitter action so inhibiting uptake prolongs the activity of the transmitter. Blocking uptake may also deplete available transmitter stores. Many clinically important drugs are uptake inhibitors although the indirect reactions of the brain rather than the acute block of uptake itself is often responsible for the therapeutic effects.
A light-sensitive neuroendocrine organ attached to the roof of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain. The pineal gland secretes MELATONIN, other BIOGENIC AMINES and NEUROPEPTIDES.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.
A tetracyclic compound with antidepressant effects. It may cause drowsiness and hematological problems. Its mechanism of therapeutic action is not well understood, although it apparently blocks alpha-adrenergic, histamine H1, and some types of serotonin receptors.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase type A; (RIMA); (see MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS) that has antidepressive properties.
Serotonin derivative proposed as potentiator for hypnotics and sedatives.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
A tricyclic dibenzazepine compound that potentiates neurotransmission. Desipramine selectively blocks reuptake of norepinephrine from the neural synapse, and also appears to impair serotonin transport. This compound also possesses minor anticholinergic activity, through its affinity to muscarinic receptors.
Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
Pyridines substituted in any position with an amino group. May be hydrogenated, but must retain at least one double bond.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.
Homovanillic acid (HVA) is a major metabolite of dopamine, formed in the body through the catabolic breakdown of this neurotransmitter by the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase and then further metabolized in the liver before excretion in urine.
Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
A monoamine oxidase inhibitor with antihypertensive properties.
A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.
N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.
An acetyltransferase with specificity towards the amine group of aromatic alkylamines (arylalkylamines) such as SEROTONIN. This enzyme is also referred to as serotonin acetylase despite the fact that serotonin acetylation can also occur through the action of broad specificity acetyltransferases such as ARYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE.
Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
'Fluorobenzenes' are aromatic hydrocarbons consisting of a benzene ring substituted with one or more fluorine atoms, characterized by the presence of the highly electronegative fluorine atom(s) that influence the compound's chemical reactivity and physical properties.
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
A symptom complex associated with CARCINOID TUMOR and characterized by attacks of severe flushing of the skin, diarrheal watery stools, bronchoconstriction, sudden drops in blood pressure, edema, and ascites. The carcinoid tumors are usually located in the gastrointestinal tract and metastasize to the liver. Symptoms are caused by tumor secretion of serotonin, prostaglandins, and other biologically active substances. Cardiac manifestations constitute CARCINOID HEART DISEASE. (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
A competitive serotonin type 3 receptor antagonist. It is effective in the treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs, including cisplatin, and has reported anxiolytic and neuroleptic properties.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
An antidepressive agent and monoamine oxidase inhibitor related to PARGYLINE.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.

Long-term effects of N-2-chlorethyl-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride on noradrenergic neurones in the rat brain and heart. (1/8105)

1 N-2-Chlorethyl-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP 4) 50 mg/kg intraperitoneally, produced a long-term decrease in the capacity of brain homogenates to accumulate noradrenaline with significant effect 8 months after the injection. It had no effect on the noradrenaline uptake in homogenates from the striatum (dopamine neurones) and on the uptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in various brain regions. 2 In vitro DSP 4 inhibited the noradrenaline uptake in a cortical homogenate with an IC50 value of 2 muM but was more than ten times less active on the dopamine uptake in a striatal homogenate and the 5-HT uptake in a cortical homogenate. 3 DSP 4 (50 mg/kg i.p.) inhibited the uptake of noradrenaline in the rat heart atrium in vitro but this action was terminated within 2 weeks. 4 DSP 4 (50 mg/kg i.p.) cuased a decrease in the dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) activity in the rat brain and heart. The onset of this effect was slow; in heart a lag period of 2-4 days was noted. In brain the DBH-activity in cerebral cortex was much more decreased than that in hypothalamus which was only slightly affected. A significant effect was still found 8 months after the injection. The noradrenaline concentration in the brain was greatly decreased for at least two weeks, whereas noradrenaline in heart was only temporarily reduced. 5 The long-term effects of DSP 4 on the noradrenaline accumulation, the DBH activity and noradrenaline concentration in the rat brain were antagonized by desipramine (10 mg/kg i.p.). 6 It is suggested that DSP 4 primarily attacks the membranal noradrenaline uptake sites forming a covalent bond and that the nerve terminals, as a result of this binding, degenerate.  (+info)

Dopamine stimulates salivary duct cells in the cockroach Periplaneta americana. (2/8105)

This study examines whether the salivary duct cells of the cockroach Periplaneta americana can be stimulated by the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. We have carried out digital Ca2+-imaging experiments using the Ca2+-sensitive dye fura-2 and conventional intracellular recordings from isolated salivary glands. Dopamine evokes a slow, almost tonic, and reversible dose-dependent elevation in [Ca2+]i in the duct cells. Upon stimulation with 10(-)6 mol l-1 dopamine, [Ca2+]i rises from 48+/-4 nmol l-1 to 311+/-43 nmol l-1 (mean +/- s.e.m., N=18) within 200-300 s. The dopamine-induced elevation in [Ca2+]i is absent in Ca2+-free saline and is blocked by 10(-)4 mol l-1 La3+, indicating that dopamine induces an influx of Ca2+ across the basolateral membrane of the duct cells. Stimulation with 10(-)6 mol l-1 dopamine causes the basolateral membrane to depolarize from -67+/-1 to -41+/-2 mV (N=10). This depolarization is also blocked by La3+ and is abolished when Na+ in the bath solution is reduced to 10 mmol l-1. Serotonin affects neither [Ca2+]i nor the basolateral membrane potential of the duct cells. These data indicate that the neurotransmitter dopamine, which has previously been shown to stimulate fluid secretion from the glands, also stimulates the salivary duct cells, suggesting that dopamine controls their most probable function, the modification of primary saliva.  (+info)

Induction of serotonin transporter by hypoxia in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells. Relationship with the mitogenic action of serotonin. (3/8105)

-The increased delivery of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) to the lung aggravates the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats, possibly through stimulation of the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PA-SMCs). In cultured rat PA-SMCs, 5-HT (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L) induced DNA synthesis and potentiated the mitogenic effect of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (10 ng/mL). This effect was dependent on the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT), since it was prevented by the 5-HTT inhibitors fluoxetine (10(-6) mol/L) and paroxetine (10(-7) mol/L), but it was unaltered by ketanserin (10(-6) mol/L), a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist. In PA-SMCs exposed to hypoxia, the levels of 5-HTT mRNA (measured by competitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) increased by 240% within 2 hours, followed by a 3-fold increase in the uptake of [3H]5-HT at 24 hours. Cotransfection of the cells with a construct of human 5-HTT promoter-luciferase gene reporter and of pCMV-beta-galactosidase gene allowed the demonstration that exposure of cells to hypoxia produced a 5.5-fold increase in luciferase activity, with no change in beta-galactosidase activity. The increased expression of 5-HTT in hypoxic cells was associated with a greater mitogenic response to 5-HT (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L) in the absence as well as in the presence of platelet-derived growth factor-BB. 5-HTT expression assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization in the lungs was found to predominate in the media of pulmonary artery, in which a marked increase was noted in rats that had been exposed to hypoxia for 15 days. These data show that in vitro and in vivo exposure to hypoxia induces, via a transcriptional mechanism, 5-HTT expression in PA-SMCs, and that this effect contributes to the stimulatory action of 5-HT on PA-SMC proliferation. In vivo expression of 5-HTT by PA-SMC may play a key role in serotonin-mediated pulmonary vascular remodeling.  (+info)

Activity-dependent metaplasticity of inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission in the lamprey spinal cord locomotor network. (4/8105)

Paired intracellular recordings have been used to examine the activity-dependent plasticity and neuromodulator-induced metaplasticity of synaptic inputs from identified inhibitory and excitatory interneurons in the lamprey spinal cord. Trains of spikes at 5-20 Hz were used to mimic the frequency of spiking that occurs in network interneurons during NMDA or brainstem-evoked locomotor activity. Inputs from inhibitory and excitatory interneurons exhibited similar activity-dependent changes, with synaptic depression developing during the spike train. The level of depression reached was greater with lower stimulation frequencies. Significant activity-dependent depression of inputs from excitatory interneurons and inhibitory crossed caudal interneurons, which are central elements in the patterning of network activity, usually developed between the fifth and tenth spikes in the train. Because these interneurons typically fire bursts of up to five spikes during locomotor activity, this activity-dependent plasticity will presumably not contribute to the patterning of network activity. However, in the presence of the neuromodulators substance P and 5-HT, significant activity-dependent metaplasticity of these inputs developed over the first five spikes in the train. Substance P induced significant activity-dependent depression of inhibitory but potentiation of excitatory interneuron inputs, whereas 5-HT induced significant activity-dependent potentiation of both inhibitory and excitatory interneuron inputs. Because these metaplastic effects are consistent with the substance P and 5-HT-induced modulation of the network output, activity-dependent metaplasticity could be a potential mechanism underlying the coordination and modulation of rhythmic network activity.  (+info)

Mechanisms for generating the autonomous cAMP-dependent protein kinase required for long-term facilitation in Aplysia. (5/8105)

The formation of a persistently active cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is critical for establishing long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF) in Aplysia. The injection of bovine catalytic (C) subunits into sensory neurons is sufficient to produce protein synthesis-dependent LTF. Early in the LTF induced by serotonin (5-HT), an autonomous PKA is generated through the ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated proteolysis of regulatory (R) subunits. The degradation of R occurs during an early time window and appears to be a key function of proteasomes in LTF. Lactacystin, a specific proteasome inhibitor, blocks the facilitation induced by 5-HT, and this block is rescued by injecting C subunits. R is degraded through an allosteric mechanism requiring an elevation of cAMP coincident with the induction of a ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase.  (+info)

Ethanol exposure differentially alters central monoamine neurotransmission in alcohol-preferring versus -nonpreferring rats. (6/8105)

Individual differences in ethanol preference may be linked to differences in the functional activity of forebrain monoamine systems or their sensitivity to modification by ethanol. To test this hypothesis, basal extracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in the nucleus accumbens as well as the effects of repeated ethanol pretreatment on the basal release of these transmitters were examined in alcohol-preferring (P), alcohol-nonpreferring (NP), and genetically heterogeneous Wistar rats. All animals received i.p. injections of ethanol (1.0 g/kg) or saline for 5 consecutive days. Fifteen hours after the final pretreatment, basal extracellular concentrations and "in vivo extraction fraction" values for DA and 5-HT were determined by no-net-flux in vivo microdialysis. In ethanol-naive rats, significant line differences were observed with high basal 5-HT release in P rats, low 5-HT release in NP rats, and intermediate 5-HT levels in Wistar rats. No differences among groups were noted in basal DA release. Ethanol pretreatment decreased basal extracellular 5-HT levels in P rats whereas increasing 5-HT efflux was seen in the Wistar and NP lines. In addition, ethanol pretreatment increased extracellular DA concentrations in Wistar and P rats, but not in NP rats. The results confirm a relationship between the functional status of forebrain DA and 5-HT systems and ethanol preference or aversion. Moreover, the data suggest that ethanol exposure can alter basal DA and 5-HT in the nucleus accumbens and that vulnerability to ethanol-induced changes in monoamine neurotransmission may be a factor in genetically determined ethanol preference.  (+info)

Possible role of serotonin in Merkel-like basal cells of the taste buds of the frog, Rana nigromaculata. (7/8105)

Merkel-like basal cells in the taste buds of the frog were examined by fluorescence histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. There were about 16-20 basal cells arranged in a radial fashion at the base of each taste bud. These cells were strongly immunopositive for serotonin antiserum. They were characterised by the presence of numerous dense-cored granules in the cytoplasm ranging from 80 to 120 nm in diameter, and of microvilli protruding from the cell surface. For 4 mo after sensory denervation by cutting the gustatory nerves, all cell types of the taste bud were well preserved and maintained their fine structure. Even at 4 mo after denervation, the basal cells exhibited a strong immunoreaction with serotonin antiserum. To investigate the function of serotonin in the basal cells in taste bud function, serotonin deficiency was induced by administration of p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA), an inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase, and of p-chloroamphetamine (PCA), a depletor of serotonin. After administration of these agents to normal and denervated frogs for 2 wk, a marked decrease, or complete absence, of immunoreactivity for serotonin was observed in the basal cells. Ultrastructurally, degenerative changes were observed in both types of frog; numerous lysosome-like myelin bodies were found in all cell types of the taste buds. The number of dense-cored granules in the basal cells also was greatly decreased by treatment with these drugs. Serotonin in Merkel-like basal cells appears to have a trophic role in maintenance of the morphological integrity of frog taste bud cells.  (+info)

Activation of stimulus-specific serine esterases (proteases) in the initiation of platelet secretion. I. Demonstration with organophosphorus inhibitors. (8/8105)

The effect of organophosphorus inhibitors of serine esterases (proteases) on secretion from washed rabbit platelets was examined. Five noncytotoxic stimuli were employed: collagen, thrombin, heterologous anti-platelet antibody (in the absence of complement), rabbit C3 bound to zymosan, and platelet activating factor derived from antigen-stimulated, IgE-sensitized rabbit basophils. Diisoprophyl phosphofluoridate, three series of p-nitrophenyl ethyl phosphonates, and a series of cyclohexyl phenylalkylphosphonofluridates were all found to be inhibitory to the platelet secretion. These are irreversible inhibitors of serine proteases but in this system were only inhibitory if added to the platelets concurrently with the stimuli. Pretreatment of either the platelets or the stimuli with the inhibitors followed by washing, was without effect on the subsequent reaction. This suggested the involvement of stimulus-activatable serine proteases in the secretory process. The concept was supported by finding that nonphosphorylating phosphonates or hydrolyzed phosphonates or phosphonofluoridates were without inhibitory action. The effect of a series of phosphonates or phosphonoflouridates in inhibiting each stimulus exhibited a unique activity-structure profile. The demonstration of such unique profiles with four series of inhibitors for each of the five stimuli was interpreted as demonstrating that a specific activatable serine protease was involved in the platelet secretory response to each stimulus.  (+info)

Serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is a monoamine neurotransmitter that is found primarily in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, blood platelets, and the central nervous system (CNS) of humans and other animals. It is produced by the conversion of the amino acid tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), and then to serotonin.

In the CNS, serotonin plays a role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, memory, learning, and behavior, among other functions. It also acts as a vasoconstrictor, helping to regulate blood flow and blood pressure. In the GI tract, it is involved in peristalsis, the contraction and relaxation of muscles that moves food through the digestive system.

Serotonin is synthesized and stored in serotonergic neurons, which are nerve cells that use serotonin as their primary neurotransmitter. These neurons are found throughout the brain and spinal cord, and they communicate with other neurons by releasing serotonin into the synapse, the small gap between two neurons.

Abnormal levels of serotonin have been linked to a variety of disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and migraines. Medications that affect serotonin levels, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are commonly used to treat these conditions.

Serotonin plasma membrane transport proteins, also known as serotonin transporters (SERTs), are membrane-spanning proteins that play a crucial role in the regulation of serotonergic neurotransmission. They are responsible for the reuptake of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) from the synaptic cleft back into the presynaptic neuron, thereby terminating the signal transmission and allowing for its recycling or degradation.

Structurally, SERTs belong to the family of sodium- and chloride-dependent neurotransmitter transporters and contain 12 transmembrane domains with intracellular N- and C-termini. The binding site for serotonin is located within the transmembrane domain, while the substrate-binding site is formed by residues from both the transmembrane and extracellular loops.

Serotonin transporters are important targets for various psychotropic medications, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). These drugs act by blocking the SERT, increasing synaptic concentrations of serotonin, and enhancing serotonergic neurotransmission. Dysregulation of serotonin transporters has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and substance abuse.

Serotonin receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that bind to the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). They are widely distributed throughout the body, including the central and peripheral nervous systems, where they play important roles in regulating various physiological processes such as mood, appetite, sleep, memory, learning, and cognition.

There are seven different classes of serotonin receptors (5-HT1 to 5-HT7), each with multiple subtypes, that exhibit distinct pharmacological properties and signaling mechanisms. These receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) or ligand-gated ion channels, which activate intracellular signaling pathways upon serotonin binding.

Serotonin receptors have been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and migraine. Therefore, selective serotonin receptor agonists or antagonists are used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of these conditions.

A serotonin receptor, specifically the 5-HT2A subtype (5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor), is a type of G protein-coupled receptor found in the cell membrane. It is activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin and plays a role in regulating various physiological processes, including mood, cognition, sleep, and sensory perception.

The 5-HT2A receptor is widely distributed throughout the central nervous system and has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and migraine. It is also the primary target of several psychoactive drugs, including hallucinogens like LSD and psilocybin, as well as atypical antipsychotics used to treat conditions like schizophrenia.

The 5-HT2A receptor signals through a G protein called Gq, which activates a signaling cascade that ultimately leads to the activation of phospholipase C and the production of second messengers such as inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). These second messengers then go on to modulate various cellular processes, including the release of neurotransmitters and the regulation of gene expression.

A serotonin receptor, specifically the 5-HT1A subtype, is a type of G protein-coupled receptor found in the central and peripheral nervous systems. These receptors are activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) and play important roles in regulating various physiological processes, including neurotransmission, neuronal excitability, and neuroendocrine function.

The 5-HT1A receptor is widely distributed throughout the brain and spinal cord, where it is involved in modulating mood, anxiety, cognition, memory, and pain perception. Activation of this receptor can have both inhibitory and excitatory effects on neuronal activity, depending on the location and type of neuron involved.

In addition to its role in normal physiology, the 5-HT1A receptor has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, and drug addiction. As a result, drugs that target this receptor have been developed for the treatment of these conditions. These drugs include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which increase the availability of serotonin in the synaptic cleft and enhance 5-HT1A receptor activation, as well as direct agonists of the 5-HT1A receptor, such as buspirone, which is used to treat anxiety disorders.

Serotonin uptake inhibitors (also known as Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors or SSRIs) are a class of medications primarily used to treat depression and anxiety disorders. They work by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps regulate mood, appetite, and sleep, among other functions.

SSRIs block the reuptake of serotonin into the presynaptic neuron, allowing more serotonin to be available in the synapse (the space between two neurons) for binding to postsynaptic receptors. This results in increased serotonergic neurotransmission and improved mood regulation.

Examples of SSRIs include fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), paroxetine (Paxil), citalopram (Celexa), and escitalopram (Lexapro). These medications are generally well-tolerated, with side effects that may include nausea, headache, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, and increased anxiety or agitation. However, they can have serious interactions with other medications, so it is important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting an SSRI.

Serotonin antagonists are a class of drugs that block the action of serotonin, a neurotransmitter, at specific receptor sites in the brain and elsewhere in the body. They work by binding to the serotonin receptors without activating them, thereby preventing the natural serotonin from binding and transmitting signals.

Serotonin antagonists are used in the treatment of various conditions such as psychiatric disorders, migraines, and nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy. They can have varying degrees of affinity for different types of serotonin receptors (e.g., 5-HT2A, 5-HT3, etc.), which contributes to their specific therapeutic effects and side effect profiles.

Examples of serotonin antagonists include ondansetron (used to treat nausea and vomiting), risperidone and olanzapine (used to treat psychiatric disorders), and methysergide (used to prevent migraines). It's important to note that these medications should be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as they can have potential risks and interactions with other drugs.

A serotonin receptor, specifically the 5-HT2C (5-hydroxytryptamine 2C) receptor, is a type of G protein-coupled receptor found in the central and peripheral nervous systems. These receptors are activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) and play crucial roles in various physiological processes, including mood regulation, appetite control, sleep, and memory.

The 5-HT2C receptor is primarily located on postsynaptic neurons and can also be found on presynaptic terminals. When serotonin binds to the 5-HT2C receptor, it triggers a signaling cascade that ultimately influences the electrical activity of the neuron. This receptor has been associated with several neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and eating disorders.

Pharmacological agents targeting the 5-HT2C receptor have been developed for the treatment of various diseases. For example, some antipsychotic drugs work as antagonists at this receptor to alleviate positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Additionally, agonists at the 5-HT2C receptor have shown potential in treating obesity due to their anorexigenic effects. However, further research is needed to fully understand the therapeutic and side effects of these compounds.

A serotonin receptor, specifically the 5-HT2B receptor, is a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that binds to the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT). These receptors are located on the cell membrane of certain cells, including neurons and other cell types in various organs.

The 5-HT2B receptor is involved in a variety of physiological functions, such as regulating mood, appetite, sleep, and sensory perception. In the cardiovascular system, activation of 5-HT2B receptors can lead to the proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts and changes in the extracellular matrix, which may contribute to heart valve abnormalities.

In the central nervous system, 5-HT2B receptors have been implicated in several neurological conditions, including migraine, depression, and schizophrenia. However, their precise roles in these disorders are not yet fully understood.

Pharmacologically targeting 5-HT2B receptors has led to the development of drugs for various indications, such as antimigraine medications (e.g., telcagepant) and potential treatments for heart failure (e.g., mavacamten). However, some 5-HT2B receptor agonists have also been associated with serious side effects, such as valvular heart disease, which has limited their clinical use.

'Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT2' refer to a specific family of serotonin receptors that are activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT). These receptors are G protein-coupled receptors and are further divided into several subtypes, including 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C. They are widely distributed throughout the body, including the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory system.

The 5-HT2 receptors play a role in various physiological processes, such as neurotransmission, vasoconstriction, smooth muscle contraction, and cell growth regulation. They are also involved in several pathophysiological conditions, including psychiatric disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety, schizophrenia), migraine, cardiovascular diseases, and pulmonary hypertension.

The 5-HT2 receptors have been a focus of drug development for various therapeutic areas. For example, atypical antipsychotics used to treat schizophrenia work by blocking the 5-HT2A receptor, while certain migraine medications act as agonists at the 5-HT1B/1D and 5-HT2C receptors. However, drugs targeting these receptors must be carefully designed to avoid unwanted side effects, as activation or blockade of these receptors can have significant impacts on various physiological processes.

Serotonin agents are a class of drugs that work on the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in the brain and elsewhere in the body. They include several types of medications such as:

1. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs): These drugs block the reabsorption (reuptake) of serotonin into the presynaptic neuron, increasing the availability of serotonin in the synapse to interact with postsynaptic receptors. SSRIs are commonly used as antidepressants and include medications such as fluoxetine, sertraline, and citalopram.
2. Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs): These drugs block the reabsorption of both serotonin and norepinephrine into the presynaptic neuron, increasing the availability of these neurotransmitters in the synapse. SNRIs are also used as antidepressants and include medications such as venlafaxine and duloxetine.
3. Serotonin Receptor Agonists: These drugs bind to and activate serotonin receptors, mimicking the effects of serotonin. They are used for various indications, including migraine prevention (e.g., sumatriptan) and Parkinson's disease (e.g., pramipexole).
4. Serotonin Receptor Antagonists: These drugs block serotonin receptors, preventing the effects of serotonin. They are used for various indications, including nausea and vomiting (e.g., ondansetron) and as mood stabilizers in bipolar disorder (e.g., olanzapine).
5. Serotonin Synthesis Inhibitors: These drugs block the enzymatic synthesis of serotonin, reducing its availability in the brain. They are used as antidepressants and include medications such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) like phenelzine and tranylcypromine.

It's important to note that while these drugs all affect serotonin, they have different mechanisms of action and are used for various indications. It's essential to consult a healthcare professional before starting any new medication.

A serotonin receptor, specifically the 5-HT1B receptor, is a type of G protein-coupled receptor found in the cell membrane. It binds to the neurotransmitter serotonin (also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) and plays a role in regulating various physiological functions, including neurotransmission, vasoconstriction, and smooth muscle contraction.

The 5-HT1B receptor is widely distributed throughout the body, but it is particularly abundant in the brain, where it is involved in modulating mood, cognition, and motor control. When serotonin binds to the 5-HT1B receptor, it activates a signaling pathway that ultimately leads to the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase, which reduces the production of cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate) in the cell. This reduction in cAMP levels can have various effects on cellular function, depending on the specific tissue and context in which the 5-HT1B receptor is expressed.

In addition to its role as a serotonin receptor, the 5-HT1B receptor has also been identified as a target for certain drugs used in the treatment of migraine headaches, such as triptans. These medications bind to and activate the 5-HT1B receptor, which leads to vasoconstriction of cranial blood vessels and inhibition of neuropeptide release, helping to alleviate the symptoms of migraines.

Serotonin receptor agonists are a class of medications that bind to and activate serotonin receptors in the body, mimicking the effects of the neurotransmitter serotonin. These drugs can have various effects depending on which specific serotonin receptors they act upon. Some serotonin receptor agonists are used to treat conditions such as migraines, cluster headaches, and Parkinson's disease, while others may be used to stimulate appetite or reduce anxiety. It is important to note that some serotonin receptor agonists can have serious side effects, particularly when taken in combination with other medications that affect serotonin levels, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). This can lead to a condition called serotonin syndrome, which is characterized by symptoms such as agitation, confusion, rapid heart rate, high blood pressure, and muscle stiffness.

'Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT1' refer to a class of serotonin receptors that are activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) and coupled to G proteins. These receptors play a role in regulating various physiological processes, including neurotransmission, vasoconstriction, and smooth muscle contraction. The 5-HT1 receptor family includes several subtypes (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT1E, and 5-HT1F) that differ in their distribution, function, and signaling mechanisms. These receptors are important targets for the treatment of various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, migraine, and schizophrenia.

Serotonin syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition that arises from excessive serotonergic activity in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system. It is typically caused by the interaction of medications, illicit substances, or dietary supplements that increase serotonin levels or enhance serotonin receptor sensitivity.

The diagnostic criteria for serotonin syndrome include:

1. Presence of a serotonergic medication or drug known to cause the syndrome
2. Development of neuromuscular abnormalities, such as hyperreflexia, myoclonus, tremor, rigidity, or akathisia
3. Autonomic dysfunction, including diaphoresis, tachycardia, hypertension, dilated pupils, and hyperthermia
4. Mental status changes, such as agitation, confusion, hallucinations, or coma
5. Symptoms that develop rapidly, usually within hours of a change in serotonergic medication or dosage

Serotonin syndrome can range from mild to severe, with the most severe cases potentially leading to respiratory failure, rhabdomyolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and death. Treatment typically involves discontinuation of the offending agent(s), supportive care, and pharmacologic interventions such as cyproheptadine or cooling measures for hyperthermia.

Serotonin 5-HT2 receptor antagonists are a class of drugs that block the action of serotonin, a neurotransmitter, at 5-HT2 receptors. These receptors are found in the central and peripheral nervous systems and are involved in various physiological functions such as mood regulation, cognition, appetite control, and vasoconstriction.

By blocking the action of serotonin at these receptors, serotonin 5-HT2 receptor antagonists can produce a range of effects depending on the specific receptor subtype that they target. For example, some serotonin 5-HT2 receptor antagonists are used to treat psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression, while others are used to treat migraines or prevent nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy.

Some common examples of serotonin 5-HT2 receptor antagonists include risperidone, olanzapine, and paliperidone (used for the treatment of schizophrenia), mirtazapine (used for the treatment of depression), sumatriptan (used for the treatment of migraines), and ondansetron (used to prevent nausea and vomiting).

'Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT3' refer to a specific type of serotonin receptor called the 5-HT3 receptor, which is a ligand-gated ion channel found in the cell membrane. Serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is a neurotransmitter that plays a role in various physiological functions, including mood regulation, appetite control, and nausea.

The 5-HT3 receptor is activated by serotonin and mediates fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is permeable to sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), and calcium (Ca2+) ions, allowing for the rapid depolarization of neurons and the initiation of action potentials.

The 5-HT3 receptor has been a target for drug development, particularly in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, as well as irritable bowel syndrome. Antagonists of the 5-HT3 receptor, such as ondansetron and granisetron, work by blocking the receptor and preventing serotonin from activating it, thereby reducing symptoms of nausea and vomiting.

Serotonin 5-HT2 receptor agonists are a class of compounds that bind to and activate the serotonin 5-HT2 receptors, which are a type of G protein-coupled receptor found in the central and peripheral nervous systems. These receptors play important roles in various physiological processes, including neurotransmission, vasoconstriction, and smooth muscle contraction.

Serotonin 5-HT2 receptor agonists can produce a range of effects depending on the specific subtype of receptor they activate. For example, activation of 5-HT2A receptors has been associated with hallucinogenic effects, while activation of 5-HT2B receptors has been linked to cardiac valvulopathy.

These drugs are used in a variety of clinical settings, including the treatment of psychiatric disorders such as depression and schizophrenia, migraine headaches, and cluster headaches. Examples of serotonin 5-HT2 receptor agonists include LSD, psilocybin, ergotamine, and sumatriptan.

Tryptophan hydroxylase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of neurotransmitters and hormones, including serotonin and melatonin. It catalyzes the conversion of the essential amino acid tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), which is then further converted to serotonin. This enzyme exists in two isoforms, TPH1 and TPH2, with TPH1 primarily located in peripheral tissues and TPH2 mainly found in the brain. The regulation of tryptophan hydroxylase activity has significant implications for mood, appetite, sleep, and pain perception.

Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists are a class of compounds that bind to and activate the serotonin 5-HT1 receptors, which are G protein-coupled receptors found in the central and peripheral nervous systems. These receptors play important roles in regulating various physiological functions, including neurotransmission, vasoconstriction, and hormone secretion.

Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists are used in medical therapy to treat a variety of conditions, such as migraines, cluster headaches, depression, anxiety, and insomnia. Some examples of Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists include sumatriptan, rizatriptan, zolmitriptan, naratriptan, and frovatriptan, which are used to treat migraines and cluster headaches by selectively activating the 5-HT1B/1D receptors in cranial blood vessels and sensory nerves.

Other Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists, such as buspirone, are used to treat anxiety disorders and depression by acting on the 5-HT1A receptors in the brain. These drugs work by increasing serotonergic neurotransmission, which helps to regulate mood, cognition, and behavior.

Overall, Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists are a valuable class of drugs that have shown efficacy in treating various neurological and psychiatric conditions. However, like all medications, they can have side effects and potential drug interactions, so it is important to use them under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

'Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT4' refer to a specific type of serotonin receptor found in various parts of the body, including the central and peripheral nervous systems. These receptors are activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) and play an essential role in regulating several physiological functions, such as gastrointestinal motility, cognition, mood, and memory.

The 5-HT4 receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), which means it consists of seven transmembrane domains that span the cell membrane. When serotonin binds to the 5-HT4 receptor, it activates a signaling cascade within the cell, leading to various downstream effects.

The 5-HT4 receptor has been a target for drug development, particularly in treating gastrointestinal disorders such as constipation and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Additionally, some evidence suggests that 5-HT4 receptors may play a role in the treatment of depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. However, further research is needed to fully understand the therapeutic potential of targeting this receptor.

Serotonin 5-HT1 receptor antagonists are a class of pharmaceutical drugs that block the activation of serotonin 5-HT1 receptors. Serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is a neurotransmitter that plays a role in various physiological functions, including mood regulation, appetite control, and sensory perception. The 5-HT1 receptor family includes several subtypes (5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT1E, and 5-HT1F) that are widely distributed throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems.

When serotonin binds to these receptors, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that can have excitatory or inhibitory effects on neuronal activity. By blocking the interaction between serotonin and 5-HT1 receptors, antagonists modulate the downstream consequences of receptor activation.

Serotonin 5-HT1 receptor antagonists are used in various clinical contexts to treat or manage a range of conditions:

1. Migraine prevention: Some 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonists, such as sumatriptan and rizatriptan, are highly effective in aborting migraine attacks by constricting dilated cranial blood vessels and reducing the release of pro-inflammatory neuropeptides.
2. Nausea and vomiting: Certain 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, like ondansetron and granisetron, are used to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting by blocking the activation of emetic circuits in the brainstem.
3. Psychiatric disorders: Although not widely used, some 5-HT1A receptor antagonists have shown promise in treating depression and anxiety disorders due to their ability to modulate serotonergic neurotransmission.
4. Neuroprotection: Preclinical studies suggest that 5-HT1A receptor agonists may have neuroprotective effects in various neurological conditions, such as Parkinson's disease and stroke. However, further research is needed to establish their clinical utility.

In summary, serotonin 5-HT1 receptor antagonists are a diverse group of medications with applications in migraine prevention, nausea and vomiting management, psychiatric disorders, and potential neuroprotection. Their unique pharmacological profiles enable them to target specific pathophysiological mechanisms underlying various conditions, making them valuable tools in modern therapeutics.

Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) is a major metabolite of the neurotransmitter serotonin, formed in the body through the enzymatic degradation of serotonin by monoamine oxidase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. 5HIAA is primarily excreted in the urine and its measurement can be used as a biomarker for serotonin synthesis and metabolism in the body.

Increased levels of 5HIAA in the cerebrospinal fluid or urine may indicate conditions associated with excessive serotonin production, such as carcinoid syndrome, while decreased levels may be seen in certain neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. Therefore, measuring 5HIAA levels can have diagnostic and therapeutic implications for these conditions.

Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medication that is primarily used to treat major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, bulimia nervosa, panic disorder, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. It works by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps maintain mental balance.

Fluoxetine is available under the brand name Prozac and is also available as a generic medication. It comes in various forms, including capsules, tablets, delayed-release capsules, and liquid solution. The typical starting dose for adults with depression is 20 mg per day, but the dosage may be adjusted based on individual patient needs and response to treatment.

Fluoxetine has a relatively long half-life, which means it stays in the body for an extended period of time. This can be beneficial for patients who may have difficulty remembering to take their medication daily, as they may only need to take it once or twice a week. However, it also means that it may take several weeks for the full effects of the medication to become apparent.

As with any medication, fluoxetine can cause side effects, including nausea, dry mouth, sleepiness, insomnia, dizziness, and headache. In some cases, it may also increase the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults, particularly during the initial stages of treatment. It is important for patients to discuss any concerns about side effects with their healthcare provider.

Citalopram is a type of antidepressant known as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). It works by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps maintain mental balance. Citalopram is primarily used to treat major depressive disorder and is also sometimes used to treat anxiety disorders, such as panic disorder or social anxiety disorder.

The medical definition of Citalopram can be described as follows:

Citalopram (brand name Celexa) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant that is primarily used to treat major depressive disorder. It works by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps maintain mental balance. Citalopram may also be used off-label for the treatment of anxiety disorders, such as panic disorder or social anxiety disorder.

Common side effects of citalopram include nausea, dry mouth, increased sweating, sleepiness, fatigue, and insomnia. More serious side effects can include an increased risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults, as well as an increased risk of bleeding, particularly if taken with other medications that increase the risk of bleeding. Citalopram should be used with caution in patients with a history of heart disease, liver disease, or seizure disorders. It is important to follow the dosage instructions provided by your healthcare provider and to inform them of any other medications you are taking, as well as any medical conditions you have, before starting citalopram.

Serotonergic neurons are specialized types of nerve cells (neurons) that produce, synthesize, and release the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT). These neurons have their cell bodies located in specific brainstem nuclei, such as the dorsal raphe nucleus and median raphe nucleus. They project and innervate various regions of the central nervous system, including the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and other brain areas. Serotonergic neurons play crucial roles in regulating numerous physiological functions, such as mood, appetite, sleep, memory, cognition, and sensorimotor activities. Alterations in serotonergic neurotransmission have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and neurodevelopmental conditions.

Ketanserin is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called serotonin antagonists. It works by blocking the action of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain, on certain types of receptors. Ketanserin is primarily used for its blood pressure-lowering effects and is also sometimes used off-label to treat anxiety disorders and alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

It's important to note that ketanserin is not approved by the FDA for use in the United States, but it may be available in other countries as a prescription medication. As with any medication, ketanserin should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider and should be taken exactly as prescribed.

5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is a chemical compound that is produced by the body as a precursor to serotonin, a neurotransmitter that helps regulate mood, appetite, sleep, and pain sensation. 5-HTP is not present in food but can be derived from the amino acid tryptophan, which is found in high-protein foods such as turkey, chicken, milk, and cheese.

5-HTP supplements are sometimes used to treat conditions related to low serotonin levels, including depression, anxiety, insomnia, migraines, and fibromyalgia. However, the effectiveness of 5-HTP for these conditions is not well established, and it can have side effects and interact with certain medications. Therefore, it's important to consult a healthcare provider before taking 5-HTP supplements.

The Raphe Nuclei are clusters of neurons located in the brainstem, specifically in the midline of the pons, medulla oblongata, and mesencephalon (midbrain). These neurons are characterized by their ability to synthesize and release serotonin, a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in regulating various functions such as mood, appetite, sleep, and pain perception.

The Raphe Nuclei project axons widely throughout the central nervous system, allowing serotonin to modulate the activity of other neurons. There are several subdivisions within the Raphe Nuclei, each with distinct connections and functions. Dysfunction in the Raphe Nuclei has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and chronic pain.

Paroxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medication that is primarily used to treat major depressive disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. It works by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps maintain mental balance, leading to an improvement in mood and other symptoms associated with these conditions.

Paroxetine is available under various brand names, such as Paxil and Seroxat, and it comes in different forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid solutions. The medication is typically taken once daily, although the dosage may vary depending on the individual's needs and the specific condition being treated.

As with any medication, paroxetine can have side effects, such as nausea, dizziness, dry mouth, and sleep disturbances. In some cases, it may also cause more serious side effects, including increased risk of suicidal thoughts or behaviors in children, adolescents, and young adults, as well as an increased risk of bleeding and hyponatremia (low sodium levels).

It is important to consult with a healthcare provider before starting paroxetine or any other medication, and to follow their instructions carefully regarding dosage, timing, and potential interactions with other drugs or medical conditions.

Methysergide is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called ergot alkaloids. It is primarily used for the prophylaxis (prevention) of migraine headaches. Methysergide works by narrowing blood vessels around the brain, which is thought to help prevent migraines.

The medical definition of Methysergide is:
A semisynthetic ergot alkaloid derivative used in the prophylaxis of migraine and cluster headaches. It has both agonist and antagonist properties at serotonin receptors, and its therapeutic effects are thought to be related to its ability to block the binding of serotonin to its receptors. However, methysergide can have serious side effects, including fibrotic reactions in various organs, such as the heart, lungs, and kidneys, so it is usually used only for short periods of time and under close medical supervision.

Fenclonine is not a commonly used medical term or a medication in clinical practice. It's possible that you may have encountered this term in the context of research or scientific studies. Fenclonine is an experimental drug that has been investigated for its potential role as an inhibitor of bacterial enzymes, specifically the D-alanine:D-alanine ligase (DD-transpeptidase) involved in bacterial cell wall biosynthesis.

Inhibiting this enzyme can disrupt the integrity and growth of bacteria, making fenclonine a potential antibiotic agent. However, further research is required to establish its safety, efficacy, and therapeutic applications. As such, it's not currently used as a standard treatment option in human medicine.

For accurate information regarding medical definitions or treatments, consult with healthcare professionals or refer to reputable medical resources.

A serotonin receptor, specifically the 5-HT1D subtype, is a type of G protein-coupled receptor found in the central and peripheral nervous systems. These receptors are activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) and play important roles in regulating various physiological functions, including neurotransmission, vasoconstriction, and nociception (pain perception).

The 5-HT1D receptor subtype is further divided into several subtypes, including 5-HT1Dα, 5-HT1Dβ, and 5-HT1Dε. These receptors are widely distributed throughout the brain and spinal cord, where they modulate neurotransmission by inhibiting adenylyl cyclase activity and reducing cAMP levels in neurons.

In addition to their role in regulating neurotransmission, 5-HT1D receptors have also been implicated in a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including migraine, depression, anxiety, and addiction. As a result, drugs that target these receptors have been developed for the treatment of these conditions. For example, triptans, which are commonly used to treat migraines, work by selectively activating 5-HT1D receptors in the brain and constricting blood vessels in the meninges, thereby reducing the inflammation and pain associated with migraines.

5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine is a chemical compound that is a derivative of the neurotransmitter serotonin. It is formed by the hydroxylation of serotonin at the 5 and 7 positions of its indole ring. This compound is not typically found in significant concentrations in the body, but it can be synthesized and used for research purposes.

In the laboratory, 5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine has been used as a tool to study the role of serotonin in various physiological processes. For example, researchers have used this compound to selectively destroy serotonergic neurons in animal models, allowing them to investigate the functions of these neurons and their contributions to behavior and brain function.

It is important to note that 5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine is not a medication or therapeutic agent, and it should only be used in research settings under the guidance of trained professionals.

Biogenic monoamines are a type of neurotransmitter, which are chemical messengers that transmit signals in the brain and other parts of the nervous system. They are called "biogenic" because they are derived from biological substances, and "monoamines" because they contain one amine group (-NH2) and are derived from the aromatic amino acids: tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine.

Examples of biogenic monoamines include:

1. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT): synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan and plays a crucial role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, memory, and learning.
2. Dopamine: formed from tyrosine and is involved in reward, motivation, motor control, and reinforcement of behavior.
3. Norepinephrine (noradrenaline): also derived from tyrosine and functions as a neurotransmitter and hormone that modulates attention, arousal, and stress responses.
4. Epinephrine (adrenaline): synthesized from norepinephrine and serves as a crucial hormone and neurotransmitter in the body's fight-or-flight response to stress or danger.
5. Histamine: produced from the amino acid histidine, it acts as a neurotransmitter and mediates allergic reactions, immune responses, and regulates wakefulness and appetite.

Imbalances in biogenic monoamines have been linked to various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. Therefore, medications that target these neurotransmitters, like selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for depression or levodopa for Parkinson's disease, are often used in the treatment of these conditions.

Serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are a class of medications that work by blocking the serotonin 5-HT3 receptors, which are found in the gastrointestinal tract and the brain. These receptors play a role in regulating nausea and vomiting, among other functions.

When serotonin binds to these receptors, it can trigger a series of events that lead to nausea and vomiting, particularly in response to chemotherapy or surgery. By blocking the 5-HT3 receptors, serotonin cannot bind to them and therefore cannot trigger these events, which helps to reduce nausea and vomiting.

Examples of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists include ondansetron (Zofran), granisetron (Kytril), palonosetron (Aloxi), and dolasetron (Anzemet). These medications are commonly used to prevent and treat nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery.

Antidepressive agents are a class of medications used to treat various forms of depression and anxiety disorders. They act on neurotransmitters, the chemical messengers in the brain, to restore the balance that has been disrupted by mental illness. The most commonly prescribed types of antidepressants include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). These medications can help alleviate symptoms such as low mood, loss of interest in activities, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, and thoughts of death or suicide. It is important to note that antidepressants may take several weeks to reach their full effectiveness and may cause side effects, so it is essential to work closely with a healthcare provider to find the right medication and dosage.

Fenfluramine is a drug that was previously used for the short-term treatment of obesity. It works by suppressing appetite and increasing the feeling of fullness. Fenfluramine is an amphetamine derivative and stimulates the release of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps regulate mood, appetite, and sleep.

Fenfluramine was commonly prescribed in combination with phentermine, another appetite suppressant, under the brand name Fen-Phen. However, in 1997, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a public health warning about the potential risk of serious heart valve damage associated with the use of fenfluramine and withdrew its approval for the drug's use. Since then, fenfluramine has not been approved for medical use in many countries, including the United States.

Cinanserin is a serotonin antagonist, which is a type of drug that blocks the action of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain. Cinanserin has been investigated for its potential use as a treatment for various conditions, including anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia. However, it is not currently approved for use in clinical practice.

Serotonin antagonists like cinanserin work by blocking the action of serotonin at certain receptors in the brain. This can help to reduce the symptoms of various conditions, such as anxiety and depression, by altering the way that neurons communicate with each other. However, the exact mechanism of action of cinanserin is not fully understood, and more research is needed to determine its potential therapeutic uses.

While cinanserin has shown promise in some studies, it has also been associated with a number of side effects, including dizziness, drowsiness, and dry mouth. Additionally, there is some evidence to suggest that cinanserin may increase the risk of certain types of heart problems, such as irregular heart rhythms. As a result, further research is needed to determine the safety and efficacy of this drug before it can be approved for use in clinical practice.

Dopamine is a type of neurotransmitter, which is a chemical messenger that transmits signals in the brain and nervous system. It plays several important roles in the body, including:

* Regulation of movement and coordination
* Modulation of mood and motivation
* Control of the reward and pleasure centers of the brain
* Regulation of muscle tone
* Involvement in memory and attention

Dopamine is produced in several areas of the brain, including the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area. It is released by neurons (nerve cells) and binds to specific receptors on other neurons, where it can either excite or inhibit their activity.

Abnormalities in dopamine signaling have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric conditions, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and addiction.

Second-generation antidepressants (SGAs) are a class of medications used primarily for the treatment of depression, although they are also used for other psychiatric and medical conditions. They are called "second-generation" because they were developed after the first generation of antidepressants, which include tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs).

SGAs are also known as atypical antidepressants or novel antidepressants. They work by affecting the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain, such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. However, they have a different chemical structure and mechanism of action than first-generation antidepressants.

Some examples of second-generation antidepressants include:

* Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), and citalopram (Celexa)
* Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) such as venlafaxine (Effexor) and duloxetine (Cymbalta)
* Norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs) such as bupropion (Wellbutrin)
* Atypical antidepressants such as mirtazapine (Remeron), trazodone, and vortioxetine (Brintellix)

SGAs are generally considered to have a more favorable side effect profile than first-generation antidepressants. They are less likely to cause anticholinergic effects such as dry mouth, constipation, and blurred vision, and they are less likely to cause cardiac conduction abnormalities or orthostatic hypotension. However, SGAs may still cause side effects such as nausea, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, and weight gain.

It's important to note that the choice of antidepressant medication should be individualized based on the patient's specific symptoms, medical history, and other factors. It may take some trial and error to find the most effective and well-tolerated medication for a given patient.

N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (also known as MDA) is a synthetic psychoactive drug that belongs to the class of amphetamines. It acts as a central nervous system stimulant and hallucinogen. Chemically, it is a derivative of amphetamine with an additional methylenedioxy ring attached to the 3,4 positions on the aromatic ring. MDA is known for its empathogenic effects, meaning that it can produce feelings of empathy, emotional openness, and euphoria in users. It has been used recreationally as a party drug and at raves, but it also has potential therapeutic uses. However, MDA can have serious side effects, including increased heart rate and blood pressure, hyperthermia, dehydration, and in some cases, serotonin syndrome. As with other psychoactive drugs, MDA should only be used under medical supervision and with a clear understanding of its potential risks and benefits.

Fluvoxamine is a type of antidepressant known as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). It works by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps maintain mental balance. Fluvoxamine is primarily used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and may also be prescribed for other conditions such as depression, panic disorder, or social anxiety disorder.

The medical definition of Fluvoxamine can be stated as:

Fluvoxamine maleate, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), is a psychotropic medication used primarily in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It functions by increasing the availability of serotonin in the synaptic cleft, which subsequently modulates neurotransmission and helps restore emotional balance. Fluvoxamine may also be employed off-label for managing other conditions, such as depression, panic disorder, or social anxiety disorder, subject to clinical judgment and patient needs.

Membrane transport proteins are specialized biological molecules, specifically integral membrane proteins, that facilitate the movement of various substances across the lipid bilayer of cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and regulated transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, nucleotides, and other molecules into and out of cells, as well as within different cellular compartments. These proteins can be categorized into two main types: channels and carriers (or pumps). Channels provide a passive transport mechanism, allowing ions or small molecules to move down their electrochemical gradient, while carriers actively transport substances against their concentration gradient, requiring energy usually in the form of ATP. Membrane transport proteins play a crucial role in maintaining cell homeostasis, signaling processes, and many other physiological functions.

Tryptamines are a class of organic compounds that contain a tryptamine skeleton, which is a combination of an indole ring and a ethylamine side chain. They are commonly found in nature and can be synthesized in the lab. Some tryptamines have psychedelic properties and are used as recreational drugs, such as dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and psilocybin. Others have important roles in the human body, such as serotonin, which is a neurotransmitter that regulates mood, appetite, and sleep. Tryptamines can also be found in some plants and animals, including certain species of mushrooms, toads, and catnip.

Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is an enzyme found on the outer membrane of mitochondria in cells throughout the body, but primarily in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and central nervous system. It plays a crucial role in the metabolism of neurotransmitters and dietary amines by catalyzing the oxidative deamination of monoamines. This enzyme exists in two forms: MAO-A and MAO-B, each with distinct substrate preferences and tissue distributions.

MAO-A preferentially metabolizes serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, while MAO-B is mainly responsible for breaking down phenethylamines and benzylamines, as well as dopamine in some cases. Inhibition of these enzymes can lead to increased neurotransmitter levels in the synaptic cleft, which has implications for various psychiatric and neurological conditions, such as depression and Parkinson's disease. However, MAO inhibitors must be used with caution due to their potential to cause serious adverse effects, including hypertensive crises, when combined with certain foods or medications containing dietary amines or sympathomimetic agents.

Amphetamines are a type of central nervous system stimulant drug that increases alertness, wakefulness, and energy levels. They work by increasing the activity of certain neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the brain, such as dopamine and norepinephrine. Amphetamines can be prescribed for medical conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy, but they are also commonly abused for their ability to produce euphoria, increase confidence, and improve performance in tasks that require sustained attention.

Some common examples of amphetamines include:

* Adderall: a combination of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine, used to treat ADHD and narcolepsy
* Dexedrine: a brand name for dextroamphetamine, used to treat ADHD and narcolepsy
* Vyvanse: a long-acting formulation of lisdexamfetamine, a prodrug that is converted to dextroamphetamine in the body, used to treat ADHD

Amphetamines can be taken orally, snorted, smoked, or injected. Long-term use or abuse of amphetamines can lead to a number of negative health consequences, including addiction, cardiovascular problems, malnutrition, mental health disorders, and memory loss.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that were commonly used to treat depression. The name "tricyclic" comes from the chemical structure of these drugs, which contain three rings in their molecular makeup. TCAs were first developed in the 1950s and remained a popular choice for treating depression until the introduction of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the late 1980s.

TCAs work by increasing the levels of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, in the brain. Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that transmit signals between nerve cells. By increasing the levels of these neurotransmitters, TCAs can help to improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression.

Some common examples of tricyclic antidepressants include amitriptyline, imipramine, and nortriptyline. While TCAs are effective in treating depression, they can have significant side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, and drowsiness. In addition, TCAs can be dangerous in overdose and may increase the risk of suicide in some individuals. As a result, they are typically used as a last resort when other treatments have failed.

Overall, tricyclic antidepressants are a class of medications that were commonly used to treat depression but have largely been replaced by newer drugs due to their side effects and potential risks.

Cyproheptadine is an antihistamine and anticholinergic medication that is primarily used to treat symptoms of allergies, such as runny nose, sneezing, and itching. It works by blocking the action of histamine, a substance in the body that causes allergic reactions.

Cyproheptadine also has other uses, including the treatment of migraines and cluster headaches, appetite stimulation in people with certain medical conditions, and as a sedative in some cases. It is available in various forms, such as tablets, capsules, and syrup.

Like all medications, cyproheptadine can have side effects, including drowsiness, dry mouth, dizziness, and blurred vision. It is important to follow the dosage instructions carefully and talk to a healthcare provider if you experience any bothersome or persistent side effects.

Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) is defined in medical terms as a powerful synthetic hallucinogenic drug. It is derived from lysergic acid, which is found in ergot, a fungus that grows on grains such as rye. LSD is typically distributed as a liquid, tablets, or thin squares of gelatin (commonly known as window panes). It is odorless, colorless, and has a slightly bitter taste.

LSD is considered one of the most potent mood-changing chemicals. Its effects, often called a "trip," can be stimulating, pleasurable, and mind-altering or they can lead to an unpleasant, sometimes terrifying experience called a "bad trip." The effects of LSD are unpredictable depending on factors such as the user's personality, mood, expectations, and the environment in which the drug is used.

In the medical field, LSD has been studied for its potential benefits in treating certain mental health conditions, such as anxiety and depression associated with life-threatening illnesses, but further research is needed to establish its safety and efficacy. It's important to note that the use of LSD outside of approved medical settings and supervision is not legal in most countries and can lead to serious legal consequences.

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Tryptophan is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources. Its chemical formula is C11H12N2O2. Tryptophan plays a crucial role in various biological processes as it serves as a precursor to several important molecules, including serotonin, melatonin, and niacin (vitamin B3). Serotonin is a neurotransmitter involved in mood regulation, appetite control, and sleep-wake cycles, while melatonin is a hormone that regulates sleep-wake patterns. Niacin is essential for energy production and DNA repair.

Foods rich in tryptophan include turkey, chicken, fish, eggs, cheese, milk, nuts, seeds, and whole grains. In some cases, tryptophan supplementation may be recommended to help manage conditions related to serotonin imbalances, such as depression or insomnia, but this should only be done under the guidance of a healthcare professional due to potential side effects and interactions with other medications.

Biogenic amines are organic compounds that are derived from the metabolic pathways of various biological organisms, including humans. They are formed by the decarboxylation of amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. Some examples of biogenic amines include histamine, serotonin, dopamine, and tyramine.

Histamine is a biogenic amine that plays an important role in the immune system's response to foreign invaders, such as allergens. It is also involved in regulating stomach acid production and sleep-wake cycles. Serotonin is another biogenic amine that acts as a neurotransmitter, transmitting signals between nerve cells in the brain. It is involved in regulating mood, appetite, and sleep.

Dopamine is a biogenic amine that functions as a neurotransmitter and is involved in reward and pleasure pathways in the brain. Tyramine is a biogenic amine that is found in certain foods, such as aged cheeses and fermented soy products. It can cause an increase in blood pressure when consumed in large quantities.

Biogenic amines can have various effects on the body, depending on their type and concentration. In general, they play important roles in many physiological processes, but high levels of certain biogenic amines can be harmful and may cause symptoms such as headache, nausea, and hypertension.

Sertraline is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). It is primarily used to treat depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, social anxiety disorder, and in some cases, premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

Sertraline works by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps maintain mental balance, in the synaptic cleft (the space between two nerve cells where neurotransmitters are released and received). By inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin, sertraline enhances the signal strength and duration of action of this neurotransmitter, which can help alleviate symptoms associated with various mental health conditions.

It is important to note that sertraline should only be taken under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it may have side effects and potential interactions with other medications. Always consult a medical provider for personalized advice regarding medication use.

Blood platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are small, colorless cell fragments in our blood that play an essential role in normal blood clotting. They are formed in the bone marrow from large cells called megakaryocytes and circulate in the blood in an inactive state until they are needed to help stop bleeding. When a blood vessel is damaged, platelets become activated and change shape, releasing chemicals that attract more platelets to the site of injury. These activated platelets then stick together to form a plug, or clot, that seals the wound and prevents further blood loss. In addition to their role in clotting, platelets also help to promote healing by releasing growth factors that stimulate the growth of new tissue.

Imipramine is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) medication that is primarily used to treat depression. It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, in the brain. Imipramine has been found to be effective in treating various types of depression, including major depressive disorder, dysthymia, and depression that is resistant to other treatments.

In addition to its antidepressant effects, imipramine is also used off-label for the treatment of several other conditions, such as anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), enuresis (bedwetting), and chronic pain.

Imipramine was first synthesized in the 1950s and has been widely used since then. It is available in various forms, including immediate-release tablets, extended-release capsules, and liquid solutions. As with all medications, imipramine can have side effects, which may include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, dizziness, and sedation. In rare cases, it can cause more serious side effects, such as cardiac arrhythmias or seizures.

It is important to use imipramine under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, as dosages may need to be adjusted based on individual patient needs and responses to treatment. Additionally, imipramine should not be stopped abruptly, as doing so can lead to withdrawal symptoms or a recurrence of depression.

Clomipramine is a tricyclic antidepressant drug that is primarily used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, in the brain. These neurotransmitters are involved in regulating mood and behavior.

Clomipramine is also used off-label to treat other conditions, including panic disorder, depression, chronic pain, and sleep disorders. It is available as a tablet or capsule and is typically taken one to three times a day. Common side effects of clomipramine include dry mouth, constipation, blurred vision, dizziness, and drowsiness.

As with all medications, clomipramine should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, who can monitor its effectiveness and potential side effects. It is important to follow the dosage instructions carefully and to report any unusual symptoms or concerns to the healthcare provider promptly.

Piperazines are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds that contain a seven-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 4. They have the molecular formula N-NRR' where R and R' can be alkyl or aryl groups. Piperazines have a wide range of uses in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and as building blocks in organic synthesis.

In a medical context, piperazines are used in the manufacture of various drugs, including some antipsychotics, antidepressants, antihistamines, and anti-worm medications. For example, the antipsychotic drug trifluoperazine and the antidepressant drug nefazodone both contain a piperazine ring in their chemical structure.

However, it's important to note that some piperazines are also used as recreational drugs due to their stimulant and euphoric effects. These include compounds such as BZP (benzylpiperazine) and TFMPP (trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine), which have been linked to serious health risks, including addiction, seizures, and death. Therefore, the use of these substances should be avoided.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Norepinephrine plasma membrane transport proteins, also known as norepinephrine transporters (NET), are membrane-bound proteins that play a crucial role in the regulation of neurotransmission. They are responsible for the reuptake of norepinephrine from the synaptic cleft back into the presynaptic neuron, thereby terminating the signal transmission and preventing excessive stimulation of postsynaptic receptors.

The norepinephrine transporter is a member of the sodium-dependent neurotransmitter transporter family and functions as an antiporter, exchanging one intracellular sodium ion for two extracellular sodium ions along with the transport of norepinephrine. This sodium gradient provides the energy required for the active transport process.

Dysregulation of norepinephrine plasma membrane transport proteins has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of these transporters is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Octopamine is not primarily used in medical definitions, but it is a significant neurotransmitter in invertebrates, including insects. It is the equivalent to noradrenaline (norepinephrine) in vertebrates and has similar functions related to the "fight or flight" response, arousal, and motivation. Insects use octopamine for various physiological processes such as learning, memory, regulation of heart rate, and modulation of muscle contraction. It also plays a role in the social behavior of insects like aggression and courtship.

Methiothepin is a non-selective, irreversible antagonist of serotonin (5-HT) receptors, particularly 5-HT1, 5-HT2, and 5-HT3 receptors. It has also been found to act as an antagonist at dopamine D2 receptors and histamine H1 receptors. Methiothepin has been used in research to study the roles of serotonin and other neurotransmitters in various physiological processes, but it is not commonly used clinically due to its lack of selectivity and potential for causing severe side effects.

P-Chloroamphetamine, also known as PCA or 4-chloroamphetamine, is a synthetic stimulant drug that has been used in scientific research but is not commonly used medically. It is a derivative of amphetamine and has similar effects, such as increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and alertness. However, it also has hallucinogenic properties and can cause psychological disturbances.

PCA acts as a releasing agent for the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, which are involved in regulating mood, appetite, and other physiological processes. It is classified as a Schedule I controlled substance in the United States due to its high potential for abuse and lack of accepted medical use.

It's important to note that PCA is not approved for any medical use in humans and should only be used in a controlled research setting with appropriate safety measures in place.

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that work by blocking the action of monoamine oxidase, an enzyme found in the brain and other organs of the body. This enzyme is responsible for breaking down certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, which are chemicals that transmit signals in the brain.

By inhibiting the action of monoamine oxidase, MAOIs increase the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain, which can help to alleviate symptoms of depression and other mood disorders. However, MAOIs also affect other chemicals in the body, including tyramine, a substance found in some foods and beverages, as well as certain medications. As a result, MAOIs can have serious side effects and interactions with other substances, making them a less commonly prescribed class of antidepressants than other types of drugs.

MAOIs are typically used as a last resort when other treatments for depression have failed, due to their potential for dangerous interactions and side effects. They require careful monitoring and dosage adjustment by a healthcare provider, and patients must follow strict dietary restrictions while taking them.

Ritanserin is a medication that belongs to the class of drugs known as serotonin antagonists. It works by blocking the action of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain, which helps to reduce anxiety and improve mood. Ritanserin was initially developed for the treatment of depression and schizophrenia, but its development was discontinued due to its side effects.

The medical definition of Ritanserin is:

A piperazine derivative and a serotonin antagonist that has been used in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia. Its therapeutic effect is thought to be related to its ability to block the action of serotonin at 5HT2 receptors. However, development of ritanserin was discontinued due to its side effects, including orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, and sedation. It has also been studied for its potential in treating cocaine addiction and alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

Neurons, also known as nerve cells or neurocytes, are specialized cells that constitute the basic unit of the nervous system. They are responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information and signals within the body. Neurons have three main parts: the dendrites, the cell body (soma), and the axon. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors, while the axon transmits these signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands. The junction between two neurons is called a synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to transmit the signal across the gap (synaptic cleft) to the next neuron. Neurons vary in size, shape, and structure depending on their function and location within the nervous system.

Microdialysis is a minimally invasive technique used in clinical and research settings to continuously monitor the concentration of various chemicals, such as neurotransmitters, drugs, or metabolites, in biological fluids (e.g., extracellular fluid of tissues, blood, or cerebrospinal fluid). This method involves inserting a small, flexible catheter with a semipermeable membrane into the region of interest. A physiological solution is continuously perfused through the catheter, allowing molecules to diffuse across the membrane based on their concentration gradient. The dialysate that exits the catheter is then collected and analyzed for target compounds using various analytical techniques (e.g., high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry).

In summary, microdialysis is a valuable tool for monitoring real-time changes in chemical concentrations within biological systems, enabling better understanding of physiological processes or pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.

Adrenergic uptake inhibitors are a class of medications that work by blocking the reuptake of neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine and dopamine, into the presynaptic neuron. This results in an increase in the amount of neurotransmitter available to bind to postsynaptic receptors, leading to an enhancement of adrenergic transmission.

These medications are used in the treatment of various medical conditions, including depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and narcolepsy. Some examples of adrenergic uptake inhibitors include:

* Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs): These medications, such as imipramine and amitriptyline, were developed in the 1950s and are used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, and chronic pain.
* Selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs): These medications, such as venlafaxine and duloxetine, were developed in the 1990s and are used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, and chronic pain.
* Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs): These medications, such as bupropion, are used to treat depression and ADHD.

It's important to note that these medications can have side effects and should be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider.

Buspirone is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called azapirones, which are used to treat anxiety disorders. It works by affecting the neurotransmitters in the brain, specifically serotonin and dopamine, to produce a calming effect. Buspirone is often used as an alternative to benzodiazepines because it is not habit-forming and has less severe side effects.

The medical definition of buspirone is:

A piperidine derivative and azapirone analogue, with anxiolytic properties. It is believed to work by selectively binding to 5-HT1A receptors and modulating serotonin activity in the brain. Buspirone is used for the management of anxiety disorders and has a lower potential for abuse and dependence than benzodiazepines.

Serotonin 5-HT4 receptor antagonists are a class of pharmaceutical drugs that block the action of serotonin at 5-HT4 receptors. Serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is a neurotransmitter involved in various physiological functions, including mood regulation, gastrointestinal motility, and cognition.

The 5-HT4 receptor is one of several subtypes of serotonin receptors found throughout the body, particularly in the brain, gastrointestinal tract, and cardiovascular system. These receptors are involved in regulating various physiological processes, including gastrointestinal motility, cognition, and mood regulation.

Serotonin 5-HT4 receptor antagonists work by binding to these receptors and preventing serotonin from activating them. This action can have various therapeutic effects, depending on the specific drug and its intended use. For example, some 5-HT4 receptor antagonists are used to treat gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and gastroparesis, as they help slow down gastrointestinal motility and reduce symptoms such as diarrhea and abdominal pain.

Examples of 5-HT4 receptor antagonists include drugs such as alosetron, cisapride (now withdrawn from the market due to safety concerns), and prucalopride. These drugs are typically administered orally and have varying degrees of selectivity for the 5-HT4 receptor subtype.

It's important to note that while 5-HT4 receptor antagonists can have therapeutic effects, they can also have side effects, including constipation, nausea, and headache. Additionally, some of these drugs may interact with other medications or have potentially serious adverse effects, so it's essential to use them under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Serotonin 5-HT3 receptor agonists are a class of drugs that selectively bind to and activate the 5-HT3 subtype of serotonin receptors. These receptors are located in the central and peripheral nervous system, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract, chemoreceptor trigger zone, and vagus nerve.

The activation of 5-HT3 receptors by these agonists can lead to various effects, depending on the location of the receptors. In the gastrointestinal tract, 5-HT3 receptor agonists can increase intestinal motility and secretion, which can be useful in treating conditions such as chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

Examples of 5-HT3 receptor agonists include ondansetron, granisetron, palonosetron, and dolasetron. These drugs are commonly used to prevent and treat nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery.

Nerve tissue proteins are specialized proteins found in the nervous system that provide structural and functional support to nerve cells, also known as neurons. These proteins include:

1. Neurofilaments: These are type IV intermediate filaments that provide structural support to neurons and help maintain their shape and size. They are composed of three subunits - NFL (light), NFM (medium), and NFH (heavy).

2. Neuronal Cytoskeletal Proteins: These include tubulins, actins, and spectrins that provide structural support to the neuronal cytoskeleton and help maintain its integrity.

3. Neurotransmitter Receptors: These are specialized proteins located on the postsynaptic membrane of neurons that bind neurotransmitters released by presynaptic neurons, triggering a response in the target cell.

4. Ion Channels: These are transmembrane proteins that regulate the flow of ions across the neuronal membrane and play a crucial role in generating and transmitting electrical signals in neurons.

5. Signaling Proteins: These include enzymes, receptors, and adaptor proteins that mediate intracellular signaling pathways involved in neuronal development, differentiation, survival, and death.

6. Adhesion Proteins: These are cell surface proteins that mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, playing a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of neural circuits.

7. Extracellular Matrix Proteins: These include proteoglycans, laminins, and collagens that provide structural support to nerve tissue and regulate neuronal migration, differentiation, and survival.

Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is a neurotransmitter and a hormone that is primarily produced in the adrenal glands and is released into the bloodstream in response to stress or physical activity. It plays a crucial role in the "fight-or-flight" response by preparing the body for action through increasing heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and glucose availability.

As a neurotransmitter, norepinephrine is involved in regulating various functions of the nervous system, including attention, perception, motivation, and arousal. It also plays a role in modulating pain perception and responding to stressful or emotional situations.

In medical settings, norepinephrine is used as a vasopressor medication to treat hypotension (low blood pressure) that can occur during septic shock, anesthesia, or other critical illnesses. It works by constricting blood vessels and increasing heart rate, which helps to improve blood pressure and perfusion of vital organs.

Neurotransmitter agents are substances that affect the synthesis, storage, release, uptake, degradation, or reuptake of neurotransmitters, which are chemical messengers that transmit signals across a chemical synapse from one neuron to another. These agents can be either agonists, which mimic the action of a neurotransmitter and bind to its receptor, or antagonists, which block the action of a neurotransmitter by binding to its receptor without activating it. They are used in medicine to treat various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and Parkinson's disease.

Serotonin 5-HT4 receptor agonists are a class of medications that selectively bind to and activate serotonin 5-HT4 receptors. These receptors are found in various parts of the body, including the gastrointestinal tract, brain, and heart.

When serotonin 5-HT4 receptor agonists bind to these receptors, they stimulate a range of physiological responses, such as increasing gastrointestinal motility, improving cognitive function, and regulating cardiac function. These drugs have been used in the treatment of various conditions, including constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, and depression.

Examples of serotonin 5-HT4 receptor agonists include prucalopride, cisapride, mosapride, and tegaserod. However, some of these drugs have been withdrawn from the market due to safety concerns, such as cardiac arrhythmias. Therefore, it is essential to use these medications under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Enterochromaffin cells, also known as Kulchitsky cells or enteroendocrine cells, are a type of neuroendocrine cell found in the epithelial lining of the gastrointestinal tract. These cells are responsible for producing and secreting a variety of hormones and neuropeptides that play important roles in regulating gastrointestinal motility, secretion, and sensation.

Enterochromaffin cells are named for their ability to take up chromaffin stains, which contain silver salts and oxidizing agents that react with the catecholamines stored within the cells. These cells can be further classified based on their morphology, location within the gastrointestinal tract, and the types of hormones they produce.

Some examples of hormones produced by enterochromaffin cells include serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), histamine, gastrin, somatostatin, and cholecystokinin. Serotonin is one of the most well-known hormones produced by these cells, and it plays a critical role in regulating gastrointestinal motility and secretion, as well as mood and cognition.

Abnormalities in enterochromaffin cell function have been implicated in a number of gastrointestinal disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional dyspepsia, and gastroparesis. Additionally, mutations in genes associated with enterochromaffin cells have been linked to several inherited cancer syndromes, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1).

Brain chemistry refers to the chemical processes that occur within the brain, particularly those involving neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and neuropeptides. These chemicals are responsible for transmitting signals between neurons (nerve cells) in the brain, allowing for various cognitive, emotional, and physical functions.

Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that transmit signals across the synapse (the tiny gap between two neurons). Examples of neurotransmitters include dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), and glutamate. Each neurotransmitter has a specific role in brain function, such as regulating mood, motivation, attention, memory, and movement.

Neuromodulators are chemicals that modify the effects of neurotransmitters on neurons. They can enhance or inhibit the transmission of signals between neurons, thereby modulating brain activity. Examples of neuromodulators include acetylcholine, histamine, and substance P.

Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules that act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators. They play a role in various physiological functions, such as pain perception, stress response, and reward processing. Examples of neuropeptides include endorphins, enkephalins, and oxytocin.

Abnormalities in brain chemistry can lead to various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Understanding brain chemistry is crucial for developing effective treatments for these conditions.

Cyclohexanols are a class of organic compounds that contain a cyclohexane ring (a six-carbon saturated ring) with a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to it. The hydroxyl group makes these compounds alcohols, and the cyclohexane ring provides a unique structure that can adopt different conformations.

The presence of the hydroxyl group in cyclohexanols allows them to act as solvents, intermediates in chemical synthesis, and starting materials for the production of other chemicals. They are used in various industries, including pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and polymers.

Cyclohexanols can exist in different forms, such as cis- and trans-isomers, depending on the orientation of the hydroxyl group relative to the cyclohexane ring. The physical and chemical properties of these isomers can differ significantly due to their distinct structures and conformations.

Examples of cyclohexanols include cyclohexanol itself (C6H11OH), as well as its derivatives, such as methylcyclohexanol (C7H13OH) and phenylcyclohexanol (C12H15OH).

Methysergide, commonly known as methylergometrine or metergoline, is not typically considered a medication in the medical field. It is actually a derivative of ergot alkaloids, which are fungal metabolites that have been used in medicine for their vasoconstrictive and oxytocic properties.

Methysergide has been used in the past as a migraine prophylaxis medication due to its ability to block serotonin receptors in the brain. However, its use is now limited due to its potential to cause serious side effects such as fibrotic reactions in various organs, including the heart, lungs, and kidneys.

Therefore, methysergide/metergoline is not commonly used in modern medical practice, and its use is typically reserved for highly specific cases under close medical supervision.

Vesicular Monoamine Transporter Proteins (VMATs) are a type of transmembrane protein that play a crucial role in the packaging and transport of monoamines, such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, into synaptic vesicles within neurons. There are two main isoforms of VMATs, VMAT1 and VMAT2, which differ in their distribution and function.

VMAT1 (also known as SLC18A1) is primarily found in neuroendocrine cells and is responsible for transporting monoamines into large dense-core vesicles. VMAT2 (also known as SLC18A2), on the other hand, is mainly expressed in presynaptic neurons and is involved in the transport of monoamines into small synaptic vesicles.

Both VMAT1 and VMAT2 are integral membrane proteins that utilize a proton gradient to drive the uptake of monoamines against their concentration gradient, allowing for their storage and subsequent release during neurotransmission. Dysregulation of VMAT function has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease and depression.

Hallucinogens are a class of psychoactive substances that alter perception, mood, and thought, often causing hallucinations, which are profound distortions in a person's perceptions of reality. These substances work by disrupting the normal functioning of the brain, particularly the parts that regulate mood, sensory perception, sleep, hunger, and sexual behavior.

Hallucinogens can be found in various forms, including plants, mushrooms, and synthetic compounds. Some common examples of hallucinogens include LSD (d-lysergic acid diethylamide), psilocybin (found in certain species of mushrooms), DMT (dimethyltryptamine), and ayahuasca (a plant-based brew from South America).

The effects of hallucinogens can vary widely depending on the specific substance, the dose, the individual's personality, mood, and expectations, and the environment in which the drug is taken. These effects can range from pleasant sensory experiences and heightened emotional awareness to terrifying hallucinations and overwhelming feelings of anxiety or despair.

It's important to note that hallucinogens can be dangerous, particularly when taken in high doses or in combination with other substances. They can also cause long-term psychological distress and may trigger underlying mental health conditions. As such, they should only be used under the guidance of a trained medical professional for therapeutic purposes.

A depressive disorder is a mental health condition characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest or pleasure in activities. It can also include changes in sleep, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem, as well as thoughts of death or suicide. Depressive disorders can vary in severity and duration, with some people experiencing mild and occasional symptoms, while others may have severe and chronic symptoms that interfere with their ability to function in daily life.

There are several types of depressive disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), persistent depressive disorder (PDD), and postpartum depression. MDD is characterized by symptoms that interfere significantly with a person's ability to function and last for at least two weeks, while PDD involves chronic low-grade depression that lasts for two years or more. Postpartum depression occurs in women after childbirth and can range from mild to severe.

Depressive disorders are thought to be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy (talk therapy), and lifestyle changes.

Dexfenfluramine is a medication that was previously used as an appetite suppressant for weight loss. It is a stereoisomer (enantiomer) of fenfluramine, which is another appetite suppressant. Dexfenfluramine works by increasing the levels of serotonin in the brain, which helps to reduce appetite and promote weight loss.

However, dexfenfluramine was withdrawn from the market in 1997 due to concerns about its safety. Studies found that long-term use of dexfenfluramine was associated with an increased risk of primary pulmonary hypertension, a rare but serious condition that can lead to heart failure. Additionally, when dexfenfluramine was used in combination with phentermine (a different appetite suppressant), there was an increased risk of valvular heart disease.

Therefore, dexfenfluramine is no longer available for medical use and its prescription is not recommended due to these safety concerns.

5,6-Dihydroxytryptamine is a chemical compound that is classified as a derivative of tryptamine. Tryptamine is a naturally occurring amine that is formed from the essential amino acid, tryptophan. 5,6-Dihydroxytryptamine is formed by the hydroxylation of tryptamine at the 5th and 6th carbon atoms of its indole ring structure.

This compound is not typically found in significant quantities in biological systems under normal conditions. However, it can be synthesized and has been studied for its potential pharmacological properties. Like other tryptamines, 5,6-Dihydroxytryptamine has an affinity for various serotonin receptors, and it has been found to act as a full agonist at the 5-HT1A receptor.

It is worth noting that 5,6-Dihydroxytryptamine should not be confused with 5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) or serotonin (5-HT), which are also tryptamine derivatives but have different structures and functions in the body.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hydroxytryptophol" is not a recognized or established term in medicine or biochemistry. It seems like it might be a combination of "hydroxytryptophan," which is a naturally occurring amino acid, and "-ol," which is a suffix often used to denote an alcohol. However, I can't find any scientific literature or studies referring to a compound named "Hydroxytryptophol." It's possible there might be a spelling mistake or a misunderstanding in the term. If you have more context or information, I'd be happy to help further!

Dopamine plasma membrane transport proteins, also known as dopamine transporters (DAT), are a type of protein found in the cell membrane that play a crucial role in the regulation of dopamine neurotransmission. They are responsible for the reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft back into the presynaptic neuron, thereby terminating the signal transduction of dopamine and regulating the amount of dopamine available for further release.

Dopamine transporters belong to the family of sodium-dependent neurotransmitter transporters and are encoded by the SLC6A3 gene in humans. Abnormalities in dopamine transporter function have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and substance use disorders.

In summary, dopamine plasma membrane transport proteins are essential for the regulation of dopamine neurotransmission by mediating the reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft back into the presynaptic neuron.

Autoreceptors are a type of receptor found on the surface of neurons or other cells that are activated by neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) released by the same cell that is expressing the autoreceptor. In other words, they are receptors that a neuron has for its own neurotransmitter.

Autoreceptors play an important role in regulating the release of neurotransmitters from the presynaptic terminal (the end of the neuron that releases the neurotransmitter). When a neurotransmitter binds to its autoreceptor, it can inhibit or excite the further release of that same neurotransmitter. This negative feedback mechanism helps maintain a balance in the concentration of neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft (the space between two neurons where neurotransmission occurs).

Examples of autoreceptors include dopamine D2 receptors on dopaminergic neurons, serotonin 5-HT1A receptors on serotonergic neurons, and acetylcholine M2 receptors on cholinergic neurons. Dysregulation of autoreceptor function has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Spiperone is an antipsychotic drug that belongs to the chemical class of diphenylbutylpiperidines. It has potent dopamine D2 receptor blocking activity and moderate serotonin 5-HT2A receptor affinity. Spiperone is used primarily in research settings for its ability to bind to and block dopamine receptors, which helps scientists study the role of dopamine in various physiological processes.

In clinical practice, spiperone has been used off-label to treat chronic schizophrenia, but its use is limited due to its significant side effects, including extrapyramidal symptoms (involuntary muscle movements), tardive dyskinesia (irregular, jerky movements), and neuroleptic malignant syndrome (a rare but potentially fatal complication characterized by fever, muscle rigidity, and autonomic instability).

It's important to note that spiperone is not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the United States. Its use is more common in research settings or in countries where it may be approved for specific indications.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Neurotransmitter uptake inhibitors are a class of drugs that work by blocking the reuptake of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, into the presynaptic neuron after they have been released into the synapse. This results in an increased concentration of these neurotransmitters in the synapse, which can enhance their signal transduction and lead to therapeutic effects.

These drugs are commonly used in the treatment of various psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). They include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (NRIs).

It's important to note that while neurotransmitter uptake inhibitors can be effective in treating certain conditions, they may also have potential side effects and risks. Therefore, it is essential to use them under the guidance and supervision of a healthcare professional.

The pineal gland, also known as the epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland located in the brain. It is shaped like a pinecone, hence its name, and is situated near the center of the brain, between the two hemispheres, attached to the third ventricle. The primary function of the pineal gland is to produce melatonin, a hormone that helps regulate sleep-wake cycles and circadian rhythms in response to light and darkness. Additionally, it plays a role in the onset of puberty and has been suggested to have other functions related to cognition, mood, and reproduction, although these are not as well understood.

Cocaine is a highly addictive stimulant drug derived from the leaves of the coca plant (Erythroxylon coca). It is a powerful central nervous system stimulant that affects the brain and body in many ways. When used recreationally, cocaine can produce feelings of euphoria, increased energy, and mental alertness; however, it can also cause serious negative consequences, including addiction, cardiovascular problems, seizures, and death.

Cocaine works by increasing the levels of dopamine in the brain, a neurotransmitter associated with pleasure and reward. This leads to the pleasurable effects that users seek when they take the drug. However, cocaine also interferes with the normal functioning of the brain's reward system, making it difficult for users to experience pleasure from natural rewards like food or social interactions.

Cocaine can be taken in several forms, including powdered form (which is usually snorted), freebase (a purer form that is often smoked), and crack cocaine (a solid form that is typically heated and smoked). Each form of cocaine has different risks and potential harms associated with its use.

Long-term use of cocaine can lead to a number of negative health consequences, including addiction, heart problems, malnutrition, respiratory issues, and mental health disorders like depression or anxiety. It is important to seek help if you or someone you know is struggling with cocaine use or addiction.

Genetic polymorphism refers to the occurrence of multiple forms (called alleles) of a particular gene within a population. These variations in the DNA sequence do not generally affect the function or survival of the organism, but they can contribute to differences in traits among individuals. Genetic polymorphisms can be caused by single nucleotide changes (SNPs), insertions or deletions of DNA segments, or other types of genetic rearrangements. They are important for understanding genetic diversity and evolution, as well as for identifying genetic factors that may contribute to disease susceptibility in humans.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

Membrane glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbone. They are integral components of biological membranes, spanning the lipid bilayer and playing crucial roles in various cellular processes.

The glycosylation of these proteins occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus during protein folding and trafficking. The attached glycans can vary in structure, length, and composition, which contributes to the diversity of membrane glycoproteins.

Membrane glycoproteins can be classified into two main types based on their orientation within the lipid bilayer:

1. Type I (N-linked): These glycoproteins have a single transmembrane domain and an extracellular N-terminus, where the oligosaccharides are predominantly attached via asparagine residues (Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequon).
2. Type II (C-linked): These glycoproteins possess two transmembrane domains and an intracellular C-terminus, with the oligosaccharides linked to tryptophan residues via a mannose moiety.

Membrane glycoproteins are involved in various cellular functions, such as:

* Cell adhesion and recognition
* Receptor-mediated signal transduction
* Enzymatic catalysis
* Transport of molecules across membranes
* Cell-cell communication
* Immunological responses

Some examples of membrane glycoproteins include cell surface receptors (e.g., growth factor receptors, cytokine receptors), adhesion molecules (e.g., integrins, cadherins), and transporters (e.g., ion channels, ABC transporters).

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

In invertebrate biology, ganglia are clusters of neurons that function as a centralized nervous system. They can be considered as the equivalent to a vertebrate's spinal cord and brain. Ganglia serve to process sensory information, coordinate motor functions, and integrate various neural activities within an invertebrate organism.

Invertebrate ganglia are typically found in animals such as arthropods (insects, crustaceans), annelids (earthworms), mollusks (snails, squids), and cnidarians (jellyfish). The structure of the ganglia varies among different invertebrate groups.

For example, in arthropods, the central nervous system consists of a pair of connected ganglia called the supraesophageal ganglion or brain, and the subesophageal ganglion, located near the esophagus. The ventral nerve cord runs along the length of the body, containing pairs of ganglia that control specific regions of the body.

In mollusks, the central nervous system is composed of several ganglia, which can be fused or dispersed, depending on the species. In cephalopods (such as squids and octopuses), the brain is highly developed and consists of several lobes that perform various functions, including learning and memory.

Overall, invertebrate ganglia are essential components of the nervous system that allow these animals to respond to environmental stimuli, move, and interact with their surroundings.

Mianserin is a tetracyclic antidepressant (TCA) that is primarily used to treat major depressive disorders. It functions by inhibiting the reuptake of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and noradrenaline, thereby increasing their availability in the brain and helping to alleviate symptoms of depression.

Mianserin also has additional properties, including antihistamine and anti-cholinergic effects, which can help reduce some side effects commonly associated with other antidepressants, such as insomnia and agitation. However, these same properties can also lead to side effects such as drowsiness, dry mouth, and orthostatic hypotension (a drop in blood pressure upon standing).

It's important to note that mianserin is not commonly prescribed due to its narrow therapeutic index and the risk of serious side effects, including agranulocytosis (a severe decrease in white blood cells), which can increase the risk of infection. As with any medication, it should only be taken under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

"Motor activity" is a general term used in the field of medicine and neuroscience to refer to any kind of physical movement or action that is generated by the body's motor system. The motor system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles that work together to produce movements such as walking, talking, reaching for an object, or even subtle actions like moving your eyes.

Motor activity can be voluntary, meaning it is initiated intentionally by the individual, or involuntary, meaning it is triggered automatically by the nervous system without conscious control. Examples of voluntary motor activity include deliberately lifting your arm or kicking a ball, while examples of involuntary motor activity include heartbeat, digestion, and reflex actions like jerking your hand away from a hot stove.

Abnormalities in motor activity can be a sign of neurological or muscular disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis. Assessment of motor activity is often used in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pyridines" is not a medical term. It is a chemical term that refers to a class of organic compounds with the chemical structure of a six-membered ring containing one nitrogen atom and five carbon atoms (heterocyclic aromatic compound).

In a biological or medical context, pyridine derivatives can be found in various natural and synthetic substances. For example, some medications contain pyridine rings as part of their chemical structure. However, "Pyridines" itself is not a medical term or condition.

A drug interaction is the effect of combining two or more drugs, or a drug and another substance (such as food or alcohol), which can alter the effectiveness or side effects of one or both of the substances. These interactions can be categorized as follows:

1. Pharmacodynamic interactions: These occur when two or more drugs act on the same target organ or receptor, leading to an additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effect. For example, taking a sedative and an antihistamine together can result in increased drowsiness due to their combined depressant effects on the central nervous system.
2. Pharmacokinetic interactions: These occur when one drug affects the absorption, distribution, metabolism, or excretion of another drug. For example, taking certain antibiotics with grapefruit juice can increase the concentration of the antibiotic in the bloodstream, leading to potential toxicity.
3. Food-drug interactions: Some drugs may interact with specific foods, affecting their absorption, metabolism, or excretion. An example is the interaction between warfarin (a blood thinner) and green leafy vegetables, which can increase the risk of bleeding due to enhanced vitamin K absorption from the vegetables.
4. Drug-herb interactions: Some herbal supplements may interact with medications, leading to altered drug levels or increased side effects. For instance, St. John's Wort can decrease the effectiveness of certain antidepressants and oral contraceptives by inducing their metabolism.
5. Drug-alcohol interactions: Alcohol can interact with various medications, causing additive sedative effects, impaired judgment, or increased risk of liver damage. For example, combining alcohol with benzodiazepines or opioids can lead to dangerous levels of sedation and respiratory depression.

It is essential for healthcare providers and patients to be aware of potential drug interactions to minimize adverse effects and optimize treatment outcomes.

Aggression is defined in medical terms as behavior that is intended to cause harm or damage to another individual or their property. It can take the form of verbal or physical actions and can be a symptom of various mental health disorders, such as intermittent explosive disorder, conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and dementia. Aggression can also be a side effect of certain medications or a result of substance abuse. It is important to note that aggression can have serious consequences, including physical injury, emotional trauma, and legal repercussions. If you or someone you know is experiencing problems with aggression, it is recommended to seek help from a mental health professional.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

Carrier proteins, also known as transport proteins, are a type of protein that facilitates the movement of molecules across cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and active transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, and other molecules from one side of the membrane to the other, against their concentration gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Carrier proteins have a specific binding site for the molecule they transport, and undergo conformational changes upon binding, which allows them to move the molecule across the membrane. Once the molecule has been transported, the carrier protein returns to its original conformation, ready to bind and transport another molecule.

Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ions and other molecules inside and outside of cells, and are essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and nutrient uptake.

Moclobemide is a type of antidepressant known as a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA). It works by increasing the levels of neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the brain, such as serotonin and noradrenaline, which helps to improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression.

Moclobemide is specifically designed to inhibit only monoamine oxidase A, which metabolizes neurotransmitters in the brain, and not monoamine oxidase B, which is found in other parts of the body. This selectivity reduces the risk of serious side effects associated with non-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as hypertensive crisis caused by interactions with tyramine-rich foods or certain medications.

Moclobemide is used to treat major depressive disorders and may also be used off-label for other conditions, such as social anxiety disorder or panic disorder. It is available in various forms, including tablets and oral solution, and is typically taken two to three times a day. As with any medication, moclobemide should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider, who will determine the appropriate dosage and monitor for potential side effects.

5-Methoxytryptamine is a psychedelic tryptamine that is found in some plants and animals, as well as being produced synthetically. It is structurally similar to the neurotransmitter serotonin and is known for its ability to alter perception, thought, and mood. 5-Methoxytryptamine is also referred to as "mexamine" or "O-methylated tryptamine." It is a Schedule I controlled substance in the United States, making it illegal to possess or distribute without a license from the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA).

In the medical field, 5-Methoxytryptamine does not have a specific use as a medication. However, it has been used in some research settings to study its effects on the brain and behavior. It is important to note that the use of 5-Methoxytryptamine or any other psychedelic substance should only be done under the supervision of trained medical professionals in a controlled setting due to the potential risks associated with their use.

Piperidines are not a medical term per se, but they are a class of organic compounds that have important applications in the pharmaceutical industry. Medically relevant piperidines include various drugs such as some antihistamines, antidepressants, and muscle relaxants.

A piperidine is a heterocyclic amine with a six-membered ring containing five carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom. The structure can be described as a cyclic secondary amine. Piperidines are found in some natural alkaloids, such as those derived from the pepper plant (Piper nigrum), which gives piperidines their name.

In a medical context, it is more common to encounter specific drugs that belong to the class of piperidines rather than the term itself.

Desipramine is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) that is primarily used to treat depression. It works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine and serotonin, in the brain. These neurotransmitters are important for maintaining mood, emotion, and behavior.

Desipramine is also sometimes used off-label to treat other conditions, such as anxiety disorders, chronic pain, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is available in oral form and is typically taken one to three times a day.

Like all medications, desipramine can cause side effects, which can include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, dizziness, and drowsiness. More serious side effects are rare but can include heart rhythm problems, seizures, and increased suicidal thoughts or behavior in some people, particularly children and adolescents.

It is important to take desipramine exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider and to report any bothersome or unusual symptoms promptly. Regular follow-up appointments with a healthcare provider are also recommended to monitor the effectiveness and safety of the medication.

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), also simply referred to as depression, is a serious mental health condition characterized by the presence of one or more major depressive episodes. A major depressive episode is a period of at least two weeks during which an individual experiences a severely depressed mood and/or loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities, accompanied by at least four additional symptoms such as significant changes in appetite or weight, sleep disturbances, psychomotor agitation or retardation, fatigue or loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt, difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decisions, and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide.

MDD can significantly impair an individual's ability to function in daily life, and it is associated with increased risks of suicide, substance abuse, and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of MDD is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from a complex interplay of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of psychotherapy (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy) and medication (such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants).

Depression is a mood disorder that is characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities. It can also cause significant changes in sleep, appetite, energy level, concentration, and behavior. Depression can interfere with daily life and normal functioning, and it can increase the risk of suicide and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of depression is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. There are several types of depression, including major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder, postpartum depression, and seasonal affective disorder. Treatment for depression typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy.

Aminopyridines are a group of organic compounds that contain an amino group (-NH2) attached to a pyridine ring, which is a six-membered aromatic heterocycle containing one nitrogen atom. Aminopyridines have various pharmacological properties and are used in the treatment of several medical conditions.

The most commonly used aminopyridines in medicine include:

1. 4-Aminopyridine (also known as Fampridine): It is a potassium channel blocker that is used to improve walking ability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and other neurological disorders. It works by increasing the conduction of nerve impulses in demyelinated nerves, thereby improving muscle strength and coordination.
2. 3,4-Diaminopyridine: It is a potassium channel blocker that is used to treat Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS), a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by muscle weakness. It works by increasing the release of acetylcholine from nerve endings, thereby improving muscle strength and function.
3. 2-Aminopyridine: It is an experimental drug that has been studied for its potential use in treating various neurological disorders, including MS, Parkinson's disease, and stroke. It works by increasing the release of neurotransmitters from nerve endings, thereby improving neuronal communication.

Like all medications, aminopyridines can have side effects, including gastrointestinal symptoms, headache, dizziness, and in rare cases, seizures. It is important to use these drugs under the supervision of a healthcare provider and follow their dosage instructions carefully.

The prefrontal cortex is the anterior (frontal) part of the frontal lobe in the brain, involved in higher-order cognitive processes such as planning complex cognitive behavior, personality expression, decision making, and moderating social behavior. It also plays a significant role in working memory and executive functions. The prefrontal cortex is divided into several subregions, each associated with specific cognitive and emotional functions. Damage to the prefrontal cortex can result in various impairments, including difficulties with planning, decision making, and social behavior regulation.

Histamine is defined as a biogenic amine that is widely distributed throughout the body and is involved in various physiological functions. It is derived primarily from the amino acid histidine by the action of histidine decarboxylase. Histamine is stored in granules (along with heparin and proteases) within mast cells and basophils, and is released upon stimulation or degranulation of these cells.

Once released into the tissues and circulation, histamine exerts a wide range of pharmacological actions through its interaction with four types of G protein-coupled receptors (H1, H2, H3, and H4 receptors). Histamine's effects are diverse and include modulation of immune responses, contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle, increased vascular permeability, stimulation of gastric acid secretion, and regulation of neurotransmission.

Histamine is also a potent mediator of allergic reactions and inflammation, causing symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, and wheezing. Antihistamines are commonly used to block the actions of histamine at H1 receptors, providing relief from these symptoms.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

Synaptic transmission is the process by which a neuron communicates with another cell, such as another neuron or a muscle cell, across a junction called a synapse. It involves the release of neurotransmitters from the presynaptic terminal of the neuron, which then cross the synaptic cleft and bind to receptors on the postsynaptic cell, leading to changes in the electrical or chemical properties of the target cell. This process is critical for the transmission of signals within the nervous system and for controlling various physiological functions in the body.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "swimming" is not typically considered a medical term. It refers to the act of moving through water using your arms and legs in a rhythmic pattern, often as a form of exercise, recreation, or competition. However, if you're referring to a medical condition related to swimming, such as "swimmer's ear" (otitis externa), I would be happy to provide a definition for that.

Swimmer's ear is a type of outer ear infection caused by water remaining in the ear after swimming or bathing, creating a moist environment that can lead to bacterial growth. It can also be caused by scratching or damaging the lining of the ear canal through the use of cotton swabs or other objects. Symptoms may include itching, redness, pain, and sometimes discharge from the ear. If left untreated, swimmer's ear can lead to more serious complications, such as hearing loss or damage to the inner ear.

Homovanillic acid (HVA) is a major metabolite of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the human body. It is formed in the body when an enzyme called catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) breaks down dopamine. HVA can be measured in body fluids such as urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and plasma to assess the activity of dopamine and the integrity of the dopaminergic system. Increased levels of HVA are associated with certain neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease, while decreased levels may indicate dopamine deficiency or other conditions affecting the nervous system.

A radioligand assay is a type of in vitro binding assay used in molecular biology and pharmacology to measure the affinity and quantity of a ligand (such as a drug or hormone) to its specific receptor. In this technique, a small amount of a radioactively labeled ligand, also known as a radioligand, is introduced to a sample containing the receptor of interest. The radioligand binds competitively with other unlabeled ligands present in the sample for the same binding site on the receptor. After allowing sufficient time for binding, the reaction is stopped, and the amount of bound radioligand is measured using a technique such as scintillation counting. The data obtained from this assay can be used to determine the dissociation constant (Kd) and maximum binding capacity (Bmax) of the receptor-ligand interaction, which are important parameters in understanding the pharmacological properties of drugs and other ligands.

Indole is not strictly a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that can be found in the human body and has relevance to medical and biological research. Indoles are organic compounds that contain a bicyclic structure consisting of a six-membered benzene ring fused to a five-membered pyrrole ring.

In the context of medicine, indoles are particularly relevant due to their presence in certain hormones and other biologically active molecules. For example, the neurotransmitter serotonin contains an indole ring, as does the hormone melatonin. Indoles can also be found in various plant-based foods, such as cruciferous vegetables (e.g., broccoli, kale), and have been studied for their potential health benefits.

Some indoles, like indole-3-carbinol and diindolylmethane, are found in these vegetables and can have anti-cancer properties by modulating estrogen metabolism, reducing inflammation, and promoting cell death (apoptosis) in cancer cells. However, it is essential to note that further research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits and risks associated with indoles.

Pargyline is an antihypertensive drug and a irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of type B. It works by blocking the breakdown of certain chemicals in the brain, such as neurotransmitters, which can help improve mood and behavior in people with depression.

Pargyline is not commonly used as a first-line treatment for depression due to its potential for serious side effects, including interactions with certain foods and medications that can lead to dangerously high blood pressure. It is also associated with a risk of serotonin syndrome when taken with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or other drugs that increase serotonin levels in the brain.

Pargyline is available only through a prescription and should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Melatonin is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in the brain. It helps regulate sleep-wake cycles and is often referred to as the "hormone of darkness" because its production is stimulated by darkness and inhibited by light. Melatonin plays a key role in synchronizing the circadian rhythm, the body's internal clock that regulates various biological processes over a 24-hour period.

Melatonin is primarily released at night, and its levels in the blood can rise and fall in response to changes in light and darkness in an individual's environment. Supplementing with melatonin has been found to be helpful in treating sleep disorders such as insomnia, jet lag, and delayed sleep phase syndrome. It may also have other benefits, including antioxidant properties and potential uses in the treatment of certain neurological conditions.

It is important to note that while melatonin supplements are available over-the-counter in many countries, they should still be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as their use can have potential side effects and interactions with other medications.

Tropane alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring compounds that contain a tropane ring in their chemical structure. This ring is composed of a seven-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms, one of which is part of a piperidine ring. Tropane alkaloids are found in various plants, particularly those in the Solanaceae family, which includes nightshade, belladonna, and datura. Some well-known tropane alkaloids include atropine, scopolamine, and cocaine. These compounds have diverse pharmacological activities, such as anticholinergic, local anesthetic, and central nervous system stimulant effects.

Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of melatonin synthesis in the body. It catalyzes the acetylation of serotonin to produce N-acetylserotonin, which is then converted to melatonin by the enzyme acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT).

Melatonin is a hormone that helps regulate sleep-wake cycles and other physiological processes in the body. The activity of AANAT is influenced by light exposure, with higher levels of activity occurring in darkness and lower levels during light exposure. This allows melatonin production to be synchronized with the day-night cycle, contributing to the regulation of circadian rhythms.

Genetic variations in the AANAT gene have been associated with differences in sleep patterns, mood regulation, and other physiological processes. Dysregulation of AANAT activity has been implicated in various conditions, including insomnia, depression, and seasonal affective disorder.

Dopamine uptake inhibitors are a class of medications that work by blocking the reuptake of dopamine, a neurotransmitter, into the presynaptic neuron. This results in an increased concentration of dopamine in the synapse, leading to enhanced dopaminergic transmission and activity.

These drugs are used in various medical conditions where dopamine is implicated, such as depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and neurological disorders like Parkinson's disease. They can also be used to treat substance abuse disorders, such as cocaine addiction, by blocking the reuptake of dopamine and reducing the rewarding effects of the drug.

Examples of dopamine uptake inhibitors include:

* Bupropion (Wellbutrin), which is used to treat depression and ADHD
* Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta), which is used to treat ADHD
* Amantadine (Symmetrel), which is used to treat Parkinson's disease and also has antiviral properties.

It's important to note that dopamine uptake inhibitors can have side effects, including increased heart rate, blood pressure, and anxiety. They may also have the potential for abuse and dependence, particularly in individuals with a history of substance abuse. Therefore, these medications should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

The hippocampus is a complex, curved formation in the brain that resembles a seahorse (hence its name, from the Greek word "hippos" meaning horse and "kampos" meaning sea monster). It's part of the limbic system and plays crucial roles in the formation of memories, particularly long-term ones.

This region is involved in spatial navigation and cognitive maps, allowing us to recognize locations and remember how to get to them. Additionally, it's one of the first areas affected by Alzheimer's disease, which often results in memory loss as an early symptom.

Anatomically, it consists of two main parts: the Ammon's horn (or cornu ammonis) and the dentate gyrus. These structures are made up of distinct types of neurons that contribute to different aspects of learning and memory.

Antipsychotic agents are a class of medications used to manage and treat psychosis, which includes symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, paranoia, disordered thought processes, and agitated behavior. These drugs work by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is believed to play a role in the development of psychotic symptoms. Antipsychotics can be broadly divided into two categories: first-generation antipsychotics (also known as typical antipsychotics) and second-generation antipsychotics (also known as atypical antipsychotics).

First-generation antipsychotics, such as chlorpromazine, haloperidol, and fluphenazine, were developed in the 1950s and have been widely used for several decades. They are generally effective in reducing positive symptoms of psychosis (such as hallucinations and delusions) but can cause significant side effects, including extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), such as rigidity, tremors, and involuntary movements, as well as weight gain, sedation, and orthostatic hypotension.

Second-generation antipsychotics, such as clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, and aripiprazole, were developed more recently and are considered to have a more favorable side effect profile than first-generation antipsychotics. They are generally effective in reducing both positive and negative symptoms of psychosis (such as apathy, anhedonia, and social withdrawal) and cause fewer EPS. However, they can still cause significant weight gain, metabolic disturbances, and sedation.

Antipsychotic agents are used to treat various psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder with psychotic features, delusional disorder, and other conditions that involve psychosis or agitation. They can be administered orally, intramuscularly, or via long-acting injectable formulations. The choice of antipsychotic agent depends on the individual patient's needs, preferences, and response to treatment, as well as the potential for side effects. Regular monitoring of patients taking antipsychotics is essential to ensure their safety and effectiveness.

Fluorobenzenes are a group of organic compounds that consist of a benzene ring (a cyclic structure with six carbon atoms in a hexagonal arrangement) substituted with one or more fluorine atoms. The general chemical formula for a fluorobenzene is C6H5F, but this can vary depending on the number of fluorine atoms present in the molecule.

Fluorobenzenes are relatively stable and non-reactive compounds due to the strong carbon-fluorine bond. They are used as starting materials in the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and other specialty chemicals. Some fluorobenzenes also have potential applications as refrigerants, fire extinguishing agents, and solvents.

It is worth noting that while fluorobenzenes themselves are not considered to be particularly hazardous, some of their derivatives can be toxic or environmentally harmful, so they must be handled with care during production and use.

Platelet aggregation is the clumping together of platelets (thrombocytes) in the blood, which is an essential step in the process of hemostasis (the stopping of bleeding) after injury to a blood vessel. When the inner lining of a blood vessel is damaged, exposure of subendothelial collagen and tissue factor triggers platelet activation. Activated platelets change shape, become sticky, and release the contents of their granules, which include ADP (adenosine diphosphate).

ADP then acts as a chemical mediator to attract and bind additional platelets to the site of injury, leading to platelet aggregation. This forms a plug that seals the damaged vessel and prevents further blood loss. Platelet aggregation is also a crucial component in the formation of blood clots (thrombosis) within blood vessels, which can have pathological consequences such as heart attacks and strokes if they obstruct blood flow to vital organs.

Malignant carcinoid syndrome is a complex of symptoms that occur in some people with malignant tumors (carcinoids) that secrete large amounts of hormone-like substances, particularly serotonin. These symptoms can include flushing of the face and upper body, diarrhea, rapid heartbeat, difficulty breathing, and abdominal pain and distention. In addition, these individuals may have chronic inflammation of the heart valves (endocarditis) leading to heart failure. It is important to note that not all people with carcinoid tumors will develop malignant carcinoid syndrome, but those who do require specific treatment for their symptoms and hormonal imbalances.

Ondansetron is a medication that is primarily used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery. It is a selective antagonist of 5-HT3 receptors, which are found in the brain and gut and play a role in triggering the vomiting reflex. By blocking these receptors, ondansetron helps to reduce the frequency and severity of nausea and vomiting.

The drug is available in various forms, including tablets, oral solution, and injection, and is typically administered 30 minutes before chemotherapy or surgery, and then every 8 to 12 hours as needed. Common side effects of ondansetron include headache, constipation, and diarrhea.

It's important to note that ondansetron should be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, and its use may be contraindicated in certain individuals, such as those with a history of allergic reactions to the drug or who have certain heart conditions.

Anxiety: A feeling of worry, nervousness, or unease, typically about an imminent event or something with an uncertain outcome. In a medical context, anxiety refers to a mental health disorder characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or panic that interfere with daily activities. It can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, or substance abuse disorders. Anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and phobias.

Clorgyline is a type of medication known as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). It works by blocking the action of an enzyme called monoamine oxidase, which helps to break down certain chemicals in the brain called neurotransmitters. This leads to an increase in the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain, which can help to improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression.

Clorgyline is not commonly used as a first-line treatment for depression due to its potential for serious side effects and interactions with certain foods and other medications. It may be used in some cases where other treatments have been unsuccessful, or in research settings to study the role of monoamine oxidase in various physiological processes.

It's important to note that MAOIs like clorgyline require careful monitoring by a healthcare provider and should only be used under close medical supervision due to the risk of serious side effects and interactions.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

The brainstem is the lower part of the brain that connects to the spinal cord. It consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. The brainstem controls many vital functions such as heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory and motor information between the cerebral cortex and the rest of the body. Additionally, several cranial nerves originate from the brainstem, including those that control eye movements, facial movements, and hearing.

Reserpine is an alkaloid derived from the Rauwolfia serpentina plant, which has been used in traditional medicine for its sedative and hypotensive effects. In modern medicine, reserpine is primarily used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) due to its ability to lower both systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

Reserpine works by depleting catecholamines, including norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine, from nerve terminals in the sympathetic nervous system. This leads to a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance and heart rate, ultimately resulting in reduced blood pressure.

Reserpine is available in various forms, such as tablets or capsules, and is typically administered orally. Common side effects include nasal congestion, dizziness, sedation, and gastrointestinal disturbances like diarrhea and nausea. Long-term use of reserpine may also lead to depression in some individuals. Due to its potential for causing depression, other antihypertensive medications are often preferred over reserpine when possible.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

Vasoconstriction is a medical term that refers to the narrowing of blood vessels due to the contraction of the smooth muscle in their walls. This process decreases the diameter of the lumen (the inner space of the blood vessel) and reduces blood flow through the affected vessels. Vasoconstriction can occur throughout the body, but it is most noticeable in the arterioles and precapillary sphincters, which control the amount of blood that flows into the capillary network.

The autonomic nervous system, specifically the sympathetic division, plays a significant role in regulating vasoconstriction through the release of neurotransmitters like norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Various hormones and chemical mediators, such as angiotensin II, endothelin-1, and serotonin, can also induce vasoconstriction.

Vasoconstriction is a vital physiological response that helps maintain blood pressure and regulate blood flow distribution in the body. However, excessive or prolonged vasoconstriction may contribute to several pathological conditions, including hypertension, stroke, and peripheral vascular diseases.

... also forms several salts, including pharmaceutical formulation of serotonin adipate. Serotonin is involved in ... also produces serotonin, coumaroyl-serotonin, and feruloyl-serotonin in response to F. graminearum. This produces a slight ... If serotonin is released in the blood faster than the platelets can absorb it, the level of free serotonin in the blood is ... Serotonin's presence in insect venoms and plant spines serves to cause pain, which is a side-effect of serotonin injection. ...
"Dutchcharts.nl - BoyWithUke - Serotonin Dreams" (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved May 18, 2023. "BoyWithUke: Serotonin Dreams ... "Charts.nz - BoyWithUke - Serotonin Dreams". Hung Medien. Retrieved May 18, 2023. "Norwegiancharts.com - BoyWithUke - Serotonin ... Serotonin Dreams is the third studio album by American singer BoyWithUke, and his first on a major label. It was released on ... "Ultratop.be - BoyWithUke - Serotonin Dreams" (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved May 18, 2023. "Billboard Canadian Albums: Week ...
"Serotonin by Mystery Jets". Metacritic. Retrieved 19 September 2016. Prunes, Mariano. "Review: Serotonin". Allmusic. Retrieved ... Serotonin is the third studio album by Mystery Jets, released in the UK on 5 July 2010. The album is produced by Chris Thomas ...
... may refer to: Arylamine N-acetyltransferase Serotonin N-acetyltransferase This disambiguation page ... lists articles associated with the title Serotonin acetyltransferase. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change ...
... (N-arachidonoyl-serotonin, AA-5-HT) is an endogenous lipid signaling molecule. It was first described in ... Freels, Timothy G.; Lester, Deranda B.; Cook, Melloni N. (2019-04-19). "Arachidonoyl serotonin (AA-5-HT) modulates general fear ... Serotonin, Fatty acid amides, Endocannabinoid reuptake inhibitors, Endocannabinoids, Arachidonyl compounds, All stub articles, ... "Analgesic actions of N-arachidonoyl-serotonin, a fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor with antagonistic activity at vanilloid ...
... in a process known as serotonin reuptake. This transport of serotonin by the SERT protein terminates the action of serotonin ... The serotonin transporter first binds a sodium ion, followed by the serotonin, and then a chloride ion; it is then allowed, ... The serotonin transporter (SERT or 5-HTT) also known as the sodium-dependent serotonin transporter and solute carrier family 6 ... Serotonin In 1995 and 1996, scientists in Europe had identified the polymorphism 5-HTTLPR, a serotonin-transporter in the gene ...
"Serotonin" is a song by Norwegian indie rock singer-songwriter Girl in Red, released as a single on 3 March 2021 from her debut ... She explained that "Serotonin" is for solving "self-destructive tendencies and mental health struggles through a more expansive ... "Girl In Red - Serotonin" (in Dutch). Ultratip. Retrieved 27 September 2021. "Girl in Red Chart History (Canada Rock)". ... "Serotonin - Single by Girl in Red". Retrieved 12 October 2021 - via Apple Music. "Alternative Radio Future Releases". All ...
"Serotonin", a 2022 song by Tom Walker "Serotonin", a 2009 song by Widescreen Mode Serotonin transporter Serotonin reuptake ... Serotonin may also refer to: Serotonin (album), or the title track, by the Mystery Jets, 2010 Serotonin (novel), by Michel ... Houellebecq, 2019 "Serotonin" (song), by Girl in Red, 2021 Serotonin (wrestling), a professional wrestling stable " ... inhibitor This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Serotonin. If an internal link led you here, you ...
... is a leprostatic agent. Mester de Parajd L, Balakrishnan S, Saint-Andre P, Mester de Parajd M (1982). " ... "Deoxyfructo-serotonin: a new drug with anti-leprosy activity". Annales de microbiologie. 133 (3): 427-432. PMID 7165215. v t e ...
Serotonin toxicity has a rapid onset after the administration of a serotonergic drug and responds to serotonin blockade such as ... The cause of serotonin toxicity or accumulation is an important factor in determining the course of treatment. Serotonin is ... Some experts prefer the terms serotonin toxicity or serotonin toxidrome, to more accurately reflect that it is a form of ... Symptom onset is usually rapid, often occurring within minutes of elevated serotonin levels. Serotonin syndrome (SS) ...
"Serotonin". Penguin Books UK. Retrieved 18 November 2019. "Serotonin". Macmillan Publishers. Retrieved 18 November 2019. ... In France, Serotonin was the best-selling fiction book in the week it was released. Within three days of its publication, it ... Serotonin features its author's trademark black humour and depictions of loveless sex, and also touches on paedophilia (when ... In response to the narrator of Serotonin calling Niort "one of the ugliest towns I've ever seen", the town's mayor said that he ...
Serotonin is also implicated in sensory processing, as sensory stimulation causes an increase in extracellular serotonin in the ... Serotonin pathways are thought to modulate eating, both the amount as well as the motor processes associated with eating. The ... The function of serotonin in mood is more nuanced, with some evidence pointing towards increased levels leading to depression, ... A serotonin pathway identifies aggregate projections from neurons which synthesize and communicate the monoamine ...
A serotonin releasing agent (SRA) is a type of drug that induces the release of serotonin into the neuronal synaptic cleft. A ... They act as serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agents (SNDRAs) and also agonize serotonin receptors such as those in ... Media related to Serotonin releasing agents at Wikimedia Commons (Articles with short description, Short description matches ... Many tryptamines, such as DMT, DET, DPT, DiPT, psilocin, and bufotenin, are SRAs as well as non-selective serotonin receptor ...
A serotonin receptor agonist is an agonist of one or more serotonin receptors. They activate serotonin receptors in a manner ... Activation of the 5-HT2A receptor is also implicated in serotonin syndrome caused by indirect serotonin receptor agonists like ... Drugs that increase extracellular serotonin levels such as serotonin reuptake inhibitors (e.g., fluoxetine, venlafaxine), ... Serotonin receptor antagonist "Eltoprazine - Elto Pharma - AdisInsight". Capi M, de Andrés F, Lionetto L, Gentile G, Cipolla F ...
A serotonin antagonist, or serotonin receptor antagonist, is a drug used to inhibit the action of serotonin and serotonergic ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Serotonin receptor antagonists. Serotonin+Antagonists at the U.S. National Library of ... Although some non-selective serotonin antagonists may have a particular affinity for a specific 5-HT receptor (and thus may be ... Ketotifen Fenclonine (para-chlorophenylalanine; PCPA) An inhibitor of serotonin synthesis that has been used in the treatment ...
A serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) is a type of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5- ... A closely related type of drug is a serotonin releasing agent (SRA), an example of which is fenfluramine. Many SRIs exist, an ... Li C, Shan L, Li X, Wei L, Li D (2014). "Mifepristone modulates serotonin transporter function". Neural Regen Res. 9 (6): 646- ... SRIs are not synonymous with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), as the latter term is usually used to describe ...
A closely related type of drug is a serotonin-dopamine releasing agent (SDRA). Relative to serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine ... A serotonin-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (SDRI) is a type of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor of the monoamine ... This in turn leads to increased extracellular concentrations of serotonin and dopamine, and, therefore, an increase in ... Rothman RB, Blough BE, Baumann MH (2007). "Dual dopamine/serotonin releasers as potential medications for stimulant and alcohol ...
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) selectively inhibit the reuptake of serotonin and are a widely used group of ... A serious, but rare, side effect of SNRIs is serotonin syndrome, which is caused by an excess of serotonin in the body. ... Agents with dual serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition (SNRIs) are sometimes called non-tricyclic serotonin and ... Serotonin syndrome can be caused by taking multiple serotonergic drugs, such as SSRIs or SNRIs. Other drugs that contribute to ...
Serotonin syndrome is typically caused by the use of two or more serotonergic drugs, including SSRIs. Serotonin syndrome is a ... Serotonin levels within the synapse drop, then rise again, ultimately leading to downregulation of post-synaptic serotonin ... SSRIs inhibit the reuptake of serotonin. As a result, the serotonin stays in the synaptic gap longer than it normally would, ... List of antidepressants Serotonin releasing agent Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor Barlow DH, durand VM (2009). " ...
... is a type of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Currently only escitalopram ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description with empty Wikidata description, Selective serotonin reuptake ... non-overlapping binding sites for the two different isomers on the serotonin transporter. Escitalopram, thus, binds not only to ...
Monoamine releasing agent Serotonin releasing agent Norepinephrine releasing agent Serotonin-dopamine releasing agent Serotonin ... A serotonin-norepinephrine releasing agent (SNRA) is a type of drug which induces the release of serotonin and norepinephrine ( ... Fenfluramine/phentermine (Fen-Phen), a combination formulation of fenfluramine, a serotonin releasing agent, and phentermine, a ... A closely related type of drug is a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI). ...
A serotonin-dopamine releasing agent (SDRA) is a type of drug which induces the release of serotonin and dopamine in the body ... Monoamine releasing agent Serotonin releasing agent Dopamine releasing agent Serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent ... UWA-101 is an SDRI that, based on its chemical structure, may also have a great efficacy as a releasing agent of serotonin and ... v t e (Serotonin-dopamine releasing agents, TAAR1 agonists, VMAT inhibitors, All stub articles, Pharmacology stubs). ...
A serotonin modulator and stimulator (SMS), sometimes referred to more simply as a serotonin modulator, is a type of drug with ... To be precise, SMSs simultaneously modulate one or more serotonin receptors and inhibit the reuptake of serotonin. The term was ... CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list, Antidepressants, Serotonin receptor antagonists, Serotonin receptor agonists, ... a novel serotonin-dopamine activity modulator, on phencyclidine-induced cognitive deficits in mice: a role for serotonin 5-HT1A ...
They are an extension of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors ( ... A serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (SNDRI), also known as a triple reuptake inhibitor (TRI), is a type of ... Media related to Serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors at Wikimedia Commons (All articles with bare URLs for ... Another thing that is important and should be mentioned is the risk for serotonin syndrome when incorporating the element of 5- ...
Monoamine releasing agent Norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent Serotonin-dopamine releasing agent Serotonin-norepinephrine ... A serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent (SNDRA), also known as a triple releasing agent (TRA), is a type of drug ... Media related to Serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agents at Wikimedia Commons v t e (Articles with short description ... A closely related type of drug is a serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (SNDRI). Stahl uses the term " ...
They act by antagonizing serotonin receptors such as 5-HT2A and inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin, norepinephrine, and/or ... Serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitors (SARIs) are a class of drugs used mainly as antidepressants, but also as ... Niaprazine (Nopron) - a drug related to this group but does not inhibit the reuptake of serotonin or the other monoamines. ... Medifoxamine (Clédial, Gerdaxyl) - could perhaps technically be said to belong to this group, as it is a serotonin-dopamine ...
Because MDMA is known to affect serotonin and that serotonin is thought to be involved in vision, individuals who take MDMA may ... MDMA has subsequently been used to investigate the role that serotonin may play in visual orientation processing. Serotonin ... MDMA is known to affect serotonin neurons in the brain and cause neurotoxicity. Serotonin has been hypothesised to be involved ... This reduction in serotonin resulted in an increase in the magnitude of the TAE in those subjects. This study has since been ...
That's the chemicals in your mind." FRIZZELLE: Serotonin? BARNES: Yeah. I went through this chemical depression, and that's ...
Türkoğlu S (2015). "Serotonin syndrome with sertraline and methylphenidate in an adolescent". Clinical Neuropharmacology. 38 (2 ... Bodner RA, Lynch T, Lewis L, Kahn D (February 1995). "Serotonin syndrome". Neurology. 45 (2): 219-223. doi:10.1212/wnl.45.2.219 ... Park YM, Jung YK (May 2010). "Manic switch and serotonin syndrome induced by augmentation of paroxetine with methylphenidate in ... Ishii M, Tatsuzawa Y, Yoshino A, Nomura S (April 2008). "Serotonin syndrome induced by augmentation of SSRI with ...
Schmid CL, Raehal KM, Bohn LM (January 2008). "Agonist-directed signaling of the serotonin 2A receptor depends on beta-arrestin ... Abbas A, Roth BL (January 2008). "Arresting serotonin". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ...
Serotonin also forms several salts, including pharmaceutical formulation of serotonin adipate. Serotonin is involved in ... also produces serotonin, coumaroyl-serotonin, and feruloyl-serotonin in response to F. graminearum. This produces a slight ... If serotonin is released in the blood faster than the platelets can absorb it, the level of free serotonin in the blood is ... Serotonins presence in insect venoms and plant spines serves to cause pain, which is a side-effect of serotonin injection. ...
Serotonin syndrome. Other names. Serotonin toxicity, serotonin toxidrome, serotonin sickness, serotonin storm, serotonin ... Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), monoamine oxidase inhibitor ... Image demonstrating findings in moderately severe serotonin syndrome from Boyer EW, Shannon M (2005). "The serotonin syndrome ... A postulated "spectrum concept" of serotonin toxicity emphasises the role that progressively increasing serotonin levels play ...
It causes the body to have too much serotonin, a chemical produced by some nerve cells. ... It causes the body to have too much serotonin, a chemical produced by some nerve cells. ... Serotonin syndrome (SS) is a potentially life-threatening drug reaction. ... Serotonin syndrome (SS) is a potentially life-threatening drug reaction. ...
Dopamine and serotonin play key roles in mood, depression, and appetite. Learn more. ... Serotonin. Having too much serotonin can lead to a potentially life threatening medical condition called serotonin syndrome or ... Serotonin promotes wakefulness as well as sleepiness. A person needs serotonin to produce melatonin. However, serotonin also ... Serotonin is another neurotransmitter present in the brain.. However, more than 90%. of the bodys total serotonin resides in ...
Gut serotonin, known as circulating serotonin, is responsible for a host of other functions, including the regulation of blood ... Its important to note that researchers found lower levels of circulating serotonin but that serotonin levels in the brain ... Low levels of serotonin could result in any number of seemingly unrelated symptoms, as in the case of long COVID, experts say. ... Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that has many functions in the body and is targeted by the most commonly prescribed ...
Recent pharmacological studies have more precisely characterised the nature of the inhibitory effect of brain serotonin (5- ... This phenomenon is mediated by serotonin and possibly serotonin receptors, in contrast to serotonin autoreceptors which ... Serotonin in eating disorders. In Coccaro EF & Murphy DL (Eds) Serotonin in major psychiatric disorders. Progress in Psychiatry ... Anorectic activities of serotonin uptake inhibitors: correlation with their potencies at inhibiting serotonin uptake in vivo ...
Ideal Supplement to Existing Serotonin Sensors. Its properties make "sDarken" an ideal addition to existing serotonin sensors ... Synthetic Biology: Serotonin Enters, Light Exits. Sarah Batelka Hochschulkommunikation und -marketing. Universität Bremen ... Serotonin is an important chemical messenger in the central nervous system. It falls under the category of so-called ... When we started developing the sensors, there was no way to see serotonin live in the brain.". The researchers use a naturally ...
Regarding the serotonin thing, raising serotonin doesnt lift mood: if it did, antidepressants would work within hours, not ... Anti-depressants, Serotonin and Depression. January 17, 2008 8:12 AM Subscribe. "Researchers found that failing to publish ... There is good research in the field that suggests that the Serotonin explanation is a good one, and, though that research isnt ... In the United States, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants are advertised directly to consumers [1]. ...
Serotonin is a complex, powerful neurotransmitter thats responsible for many aspects of your mental and physical health. Learn ... Serotonin syndrome can develop if too much serotonin builds up in your body. It can happen if you combine two drugs that boost ... Serotonin deficiency occurs when serotonin doesnt act as well as it should in your body. This can happen if your body doesnt ... Some of the serotonin goes back into the cell that it came from. SSRIs block some of this reabsorption (reuptake) of serotonin ...
Learn how certain drug interactions or an increase in the dose of certain drugs can cause serotonin levels to rise to ... Serotonin syndrome (adult). Mayo Clinic; 2021.. *Foong AL, et al. Demystifying serotonin syndrome (or serotonin toxicity). ... Serotonin syndrome is a serious drug reaction. It is caused by medications that build up high levels of serotonin in the body. ... The drugs and supplements that could potentially cause serotonin syndrome include:. *Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors ( ...
People who work rotating shifts have significantly lower levels of serotonin, a hormone and neurotransmitter in the central ... Guilt by Dissociation: Study Sheds Light on Serotonin in Autism. Sep. 2, 2020 A study on serotonin, a mood-regulating molecule ... The article is entitled, "Serotonin and Serotonin Transporter Gene Variant in Rotating Shift Workers." ... Rotating Shift Workers Have Lower Levels Of Serotonin. Date:. August 5, 2007. Source:. American Academy of Sleep Medicine. ...
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), widely prescribed medications for the treatment of depression, obsessive- ... The Hunter Serotonin Toxicity Criteria: simple and accurate diagnostic decision rules for serotonin toxicity. QJM. 2003 Sep. 96 ... Serotonin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT), is a neurotransmitter found in the central and peripheral nervous system. Serotonin is ... Chechani V. Serotonin syndrome presenting as hypotonic coma and apnea: potentially fatal complications of selective serotonin ...
... if it not to much trouble could some1 help me pronouce the word serotonin? thnx ... Suggested for: Pronounce Serotonin: Fun Post Help No clear link between low serotonin and depression - study ... sort of a funny post, if it not to much trouble could some1 help me pronouce the word serotonin? thnx ... sort of a funny post, if it not to much trouble could some1 help me pronouce the word serotonin? thnx ...
... wed like to prescribe a little Hello Serotonin, the latest in mood-enhancing poetry anti-depressants.This new book of poems ... Hello Serotonin. Show Details By Jon Paul Fiorentino. Categories: Poetry Paperback : 9781552451366, 96 pages, April 2004. ... Contemporary Canadian poetry got you down? Well, wed like to prescribe a little Hello Serotonin, the latest in mood-enhancing ... Filled with a witty, self-deprecating and often Andy Kaufmanesque sense of humour, Hello Serotonin is todays generation of ...
Thanks for the serotonin from your Requestival stories. Posted. 14 May 2021. 14 May 2021. Fri 14 May 2021 at 12:42am. ...
... to serotonin in the brain. This suggests that adequate levels of vitamin D may be required to produce serotonin in the brain ... Ames show that serotonin, oxytocin, and vasopressin, three brain hormones that affect social behavior, are all activated by ... Autism, which is characterized by abnormal social behavior, has previously been linked to low levels of serotonin in the brain ... This mechanism explains many of the known, but previously not understood, facts about autism including: 1) the serotonin ...
Increased serotonin can help relieve depression. SSRIs dont cause the body to make more serotonin, however. They simply help ... Like SSRIs, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) keep the body from reabsorbing too much serotonin, allowing ... 2017). Efficacy and safety of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and ... Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of medications most often used to treat depression as well as a few ...
... works by increasing the amount of serotonin in the brain. Luvox is used to treat OCD, anxiety, and dep... ... Serotonin syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition, may develop if another SSRI is taken along with Luvox. ... Luvox, the brand name of the drug fluvoxamine, is part of a class of antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake ... It brings relief by increasing the amount of serotonin-a neurotransmitter that affects mood-in the body. In certain instances, ...
"Research on serotonin receptors and the serotonin transporter, the protein targeted by most antidepressants, found weak and ... by depriving their diets of the necessary amino acid that makes serotonin) and found that "lowering serotonin in this way did ... Patients should not be told that depression is caused by low serotonin or by a chemical imbalance and they should not be led to ... 7.20.2022). "The Serotonin Theory of Depression: A Systematic Umbrella Review of the Evidence." Molecular Psychiatry. DOI ...
Modification of norepinephrine and serotonin, but not dopamine, neuron firing by sustained bupropion treatment by. Dong J, ... serotonin (5-HT), and DA neurons in the brain of anaesthetised male Sprague-Dawley rats. This treatment was used in order to ...
Serotonin and what it was like working with FINNEAS and Matias Tellez on the track. ... girl in red - Serotonin. Norwegian singer-songwriter girl in red is one with nature as she performs her cathartic song " ... girl in reds Mental Health-Inspired Serotonin. Norwegian singer girl in red talks about the inspiration behind her song " ... Norwegian singer girl in red talks about the inspiration behind her song Serotonin and what it was like working with FINNEAS ...
... including signs of low and high serotonin levels. ... Heres what you need to know about serotonin and how it works ... Significantly high serotonin levels are usually referred to as serotonin syndrome. Causes of serotonin syndrome can vary, but ... receptors that have a hard time receiving serotonin. Symptoms of low serotonin. Since serotonin is involved in such a wide ... serotonin hypothesis. . One challenge is that experts cant measure the amount of serotonin in the brain (only your bloodstream ...
... serotonin and serotonin metabolite, 5-HIAA, concentrations in body fluids; serotonin 5-HT1A receptor binding; serotonin ... The main areas of serotonin research provide no consistent evidence of there being an association between serotonin and ... We aimed to synthesise and evaluate evidence on whether depression is associated with lowered serotonin concentration or ... Two meta-analyses of overlapping studies examining the serotonin metabolite, 5-HIAA, showed no association with depression ( ...
... may be due to its ability to boost dopamine and serotonin levels. ... Beyond Serotonin and Dopamine: Explaining the Runners High ... Meanwhile, when it comes to serotonin, in rodents, exercise has been found to increase serotonin in the frontal cortex, ... Post-workout, serotonin levels in the blood were elevated and participants did better on the test. Furthermore, the ... Exercise has the ability to increase the levels of serotonin and dopamine in your brain, which is linked to a variety of ...
Brain serotonin (5-HT) has been implicated in a number of physiological processes and pathological conditions. These effects ...
Serotonin syndrome presents a variety of symptoms that can be difficult to diagnose. Use this inform ... Serotonin syndrome. UpToDate. 2022. www.uptodate.com/contents/serotonin-syndrome-serotonin-toxicity.. * Cited Here , ... Serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome occurs when theres an accumulation of excess serotonin within the central and ... R have serotonin syndrome?. Its difficult to say. Indeed, a mild case of serotonin syndrome should be included in the ...
Share Depression, Serotonin, and the Mind-Gut Connection on Twitter Share Depression, Serotonin, and the Mind-Gut Connection on ... chocolate and many other foods that to varying degrees contain either the precursors of serotonin or actually serotonin ... So this serotonin is synthesized in the gut from precursors that come from our food that we ingest and the microbes that live ... Then it produces serotonin largely through the influence of microbes that live in our gut and then the signal when this cell is ...
This topic contains 9 study abstracts on Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) indicating it may contribute to ... Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) Related Articles. Manufacturing Madness: The Pseudoscience of Modern Psychiatry ... Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are associated with sexual dysfunction in 95.6% of women and 97.9% men.Mar 01, ... Genes that regulate serotonin signalling and action in the ovary are altered in prenatally fluoxetine exposed offspring.Sep 30 ...
Ways to build resilience by maximizing your natural serotonin levels. ... Serotonin, sometimes known as the happiness chemical, is a neurotransmitter believed to help regulate mood, sleep, memory and ... People with a broader social network secrete more serotonin and are much more resilient when it comes to dealing with stress. ... While we sleep, melatonin is transformed into serotonin. A very recent study showed lack of sleep has two significant effects: ...
The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) mediates rapid excitatory responses through ligand-gated channels ... The 5-HT3B subunit is a major determinant of serotonin-receptor function Nature. 1999 Jan 28;397(6717):359-63. doi: 10.1038/ ... The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) mediates rapid excitatory responses through ligand-gated channels ...
  • Lacasse and Leo found repeated evidence that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration had approved the marketing of SSRIs with two phrases still heavily in the subjunctive-that depression " may be due to a serotonin deficiency" and that SSRI efficacy, "modestly" outcompeting placebo , was " presumed to be linked to potentiation of serotonergic activity. (psychologytoday.com)
  • These are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI). (psychcentral.com)
  • Pimozide is often coprescribed with serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants to treat depression in patients with Tourette's syndrome. (nih.gov)
  • Reuptake of serotonin (green arrow) is blocked by SSRI antidepressants, increasing the extracellular serotonin concentration. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The majority of concerning combinations involve the use of a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), or a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI). (medscape.com)
  • MEDLINE search (1966 to present) of OCD treatment with clomipramine or SSRI antidepressant medication using the key words obsessive-compulsive disorder, serotonin reuptake inhibitors, clomipramine, and pharmacology. (psychiatrist.com)
  • consider an alternative antimalarial prophylaxis to atovaquone-proguanil for travelers taking this selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). (cdc.gov)
  • Fluoxetine is an SSRI, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. (janusinfo.se)
  • Several classes of antidepressants, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), interfere with the normal reabsorption of serotonin after it is done with the transmission of the signal, therefore augmenting the neurotransmitter levels in the synapses. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, you can develop this syndrome if you take migraine medicines called triptans together with antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), or selective serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSNRIs). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that has many functions in the body and is targeted by the most commonly prescribed antidepressants - the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). (medscape.com)
  • SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors): What Are They? (healthline.com)
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of medications most often used to treat depression as well as a few other mental health conditions. (healthline.com)
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are very safe drugs, generally speaking," says Danny Carlat, MD, associate clinical professor of psychiatry at Tufts University School of Medicine. (healthline.com)
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors ( SSRIs ), widely prescribed medications for the treatment of depression , obsessive-compulsive disorder , bulimia , anorexia nervosa , panic disorder , anxiety, and social phobia, have a high therapeutic to toxicity ratio. (medscape.com)
  • Venlafaxine (Effexor) and duloxetine (Cymbalta) are serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) that are also associated with serotonin toxicity, as is the tetracyclic drug mirtazapine (Remeron), an alpha-2 adrenergic heteroreceptor blocking agent that causes increased norepinephrine and serotonin release in addition to blocking serotonin receptors. (medscape.com)
  • Trazodone is a tetracyclic drug that blocks serotonin reuptake and also has an antagonistic effect at the serotonin 5HT 2 receptor site. (medscape.com)
  • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibi. (goodtherapy.org)
  • Luvox , the brand name of the drug fluvoxamine, is part of a class of antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) . (goodtherapy.org)
  • Objective To establish whether an association exists between use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and suicide attempts. (bmj.com)
  • Worldwide, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are prescribed for the treatment of depression and an expanding list of additional conditions. (bmj.com)
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of antidepressants that increase levels of extracellular serotonin by preventing its reuptake by neurons. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The serotonin transporter (SERT) terminates serotonergic signalling through the sodium- and chloride-dependent reuptake of neurotransmitter into presynaptic neurons. (rcsb.org)
  • Consequently, agents that selectively inhibit serotonin reuptake have been the focus of several large-scale, placebo-controlled studies of OCD. (psychiatrist.com)
  • The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors fluoxetine, sertraline, fluvoxamine, and paroxetine have, in separate multicenter trials, demonstrated efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of OCD. (psychiatrist.com)
  • While 2 recent meta-analyses support the superior efficacy of clomipramine over selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of OCD, 5 of 6 head-to-head comparisons of either fluoxetine or fluvoxamine versus clomipramine have found similar efficacy but a lower incidence of side effects with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. (psychiatrist.com)
  • The suggestion that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors possess efficacy similar to that of clomipramine, but have a superior side effect profile, may have important implications for patients with OCD who require long-term treatment. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) are recommended treatments for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but their relative efficacy and acceptability have not been comprehensively examined. (lu.se)
  • Symptoms usually resolve in 24 hours, but symptoms may last longer after use of drugs that have a long half-life or active metabolites (eg, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Researchers are investigating ways to target serotonin levels directly, potentially using SSRIs. (medscape.com)
  • But Putrino, who was not involved in the study, cautions against treating long COVID patients with SSRIs or any other treatment that increases serotonin before testing patients to determine whether their serotonin levels are actually lower than those of healthy persons. (medscape.com)
  • The main way that SSRIs help people manage conditions like depression is by increasing serotonin in the brain. (healthline.com)
  • SSRIs work by preventing your blood from absorbing some of the serotonin from your brain. (healthline.com)
  • SSRIs don't cause the body to make more serotonin, however. (healthline.com)
  • We wanted to find out if medicines called selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which are used mostly to treat depression, can help men that ejaculate faster than they want, to slow down. (cochrane.org)
  • Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which are most commonly used as antidepressants are being used to treat this condition. (cochrane.org)
  • As a result, this theory is often used to justify taking antidepressants, particularly SSRIs, which act on the serotonin system. (madinamerica.com)
  • Thus, SSRIs- which are intended to enhance serotonin signaling-may actually initially slow the therapeutic process. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Older antidepressants called monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) can also cause serotonin syndrome when combined with the medicines described above, as well as meperidine (Demerol, a painkiller), fentanyl, dextromethorphan (cough medicine), and others. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There are various serotonin receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serotonin primarily acts through its receptors and its effects depend on which cells and tissues express these receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • SS represents a constellation of signs and symptoms that manifest in the neuromuscular, autonomic nervous, and gastrointestinal systems, in which concentrations of serotonin receptors are highest. (medscape.com)
  • The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) mediates rapid excitatory responses through ligand-gated channels (5-HT3 receptors). (nih.gov)
  • 5-HT1A receptors: 19 studies compared the level of activity of serotonin receptors between those with depression and those without. (madinamerica.com)
  • Some found that the receptors were less active-meaning that people with depression had higher serotonin levels. (madinamerica.com)
  • Like other neurotransmitters, which relay signals between neurons, serotonin is stored in small sacs called vesicles in the presynaptic terminal of one neuron and released into the synapse in response to neuronal firing to bind to receptors on a postsynaptic neuron. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Drugs with serotoninergic properties have the ability to increase the level of serotonin or to act as direct agonists of postsynaptic serotonin receptors in the central nervous system (CNS). (medscape.com)
  • failed verification] Biochemically, the indoleamine molecule derives from the amino acid tryptophan, via the (rate-limiting) hydroxylation of the 5 position on the ring (forming the intermediate 5-hydroxytryptophan), and then decarboxylation to produce serotonin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other research shows that microbes in the gut help produce serotonin. (healthline.com)
  • Typically, nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord produce serotonin that helps regulate attention, behavior and body temperature. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Other nerve cells in the body, primarily in the intestines, also produce serotonin. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Specialized nerve cells in the digestive system, brain, and spinal cord produce serotonin. (psychcentral.com)
  • A number of over-the-counter and prescription drugs may be associated with serotonin syndrome, especially antidepressants. (mayoclinic.org)
  • However, although they are associated with less toxicity than tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), they are often involved in co-ingestions that can precipitate the potentially lethal serotonin syndrome (SS). (medscape.com)
  • Preinjury use of serotonin-modulating antidepressants led to an increased requirement of blood transfusions after solid organ injury. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • So it's no surprise that many antidepressants increase serotonin in the brain. (fcc-fac.ca)
  • Antidepressants lock SERT in an outward-open conformation by lodging in the central binding site, located between transmembrane helices 1, 3, 6, 8 and 10, directly blocking serotonin binding. (rcsb.org)
  • Since other tricyclic antidepressants appear to lack efficacy in OCD, that of clomipramine has been linked to its potent effects on serotonin. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Despite its longstanding prominence in pharmaceutical advertising, the myth that low serotonin levels cause depression is not supported by scientific evidence. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, researchers continue to debate the link between serotonin and depression. (healthline.com)
  • For example, research shows that people who haven't experienced depression previously may not become significantly depressed with lower levels of serotonin, whereas those with a history of depression may. (healthline.com)
  • While there's still not a definitive answer, the consensus is that depleted serotonin plays a key role in depression. (healthline.com)
  • Depression is linked with low levels of serotonin (as well as low levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and other brain chemicals). (healthline.com)
  • Increased serotonin can help relieve depression. (healthline.com)
  • Surveys indicate that 85-90 percent of the public believes low serotonin or a chemical imbalance causes depression. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Almost as soon as it was floated in 1965 by Harvard psychiatrist Joseph Schildkraut, the serotonin hypothesis of depression -reduced and simplified by pharma marketing to the "chemical imbalance" theory of depression and anxiety -has been subject to critical research and found wanting. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The answer in "Serotonin and Depression: A Disconnect Between the Advertisements and the Scientific Literature," their well-researched article, was a resounding no. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The hedge proved highly effective, even though, as David Healy explained in 2015 in "Serotonin and Depression," in the BMJ, in practice, it entailed embracing or tacitly accepting "the marketing of a myth. (psychologytoday.com)
  • However, the serotonin hypothesis has been the driver for two classes of antidepressant medications , both of which may help treat depression. (psychcentral.com)
  • Tryptophan is the precursor to the "happiness hormone" serotonin, so why not take tryptophan supplements to improve mood and relieve symptoms of depression? (nutritionfacts.org)
  • The chemical imbalance theory-the notion that low serotonin causes depression-originated in the 1960s. (madinamerica.com)
  • Now, in the first comprehensive review of all the relevant research on serotonin and depression, researchers found no link between serotonin levels and depression. (madinamerica.com)
  • These analyses failed to provide evidence of a link between low serotonin and depression. (madinamerica.com)
  • This review suggests that the huge research effort based on the serotonin hypothesis has not produced convincing evidence of a biochemical basis to depression. (madinamerica.com)
  • We suggest it is time to acknowledge that the serotonin theory of depression is not empirically substantiated. (madinamerica.com)
  • We sought to establish whether the current evidence supports a role for serotonin in the etiology of depression, and specifically whether depression is associated with indications of lowered serotonin concentrations or activity," they write. (madinamerica.com)
  • Plasma serotonin levels (5-HIAA): The researchers found 27 studies comparing serotonin levels between those with depression and those without. (madinamerica.com)
  • Their findings: there was no connection between serotonin levels and depression. (madinamerica.com)
  • SERT transporter protein: 40 studies compared the activity of the SERT transporter (higher activity means less serotonin) between those with depression and those without. (madinamerica.com)
  • Some studies found lower SERT binding in people with depression, again indicating higher serotonin levels. (madinamerica.com)
  • Some older studies showed inconsistent results, which indicated that serotonin depletion was associated with lower mood, but only in those with a family history of depression. (madinamerica.com)
  • All of the newer, more methodologically sound studies found no connection between serotonin depletion and mood, even in those with a family history of depression. (madinamerica.com)
  • Serotonin genetics (hundreds of studies): Early studies of the SERT gene (5-HTTLPR) found an inconsistent effect that implied a link between serotonin and depression, but only for some ethnic groups. (madinamerica.com)
  • The research adds to a growing body of work by the Malenka lab showing how serotonin and other neuromodulatory chemicals control social cognition in the brain, and represents a promising step towards targeted treatments that could one day improve impaired social function in disorders such as autism, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). (sflorg.com)
  • An imbalance in serotonin signaling is generally thought to contribute to depression. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Mlinar and colleagues believe that a full understanding of this process might inform better strategies of modulating serotonin signaling in order to treat depression. (medicalxpress.com)
  • This may be due, in part, to the effect serotonin has on dopamine. (psychcentral.com)
  • While the exact causes of these mental health conditions are hard to pin down, lower levels of neurotransmitters in the brain - including serotonin - have been linked. (psychcentral.com)
  • Serotonin syndrome ( SS ) is a group of symptoms that may occur with the use of certain serotonergic medications or drugs . (wikipedia.org)
  • Serotonin syndrome is typically caused by the use of two or more serotonergic medications or drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serotonin syndrome (SS) is a potentially life-threatening drug reaction. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Serotonin syndrome most often occurs when two or more medicines or drugs that affect the body's level of serotonin are taken together at the same time. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It tells you about the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Serotonin syndrome is more likely to occur when you first start taking or increase the dose of the medicine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Serotonin syndrome is not diagnosed until all other likely causes have been ruled out. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with serotonin syndrome will usually stay in the hospital for at least 24 hours for close observation. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Untreated, serotonin syndrome can be deadly. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Serotonin syndrome is a serious drug reaction. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Severe serotonin syndrome can cause death if not treated. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Serotonin syndrome can occur when you increase the dose of certain medications or start taking a new drug. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Some illicit drugs and dietary supplements are associated with serotonin syndrome. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Milder forms of serotonin syndrome may go away within a day or two of stopping the medications that cause symptoms and, sometimes, after taking drugs that block serotonin. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Serotonin syndrome symptoms usually occur within several hours of taking a new drug or increasing the dose of a drug you're already taking. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Severe serotonin syndrome can be life-threatening. (mayoclinic.org)
  • If you suspect you might have serotonin syndrome after starting a new drug or increasing the dose of a drug you're already taking, call your health care provider right away or go to the emergency room. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Excessive accumulation of serotonin in the body creates the symptoms of serotonin syndrome. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Although it's possible that taking just one drug that increases serotonin levels can cause serotonin syndrome in some people, this condition occurs most often when people combine certain medications. (mayoclinic.org)
  • For example, serotonin syndrome may occur if you take an antidepressant with a migraine medication. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Another cause of serotonin syndrome is intentional overdose of antidepressant medications. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Serotonin syndrome presents a variety of symptoms that can be difficult to diagnose. (lww.com)
  • This article discusses the roles of serotonin, the use of serotonergic agents, the diagnosis of serotonin syndrome, and its diagnostic differentials. (lww.com)
  • Keep in mind that serotonin syndrome isn't a diagnosis that's restricted to the ED. The nurse should also be prepared to encounter patients with mild symptoms in the outpatient setting. (lww.com)
  • Serotonin syndrome occurs when there's an accumulation of excess serotonin within the central and peripheral nervous systems. (lww.com)
  • Serotonin syndrome is classically described as involving a combination of autonomic hyperactivity, hemodynamic changes, neuromuscular derangements, and changes in mental status. (medscape.com)
  • Serotonin syndrome can be precipitated by pharmaceuticals, botanicals, and recreational drugs. (medscape.com)
  • The utility of these criteria notwithstanding, diagnosis of serotonin syndrome can be challenging, particularly in the perioperative setting. (medscape.com)
  • Serotonin syndrome can have a variety of clinical presentations, but the majority of cases manifest within 24 hours of a change of dose or initiation of a drug. (medscape.com)
  • Serotonin syndrome can manifest with findings that range from benign to fatal. (medscape.com)
  • NMS is the condition most commonly cited in the differential diagnosis when serotonin syndrome is a concern. (medscape.com)
  • Compared with serotonin syndrome, which presents within 24 hours of exposure, NMS usually has a more gradual onset, generally presenting in days to weeks. (medscape.com)
  • Serotonin syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition resulting from increased central nervous system serotonergic activity that is usually drug related. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In most cases, serotonin syndrome manifests within 24 hours, and usually within 6 hours, of a change in dose or initiation of a drug. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Clues to serotonin syndrome include use of serotonergic drugs, rapid onset (eg, within 24 hours), and hyperreflexia, in contrast to the often decreased reflex responses in neuroleptic malignant syndrome. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Numerous reports have described serotonin syndrome precipitated by combination of serotonergic drugs with the antimicrobial agent linezolid, which exhibits monoamine oxidase (MAO)-type effects. (medscape.com)
  • The histopathologic features were similar to those observed in carcinoid-induced valvular disease, a serotonin-related syndrome. (cdc.gov)
  • This schematic drawing of a serotonergic neuron shows exocytotic release of serotonin from vesicles (red arrow) and the nonexocytotic release described by Mlinar and colleagues (blue arrow). (medicalxpress.com)
  • A contributing factor to the delay is thought to be that the firing of serotonergic neurons is itself suppressed by extracellular serotonin, which acts on inhibitory neuronal "autoreceptors" in a process known as autoinhibition. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The neurotransmitter serotonin, often referred to as the "happiness hormone," is found in plant foods. (nutritionfacts.org)
  • It improves levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the body in a non-addictive way (unlike pharmaceuticals) - leading to many positive health outcomes. (healthy-living.org)
  • The study doesn't make any recommendations for treatment, but understanding the role of serotonin in long COVID opens the door to a host of novel ideas that could set the stage for clinical trials and affect care. (medscape.com)
  • The role of serotonin in the peripheral nervous system includes the regulation of bronchoconstriction, vasoconstriction, uterine contraction, and gastrointestinal motility. (lww.com)
  • The role of serotonin in tumour growth (review). (bvsalud.org)
  • This leaves a higher level of serotonin in the brain. (healthline.com)
  • I'll often say something like the way Zoloft works, is, it increases the level of serotonin in your brain (or synapses, neurons) and, presumably, the reason you're depressed or anxious is that you have some sort of a deficiency. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Serotonin depletion (73 studies): Tryptophan depletion is thought to reduce the level of serotonin. (madinamerica.com)
  • However, more than 90% of the body's total serotonin resides in the enterochromaffin cells in the gut, where it helps regulate the movement of the digestive system. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In fact, your intestines produce and store most of your body's serotonin. (psychcentral.com)
  • What makes it even more intriguing is that more than 95% of our body's serotonin is produced and stored in the gut in specialized enterochromaffin cells, says Dr Mayer, adding: "By far the largest store of the molecule that plays such a big role in modulating our mood and our wellbeing - also appetite, pain sensitivity - is stored in the gut. (bigthink.com)
  • Some studies, however, have found no increase, perhaps indicating that a certain intensity or duration of exercise is required to boost serotonin. (livestrong.com)
  • His team found that reductions in serotonin were driven by low levels of circulating SARS-CoV-2 virus that caused persistent inflammation as well as an inability of the body to absorb tryptophan, an amino acid that's a precursor to serotonin. (medscape.com)
  • Serotonin is produced in the brainstem's raphe nuclei from L-tryptophan and is then stored in presynaptic vesicles. (medscape.com)
  • When you eat foods containing the amino acid tryptophan, for example, your body synthesizes it to create serotonin. (psychcentral.com)
  • The precursor to serotonin, however, what your body makes serotonin out of, is an amino acid called tryptophan. (nutritionfacts.org)
  • The serotonin hypothesis has been challenged repeatedly and found wanting, even as it remains popular and influential. (psychologytoday.com)
  • In short, both the hypothesis and the expensive marketing that pushed it into American living rooms rested on a hedge: "Scientists believe that it could be linked with an imbalance of a chemical in the brain called serotonin. (psychologytoday.com)
  • This is known as the serotonin hypothesis . (psychcentral.com)
  • the dopamine hypersensitivity hypothesis and the serotonin-dopamine antagonist hypothesis. (who.int)
  • The neuroleptic-induced TD with those who did serotonin-dopamine antagonist hypothesis not develop it under comparatively similar maintains that drugs which have a high conditions. (who.int)
  • Dopamine and serotonin are chemical messengers, or neurotransmitters, that help regulate many bodily functions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • People sometimes refer to dopamine and serotonin as the "happy hormones" due to the roles they play in regulating mood and emotion. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Dopamine and serotonin are involved in similar bodily processes, but they operate differently. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This article looks at the differences and similarities between dopamine and serotonin, their relationship, and their links with medical conditions and overall health. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Although both dopamine and serotonin relay messages between neurons and affect mood and concentration, they have some other distinct functions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Both dopamine and serotonin are neurotransmitters with positive associations. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • As neuromodulators, dopamine and serotonin also send signals that last longer than the signals of other neurotransmitters. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Dopamine and serotonin also have different effects on appetite. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Which conditions have links to dopamine and serotonin? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • These benefits may be rooted, in part, in exercise's ability to increase our brains' production of the chemicals dopamine and serotonin, according to a review of studies published in the journal Brain Plasticity in March 2017. (livestrong.com)
  • It's not well understood exactly how exercise improves mental health, but some research points to its effect on dopamine and serotonin function . (livestrong.com)
  • In human studies, a bout of exercise has been shown to increase dopamine and serotonin in the blood. (livestrong.com)
  • Une recherche documentaire a été effectuée dans PubMed de 1980 à 2021 en utilisant diverses combinaisons de termes MeSH comme tabac, diabète, hypertension, dyslipidémie, trouble dépressif majeur, trouble bipolaire, schizophrénie. (who.int)
  • The FDA had accepted aspirational language that the drugs "help to restore the brain's chemical balance" and "bring serotonin levels closer to normal," even though both claims were, and remain, scientifically meaningless. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The serotonin is secreted luminally and basolaterally, which leads to increased serotonin uptake by circulating platelets and activation after stimulation, which gives increased stimulation of myenteric neurons and gastrointestinal motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are also neuromodulators, meaning that, unlike other neurotransmitters, they are able to communicate with many neurons that are near as well as far away from the dopamine or serotonin release site. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Serotonin is widely studied for its effects on the brain ― it regulates the messaging between neurons, affecting sleep, mood, and memory. (medscape.com)
  • METHODS: Bupropion was administered subcutaneously via osmotic minipumps over 2 days to determine its effects on the spontaneous firing activity of NE, serotonin (5-HT), and DA neurons in the brain of anaesthetised male Sprague-Dawley rats. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • To determine the status of brain serotonin neurons in a group of abstinent MDMA users. (cambridge.org)
  • We assessed the integrity of brain serotonin neurons by measuring serotonin transporter (SERT) binding using positron emission tomography (PET) and [ 11 C]DASB in 12 former MDMA users, 9 polydrug users who had never taken MDMA and 19 controls who reported no history of illicit drug use. (cambridge.org)
  • To the extent that [ 11 C]DASB binding provides an index of the integrity of serotonin neurons, our findings suggest that MDMA use may not result in long-term damage to serotonin neurons when used recreationally in humans. (cambridge.org)
  • Reference Hall and Henry 2 However, there has also been concern about the possible long-term neurotoxic effects of MDMA on brain serotonin neurons. (cambridge.org)
  • Reference Zhou, Tao-Cheng, Segu, Patel and Wang 3 Serotonin transporter is considered to be one of the markers of the integrity of serotonin neurons and has been validated in animal models of MDMA neurotoxicity. (cambridge.org)
  • Researchers have discovered an unconventional way that serotonin is released from neurons that could play an important role in the mechanism through which antidepressant drugs work. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Serotonin deficiency affects people differently. (healthline.com)
  • It brings relief by increasing the amount of serotonin-a neurotransmitter that affects mood-in the body. (goodtherapy.org)
  • Serotonin affects several systems and functions throughout your body, from regulating your mood to helping you stay asleep. (psychcentral.com)
  • One challenge is that experts can't measure the amount of serotonin in the brain (only your bloodstream), so it's difficult to know exactly how this neurotransmitter affects your mood or the right amount needed to improve it. (psychcentral.com)
  • As serotonin affects so many bodily functions, there are numerous classes of medications that alter serotonin levels. (lww.com)
  • [6] (Many of these symptoms may be side effects of the drug or drug interaction causing excessive levels of serotonin rather than an effect of elevated serotonin itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cases, however, serotonin may inhibit dopamine production, which means that low levels of serotonin can lead to an overproduction of dopamine. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Having abnormal levels of either dopamine or serotonin can lead to several different medical conditions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A New Long COVID Explanation: Low Serotonin Levels? (medscape.com)
  • University of Pennsylvania researchers have uncovered a link between long COVID and levels of serotonin in the body that may offer a new explanation for the condition. (medscape.com)
  • Low levels of serotonin could result in any number of seemingly unrelated symptoms, as in the case of long COVID, experts say. (medscape.com)
  • Thaiss's study , published in the journal Cell , found lower serotonin levels in long COVID patients in comparison with patients who were diagnosed with acute COVID-19 but who fully recovered. (medscape.com)
  • Persistent circulating virus is one of the drivers of low serotonin levels, said study author Michael Peluso, MD, an assistant research professor of infectious medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine. (medscape.com)
  • What we need now is a good clinical trial to see whether altering levels of serotonin in people with long COVID will lead to symptom relief," Peluso said. (medscape.com)
  • Low levels of serotonin can have wide-ranging effects on your mental and physical health. (healthline.com)
  • Scientists don't yet understand exactly how serotonin works, what it does, and what causes low levels in the body. (healthline.com)
  • We'll also outline ways to increase your serotonin levels . (healthline.com)
  • It is caused by medications that build up high levels of serotonin in the body. (mayoclinic.org)
  • All of these affect the production, release, or breakdown of serotonin at the presynaptic cleft, thereby increasing its levels and toxicity. (medscape.com)
  • But when serotonin levels are low, you may feel sluggish, gain weight, and have trouble sleeping, among other things. (psychcentral.com)
  • Several mental health medications work on levels of serotonin and other neurotransmitters to help improve your mood and any symptoms you have. (psychcentral.com)
  • When serotonin levels are too low or too high, you might experience sleep disruptions. (psychcentral.com)
  • Research in 2016 suggests taking medications that increase levels of serotonin may be linked to lower sexual desire. (psychcentral.com)
  • Increased levels of serotonin usually lead to lower dopamine activity. (psychcentral.com)
  • Higher levels of serotonin have been associated with a slower rate of age-related cognitive decline, like dementia or Alzheimer's disease. (psychcentral.com)
  • What happens when you have low serotonin levels? (psychcentral.com)
  • The average range for serotonin blood levels is between 101-283 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL). (psychcentral.com)
  • There are many possible causes for someone having low serotonin levels. (psychcentral.com)
  • Exercise has the ability to increase the levels of serotonin and dopamine in your brain, which is linked to a variety of benefits. (livestrong.com)
  • Post-workout, serotonin levels in the blood were elevated and participants did better on the test. (livestrong.com)
  • In addition, many researchers suspect that changes in relative serotonin and dopamine levels may be responsible for the feeling of fatigue that hits after prolonged exercise, according to the Brain Plasticity analysis. (livestrong.com)
  • The theory is that, while levels of both neurotransmitters initially increase, dopamine levels eventually start to drop off while serotonin levels are still elevated, causing exhaustion sets in. (livestrong.com)
  • Here are some ways you can build resilience by maximizing your natural serotonin levels. (fcc-fac.ca)
  • Three studies used serotonin levels from blood plasma, while the remaining 24 used cerebrospinal fluid. (madinamerica.com)
  • However, there was a connection between serotonin and antidepressant use-the drugs actually lowered serotonin levels rather than increasing them. (madinamerica.com)
  • Adapt X.1 is a tasteless spray that opens all 14 serotonin pathways and balances serotonin levels. (healthy-living.org)
  • No significant correlations were found between the blood serotonin level and the platelet count, height, weight, skinfold thickness, and pulmonary function test, 5 out of 44 patients had raised serum IgE levels, and their mean blood serotonin was higher than in those with normal IgE levels. (bmj.com)
  • Research has found that the overwhelming amount of serotonin in your body - 95 percent - is produced in the lining of your gastrointestinal (GI) tract. (healthline.com)
  • The lowering of brain serotonin level does not appear to be a result of decreased serotonin synthesis but may be due to an unusual type of release of serotonin. (erowid.org)
  • So far, research on the link between serotonin and mood is still mixed. (psychcentral.com)
  • Abstract-l-Chloroamphetamine and several structurally similar compounds lowered serotonin level in the whole brain of rats without lowering the level of norepinephrine. (erowid.org)
  • Brain serotonin transporter binding in former users. (cambridge.org)
  • The neuronal serotonin transporter (SERT) is present in the serotonin (5-HT) synapse as well as along the 5-HT axons. (cambridge.org)
  • The world's first designer microcentrifuge tube rack is inspired by the happiness molecule, serotonin. (shapeways.com)
  • In some cases, serotonin may play a role in regulating sexual desire, along with other neurotransmitters like dopamine, norepinephrine, and oxytocin. (psychcentral.com)
  • Scientists from the University of North Carolina have found that gut bacteria produce neurotransmitters like serotonin, dopamine and GABA, all of which have associations with our mood. (bigthink.com)
  • In the perioperative setting, it may prove challenging to differentiate serotonin toxicity from other syndromes that have similar manifestations. (medscape.com)
  • In high concentrations, serotonin acts as a vasoconstrictor by contracting endothelial smooth muscle directly or by potentiating the effects of other vasoconstrictors (e.g. angiotensin II and norepinephrine). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the correct concentrations, serotonin is essential for human life because it's necessary for many body functions. (lww.com)
  • Approximately 90% of the serotonin the human body produces is in the gastrointestinal tract's enterochromaffin cells, where it regulates intestinal movements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serotonin secreted from the enterochromaffin cells eventually finds its way out of tissues into the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • It's most often caused by combining medications that contain serotonin, such as a migraine medication and an antidepressant. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The antidepressant and entactogenic effects induced by an acute dose of MDMA can be accounted for by the notable increase in serotonin bioavailability triggered by the drug. (mdma.net)
  • This can happen if your body doesn't produce enough serotonin or if it doesn't use serotonin efficiently. (healthline.com)
  • Their body just can't make enough serotonin. (nutritionfacts.org)
  • The article , published in Molecular Psychiatry , included research on plasma serotonin, serotonin metabolite, serotonin receptor binding, serotonin depletion experiments, and studies of the serotonin gene (SERT). (madinamerica.com)
  • In the peripheral nervous system, there is a consistent increase in plasma serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) release concomitant with a decrease in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (HIAA) content during migraine attacks [ 15 , 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Adapt X.1 is a natural serotonin modulator that has 6 use/utility patents backed by over 20,000 research documents and a Yale protocol sleep study. (healthy-living.org)
  • Meanwhile, when it comes to serotonin, in rodents, exercise has been found to increase serotonin in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and midbrain. (livestrong.com)
  • [6] Onset of symptoms is typically within a day of the extra serotonin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serotonin deficiency has been linked to many physical and psychological symptoms. (healthline.com)
  • Below, we'll discuss the symptoms of serotonin deficiency and what may cause it. (healthline.com)
  • Serotonin deficiency may be a contributing factor in many psychological and physical symptoms. (healthline.com)
  • Serotonin deficiency is associated with many psychological symptoms. (healthline.com)
  • But too much serotonin causes signs and symptoms that can range from mild (shivering and diarrhea) to severe (muscle rigidity, fever and seizures). (mayoclinic.org)
  • 1,2 Serotonin is also found in blood platelets and plays a role in blood clotting by causing vasoconstriction. (lww.com)
  • Serotonin , also called 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is best known for the part it plays in mood and behavior. (healthline.com)
  • Well, we'd like to prescribe a little Hello Serotonin , the latest in mood-enhancing poetry anti-depressants. (chbooks.com)
  • Sometimes called the "happy chemical," serotonin is a neurotransmitter that's been linked to mood and other functions. (psychcentral.com)
  • While many things can influence your mood, serotonin may be involved. (psychcentral.com)
  • Serotonin is believed to be a natural mood booster - that's why it's sometimes called a "happy chemical" or "happy hormone. (psychcentral.com)
  • Serotonin, sometimes known as the happiness chemical, is a neurotransmitter believed to help regulate mood, sleep, memory and more. (fcc-fac.ca)
  • Healthy volunteers who experienced serotonin depletion did not have a lower mood. (madinamerica.com)
  • Gut serotonin, known as circulating serotonin, is responsible for a host of other functions, including the regulation of blood flow, body temperature, and digestion. (medscape.com)
  • Further study of this phenomenon is warranted because (a) a raised blood serotonin level is sufficiently characteristic of cystic fibrosis to explore its use in diagnosis, and (b) it may help to explain the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis and (c) the metabolism and function of serotonin. (bmj.com)
  • [1] If this is not sufficient, a serotonin antagonist such as cyproheptadine may be used. (wikipedia.org)
  • In normal physiologic states, vasodilation occurs through the serotonin mediated release of nitric oxide from endothelial cells, and the inhibition of release of norepinephrine from adrenergic nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serotonin deficiency occurs when serotonin doesn't act as well as it should in your body. (healthline.com)
  • Tremor is a common side effect of MDMA 's action on dopamine , whereas hyperreflexia is symptomatic of exposure to serotonin agonists . (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, the participants who improved most on the test also had the greatest increases in serotonin. (livestrong.com)
  • [3] It is a predictable consequence of excess serotonin on the central nervous system . (wikipedia.org)
  • SS represents the most severe end of a spectrum of serotonin excess and is characterized by mental status changes, neuromuscular hyperactivity, and autonomic instability. (medscape.com)
  • Serotonin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT), is a neurotransmitter found in the central and peripheral nervous system. (medscape.com)
  • The peripheral and central serotonin system has been shown to play a vital role in migraine pathophysiology via its effects on trigeminovascular nociceptive information transmission and central sensitization [ 14 ]. (hindawi.com)