Serology: The study of serum, especially of antigen-antibody reactions in vitro.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Syphilis: A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.Syphilis, Cardiovascular: Cardiovascular manifestations of SYPHILIS, an infection of TREPONEMA PALLIDUM. In the late stage of syphilis, sometimes 20-30 years after the initial infection, damages are often seen in the blood vessels including the AORTA and the AORTIC VALVE. Clinical signs include syphilitic aortitis, aortic insufficiency, or aortic ANEURYSM.Pneumonia, Mycoplasma: Interstitial pneumonia caused by extensive infection of the lungs (LUNG) and BRONCHI, particularly the lower lobes of the lungs, by MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE in humans. In SHEEP, it is caused by MYCOPLASMA OVIPNEUMONIAE. In CATTLE, it may be caused by MYCOPLASMA DISPAR.Helicobacter pylori: A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).Toxocariasis: Infection by round worms of the genus TOXOCARA, usually found in wild and domesticated cats and dogs and foxes, except for the larvae, which may produce visceral and ocular larva migrans in man.Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Short filamentous organism of the genus Mycoplasma, which binds firmly to the cells of the respiratory epithelium. It is one of the etiologic agents of non-viral primary atypical pneumonia in man.Chagas Disease: Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.Helicobacter Infections: Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Celiac Disease: A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.Treponema pallidum: The causative agent of venereal and non-venereal syphilis as well as yaws.Chlamydophila pneumoniae: A species of CHLAMYDOPHILA that causes acute respiratory infection, especially atypical pneumonia, in humans, horses, and koalas.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Trypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Toxocara: A genus of ascarid nematodes commonly parasitic in the intestines of cats and dogs.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Bartonella henselae: A species of gram-negative bacteria that is the etiologic agent of bacillary angiomatosis (ANGIOMATOSIS, BACILLARY). This organism can also be a cause of CAT-SCRATCH DISEASE in immunocompetent patients.Leptospirosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LEPTOSPIRA.Whooping Cough: A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.BrazilHemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Toxocara canis: A species of parasitic nematode found in the intestine of dogs. Lesions in the brain, liver, eye, kidney, and lung are caused by migrating larvae. In humans, these larvae do not follow normal patterns and may produce visceral larva migrans (LARVA MIGRANS, VISCERAL).Transglutaminases: Transglutaminases catalyze cross-linking of proteins at a GLUTAMINE in one chain with LYSINE in another chain. They include keratinocyte transglutaminase (TGM1 or TGK), tissue transglutaminase (TGM2 or TGC), plasma transglutaminase involved with coagulation (FACTOR XIII and FACTOR XIIIa), hair follicle transglutaminase, and prostate transglutaminase. Although structures differ, they share an active site (YGQCW) and strict CALCIUM dependence.Echinococcosis: An infection caused by the infestation of the larval form of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The liver, lungs, and kidney are the most common areas of infestation.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Coxiella burnetii: A species of gram-negative bacteria that grows preferentially in the vacuoles of the host cell. It is the etiological agent of Q FEVER.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Q Fever: An acute infectious disease caused by COXIELLA BURNETII. It is characterized by a sudden onset of FEVER; HEADACHE; malaise; and weakness. In humans, it is commonly contracted by inhalation of infected dusts derived from infected domestic animals (ANIMALS, DOMESTIC).False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Echinococcus granulosus: A species of hydatid tapeworm (class CESTODA) in the family Taeniidae, whose adult form infects the DIGESTIVE TRACT of DOGS, other canines, and CATS. The larval form infects SHEEP; PIGS; HORSES; and may infect humans, where it migrates to various organs and forms permanent HYDATID CYSTS.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Leptospira: A genus of aerobic, helical spirochetes, some species of which are pathogenic, others free-living or saprophytic.Chlamydophila Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDOPHILA.Chlamydia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.Diet, Gluten-Free: A diet which is devoid of GLUTENS from WHEAT; BARLEY; RYE; and other wheat-related varieties. The diet is designed to reduce exposure to those proteins in gluten that trigger INFLAMMATION of the small intestinal mucosa in patients with CELIAC DISEASE.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Brucellosis: Infection caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA mainly involving the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. This condition is characterized by fever, weakness, malaise, and weight loss.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Leishmania infantum: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Cytomegalovirus Infections: Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.Lymphogranuloma Venereum: Subacute inflammation of the inguinal lymph glands caused by certain immunotypes of CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. It is a sexually transmitted disease in the U.S. but is more widespread in developing countries. It is distinguished from granuloma venereum (see GRANULOMA INGUINALE), which is caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Bordetella pertussis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Echinococcosis, Hepatic: Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic tapeworms of the genus ECHINOCOCCUS, such as Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis. Ingested Echinococcus ova burrow into the intestinal mucosa. The larval migration to the liver via the PORTAL VEIN leads to watery vesicles (HYDATID CYST).Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Herpes Genitalis: Infection of the genitals (GENITALIA) with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in either the males or the females.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Herpesvirus 2, Human: A species of SIMPLEXVIRUS associated with genital infections (HERPES GENITALIS). It is transmitted by sexual intercourse and close personal contact.Chagas Cardiomyopathy: A disease of the CARDIAC MUSCLE developed subsequent to the initial protozoan infection by TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI. After infection, less than 10% develop acute illness such as MYOCARDITIS (mostly in children). The disease then enters a latent phase without clinical symptoms until about 20 years later. Myocardial symptoms of advanced CHAGAS DISEASE include conduction defects (HEART BLOCK) and CARDIOMEGALY.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Gliadin: Simple protein, one of the prolamines, derived from the gluten of wheat, rye, etc. May be separated into 4 discrete electrophoretic fractions. It is the toxic factor associated with CELIAC DISEASE.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Lyme Disease: An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.ArgentinaBlood DonorsHepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Strongyloidiasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus STRONGYLOIDES. The presence of larvae may produce pneumonitis and the presence of adult worms in the intestine could lead to moderate to severe diarrhea.Ulcer: A lesion on the surface of the skin or a mucous surface, produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue.Bartonella Infections: Infections by the genus BARTONELLA. Bartonella bacilliformis can cause acute febrile anemia, designated Oroya fever, and a benign skin eruption, called verruga peruana. BARTONELLA QUINTANA causes TRENCH FEVER, while BARTONELLA HENSELAE is the etiologic agent of bacillary angiomatosis (ANGIOMATOSIS, BACILLARY) and is also one of the causes of CAT-SCRATCH DISEASE in immunocompetent patients.Coccidioidomycosis: Infection with a fungus of the genus COCCIDIOIDES, endemic to the SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES. It is sometimes called valley fever but should not be confused with RIFT VALLEY FEVER. Infection is caused by inhalation of airborne, fungal particles known as arthroconidia, a form of FUNGAL SPORES. A primary form is an acute, benign, self-limited respiratory infection. A secondary form is a virulent, severe, chronic, progressive granulomatous disease with systemic involvement. It can be detected by use of COCCIDIOIDIN.Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona: A serovar of the bacterial species LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS, whose primary hosts include CATTLE and SWINE.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Toxoplasmosis: The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.Central Nervous System Helminthiasis: Infections of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; or MENINGES caused by HELMINTHS (parasitic worms).Echinococcosis, Pulmonary: Helminth infection of the lung caused by Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis.Infectious Mononucleosis: A common, acute infection usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN). There is an increase in mononuclear white blood cells and other atypical lymphocytes, generalized lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and occasionally hepatomegaly with hepatitis.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Gastritis, Atrophic: GASTRITIS with atrophy of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, the GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS, and the mucosal glands leading to ACHLORHYDRIA. Atrophic gastritis usually progresses from chronic gastritis.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Psittacosis: Infection with CHLAMYDOPHILA PSITTACI (formerly Chlamydia psittaci), transmitted to humans by inhalation of dust-borne contaminated nasal secretions or excreta of infected BIRDS. This infection results in a febrile illness characterized by PNEUMONITIS and systemic manifestations.Immunologic Tests: Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.Cytomegalovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.Leishmaniasis, Visceral: A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.Dyspepsia: Impaired digestion, especially after eating.Gastroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.Dithioerythritol: A compound that, along with its isomer, Cleland's reagent (DITHIOTHREITOL), is used for the protection of sulfhydryl groups against oxidation to disulfides and for the reduction of disulfides to sulfhydryl groups.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Parvovirus B19, Human: The type species of ERYTHROVIRUS and the etiological agent of ERYTHEMA INFECTIOSUM, a disease most commonly seen in school-age children.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Toxoplasmosis, Congenital: Prenatal protozoal infection with TOXOPLASMA gondii which is associated with injury to the developing fetal nervous system. The severity of this condition is related to the stage of pregnancy during which the infection occurs; first trimester infections are associated with a greater degree of neurologic dysfunction. Clinical features include HYDROCEPHALUS; MICROCEPHALY; deafness; cerebral calcifications; SEIZURES; and psychomotor retardation. Signs of a systemic infection may also be present at birth, including fever, rash, and hepatosplenomegaly. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p735)Epstein-Barr Virus Infections: Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).Mycobacterium leprae: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that causes LEPROSY in man. Its organisms are generally arranged in clumps, rounded masses, or in groups of bacilli side by side.Liver Abscess, Amebic: Single or multiple areas of PUS due to infection by any ameboid protozoa (AMEBIASIS). A common form is caused by the ingestion of ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA.Echinococcus: A genus of very small TAPEWORMS, in the family Taeniidae. The adult form is found in various CARNIVORA but not humans. The larval form is seen in humans under certain epidemiologic circumstances.Taenia solium: Species of tapeworm in the genus TAENIA, that infects swine. It is acquired by humans through the ingestion of cured or undercooked pork.NitroimidazolesNigella: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Catabolite Repression: Process by which micro-organisms adapt quickly to a preferred rapidly-metabolizable intermediate through the inhibition or repression of genes related to CATABOLISM of less preferred source(s).Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct: A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Parvoviridae Infections: Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.PeruDonor Selection: The procedure established to evaluate the health status and risk factors of the potential DONORS of biological materials. Donors are selected based on the principles that their health will not be compromised in the process, and the donated materials, such as TISSUES or organs, are safe for reuse in the recipients.Abortion, Veterinary: Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Peptic Ulcer: Ulcer that occurs in the regions of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT which come into contact with GASTRIC JUICE containing PEPSIN and GASTRIC ACID. It occurs when there are defects in the MUCOSA barrier. The common forms of peptic ulcers are associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI and the consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Neurosyphilis: Infections of the central nervous system caused by TREPONEMA PALLIDUM which present with a variety of clinical syndromes. The initial phase of infection usually causes a mild or asymptomatic meningeal reaction. The meningovascular form may present acutely as BRAIN INFARCTION. The infection may also remain subclinical for several years. Late syndromes include general paresis; TABES DORSALIS; meningeal syphilis; syphilitic OPTIC ATROPHY; and spinal syphilis. General paresis is characterized by progressive DEMENTIA; DYSARTHRIA; TREMOR; MYOCLONUS; SEIZURES; and Argyll-Robertson pupils. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp722-8)Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Feathers: Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.Strongyloides: A genus of parasitic nematodes widely distributed as intestinal parasites of mammals.Strongyloides stercoralis: A species of parasitic nematode widely distributed in tropical and subtropical countries. The females and their larvae inhabit the mucosa of the intestinal tract, where they cause ulceration and diarrhea.Monkey Diseases: Diseases of Old World and New World monkeys. This term includes diseases of baboons but not of chimpanzees or gorillas (= APE DISEASES).Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Pneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.Rubella virus: The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.Bites and StingsHuman T-lymphotropic virus 3: A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 3 that is genetically similar to STLV-3.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Brucella: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes BRUCELLOSIS. Its cells are nonmotile coccobacilli and are animal parasites and pathogens. The bacterium is transmissible to humans through contact with infected dairy products or tissue.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Reagins: Antibodies, especially IGE, that bind to tissue of the same species so that ANTIGENS induce release of HISTAMINE and other vasoactive agents. HYPERSENSITIVITY is the clinical manifestation.Leprosy: A chronic granulomatous infection caused by MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. The granulomatous lesions are manifested in the skin, the mucous membranes, and the peripheral nerves. Two polar or principal types are lepromatous and tuberculoid.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Rubella: An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Sheep Diseases: Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Histocompatibility Testing: Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Echinococcus multilocularis: A north temperate species of tapeworm (CESTODA) whose adult form infects FOXES and wild RODENTS. The larval form can infect humans producing HEPATIC HYDATID CYSTS.Anthelmintics: Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.Antistreptolysin: Antibodies specific to STREPTOLYSINS which indicate STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.Hemagglutination, Viral: Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.Chlamydia trachomatis: Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.KuwaitSyphilis, Congenital: Syphilis acquired in utero and manifested by any of several characteristic tooth (Hutchinson's teeth) or bone malformations and by active mucocutaneous syphilis at birth or shortly thereafter. Ocular and neurologic changes may also occur.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Rickettsia Infections: Infections by the genus RICKETTSIA.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Penicillin G Benzathine: Semisynthetic antibiotic prepared by combining the sodium salt of penicillin G with N,N'-dibenzylethylenediamine.Yaws: A systemic non-venereal infection of the tropics caused by TREPONEMA PALLIDUM subspecies pertenue.False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Ehrlichiosis: A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.Neurocysticercosis: Infection of the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal structures with the larval forms of the genus TAENIA (primarily T. solium in humans). Lesions formed by the organism are referred to as cysticerci. The infection may be subacute or chronic, and the severity of symptoms depends on the severity of the host immune response and the location and number of lesions. SEIZURES represent the most common clinical manifestation although focal neurologic deficits may occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp46-50)Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.Erythema Chronicum Migrans: A deep type of gyrate erythema that follows a bite by an ixodid tick; it is a stage-1 manifestation of LYME DISEASE. The site of the bite is characterized by a red papule that expands peripherally as a nonscaling, palpable band that clears centrally. This condition is often associated with systemic symptoms such as chills, fever, headache, malaise, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, backache, and stiff neck.Papillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.Gastritis: Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.Genital Diseases, Male: Pathological processes involving the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Trypanocidal Agents: Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.Albendazole: A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)Bartonella quintana: A species of gram-negative bacteria in which man is the primary host and the human body louse, Pediculus humanus, the principal vector. It is the etiological agent of TRENCH FEVER.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Borrelia burgdorferi Group: Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.Erythema Infectiosum: Contagious infection with human B19 Parvovirus most commonly seen in school age children and characterized by fever, headache, and rashes of the face, trunk, and extremities. It is often confused with rubella.Simian T-lymphotropic virus 3: Strains of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 3 isolated from diverse primate species.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.IndiaInfectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Urease: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC 3.5.1.5.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Herpes Simplex: A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)Arthritis, Infectious: Arthritis caused by BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; MYCOPLASMA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; or PARASITES.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Glossitis, Benign Migratory: An idiopathic disorder characterized by the loss of filiform papillae leaving reddened areas of circinate macules bound by a white band. The lesions heal, then others erupt.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.

Structural and serological studies on the O-antigen of Proteus mirabilis O14, a new polysaccharide containing 2-[(R)-1-carboxyethylamino]ethyl phosphate. (1/105)

An O-specific polysaccharide was obtained by mild acid degradation of Proteus mirabilis O14 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and found to contain D-galactose, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glalactose, phosphate, N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-D-alanine (D-AlaEtn), and O-acetyl groups. Studies of the initial and O-deacetylated polysaccharides using one- and two-dimensional 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy, including COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, H-detected 1H,13C heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence, and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation experiments, demonstrated the following structure of the repeating unit: [equation: see text] This is the second bacterial polysaccharide reported to contain alpha-D-Galp6PAlaEtn, whereas the first one was the O-antigen of P. mirabilis EU313 taken erroneously as strain PrK 6/57 from the O3 serogroup [Vinogradov, E. V., Kaca, W., Shashkov, A.S., Krajewska-Pietrasik, D., Rozalski, A., Knirel, Y.A. & Kochetkov, N.K. (1990) Eur. J. Biochem., 188, 645-651]. Anti-(P. mirabilis O14) serum cross-reacted with LPS of P. mirabilis EU313 and vice versa in passive hemolysis and ELISA. Absorption of both O-antisera with the heterologous LPS decreased markedly but did not abolish the reaction with the homologous LPS. These and chemical data indicated that both strains have similar but not identical O-antigens. Therefore, we propose that P. mirabilis EU313 should belong to a new subgroup of the O14 serogroup.  (+info)

Structure of the O-specific polysaccharide of a serologically separate strain Proteus penneri 2 from a new proposed serogroup O66. (2/105)

O-specific polysaccharide chain of Proteus penneri strain 2 lipopolysaccharide was studied by full and partial acid hydrolysis, Smith degradation, methylation analysis, and NMR spectroscopy, including two-dimensional rotating-frame NOE spectroscopy (ROESY) and 1H,13C heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence (HMQC) experiments. Together with D-glucose and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose, the polysaccharide was found to contain two rarely occurring sugars, 6-deoxy-L-talose (L-6dTal) and 2,3-diacetamido-2,3,6-trideoxy-L-mannose (L-RhaNAc3NAc), and the following structure of a non-stoichiometrically O-acetylated tetrasaccharide repeating unit was established: [equation: see text] The O-specific polysaccharide studied has a unique composition and structure and, accordingly, P. penneri 2 is serologically separate among Proteus strains. Therefore, we propose for P. penneri 2 a new Proteus O-serogroup O66 where this strain is at present the single representative.  (+info)

Hypermutation in pathogenic bacteria: frequent phase variation in meningococci is a phenotypic trait of a specialized mutator biotype. (3/105)

Expression of serogroup B meningococcal capsular polysaccharide undergoes frequent phase variation involving reversible frameshift mutations within a homopolymeric repeat in the siaD gene. A high rate of phase variation is the consequence of a biochemical defect in methyl-directed mismatch repair. The mutator phenotype is associated to the absence of DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) activity in all pathogenic isolates and in 50% of commensal strains. Analysis of the meningococcal dam gene region revealed that in all Dam- strains a gene encoding a putative restriction endonuclease (drg) that cleaves only the methylated DNA sequence 5'-GmeATC-3' replaced the dam gene. Insertional inactivation of the dam and/or drg genes indicated that high rates of phase variation and hypermutator phenotype are caused by absence of a functional dam gene.  (+info)

Protein GRAB of streptococcus pyogenes regulates proteolysis at the bacterial surface by binding alpha2-macroglobulin. (4/105)

In the molecular interplay between pathogenic microorganisms and their host, proteolytic mechanisms are believed to play a crucial role. Here we find that the important human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus) expresses a surface protein with high affinity (Ka = 2.0 x 10(8) M-1) for alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2M), the dominating proteinase inhibitor of human plasma. The immunoglobulin-binding protein G of group C and G streptococci also contains an alpha2M-binding domain and a gene encoding protein GRAB (protein G-related alpha2M-binding protein) was identified in the S. pyogenes Genome Sequencing data base. The grab gene is present in most S. pyogenes strains and is well conserved. Protein GRAB has typical features of a surface-attached protein of Gram-positive bacteria. It also contains a region homologous to parts of the alpha2M-binding domain of protein G and a variable number of a unique 28-amino acid-long repeat. Using Escherichia coli-produced protein GRAB and synthetic GRAB peptides, the alpha2M-binding region was mapped to the NH2-terminal part of protein GRAB, which is the region with homology to protein G. An isogenic S. pyogenes mutant lacking surface-associated protein GRAB showed no alpha2M binding activity and was attenuated in virulence when injected intraperitoneally in mice. Finally, alpha2M bound to the bacterial surface via protein GRAB was found to entrap and inhibit the activity of both S. pyogenes and host proteinases, thereby protecting important virulence determinants from proteolytic degradation. This regulation of proteolytic activity at the bacterial surface should affect the host-microbe relation during S. pyogenes infections.  (+info)

A low rate of nucleotide changes in Escherichia coli K-12 estimated from a comparison of the genome sequences between two different substrains. (5/105)

Two genome sequences of Escherichia coli K-12 substrains, one partial W3110 and one complete MG1655, have been determined by Japanese and American genome projects, respectively. In order to estimate the rate of nucleotide changes, we directly compared 2 Mb of the nucleotide sequences from these closely-related E. coli substrains. Given that the two substrains separated about 40 years ago, the rate of nucleotide changes was estimated to be less than 10(-7) per site per year. This rate was supported by a further comparison between partial genome sequences of E. coli and Shigella flexneri.  (+info)

The routine serological investigation of cases and contacts of rubella. (6/105)

The results of testing sera from 111 patients with rubella-like illnesses and 283 contacts of patients with rubella-like illnesses are described. A sensitive haemagglutination-inhibition test was used in conjunction with fractionation of serum proteins when this was indicated. It was concluded that the testing of serum protein fractions for IgM and IgG rubella antibody greatly increased the effectiveness of laboratory diagnosis. Evidence is presented that during the study period subclinical rubella was relatively uncommon in adults and that the accuracy of clinical diagnosis was high.  (+info)

First episodes of genital herpes in a Swedish STD population: a study of epidemiology and transmission by the use of herpes simplex virus (HSV) typing and specific serology. (7/105)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV type 2 (HSV-2) in first episodes of genital herpes. To evaluate the use of HSV specific serology for classifying first episodes of genital herpes and for defining HSV serostatus in the patients' sexual partners. METHODS: 108 consecutive patients with first episodes of genital herpes seen at three STD clinics in Sweden from 1995 to 1999 were included in the study. HSV culture and typing were performed and serum was tested for antibodies against a type common HSV antigen and a type specific HSV-2 antigen, glycoprotein G2 (gG2). A structured interview including questions about sexual behaviour and sexual partners was taken. "Steady" partners were offered a blood test for HSV serology and counselling. RESULTS: Of 108 patients, 11 had a negative HSV culture. Of the 97 who were HSV culture positive, 44% (43/97) were typed as HSV-1 and 56% (54/97) as HSV-2. For 86 of these 97 patients, HSV serology from the initial visit was available. Of 52 primary infections, thus initially seronegative, 64% were HSV-1 infections and of 19 female primary infections 16 (84%) were HSV-1. In 17% the first episode of genital herpes corresponded to the first clinical recurrence of an infection acquired earlier in life. There was a significant correlation between having orogenital sex and being infected with HSV-1 and also a history of labial herpes in the partner. Only 20% of partners of patients with an HSV-2 infection had a history of genital herpes. CONCLUSIONS: Almost half of first episodes of genital herpes are caused by HSV-1. In young women with a primary genital infection, HSV-1 is much more frequent than HSV-2. Besides HSV typing, we found specific HSV serology of value for classifying first episodes and for diagnosing a subclinical HSV-2 infection in partners. Anamnestic data supported the suggestion that the orogenital route of transmission was common in genital HSV-1 infections.  (+info)

Autoantibodies in childhood connective tissue diseases and in normal children. (8/105)

The prevalence of nine serum autoantibodies has been studied in 117 children with various connective tissue disorders and in 134 normal controls. In juvenile rheumatoid arthritis rheumatoid factor was present in 5%, and antinuclear factor in 4%, compared with an incidence of 4% and 0% respectively in controls. In Henoch-Schonlein purpura there was little evidence of associated autoimmune disorder. Gastric parietal cell and thyroid microsomal antibodies were found in 9% and 10% of our control population, but the significance of this is not clear. It is concluded that in children the presence or absence of autoantibodies as diagnostic criteria should be interpreted with the greatest caution.  (+info)

  • Antibody or serology tests look for antibodies in your blood to determine if you had a past infection with the virus that causes COVID-19. (cdc.gov)
  • focus of serology portion of course is on detection of disease and pregnancy based on antigen-antibody reactions, using a variety of immunologic methods. (oakton.edu)
  • What is antibody (serology) testing? (uclahealth.org)
  • An antibody or serology test is a blood test that looks for signs of a previous COVID-19 infection. (uclahealth.org)
  • We also wanted to evaluate if antibody titers in CHD patients differed according to sampling time in relation to cardiac events compared to the variation pattern over time in healthy individuals, and, finally, we wanted to see if the stage of CHD influenced the serology results. (asm.org)
  • For example, one of the most highly publicized serology studies, COVID-19 Antibody Seroprevalence in Santa Clara County, California , is undergoing extensive criticism from epidemiologists and other experts in blogs and on Twitte. (healthjournalism.org)
  • Serological tests may also be used in forensic serology, specifically for a piece of evidence (e.g., linking a rapist to a semen sample). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Serology department is concerned with research into and diagnosis of infective diseases , using the commonest serological methods, such as rapid and slow seroagglutination, complement fixation, indirect and competitive ELISA tests, indirect immunofluorescence, immunodiffusion in agar gel and MAT. (izs.it)
  • Given the ubiquitous use of serology as a tool for surveillance and epidemiological modeling of wildlife diseases, it is imperative to consider the strengths and limitations of serological test methodologies and interpretation of results, particularly when using data that may affect management and policy for the prevention and control of infectious diseases in wildlife. (springer.com)
  • Serology testing (assay) is largely used by forensic laboratories to analyze blood samples from suspects and bloodstains collected at the crime scene, in order to identify blood types of victims and assailants. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Our team has worked with many of the leading assay manufacturers worldwide and has extensive experience with serology and molecular applications. (seracare.com)
  • To address this problem, Tarhoni and his team used xMAP Technology to develop a new serology assay for COVID-19-one that would take advantage of its multiplexing capabilities by incorporating four viral antigens, ensuring the most accurate results possible. (luminexcorp.com)
  • Sera from residents of six communities, some of which had outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis due to contamination of their drinking water, were also tested to determine the usefulness of serology at a population level.The first objective of this project was to determine the sensitivity of the second-generation enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) developed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and of a previously described immunoblot assay. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Serology using bovine cyst fluid in an immunoblot assay was 85% sensitive. (ajtmh.org)
  • In the sphere of the work of the Institute's Reference Centres and Laboratories, the Serology Department organizes, manages and takes part in interlaboratory circuits at national and international le vel. (izs.it)
  • Immune-serology laboratories often process large number of samples and require consistent ultrapure water (Type 1 Water) delivered to connected analyzers. (elgalabwater.com)
  • Their chemistry and immune-serology laboratories process between 7000 and 8000 samples per day sent by small and medium-sized clinics across Korea. (elgalabwater.com)
  • Immune-serology laboratories require Type 1 Ultrapure water to ensure no contamination of samples occurs which may alter the results. (elgalabwater.com)
  • We anticipate that these peptide antigens will improve chlamydial serology by providing easily accessible assays to nonspecialist laboratories. (asm.org)
  • Studies of infectious disease ecology rely on robust surveillance of pathogens in reservoir hosts, often based on serology, which is the detection of specific antibodies in the blood and is used to infer infection history. (springer.com)
  • The authors determined prospectively the diagnostic value of virus serology as compared to EMB and viral genome detection and immunohistochemistry in patients with clinically suspected myocarditis. (escardio.org)
  • DIGITAL.CSIC: Detection of pig farms with Ornithodoros erraticus by pig serology. (csic.es)
  • This reactivity disappeared on deglycosylated SGE-2 (SGE-2-P). Therefore, SGE-2-P is the antigen that confers the greatest specificity to serology. (csic.es)
  • RePub, Erasmus University Repository: Ruptured Echinococcus granulosus cysts in migrants: Is excessive antigen release causing false negative serology? (eur.nl)
  • Evaluation of hepatitis C , hepatitis B, and HIV virus Serology pandemic in thalassemia patients of Shahid Mohammadi Hospital of Bandar Abbas, Iran Thalassemia patients are prone to the hepatitis C , B, and HIV virus, due to their constant need to receive blood transfusions. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Virus serology in patients with suspected myocarditis: utility or futility? (escardio.org)
  • Samples for virus serology were collected before EMBs and in 30 patients second samples were drawn 7-28 days after the initial sample. (escardio.org)
  • Q. Iman, E. Dewi and B. Syed, "Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma in a Patient with Positive Hepatitis B Virus Serology*," Open Journal of Blood Diseases , Vol. 3 No. 4, 2013, pp. 105-107. (scirp.org)
  • Thus, phylograms of B cell epitope regions predict the specificity of peptide antigens for rational use in the genus-, species-, or serovar-specific molecular serology of Chlamydia spp. (asm.org)
  • Serology can determine whether an individual was exposed in the past or if he is presently infected with a variety of pathogens (disease-causing organisms), such as hepatitis, measles, anthrax , syphilis, or HIV . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Serology in general, which describes changes in the immunological potency of body fluids after infection with a specific pathogen under diagnostic aspects, has gained increasing importance over the last 20 years for microbiology. (springer.com)
  • Serology is such a convenient diagnostic tool because the immune system produces specific molecular tags in the blood for practically each foreign substance or invading microorganism. (encyclopedia.com)
  • PCR and serology are more widely available, but their diagnostic value is not well established. (cdc.gov)
  • More than 2.4 million SARS-CoV-2 IgG serology (initiated April 21, 2020) and 6.6 million nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) (initiated March 9, 2020) results on persons from across the United States as of July 10, 2020 were analyzed. (flutrackers.com)
  • Additional IgG serology results through August 11, 2020 were used for one household analysis. (flutrackers.com)
  • Although some investigations are based on direct immunofluorescence or PCR demonstrating C. pneumoniae in situ in the atherosclerotic plaque, most studies are based on serology, using different methods to detect human antibodies against the organism. (asm.org)
  • Serology is the scientific study of serum and other bodily fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serology is therefore the study of the properties of serum. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Serology: the study or examination of blood serum, with regard to the response of the immune system to pathogens or newly introduced substances. (labroots.com)
  • Serology is the study of blood serum (the clear fluid that separates when blood clots). (nyhq.org)
  • The serology was positive in 31/235 (13%) serum samples, and in 27/235 (11%) DBS: 4 samples resulted discordant (positive at standard serology). (frontiersin.org)
  • Common obstacles to the use of serology in surveys conducted in the field are due to storage (mostly lack of controlled systems that guarantee the maintenance of the samples within a given temperature range) and transport of the serum samples, particularly for studies in remote areas of the world. (frontiersin.org)
  • Properly performed serology requires appropriate amounts of uncontaminated serum. (psu.edu)
  • Serology is the examination of the blood to determine the presence of antibodies in the serum which typically forms in response to an infection against a particular microorganism. (elgalabwater.com)
  • Serology testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) will be useful for public health decisions and research but will not have wide application for clinical care, according to a review article in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal) . (mcgill.ca)
  • Often there is a considerable delay between the onset of the infection and clinical myocarditis, which diminishes the possibilities of using serology. (escardio.org)
  • Toxoplasma IgG testing will be performed on all requests for Toxoplasma serology when immunity is requested or when there is no clinical information indicated on the requisition. (publichealthontario.ca)
  • The first visit included clinical and epidemiologic evaluations and the collection of blood samples for A. phagocytophilum serology, May Grünwald-Giemsa staining, and A. phagocytophilum -specific PCR. (cdc.gov)
  • significantly to the foundation of serology, the study of immune reactions in body fluids. (britannica.com)
  • Building on the established relationship, JM Corporation successfully completed the installation of a further four MEDICA Pro 120 units, ensuring the consistent delivery of high quality purified water to meet the demands of a growing immune-serology laboratory. (elgalabwater.com)
  • NK-like T cells and plasma cytokines, but not anti-viral serology, define immune fingerprints of resilience and mild disability in exceptional aging. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • IgG serology testing can identify an immune response to SARS-CoV-2 that varies based on age, sex, and duration since exposure. (flutrackers.com)
  • Autoimmune liver serology before and after successful treatment of chronic hepatitis C by direct acting antiviral agents. (tripdatabase.com)
  • The Immunology & Serology section provides services for Autoimmune serology, Allergen-Specific IgE serology, Infectious Diseases serology (excludes viral serology) and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) serology. (sgh.com.sg)
  • Our study indicates that colonisation screening based on H pylori serology, a history of sinister symptoms, or a history of NSAID use was worthwhile in dyspeptic patients. (nih.gov)
  • This case highlights the impor tance of testing for hepatitis B serology in patients diagnosed with splenic MZLs as causative agent. (scirp.org)
  • The positive predictive value of Borrelia burgdorferi serology in the light of symptoms of patients sent to an outpatient service for tick-borne diseases. (prohealth.com)
  • For each pathogen, between 3 and 5 specific antigens were recombinantly expressed as GST-tag fusion proteins in Escherichia coli and tested in Monoplex Serology , i.e. assays restricted to the antigens from one particular pathogen. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Serology had a lower specificity but higher sensitivity when testing acute and convalescent samples. (cdc.gov)
  • We present a case in which an elderly woman diagnosed with a splenic marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) was found to have positive Hepatitis B serology. (scirp.org)
  • Serology of parasitic infections, in particular, gained much from the in vitro cultivation of parasites and the production of monoclonal antibodies. (springer.com)
  • Send blood specimens in Lithium Heparin tubes (green cap) to the Immunology & Serology Lab. (sgh.com.sg)
  • Contact the serology section of the laboratory to which you are submitting specimens in advance when you need a group of animals tested within certain time constraints. (psu.edu)
  • The authors suggest that results from serology testing may be used to estimate rates of exposure and transmission in specific populations, geographic areas and workplaces. (mcgill.ca)
  • Serology and PCR results showed a high level of agreement (113/121) for infants and children. (nih.gov)
  • It's also important to understand what serology studies and results mean - and don't mean - when it comes to herd immunity. (healthjournalism.org)