Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Serologic tests for syphilis.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A disease of cattle caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA leading to abortion in late pregnancy. BRUCELLA ABORTUS is the primary infective agent.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Infection caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA mainly involving the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. This condition is characterized by fever, weakness, malaise, and weight loss.
Precipitin tests which occur over a narrow range of antigen-antibody ratio, due chiefly to peculiarities of the antibody (precipitin). (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A bright bluish pink compound that has been used as a dye, biological stain, and diagnostic aid.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes BRUCELLOSIS. Its cells are nonmotile coccobacilli and are animal parasites and pathogens. The bacterium is transmissible to humans through contact with infected dairy products or tissue.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Syphilis acquired in utero and manifested by any of several characteristic tooth (Hutchinson's teeth) or bone malformations and by active mucocutaneous syphilis at birth or shortly thereafter. Ocular and neurologic changes may also occur.
Infections with bacteria of the genus TREPONEMA.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Syphilis serodiagnosis employing as the antigen Treponema pallidum obtained from rabbit syphilis orchitis. Treponemes are kept alive for a few hours in a special medium. When syphilitic serum and complement are added and incubated, the treponemes are immobilized, i.e., stop moving.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are cattle and other bovidae. Abortion and placentitis are frequently produced in the pregnant animal. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected.
Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.
The causative agent of venereal and non-venereal syphilis as well as yaws.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
Antibodies, especially IGE, that bind to tissue of the same species so that ANTIGENS induce release of HISTAMINE and other vasoactive agents. HYPERSENSITIVITY is the clinical manifestation.
Infection with a fungus of the genus COCCIDIOIDES, endemic to the SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES. It is sometimes called valley fever but should not be confused with RIFT VALLEY FEVER. Infection is caused by inhalation of airborne, fungal particles known as arthroconidia, a form of FUNGAL SPORES. A primary form is an acute, benign, self-limited respiratory infection. A secondary form is a virulent, severe, chronic, progressive granulomatous disease with systemic involvement. It can be detected by use of COCCIDIOIDIN.
Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are sheep and goats. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected. In general, these organisms tend to be more virulent for laboratory animals than BRUCELLA ABORTUS and may cause fatal infections.
A family of terrestrial carnivores with long, slender bodies, long tails, and anal scent glands. They include badgers, weasels, martens, FERRETS; MINKS; wolverines, polecats, and OTTERS.
A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.
A severe form of LEPTOSPIROSIS, usually caused by LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS SEROVAR ICTEROHAEMORRHAGIAE and occasionally other serovars. It is transmitted to humans by the rat and is characterized by hemorrhagic and renal symptoms with accompanying JAUNDICE.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
Infections of the central nervous system caused by TREPONEMA PALLIDUM which present with a variety of clinical syndromes. The initial phase of infection usually causes a mild or asymptomatic meningeal reaction. The meningovascular form may present acutely as BRAIN INFARCTION. The infection may also remain subclinical for several years. Late syndromes include general paresis; TABES DORSALIS; meningeal syphilis; syphilitic OPTIC ATROPHY; and spinal syphilis. General paresis is characterized by progressive DEMENTIA; DYSARTHRIA; TREMOR; MYOCLONUS; SEIZURES; and Argyll-Robertson pupils. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp722-8)
A self-limiting bacterial infection of the regional lymph nodes caused by AFIPIA felis, a gram-negative bacterium recently identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and by BARTONELLA HENSELAE. It usually arises one or more weeks following a feline scratch, with raised inflammatory nodules at the site of the scratch being the primary symptom.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.
Infections with bacteria of the genus LEPTOSPIRA.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
A systemic non-venereal infection of the tropics caused by TREPONEMA PALLIDUM subspecies pertenue.
Anogenital ulcers caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis as distinguished from lymphogranuloma inguinale (see LYMPHOGRANULOMA VENEREUM) caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. Diagnosis is made by demonstration of typical intracellular Donovan bodies in crushed-tissue smears.
A bacterial vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in man and animal. Brucella abortus vaccine is used for the immunization of cattle, sheep, and goats.
A species of gram-negative bacteria that is the etiologic agent of bacillary angiomatosis (ANGIOMATOSIS, BACILLARY). This organism can also be a cause of CAT-SCRATCH DISEASE in immunocompetent patients.
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
The study of serum, especially of antigen-antibody reactions in vitro.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
A method for diagnosing a disease in one organism by inoculating the putative causative organism in a second animal of a different species. It has been used for the detection of parasites (Trypanosoma cruzi and Trichinella spiralis) when peripheral blood smears are negative. (Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995)
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.
Interstitial pneumonia caused by extensive infection of the lungs (LUNG) and BRONCHI, particularly the lower lobes of the lungs, by MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE in humans. In SHEEP, it is caused by MYCOPLASMA OVIPNEUMONIAE. In CATTLE, it may be caused by MYCOPLASMA DISPAR.
An infection caused by the infestation of the larval form of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The liver, lungs, and kidney are the most common areas of infestation.
Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.
Short filamentous organism of the genus Mycoplasma, which binds firmly to the cells of the respiratory epithelium. It is one of the etiologic agents of non-viral primary atypical pneumonia in man.
Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.
Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.
A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.
A test to detect non-agglutinating ANTIBODIES against ERYTHROCYTES by use of anti-antibodies (the Coombs' reagent.) The direct test is applied to freshly drawn blood to detect antibody bound to circulating red cells. The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibodies that can bind to red blood cells.
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.
A mitosporic fungal genus which causes COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS.
Helminth infection of the lung caused by Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis.
Infections of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; or MENINGES caused by HELMINTHS (parasitic worms).
A genus of bacteria causing GRANULOMA INGUINALE and other granulomatous lesions.
Skin tests in which the sensitizer is injected.
The region of the thorax that includes the PLEURAL CAVITY and MEDIASTINUM.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
An acute infectious disease caused by COXIELLA BURNETII. It is characterized by a sudden onset of FEVER; HEADACHE; malaise; and weakness. In humans, it is commonly contracted by inhalation of infected dusts derived from infected domestic animals (ANIMALS, DOMESTIC).
A genus of aerobic, helical spirochetes, some species of which are pathogenic, others free-living or saprophytic.
Infection of the genitals (GENITALIA) with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in either the males or the females.
A genus of very small TAPEWORMS, in the family Taeniidae. The adult form is found in various CARNIVORA but not humans. The larval form is seen in humans under certain epidemiologic circumstances.
A chronic granulomatous infection caused by MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. The granulomatous lesions are manifested in the skin, the mucous membranes, and the peripheral nerves. Two polar or principal types are lepromatous and tuberculoid.
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
A species of SIMPLEXVIRUS associated with genital infections (HERPES GENITALIS). It is transmitted by sexual intercourse and close personal contact.
Semisynthetic antibiotic prepared by combining the sodium salt of penicillin G with N,N'-dibenzylethylenediamine.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Inflammation of the lymph nodes.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Species of tapeworm in the genus TAENIA, that infects swine. It is acquired by humans through the ingestion of cured or undercooked pork.
Antibodies which elicit IMMUNOPRECIPITATION when combined with antigen.
A genus of microorganisms of the order SPIROCHAETALES, many of which are pathogenic and parasitic for man and animals.
Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.
Single or multiple areas of PUS due to infection by any ameboid protozoa (AMEBIASIS). A common form is caused by the ingestion of ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA.
A deep type of gyrate erythema that follows a bite by an ixodid tick; it is a stage-1 manifestation of LYME DISEASE. The site of the bite is characterized by a red papule that expands peripherally as a nonscaling, palpable band that clears centrally. This condition is often associated with systemic symptoms such as chills, fever, headache, malaise, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, backache, and stiff neck.
A chronic GASTROENTERITIS in RUMINANTS caused by MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSPECIES PARATUBERCULOSIS.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Transglutaminases catalyze cross-linking of proteins at a GLUTAMINE in one chain with LYSINE in another chain. They include keratinocyte transglutaminase (TGM1 or TGK), tissue transglutaminase (TGM2 or TGC), plasma transglutaminase involved with coagulation (FACTOR XIII and FACTOR XIIIa), hair follicle transglutaminase, and prostate transglutaminase. Although structures differ, they share an active site (YGQCW) and strict CALCIUM dependence.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
A subspecies of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. It is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease (PARATUBERCULOSIS), a chronic GASTROENTERITIS in RUMINANTS.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
A mycosis affecting the skin, mucous membranes, lymph nodes, and internal organs. It is caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It is also called paracoccidioidal granuloma. Superficial resemblance of P. brasiliensis to Blastomyces brasiliensis (BLASTOMYCES) may cause misdiagnosis.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
Prenatal protozoal infection with TOXOPLASMA gondii which is associated with injury to the developing fetal nervous system. The severity of this condition is related to the stage of pregnancy during which the infection occurs; first trimester infections are associated with a greater degree of neurologic dysfunction. Clinical features include HYDROCEPHALUS; MICROCEPHALY; deafness; cerebral calcifications; SEIZURES; and psychomotor retardation. Signs of a systemic infection may also be present at birth, including fever, rash, and hepatosplenomegaly. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p735)
A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.
A mitosporic fungal genus. P. brasiliensis (previously Blastomyces brasiliensis) is the etiologic agent of PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
The period of recovery following an illness.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Its species are parasitic in dogs, cattle, goats, and sheep, among others. N. caninum, a species that mainly infects dogs, is intracellular in neural and other cells of the body, multiplies by endodyogeny, has no parasitophorous vacuole, and has numerous rhoptries. It is known to cause lesions in many tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord as well as abortion in the expectant mother.
An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
Infection resulting from inhalation or ingestion of spores of the fungus of the genus HISTOPLASMA, species H. capsulatum. It is worldwide in distribution and particularly common in the midwestern United States. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A disease of humans and animals that resembles GLANDERS. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA PSEUDOMALLEI and may range from a dormant infection to a condition that causes multiple abscesses, pneumonia, and bacteremia.
Simple protein, one of the prolamines, derived from the gluten of wheat, rye, etc. May be separated into 4 discrete electrophoretic fractions. It is the toxic factor associated with CELIAC DISEASE.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes Gambian or West African sleeping sickness in humans. The vector host is usually the tsetse fly (Glossina).
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.
Impaired digestion, especially after eating.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.
A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that causes LEPROSY in man. Its organisms are generally arranged in clumps, rounded masses, or in groups of bacilli side by side.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.
A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.
A disease of the CARDIAC MUSCLE developed subsequent to the initial protozoan infection by TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI. After infection, less than 10% develop acute illness such as MYOCARDITIS (mostly in children). The disease then enters a latent phase without clinical symptoms until about 20 years later. Myocardial symptoms of advanced CHAGAS DISEASE include conduction defects (HEART BLOCK) and CARDIOMEGALY.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Infections with species of the genus MYCOPLASMA.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
A species of parasitic protozoa causing ENTAMOEBIASIS and amebic dysentery (DYSENTERY, AMEBIC). Characteristics include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded.
Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A lesion on the surface of the skin or a mucous surface, produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
A species of CHLAMYDOPHILA that causes acute respiratory infection, especially atypical pneumonia, in humans, horses, and koalas.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDOPHILA.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Ulcer that occurs in the regions of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT which come into contact with GASTRIC JUICE containing PEPSIN and GASTRIC ACID. It occurs when there are defects in the MUCOSA barrier. The common forms of peptic ulcers are associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI and the consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.

Association of simian virus 40 with a central nervous system lesion distinct from progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in macaques with AIDS. (1/2140)

The primate polyomavirus SV40 is known to cause interstitial nephritis in primary infections and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) upon reactivation of a latent infection in SIV-infected macaques. We now describe a second central nervous system manifestation of SV40: a meningoencephalitis affecting cerebral gray matter, without demyelination, distinct from PML. Meningoencephalitis appears also to be a primary manifestation of SV40 infection and can be seen in conjunction with SV40-induced interstitial nephritis and pneumonitis. The difference in the lesions of meningoencephalitis and PML does not appear to be due to cellular tropism, as both oligodendrocytes and astrocytes are infected in PML and meningoencephalitis, as determined by in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry for SV40 coupled with immunohistochemistry for cellular determinants. This is further supported by examination of SV40 nucleic acid sequences from the ori-enhancer and large-T-antigen regions, which reveals no tissue-or lesion-specific variation in SV40 sequences.  (+info)

Predominant immunoglobulin A response to phase II antigen of Coxiella burnetii in acute Q fever. (2/2140)

Diagnosis of acute Q fever is usually confirmed by serology, on the basis of anti-phase II antigen immunoglobulin M (IgM) titers of >/=1:50 and IgG titers of >/=1:200. Phase I antibodies, especially IgG and IgA, are predominant in chronic forms of the disease. However, between January 1982 and June 1998, we observed anti-phase II antigen IgA titers of >/=1:200 as the sole or main antibody response in 10 of 1,034 (0.96%) patients with acute Q fever for whom information was available. In order to determine whether specific epidemiological or clinical factors were associated with these serological profiles, we conducted a retrospective case-control study that included completion of a standardized questionnaire, which was given to 40 matched controls who also suffered from acute Q fever. The mean age of patients with elevated phase II IgA titers was significantly higher than that usually observed for patients with acute Q fever (P = 0.026); the patients were also more likely than controls to live in rural areas (P = 0.026) and to have increased levels of transaminase in blood (P = 0.03). Elevated IgA titers are usually associated with chronic Q fever and are directed mainly at phase I antigens. Although the significance of our findings is unexplained, we herein emphasize the fact that IgA antibodies are not specific for chronic forms of Q fever and that they may occasionally be observed in patients with acute disease. Moreover, as such antibody profiles may not be determined by most laboratories, which test only for total antibody titers to phase I and II antigens, the three isotype-specific Ig titers should be determined as the first step in diagnosing Q fever.  (+info)

Potential value of major antigenic protein 2 for serological diagnosis of heartwater and related ehrlichial infections. (3/2140)

Cowdria ruminantium is the etiologic agent of heartwater, a disease causing major economic loss in ruminants in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean. Development of a serodiagnostic test is essential for determining the carrier status of animals from regions where heartwater is endemic, but most available tests give false-positive reactions with sera against related Erhlichia species. Current approaches rely on molecular methods to define proteins and epitopes that may allow specific diagnosis. Two major antigenic proteins (MAPs), MAP1 and MAP2, have been examined for their use as antigens in the serodiagnosis of heartwater. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine if MAP2 is conserved among five geographically divergent strains of C. ruminantium and (ii) to determine if MAP2 homologs are present in Ehrlichia canis, the causative agent of canine ehrlichiosis, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the organism responsible for human monocytic ehrlichiosis. These two agents are closely related to C. ruminantium. The map2 gene from four strains of C. ruminantium was cloned, sequenced, and compared with the previously reported map2 gene from the Crystal Springs strain. Only 10 nucleic acid differences between the strains were identified, and they translate to only 3 amino acid changes, indicating that MAP2 is highly conserved. Genes encoding MAP2 homologs from E. canis and E. chaffeensis also were cloned and sequenced. Amino acid analysis of MAP2 homologs of E. chaffeensis and E. canis with MAP2 of C. ruminantium revealed 83.4 and 84.4% identities, respectively. Further analysis of MAP2 and its homologs revealed that the whole protein lacks specificity for heartwater diagnosis. The development of epitope-specific assays using this sequence information may produce diagnostic tests suitable for C. ruminantium and also other related rickettsiae.  (+info)

Human herpesviruses in chronic fatigue syndrome. (4/2140)

We have conducted a double-blind study to assess the possible involvement of the human herpesviruses (HHVs) HHV6, HHV7, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and cytomegalovirus in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients compared to age-, race-, and gender-matched controls. The CFS patient population was composed of rigorously screened civilian and Persian Gulf War veterans meeting the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's CFS case definition criteria. Healthy control civilian and veteran populations had no evidence of CFS or any other exclusionary medical or psychiatric condition. Patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analyzed by PCR for the presence of these HHVs. Using two-tailed Fisher's exact test analyses, we were unable to ascertain any statistically significant differences between the CFS patient and control populations in terms of the detection of one or more of these viruses. This observation was upheld when the CFS populations were further stratified with regard to the presence or absence of major axis I psychopathology and patient self-reported gradual versus acute onset of disease. In tandem, we performed serological analyses of serum anti-EBV and anti-HHV6 antibody titers and found no significant differences between the CFS and control patients.  (+info)

Immunoglobulin subclass distribution and diagnostic value of Leishmania donovani antigen-specific immunoglobulin G3 in Indian kala-azar patients. (5/2140)

Visceral leishmaniasis, or kala-azar, a fatal tropical disease, remains problematic, as early diagnosis is difficult and treatment often results in drug resistance and relapse. We have developed a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using leishmanial membrane antigenic extracts (LAg) to detect specific antibody responses in 25 untreated Indian visceral leishmaniasis patients. To investigate the pathogenetic significance of isotype markers in kala-azar, relative levels of specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, IgA, IgE, and IgG subclasses were analyzed under clinically established diseased conditions. Since LAg showed higher sensitivity for specific IgG than lysate, the immunoglobulin isotype responses were evaluated, with LAg as antigen. Compared to 60 controls, which included patients with malaria, tuberculosis, leprosy, and typhoid and healthy subjects, visceral leishmaniasis patients showed significantly higher IgG (100% sensitivity, 85% specificity), IgM (48% sensitivity, 100% specificity), and IgE (44% sensitivity, 98.3% specificity) responses. Low levels of IgA in visceral leishmaniasis patients contrasted with a 13-fold-higher reactivity in sera from patients with leprosy. Among IgG subclasses, IgG1, -3, and -4 responses were significantly higher in visceral leishmaniasis patients than in the controls. IgG2 response, however, was significantly higher (twofold) in leprosy than even visceral leishmaniasis patients. The rank orders for sensitivity (IgG = IgG1 = IgG3 = IgG4 > IgG2 > IgM > IgE > IgA) and specificity (IgM = IgG3 > IgE > IgG4 > IgG2 > IgG > IgG1 > IgA) for LAg-specific antibody responses suggest the potentiality of IgG3 as a diagnostic marker for visceral leishmaniasis.  (+info)

Performance of competitive and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, gel immunoprecipitation with native hapten polysaccharide, and standard serological tests in diagnosis of sheep brucellosis. (6/2140)

Competitive and standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), rose bengal (RB), complement fixation, and agar gel immunoprecipitation with native hapten (AGID-NH) were compared by using sera from Brucella-free, Brucella melitensis-infected, and B. melitensis Rev1-vaccinated sheep. The most sensitive tests were indirect ELISA and RB, and the most specific tests were AGID-NH and competitive ELISA. We show that RB followed by AGID-NH is a simple and effective system for diagnosing sheep brucellosis.  (+info)

Evaluation of two-test serodiagnostic method for early Lyme disease in clinical practice. (7/2140)

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend a two-test approach for the serodiagnosis of Lyme disease (LD), with EIA testing followed by Western immunoblotting (WB) of EIA-equivocal and -positive specimens. This approach was compared with a simplified two-test approach (WB of EIA equivocals only) and WB alone for early LD. Case-patients with erythema migrans (EM) rash >/=5 cm were recruited from three primary-care practices in LD-endemic areas to provide acute- (S1) and convalescent-phase serum specimens (S2). The simplified approach had the highest sensitivity when either S1 or S2 samples were tested, nearly doubling when S2 were tested, while decreasing slightly for the other two approaches. Accordingly, the simplified approach had the lowest negative likelihood ratio for either S1 or S2. For early LD with EM, the simplified approach performed well and was less costly than the other testing approaches since less WB is required.  (+info)

A reanalysis of IgM Western blot criteria for the diagnosis of early Lyme disease. (8/2140)

A two-step approach for diagnosis of Lyme disease, consisting of an initial EIA followed by a confirmatory Western immunoblot, has been advised by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). However, these criteria do not examine the influence of the prior probability of Lyme disease in a given patient on the predictive value of the tests. By using Bayesian analysis, a mathematical algorithm is proposed that computes the probability that a given patient's Western blot result represents Lyme disease. Assuming prior probabilities of early Lyme disease of 1%-10%, the current CDC minimum criteria for IgM immunoblot interpretation yield posttest probabilities of 4%-32%. The value of the two-step approach for diagnosis of early Lyme disease may be limited in populations at lower risk of disease or when patients present with atypical signs and symptoms.  (+info)

Once infected, humans can experience a range of symptoms including fever, headache, muscle pain, and fatigue. In severe cases, the infection can spread to the bones and joints, causing swelling and pain. Brucellosis can also lead to complications such as endocarditis (inflammation of the heart valves) and meningitis (inflammation of the lining around the brain and spinal cord).

Brucellosis in cows is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and blood samples. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, but it is important to detect and treat the infection early to prevent complications. Prevention measures include vaccination of animals, proper handling and disposal of animal products, and avoiding contact with infected animals or their products.

In addition to its medical significance, brucellosis has also been associated with significant economic losses in the livestock industry due to reduced milk production and fertility issues in infected animals.

There are three stages of syphilis:

1. Primary stage: A small, painless sore or ulcer (called a chancre) appears at the site of infection, usually on the genitals, rectum, or mouth. This sore heals on its own within 2-6 weeks, but the infection remains in the body.
2. Secondary stage: A rash and other symptoms can appear weeks to months after the primary stage. The rash can be accompanied by fever, fatigue, and swollen lymph nodes.
3. Latent stage: After the secondary stage, the infection can enter a latent (hidden) phase, during which there are no visible symptoms but the infection remains in the body. If left untreated, syphilis can progress to the tertiary stage, which can cause serious complications such as damage to the heart, brain, and other organs.

Syphilis is diagnosed through a physical examination, blood tests, and/or a lumbar puncture (spinal tap). Treatment typically involves antibiotics, and early treatment can cure the infection and prevent long-term complications.

Prevention measures include safe sex practices such as using condoms and dental dams, avoiding sexual contact with someone who has syphilis, and getting regularly tested for STIs. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms of syphilis are present, as early treatment can prevent long-term complications.

There are several types of brucellosis, including:

1. Brucella abortus: This type is primarily found in cattle and is the most common form of the disease in humans.
2. Brucella suis: This type is found in pigs and is less common in humans.
3. Brucella melitensis: This type is found in sheep, goats, and other animals, and is more virulent than B. abortus.
4. Brucella canis: This type is found in dogs and is rare in humans.

The symptoms of brucellosis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the individual's overall health. Common symptoms include:

1. Fever
2. Headache
3. Joint pain
4. Muscle pain
5. Swelling of the lymph nodes and spleen
6. Fatigue
7. Loss of appetite
8. Weight loss

In severe cases, brucellosis can cause complications such as:

1. Endocarditis (infection of the heart valves)
2. Meningitis (inflammation of the lining around the brain and spinal cord)
3. Osteomyelitis (infection of the bone)
4. Testicular inflammation in men
5. Epididymitis (inflammation of the epididymis, a tube that carries sperm from the testicle to the penis)
6. Inflammation of the heart muscle and valves
7. Pneumonia
8. Inflammation of the liver and spleen

Brucellosis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, and early treatment can help prevent complications. Prevention measures include avoiding contact with infected animals and ensuring proper hygiene practices when handling livestock or wild game.

The symptoms of Chagas disease can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the location of the parasites in the body. In the acute phase, which typically lasts for weeks to months after infection, symptoms may include fever, fatigue, headache, joint pain, and swelling of the eyelids and neck. In some cases, the infection can spread to the heart and digestive system, leading to life-threatening complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias, and intestinal obstruction.

If left untreated, Chagas disease can enter a chronic phase, which can last for years or even decades. During this phase, symptoms may be less severe but can still include fatigue, joint pain, and cardiac problems. In some cases, the infection can reactivate during pregnancy or after exposure to stress, leading to relapses of acute symptoms.

Chagas disease is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood tests and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves antiparasitic drugs, which can be effective in reducing the severity of symptoms and preventing complications. However, the disease can be difficult to diagnose and treat, particularly in remote areas where medical resources are limited.

Prevention is an important aspect of managing Chagas disease. This includes controlling the population of triatomine bugs through measures such as insecticide spraying and sealing homes, as well as educating people about the risks of the disease and how to avoid infection. In addition, blood banks in areas where Chagas disease is common screen donated blood for the parasite to prevent transmission through blood transfusions.

Overall, Chagas disease is a significant public health problem in Latin America and can have severe consequences if left untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent complications and improve outcomes for those infected with this disease.

Symptoms of congenital syphilis may include:

* Deformities of the face, skull, or bones
* Developmental delays or intellectual disability
* Seizures, blindness, or hearing loss
* Swollen lymph nodes, liver, or spleen
* Rash, fever, or other signs of syphilis infection

Diagnosis of congenital syphilis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical imaging studies. Treatment involves antibiotics to clear the infection and manage symptoms. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment can help prevent long-term complications and improve outcomes for infected babies.

Preventive measures include screening pregnant women for syphilis and treating those who test positive promptly to prevent transmission of the infection to their developing fetuses. Safe sexual practices, such as using condoms, can also help reduce the risk of acquiring syphilis during pregnancy.

Treponemal infections are a group of bacterial infections caused by the bacterium Treponema. These infections are typically transmitted through contact with infected bodily fluids, such as blood or semen, and can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, eyes, and internal organs.

The most common types of treponemal infections include:

1. Syphilis: A sexually transmitted infection (STI) that can cause a range of symptoms, including sores on the genitals, rashes, and fever. If left untreated, syphilis can progress to more advanced stages and cause serious complications, such as damage to the heart, brain, and other organs.
2. Yaws: A bacterial infection that is commonly found in tropical and subtropical regions, yaws can cause skin sores, joint pain, and swollen lymph nodes. It is typically transmitted through contact with infected people or animals.
3. Pinta: A mild form of treponemal infection that is common in South America, pinta can cause skin sores and rashes. It is typically transmitted through contact with infected people.
4. Enchootic treponematosis: A rare form of treponemal infection that can affect the eyes, causing inflammation and vision loss.

Treponemal infections are typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical imaging studies. Treatment usually involves antibiotics to eliminate the bacteria from the body. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged organs.

Prevention measures for treponemal infections include:

1. Safe sex practices: Using condoms and other barrier methods can help prevent the transmission of syphilis and other treponemal infections during sexual activity.
2. Avoiding contact with infected people or animals: In areas where treponemal infections are common, avoiding contact with people or animals that may be infected can help reduce the risk of infection.
3. Good hygiene practices: Keeping wounds and cuts clean and covered can help prevent the transmission of infection.
4. Vaccination: In some cases, vaccination against treponemal infections may be recommended, particularly for individuals who are at high risk of infection.

Overall, treponemal infections can have serious consequences if left untreated, but with prompt and appropriate treatment, many of these infections can be effectively managed and cured.

Lyme disease is typically diagnosed based on a combination of physical symptoms, medical history, and laboratory tests. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, which can help to clear the infection and alleviate symptoms.

Prevention of Lyme disease involves protecting against tick bites by using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing when outdoors, and conducting regular tick checks. Early detection and treatment of Lyme disease can help to prevent long-term complications, such as joint inflammation and neurological problems.

In this definition, we have used technical terms such as 'bacterial infection', 'blacklegged tick', 'Borrelia burgdorferi', and 'antibiotics' to provide a more detailed understanding of the medical concept.

The symptoms of coccidioidomycosis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the individual's immune response. Some people may experience mild symptoms, such as fever, cough, and fatigue, while others may develop more severe symptoms, including pneumonia, meningitis, and bone or skin infections. Skin lesions and rashes are also common.

Diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis typically involves a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment may involve antifungal medications and supportive care to manage symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

Prevention is key in avoiding coccidioidomycosis, which includes avoiding areas with high concentrations of the fungus, using respiratory protection when working in areas where the fungus is present, and taking antifungal medications prophylactically for those who are at high risk.

Prognosis for coccidioidomycosis is generally good for those with mild infections, but can be poor for those with severe infections or underlying conditions such as HIV/AIDS or cancer. Long-term effects of the infection can include lung scarring and joint damage.

The symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis can vary depending on the severity of the infection, but may include:

* Fever
* Fatigue
* Loss of appetite
* Weight loss
* Enlargement of the liver and spleen
* Pain in the abdomen
* Anemia
* Low blood platelet count
* Low white blood cell count

If left untreated, visceral leishmaniasis can be fatal. Treatment is typically with antiparasitic drugs, such as miltefosine or amphotericin B, and supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

It is important to note that visceral leishmaniasis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition, and prompt medical attention is necessary for effective treatment and management.

Symptoms of Weil disease can vary widely, but typically include fever, headache, muscle aches, and vomiting. In severe cases, the infection can spread to the kidneys, liver, and other organs, leading to life-threatening complications.

Diagnosis of Weil disease is typically made through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical imaging. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, and in severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary. Prevention is key, and measures such as avoiding contact with contaminated water and soil, wearing protective clothing when working with animals or in areas where the bacteria may be present, and vaccination of animals can help reduce the risk of infection.

Weil disease was first described by the French physician Charles-Jean-Marie Philoteaux Weil in 1886. It is most commonly found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, where it is often associated with flooding and poor sanitation. Outbreaks of Weil disease have been reported in many parts of the world, including Asia, Africa, and the Americas.

In conclusion, Weil disease is a serious bacterial infection that can be transmitted between animals and humans. While it is preventable and treatable with antibiotics, it can lead to life-threatening complications if left untreated. Therefore, it is important to be aware of the risks of infection and take appropriate precautions when working with animals or in areas where the bacteria may be present.

Neurosyphilis can occur at any stage of syphilis, but it is most common in the late stages of the infection. The symptoms of neurosyphilis can be diverse and may include:

1. Meningitis: Inflammation of the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord (meninges).
2. Encephalitis: Inflammation of the brain tissue.
3. Cranial nerve palsies: Weakness or paralysis of the nerves that control eye movements, facial muscles, and other functions.
4. Seizures: Convulsions or fits can occur in severe cases of neurosyphilis.
5. Dementia: Confusion, memory loss, and personality changes can occur in advanced stages of the infection.
6. Tabes dorsalis: A condition that affects the spinal cord, causing weakness, numbness, and pain in the legs.
7. Papaiacquine: A condition that affects the brain and spinal cord, leading to difficulty with coordination and balance.

Neurosyphilis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, and early treatment can help prevent long-term complications and improve outcomes.

If left untreated, neurosyphilis can lead to serious long-term complications, including:

1. Meningovascular syphilis: Inflammation of the blood vessels in the meninges can lead to stroke or death.
2. General paresis: Permanent damage to the brain and spinal cord can result in personality changes, cognitive impairment, and loss of coordination and balance.
3. Tabes dorsalis: Permanent damage to the spinal cord can cause weakness, numbness, and pain in the legs, leading to a condition known as "parkinsonism."
4. Late benign syphilis: A condition characterized by progressive loss of vision, blindness, and other neurological symptoms.
5. Cardiovascular syphilis: Inflammation of the heart and blood vessels can lead to heart failure, aortic aneurysms, and other cardiovascular complications.

It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you or someone you know may have neurosyphilis, as early treatment can help prevent long-term complications and improve outcomes.

In more detail, the definition of 'Cat-Scratch Disease' in the medical field can be broken down into the following components:

1. Cat scratch or bite: The disease is transmitted to humans through the scratch or bite of an infected cat.
2. Bartonella henselae: The bacteria that causes the disease is Bartonella henselae.
3. Infected cats: The disease is typically found in domestic and wild cats, as well as in their fleas and lice.
4. Variety of symptoms: CDS can cause a range of symptoms including fever, headache, swollen lymph nodes, and skin lesions.
5. Diagnosis based on clinical presentation and laboratory tests: The diagnosis is based on a combination of the patient's symptoms, laboratory tests such as blood cultures and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and serology.
6. Supportive treatment: Treatment for CDS is primarily supportive, with antibiotics reserved for severe cases or those with complications.
7. More common in children: Children are more susceptible to CDS than adults, as they are more likely to come into contact with infected cats and have a weaker immune system.

The symptoms of toxoplasmosis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the individual's overall health. In some cases, it may cause mild flu-like symptoms or no symptoms at all. However, in severe cases, it can lead to complications such as brain inflammation, eye infections, and pneumonia.

Toxoplasmosis is a significant public health concern due to its potential to affect anyone and its ability to cause serious complications, especially in certain populations such as pregnant women, people with weakened immune systems, and the elderly. It is important for individuals who may be at risk of contracting the disease to take preventive measures such as avoiding undercooked meat, washing hands frequently, and avoiding contact with cat feces.

Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis typically involves a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include blood tests or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the parasite's DNA in the body. Imaging studies such as ultrasound or computerized tomography (CT) scans may be used to evaluate any complications of the disease.

Treatment for toxoplasmosis typically involves antibiotics to control the infection and manage symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat any complications. Prevention is key to avoiding this disease, as there is no vaccine available to protect against it.

The diagnosis of leptospirosis is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and the patient's exposure history. The most common diagnostic test is a blood test that detects antibodies against Leptospira. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and supportive care to manage symptoms.

Prevention of leptospirosis includes avoiding exposure to contaminated water, soil, or food, wearing protective clothing when working with animals or in areas where the bacteria may be present, and vaccinating animals that are at risk of infection. The disease is more common in tropical and subtropical regions, and it affects people who work outdoors or engage in activities that expose them to contaminated water, such as farmers, veterinarians, and sewer workers.

In medical terminology, leptospirosis is classified as a zoonotic disease, meaning it can be transmitted between animals and humans. The bacteria that cause the infection are gram-negative, aerobic, and helical shaped, and they belong to the family Leptospiraceae.

In summary, leptospirosis is a bacterial infection that can affect both humans and animals, and it is spread through contact with contaminated water, soil, or food. It can cause a wide range of symptoms, from mild to severe, and can lead to serious complications if left untreated. Prevention measures include avoiding exposure to contaminated sources, wearing protective clothing, and vaccinating animals at risk.

Cattle diseases refer to any health issues that affect cattle, including bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections, as well as genetic disorders and environmental factors. These diseases can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of cattle, as well as the livelihoods of farmers and ranchers who rely on them for their livelihood.

Types of Cattle Diseases

There are many different types of cattle diseases, including:

1. Bacterial diseases, such as brucellosis, anthrax, and botulism.
2. Viral diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and bluetongue.
3. Parasitic diseases, such as heartwater and gapeworm.
4. Genetic disorders, such as polledness and cleft palate.
5. Environmental factors, such as heat stress and nutritional deficiencies.

Symptoms of Cattle Diseases

The symptoms of cattle diseases can vary depending on the specific disease, but may include:

1. Fever and respiratory problems
2. Diarrhea and vomiting
3. Weight loss and depression
4. Swelling and pain in joints or limbs
5. Discharge from the eyes or nose
6. Coughing or difficulty breathing
7. Lameness or reluctance to move
8. Changes in behavior, such as aggression or lethargy

Diagnosis and Treatment of Cattle Diseases

Diagnosing cattle diseases can be challenging, as the symptoms may be similar for different conditions. However, veterinarians use a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical history to make a diagnosis. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and may include antibiotics, vaccines, anti-inflammatory drugs, and supportive care such as fluids and nutritional supplements.

Prevention of Cattle Diseases

Preventing cattle diseases is essential for maintaining the health and productivity of your herd. Some preventative measures include:

1. Proper nutrition and hydration
2. Regular vaccinations and parasite control
3. Sanitary living conditions and frequent cleaning
4. Monitoring for signs of illness and seeking prompt veterinary care if symptoms arise
5. Implementing biosecurity measures such as isolating sick animals and quarantining new animals before introduction to the herd.

It is important to work closely with a veterinarian to develop a comprehensive health plan for your cattle herd, as they can provide guidance on vaccination schedules, parasite control methods, and disease prevention strategies tailored to your specific needs.

Conclusion
Cattle diseases can have a significant impact on the productivity and profitability of your herd, as well as the overall health of your animals. It is essential to be aware of the common cattle diseases, their symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention methods to ensure the health and well-being of your herd.

By working closely with a veterinarian and implementing preventative measures such as proper nutrition and sanitary living conditions, you can help protect your cattle from disease and maintain a productive and profitable herd. Remember, prevention is key when it comes to managing cattle diseases.

The symptoms of yaws include skin lesions, swollen lymph nodes, joint pain, and fever. If left untreated, yaws can lead to serious complications such as bone deformities, blindness, and neurological problems. Yaws is treated with antibiotics, and early treatment can prevent long-term complications.

Yaws has been largely eliminated in many parts of the world, but it still remains a public health problem in some areas where access to medical care is limited. The World Health Organization (WHO) has called for increased efforts to eliminate yaws by 2020 as part of its Global Verrucosa Syphilis Elimination Initiative.

The clinical manifestations of granuloma inguinale are diverse, ranging from a single ulcer or nodule to multiple small ulcers and firm, raised, rounded, reddish-purple plaques on the skin. The lesions may be painless or cause discomfort and itching and can progress to form large, chronic, indurated plaques with a central ulcer. In severe cases, there can be extensive involvement of the genitalia with destruction of tissues leading to significant functional impairment and scarring.

Granuloma inguinale is caused by the bacterium Calymmatobacterium granulomatis, which is typically spread through direct contact with infectious lesions or contaminated objects such as bedding, clothing, or medical instruments. The diagnosis of granuloma inguinale is based on a combination of clinical features, laboratory tests including darkfield microscopy and/or PCR, and exclusion of other conditions that may resemble the disease.

The management of granuloma inguinale involves both curative and palliative measures. The goal of treatment is to cure the infection and prevent further progression or complications. Treatment options include antibiotics such as erythromycin, doxycycline, azithromycin, and tetracycline which are effective against C. granulomatis, but may require long-term therapy to ensure cure. Surgical debridement of infected tissue and excision of large ulcers may be necessary in some cases.

Preventive measures such as safe sexual practices, avoiding close contact with individuals who have the disease, and proper disposal of contaminated materials can help prevent the spread of granuloma inguinale. Avoiding sexual activity until all lesions have healed and there has been no new development of symptoms for at least 3 months is recommended to prevent re-infection.

Overall, granuloma inguinale is a rare but potentially debilitating sexually transmitted disease that can cause significant morbidity and mortality if left untreated. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are essential to prevent complications and improve outcomes for patients with this condition.

1. Parvovirus (Parvo): A highly contagious viral disease that affects dogs of all ages and breeds, causing symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, and severe dehydration.
2. Distemper: A serious viral disease that can affect dogs of all ages and breeds, causing symptoms such as fever, coughing, and seizures.
3. Rabies: A deadly viral disease that affects dogs and other animals, transmitted through the saliva of infected animals, and causing symptoms such as aggression, confusion, and paralysis.
4. Heartworms: A common condition caused by a parasitic worm that infects the heart and lungs of dogs, leading to symptoms such as coughing, fatigue, and difficulty breathing.
5. Ticks and fleas: These external parasites can cause skin irritation, infection, and disease in dogs, including Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis.
6. Canine hip dysplasia (CHD): A genetic condition that affects the hip joint of dogs, causing symptoms such as arthritis, pain, and mobility issues.
7. Osteosarcoma: A type of bone cancer that affects dogs, often diagnosed in older dogs and causing symptoms such as lameness, swelling, and pain.
8. Allergies: Dog allergies can cause skin irritation, ear infections, and other health issues, and may be triggered by environmental factors or specific ingredients in their diet.
9. Gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV): A life-threatening condition that occurs when a dog's stomach twists and fills with gas, causing symptoms such as vomiting, pain, and difficulty breathing.
10. Cruciate ligament injuries: Common in active dogs, these injuries can cause joint instability, pain, and mobility issues.

It is important to monitor your dog's health regularly and seek veterinary care if you notice any changes or abnormalities in their behavior, appetite, or physical condition.

The primary symptoms of celiac disease include diarrhea, abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and bloating. However, some people may not experience any symptoms at all, but can still develop complications if the disease is left untreated. These complications can include malnutrition, anemia, osteoporosis, and increased risk of other autoimmune disorders.

The exact cause of celiac disease is unknown, but it is believed to be triggered by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The disease is more common in people with a family history of celiac disease or other autoimmune disorders. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of blood tests and intestinal biopsy, and treatment involves a strict gluten-free diet.

Dietary management of celiac disease involves avoiding all sources of gluten, including wheat, barley, rye, and some processed foods that may contain hidden sources of these grains. In some cases, nutritional supplements may be necessary to ensure adequate intake of certain vitamins and minerals.

While there is no known cure for celiac disease, adherence to a strict gluten-free diet can effectively manage the condition and prevent long-term complications. With proper management, people with celiac disease can lead normal, healthy lives.

Symptoms:

* Fever
* Cough
* Chest pain or tightness
* Shortness of breath
* Headache
* Muscle aches
* Fatigue

Diagnosis:

* Physical examination
* Complete blood count (CBC)
* Blood cultures
* Chest X-ray
* Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

Treatment:

* Antibiotics (macrolides, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides)
* Supportive care (fluids, oxygen therapy, pain management)

Prevention:

* Vaccination (not available in the US)
* Good hand hygiene
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick

Prognosis:

* Most cases of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia are mild and resolve quickly with antibiotic treatment.
* In severe cases, the infection can spread to other parts of the body and cause serious complications such as respiratory failure, sepsis, and meningitis.

Epidemiology:

* Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) worldwide.
* It is more common in children than adults.
* The incidence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection varies by age, with the highest incidence in children under 5 years old.

There are two main forms of echinococcosis: cystic and alveolar. Cystic echinococcosis is the most common form and is characterized by the formation of fluid-filled cysts in the liver, lungs, or other organs. Alveolar echinococcosis is a more aggressive form of the disease and is characterized by the formation of solid tumor-like masses in the liver, lungs, or other organs.

The symptoms of echinococcosis vary depending on the location and size of the cysts or tumors. They may include abdominal pain, weight loss, fever, fatigue, and difficulty breathing. The disease is diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasound, and by examining a sample of the cyst contents under a microscope.

Treatment for echinococcosis usually involves surgery to remove the cysts or tumors, followed by antiparasitic medication to kill any remaining parasites. In some cases, chemotherapy may be necessary to treat the disease. Prevention of echinococcosis primarily involves controlling the spread of dog tapeworms, which can be done through measures such as regularly deworming dogs and avoiding contact with dog feces.

Echinococcosis is a serious and potentially life-threatening disease, but with timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment, many people are able to recover fully or partially.

1. Gastritis: Inflammation of the stomach lining, which can be acute or chronic.
2. Peptic ulcer disease: Ulcers in the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) that are caused by H. pylori infection.
3. Gastric adenocarcinoma: A type of stomach cancer that is associated with long-term H. pylori infection.
4. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma: A rare type of cancer that affects the immune cells in the stomach and small intestine.
5. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): A condition in which stomach acid flows back up into the esophagus, causing symptoms such as heartburn and regurgitation.
6. Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic atrophic gastritis: A type of chronic inflammation of the stomach lining that can lead to stomach ulcers and stomach cancer.
7. Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS): A condition that develops after a gastrointestinal infection, characterized by persistent symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits.

Helicobacter infections are typically diagnosed through endoscopy, where a flexible tube with a camera and light on the end is inserted into the stomach and small intestine to visualize the mucosa and look for signs of inflammation or ulcers. Laboratory tests such as breath tests and stool tests may also be used to detect the presence of H. pylori bacteria in the body. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and acid-suppressing medications to eradicate the infection and reduce symptoms.

Preventing Helicobacter Infections:

While it is not possible to completely prevent Helicobacter infections, there are several measures that can be taken to reduce the risk of developing these conditions:

1. Practice good hygiene: Wash your hands regularly, especially before eating and after using the bathroom.
2. Avoid close contact with people who have Helicobacter infections.
3. Avoid sharing food, drinks, or utensils with people who have Helicobacter infections.
4. Avoid consuming undercooked meat, especially pork and lamb.
5. Avoid consuming raw shellfish, especially oysters.
6. Avoid consuming unpasteurized dairy products.
7. Avoid alcohol and caffeine, which can irritate the stomach lining and increase the risk of developing Helicobacter infections.
8. Maintain a healthy diet that is high in fiber and low in fat.
9. Manage stress, as stress can exacerbate symptoms of Helicobacter infections.
10. Practice good oral hygiene to prevent gum disease and other oral infections that can increase the risk of developing Helicobacter infections.

Conclusion:

Helicobacter infections are a common cause of stomach ulcers, gastritis, and other gastrointestinal disorders. These infections are caused by the bacteria Helicobacter pylori, which can be found in the stomach lining and small intestine. While these infections can be difficult to diagnose, a combination of endoscopy, blood tests, and stool tests can help confirm the presence of Helicobacter bacteria. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and acid-suppressing medications to eradicate the infection and reduce symptoms. Preventive measures include practicing good hygiene, avoiding close contact with people who have Helicobacter infections, and maintaining a healthy diet.

Definition:

Veterinary abortion refers to the intentional termination of a pregnancy in an animal, typically a farm or domesticated animal such as a dog, cat, horse, cow, or pig. The procedure is performed by a veterinarian and is usually done for reasons such as unwanted breeding, disease or genetic disorders in the fetus, or to prevent overpopulation of certain species.

Types of Veterinary Abortion:

1. Spontaneous Abortion (Miscarriage): This occurs naturally when the pregnancy is terminated by natural causes such as infection or trauma.
2. Induced Abortion: This is performed by a veterinarian using various methods such as injection of drugs or surgical procedures to terminate the pregnancy.

Methods of Veterinary Abortion:

1. Drug-induced abortion: This method involves administering medication to the animal to cause uterine contractions and expulsion of the fetus.
2. Surgical abortion: This method involves surgical intervention to remove the fetus from the uterus, usually through a small incision in the abdomen.
3. Non-surgical abortion: This method uses a device to remove the fetus from the uterus without making an incision.

Complications and Risks of Veterinary Abortion:

1. Infection: As with any surgical procedure, there is a risk of infection.
2. Hemorrhage: Excessive bleeding can occur during or after the procedure.
3. Uterine rupture: In rare cases, the uterus may rupture during the procedure.
4. Incomplete abortion: In some cases, not all of the fetus may be removed, leading to complications later on.
5. Scarring: Scars may form in the uterus or abdomen after the procedure, which can lead to reproductive problems in the future.

Prevention of Unwanted Pregnancies in Animals:

1. Spaying/neutering: This is the most effective way to prevent unwanted pregnancies in animals.
2. Breeding management: Proper breeding management, including selecting healthy and fertile breeding animals, can help reduce the risk of unwanted pregnancies.
3. Use of contraceptives: Hormonal contraceptives, such as injection or implants, can be used in some species to prevent pregnancy.
4. Behavioral management: In some cases, behavioral management techniques, such as separation or rehoming of animals, may be necessary to prevent unwanted breeding.

Ethical Considerations of Veterinary Abortion:

1. Animal welfare: The procedure should only be performed when necessary and with the intention of improving the animal's welfare.
2. Owner consent: Owners must provide informed consent before the procedure can be performed.
3. Veterinarian expertise: The procedure should only be performed by a licensed veterinarian with experience in the procedure.
4. Alternative options: All alternative options, such as spaying/neutering or rehoming, should be considered before performing an abortion.

Conclusion:

Veterinary abortion is a complex issue that requires careful consideration of ethical and practical factors. While it may be necessary in some cases to prevent the suffering of unwanted litters, it is important to approach the procedure with caution and respect for animal welfare. Owners must provide informed consent, and the procedure should only be performed by a licensed veterinarian with experience in the procedure. Alternative options, such as spaying/neutering or rehoming, should also be considered before performing an abortion. Ultimately, the decision to perform a veterinary abortion should be made with the intention of improving the animal's welfare and quality of life.

Sheep diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and environmental factors. Here are some common sheep diseases and their meanings:

1. Scrapie: A fatal neurological disorder that affects sheep and goats, caused by a prion.
2. Ovine Progressive Pneumonia (OPP): A contagious respiratory disease caused by Mycobacterium ovipneumoniae.
3. Maedi-Visna: A slow-progressing pneumonia caused by a retrovirus, which can lead to OPP.
4. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including sheep and goats.
5. Bloat: A condition caused by gas accumulation in the rumen, which can lead to abdominal pain and death if not treated promptly.
6. Pneumonia: An inflammation of the lungs, often caused by bacteria or viruses.
7. Cryptosporidiosis: A diarrheal disease caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, which can be fatal in young lambs.
8. Babesiosis: A blood parasitic disease caused by Babesia oviparasites, which can lead to anemia and death if left untreated.
9. Fascioliasis: A liver fluke infection that can cause anemia, jaundice, and liver damage.
10. Anthrax: A serious bacterial disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, which can be fatal if left untreated.

Sheep diseases can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of flocks, as well as the economy of sheep farming. It is important for sheep farmers to be aware of these diseases and take appropriate measures to prevent and control them.

Synonyms: pulmonary echinococcosis.

Previous term: Echinococcus granulosus Next term: Echinococcus multilocularis

The symptoms of CNS helminthiasis can vary depending on the type of worm present, but may include:

* Seizures
* Headaches
* Vision problems
* Weakness or paralysis
* Confusion or disorientation
* Personality changes

CNS helminthiasis is caused by a variety of parasites, including tapeworms, roundworms, and hookworms. These worms can enter the body through contaminated food or water, or through contact with an infected person or animal.

The diagnosis of CNS helminthiasis typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood tests or imaging studies (e.g., CT or MRI scans). Treatment usually involves anti-parasitic medications to kill the worms, and may also include supportive care to manage symptoms.

Preventive measures to avoid CNS helminthiasis include:

* Avoiding undercooked meat, especially pork and wild game
* Avoiding raw or undercooked fish and shellfish
* Avoiding contact with animals that may be infected
* Properly storing and cooking food to kill parasites
* Avoiding drinking untreated water
* Washing hands and fruits/vegetables before eating

Overall, CNS helminthiasis is a serious condition that can cause significant neurological symptoms. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes.

The disease is primarily transmitted through inhalation of infected particles, such as dust or aerosols, which contain the bacterium. People working in close contact with animals, such as veterinarians and farmers, are at higher risk of contracting Q fever.

Symptoms of Q fever typically develop within 2-3 weeks after exposure and may include fever, headache, fatigue, muscle pain, and respiratory symptoms such as cough and shortness of breath. In severe cases, the infection can spread to the heart, liver, and other organs, leading to life-threatening complications.

Diagnosis of Q fever is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and epidemiological investigations. Laboratory confirmation of the disease requires the isolation of Coxiella burnetii from blood or other bodily fluids.

Treatment of Q fever typically involves antibiotics, which can effectively cure the infection if administered early. However, treatment is not always necessary for mild cases, and some people may recover without any treatment.

Prevention of Q fever primarily involves avoiding exposure to infected animals or their tissues, as well as practicing good hygiene practices such as wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) when handling animals or their tissues. Vaccination is also available for high-risk groups, such as veterinarians and farmers.

Overall, Q fever is an important zoonotic disease that can cause significant illness in humans and a range of animal species. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are critical to preventing complications and ensuring effective management of the disease.

Symptoms include:

* Painful blisters or sores on the genitals, anus, or mouth
* Itching, burning, or tingling sensations in the affected area
* Flu-like symptoms such as fever, headache, and fatigue
* Swollen lymph nodes in the groin

Complications:

* Recurrent episodes of herpes can cause scarring and inflammation of the genitals, anus, or mouth.
* Herpes simplex virus can be transmitted to the eye, leading to a condition called ocular herpes. This can cause vision loss if left untreated.
* Herpes simplex virus can also be transmitted to the central nervous system, leading to a condition called meningitis or encephalitis. This can be life-threatening.

Diagnosis:

* Physical examination and medical history
* Viral culture or PCR test to confirm the presence of the virus

Treatment:

* Antiviral medications such as acyclovir, valacyclovir, or famciclovir to reduce symptoms and prevent complications.
* Pain relief medication to manage discomfort.
* Topical creams or ointments to soothe blisters and sores.

Prevention:

* Avoid sexual contact during outbreaks.
* Use condoms or dental dams to reduce the risk of transmission.
* Practice safe oral sex.
* Avoid sharing personal items such as towels or lip balm.

Note: This is a general overview of herpes genitalis and is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If you suspect you have herpes or have any concerns, it's important to consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and care.

Leprosy can cause a range of symptoms, including:

1. Skin lesions: Leprosy can cause skin lesions, including lighter or darker patches on the skin, and thickening of the skin.
2. Nerve damage: The bacteria can damage the nerves, leading to numbness, pain, and muscle weakness.
3. Eye problems: Leprosy can cause eye inflammation, vision loss, and dryness of the eyes.
4. Respiratory problems: In severe cases, leprosy can cause breathing difficulties and respiratory failure.
5. Enlarged lymph nodes: The lymph nodes may become enlarged in some cases.
6. Joint pain and swelling: Leprosy can cause joint pain and swelling.
7. Neuritis: Inflammation of the nerves can occur, leading to pain, numbness, and tingling sensations.
8. Ulcers: Leprosy can cause ulcers on the skin and mucous membranes.

Leprosy is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical imaging. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and other medications to manage symptoms. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged nerves.

Leprosy can be transmitted through respiratory droplets, close contact with an infected person, or through contaminated objects such as clothing or bedding. However, leprosy is not highly contagious and the risk of transmission is low if proper precautions are taken.

While there is no cure for leprosy, early diagnosis and treatment can prevent complications and disability. However, due to the stigma surrounding the disease, many people may delay seeking medical attention, leading to a higher risk of long-term complications.

Overall, while leprosy is a serious disease, it is also a preventable and treatable one. With proper awareness and education, we can work towards reducing the stigma surrounding leprosy and ensuring that those affected receive the medical attention they need.

A disease that affects pigs, including viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections, as well as genetic disorders and nutritional deficiencies. Some common swine diseases include:

1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS): A highly contagious viral disease that can cause reproductive failure, respiratory problems, and death.
2. Swine Influenza: A viral infection similar to human influenza, which can cause fever, coughing, and pneumonia in pigs.
3. Erysipelas: A bacterial infection that causes high fever, loss of appetite, and skin lesions in pigs.
4. Actinobacillosis: A bacterial infection that can cause pneumonia, arthritis, and abscesses in pigs.
5. Parasitic infections: Such as gastrointestinal parasites like roundworms and tapeworms, which can cause diarrhea, anemia, and weight loss in pigs.
6. Scrapie: A degenerative neurological disorder that affects pigs and other animals, causing confusion, aggression, and eventually death.
7. Nutritional deficiencies: Such as a lack of vitamin E or selenium, which can cause a range of health problems in pigs, including muscular dystrophy and anemia.
8. Genetic disorders: Such as achondroplasia, a condition that causes dwarfism and deformities in pigs.
9. Environmental diseases: Such as heat stress, which can cause a range of health problems in pigs, including respiratory distress and death.

It's important to note that many swine diseases have similar symptoms, making accurate diagnosis by a veterinarian essential for effective treatment and control.

Symptoms of lymphadenitis may include swelling and tenderness of the affected lymph nodes, fever, fatigue, and general illness. In some cases, the lymph nodes may become abscessed, which is a collection of pus that forms within the node.

Treatment of lymphadenitis depends on the underlying cause of the condition. If the infection is caused by bacteria, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the infection and help to reduce the swelling and tenderness. In some cases, surgical drainage of the abscess may be necessary to help to resolve the infection.

Prevention of lymphadenitis includes good hygiene practices such as frequent handwashing, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and avoiding sharing personal items such as toothbrushes or razors. Vaccination against certain infections, such as H. pylori, can also help to prevent lymphadenitis.

Prevention includes good hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food. Vaccines are also available for people traveling to areas where the infection is common. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and improve outcomes.

The term "erythema chronicum migrans" is derived from the Latin words "erythema," meaning redness, and "chronicum," meaning long-lasting. The term "migrans" refers to the fact that the rash typically spreads or migrates over time. ECM is considered a hallmark symptom of Lyme disease and is often used as a diagnostic criterion for the condition.

The exact cause of ECM is not fully understood, but it is thought to be due to an immune response to the bacterial infection. Treatment for ECM typically involves antibiotics to eradicate the infection, and symptoms may resolve within several weeks of treatment. However, some patients may experience persistent symptoms or develop long-term complications, such as arthritis or neurological problems.

In paratuberculosis, MAP infection leads to a chronic inflammatory response in the gut, causing granulomas to form, which can obstruct the intestine and disrupt nutrient absorption. The disease is often characterized by weight loss, diarrhea, and eventually emaciation. Paratuberculosis can also lead to extrapulmonary diseases such as lymph nodes, joints, and eyes.

Paratuberculosis has a significant impact on animal productivity and public health, as infected animals may shed the bacteria in their feces, contaminating soil and water sources, leading to potential transmission to other animals and humans. The disease is also a major cause of economic loss in the livestock industry due to reduced milk production, meat quality, and reproductive efficiency.

There are several diagnostic techniques available for paratuberculosis, including fecal culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) blood testing. However, these tests have limited sensitivity and specificity, making it challenging to diagnose the disease accurately.

Prevention of paratuberculosis primarily involves controlling the spread of MAP through improved herd management practices, such as proper sanitation, biosecurity, and testing of animal imports. Vaccination is also an effective control measure, although the development of effective vaccines against MAP is still a challenge. Treatment options for paratuberculosis are limited, and the disease often remains untreated, leading to significant welfare and economic impacts.

1. Group B streptococcus (GBS): This type of bacterial infection is the leading cause of infections in newborns. GBS can cause a range of complications, including pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis.
2. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): These are common during pregnancy and can be caused by bacteria such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) or Staphylococcus saprophyticus. UTIs can lead to complications such as preterm labor and low birth weight.
3. HIV: Pregnant women who are infected with HIV can pass the virus to their baby during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding.
4. Toxoplasmosis: This is an infection caused by a parasite that can be transmitted to the fetus through the placenta. Toxoplasmosis can cause a range of complications, including birth defects and stillbirth.
5. Listeriosis: This is a rare infection caused by eating contaminated food, such as soft cheeses or hot dogs. Listeriosis can cause complications such as miscarriage, stillbirth, and premature labor.
6. Influenza: Pregnant women who contract the flu can be at higher risk for complications such as pneumonia and hospitalization.
7. Herpes simplex virus (HSV): This virus can cause complications such as preterm labor, low birth weight, and neonatal herpes.
8. Human parvovirus (HPV): This virus can cause complications such as preterm labor, low birth weight, and stillbirth.
9. Syphilis: This is a sexually transmitted infection that can be passed to the fetus during pregnancy, leading to complications such as stillbirth, premature birth, and congenital syphilis.
10. Chickenpox: Pregnant women who contract chickenpox can be at higher risk for complications such as preterm labor and low birth weight.

It's important to note that the risks associated with these infections are relatively low, and many pregnant women who contract them will have healthy pregnancies and healthy babies. However, it's still important to be aware of the risks and take steps to protect yourself and your baby.

Here are some ways to reduce your risk of infection during pregnancy:

1. Practice good hygiene: Wash your hands frequently, especially before preparing or eating food.
2. Avoid certain foods: Avoid consuming raw or undercooked meat, eggs, and dairy products, as well as unpasteurized juices and soft cheeses.
3. Get vaccinated: Get vaccinated against infections such as the flu and HPV.
4. Practice safe sex: Use condoms or other forms of barrier protection to prevent the spread of STIs.
5. Avoid close contact with people who are sick: If someone in your household is sick, try to avoid close contact with them if possible.
6. Keep your environment clean: Regularly clean and disinfect surfaces and objects that may be contaminated with germs.
7. Manage stress: High levels of stress can weaken your immune system and make you more susceptible to infection.
8. Get enough rest: Adequate sleep is essential for maintaining a healthy immune system.
9. Stay hydrated: Drink plenty of water throughout the day to help flush out harmful bacteria and viruses.
10. Consider taking prenatal vitamins: Prenatal vitamins can help support your immune system and overall health during pregnancy.

Remember, it's always better to be safe than sorry, so if you suspect that you may have been exposed to an infection or are experiencing symptoms of an infection during pregnancy, contact your healthcare provider right away. They can help determine the appropriate course of action and ensure that you and your baby stay healthy.

The disease typically presents with symptoms such as fever, cough, fatigue, weight loss, and night sweats, and can progress to severe respiratory, cutaneous, and disseminated forms if left untreated. The infection is diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, radiological studies, and laboratory tests such as PCR and culture.

Treatment options for paracoccidioidomycosis include antifungal medications such as amphotericin B, fluconazole, and itraconazole, which are often associated with significant side effects and variable efficacy. Surgical debulking may also be considered in certain cases.

The prognosis for paracoccidioidomycosis is generally poor, especially in advanced stages of the disease, with high rates of morbidity and mortality. However, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can improve outcomes.

Congenital toxoplasmosis is caused by the transmission of the Toxoplasma gondii parasite from the mother's bloodstream to the developing fetus during pregnancy. This can occur if the mother becomes infected with the parasite for the first time during pregnancy, or if she has a prior infection that reactivates during pregnancy.

The symptoms of congenital toxoplasmosis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the organs affected. In some cases, the infection may be asymptomatic, while in others, it can cause a range of symptoms, including:

* Seizures
* Developmental delays
* Intellectual disability
* Vision loss or blindness
* Hearing loss or deafness
* Congenital anomalies such as heart defects or facial abnormalities

Congenital toxoplasmosis can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood tests or amniocentesis. Treatment for congenital toxoplasmosis typically involves antibiotics and supportive care, and the prognosis varies depending on the severity of the infection and the organs affected.

Prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis primarily involves avoiding exposure to the Toxoplasma gondii parasite during pregnancy. This can be achieved by avoiding contact with cat feces, not eating undercooked meat, and taking appropriate hygiene measures when handling raw meat or gardening. Pregnant women who are exposed to the parasite should seek medical attention immediately to reduce the risk of infection.

Jaundice is typically diagnosed through physical examination and laboratory tests such as blood tests to measure bilirubin levels. Treatment depends on the underlying cause, but may include medications to reduce bilirubin production or increase its excretion, or surgery to remove blockages in the bile ducts.

Here are some of the synonyms for Jaundice:

1. Yellow fever
2. Yellow jaundice
3. Hepatitis
4. Gallstones
5. Cholestasis
6. Obstruction of the bile ducts
7. Biliary tract disease
8. Hemochromatosis
9. Sickle cell anemia
10. Crigler-Najjar syndrome

Here are some of the antonyms for Jaundice:

1. Pinkness
2. Normal skin color
3. Healthy liver function
4. Bilirubin levels within normal range
5. No signs of liver disease or obstruction of bile ducts.

During convalescence, patients may be advised to follow specific dietary restrictions, engage in gentle exercise, and avoid strenuous activities that can exacerbate their condition or slow down the healing process. They may also receive medical treatment, such as physical therapy, medication, or other forms of supportive care, to aid in their recovery.

The duration of convalescence varies depending on the individual and the nature of their illness or injury. In general, convalescence can last anywhere from a few days to several weeks or even months, depending on the severity and complexity of the condition being treated.

Overall, the goal of convalescence is to allow the body to heal and recover fully, while also minimizing the risk of complications and promoting optimal functional outcomes.

The diagnosis of typhoid fever is based on clinical symptoms, laboratory tests such as blood cultures, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, which can significantly reduce the duration of illness and the risk of complications. Prevention measures include vaccination against typhoid fever, proper sanitation and hygiene practices, and avoiding consumption of contaminated food and water.

Symptoms:

* High fever
* Headache
* Fatigue
* Abdominal pain
* Diarrhea or constipation
* Vomiting
* Rash
* Delirium
* Intestinal hemorrhage
* Multi-organ failure

Causes:

* Salmonella Typhi bacteria
* Contaminated food or water
* Poor sanitation and hygiene practices
* International travel or contaminated food imports

Treatment:

* Antibiotics
* Supportive care (fluids, electrolytes, pain management)

Prevention:

* Vaccination against typhoid fever
* Proper sanitation and hygiene practices
* Avoiding consumption of contaminated food and water.

Pulmonary tuberculosis typically affects the lungs but can also spread to other parts of the body, such as the brain, kidneys, or spine. The symptoms of pulmonary TB include coughing for more than three weeks, chest pain, fatigue, fever, night sweats, and weight loss.

Pulmonary tuberculosis is diagnosed by a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests, and radiologic imaging, such as chest X-rays or computed tomography (CT) scans. Treatment for pulmonary TB usually involves a combination of antibiotics and medications to manage symptoms.

Preventive measures for pulmonary tuberculosis include screening for latent TB infection in high-risk populations, such as healthcare workers and individuals with HIV/AIDS, and vaccination with the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in countries where it is available.

Overall, pulmonary tuberculosis is a serious and potentially life-threatening disease that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent complications and death.

Here are 10 key points to remember about histoplasmosis:

1) Histoplasmosis is a fungal disease caused by Histoplasma capsulatum.
2) It primarily affects the lungs and can disseminate to other organs.
3) Inhalation of spores from contaminated soil or bird droppings leads to infection.
4) Symptoms range from mild to severe, including fever, cough, chest pain, fatigue, and difficulty breathing.
5) Diagnosis is based on clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies.
6) Treatment is primarily supportive, with antifungal medications for severe cases.
7) Prevention includes avoiding exposure to contaminated environments and wearing protective clothing during cleanup or construction activities.
8) Histoplasmosis has a global distribution and is found in many parts of the United States.
9) It is an important occupational hazard for workers involved in construction, mining, and agriculture.
10) In severe cases, histoplasmosis can lead to chronic lung disease, heart problems, and meningitis.

Melioidosis is typically acquired through contact with contaminated soil or water in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and Africa. The bacteria can enter the body through open wounds, cuts, or through the eyes, nose, or mouth. Once inside the body, the bacteria can multiply and cause a wide range of symptoms including fever, chills, headache, muscle and joint pain, and skin lesions.

If left untreated, melioidosis can lead to serious complications such as sepsis, meningitis, and pneumonia, which can be fatal. The disease is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, and early treatment is essential for effective management of the disease.

In addition to being an important medical condition, melioidosis is also of interest to researchers studying the bacteria that cause the disease. Burkholderia pseudomallei has been found to have a unique ability to survive in a variety of environments, including soil and water, and has been studied for its potential as a bioterrorism agent.

In summary, melioidosis is a serious bacterial infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei that can affect multiple organ systems and cause severe illness if left untreated. It is typically acquired through contact with contaminated soil or water in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and Africa and is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Early treatment is essential for effective management of the disease.

Dyspepsia is not a specific disease but rather a symptom complex that can be caused by a variety of factors, such as:

1. Gastritis (inflammation of the stomach lining)
2. Peptic ulcer
3. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
4. Functional dyspepsia
5. Inflammatory conditions such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis
6. Food allergies or intolerances
7. Hormonal changes during pregnancy or menstruation
8. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and antibiotics

The diagnosis of dyspepsia is based on a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as endoscopy, gastric emptying studies, and blood tests. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of dyspepsia and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and dietary modifications.

1. Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE): A viral disease that affects the joints and central nervous system of goats.
2. Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA): A bacterial infection that causes abscesses in the lymph nodes and other organs.
3. Contagious ecthyma (Orf): A viral disease that causes skin lesions and scarring.
4. Goat pox: A viral disease that causes fever, weakness, and skin lesions.
5. Pneumonia: A bacterial or viral infection of the lungs that can be caused by a variety of pathogens.
6. Scabies: A parasitic infestation that causes skin irritation and hair loss.
7. Tetanus: A neurological disorder caused by a bacterial toxin that affects muscle contractions.
8. Toxoplasmosis: A parasitic infection that can cause fever, anemia, and other symptoms in goats.
9. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): Bacterial infections of the urinary system that can affect both male and female goats.
10. Vitamin deficiencies: Deficiencies in vitamins such as vitamin A, D, or E can cause a range of health problems in goats, including skin conditions, poor appetite, and weakness.

Goat diseases can be diagnosed through physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment depends on the specific disease and may involve antibiotics, antiviral medications, or supportive care such as fluid therapy and nutritional supplements. Prevention is key in managing goat diseases, and this includes maintaining good hygiene, providing clean water and a balanced diet, and vaccinating goats against common diseases.

Symptoms of babesiosis can vary in severity and may include:

* Fever
* Chills
* Headache
* Muscle and joint pain
* Fatigue
* Nausea and vomiting
* Diarrhea
* Anemia (low red blood cell count)

In severe cases, babesiosis can lead to complications such as:

* Hemolytic anemia (breakdown of red blood cells)
* Kidney failure
* Respiratory distress syndrome
* Septic shock

Babesiosis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, including:

* Blood smear
* Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
* Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

Treatment for babesiosis typically involves the use of antimicrobial drugs, such as azithromycin and atovaquone, or clindamycin and primaquine. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications.

Prevention of babesiosis primarily involves protecting against tick bites through measures such as:

* Using insect repellents containing DEET or permethrin
* Wearing long-sleeved shirts and pants, and tucking pant legs into socks
* Checking for ticks on the body after spending time outdoors
* Removing any attached ticks promptly and correctly

Early detection and treatment of babesiosis can help to reduce the risk of complications and improve outcomes for affected individuals.

Examples of acute diseases include:

1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.

Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Symptoms of ehrlichiosis typically begin within one to two weeks after the tick bite and may include fever, headache, muscle pain, joint pain, and rash. In severe cases, the infection can spread to the bloodstream and cause more serious complications, such as respiratory distress, liver failure, and kidney failure.

Ehrlichiosis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, including a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect the bacterial DNA in the blood. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, such as doxycycline or azithromycin, which are effective against the bacteria that cause ehrlichiosis.

Prevention of ehrlichiosis primarily involves avoiding tick habitats and using tick-repellent clothing and insecticides to prevent tick bites. Early detection and treatment of ehrlichiosis can help reduce the risk of serious complications and improve outcomes for infected individuals.

There are two main forms of the disease, depending on the species of parasite and the location where the infection is acquired:

* T. b. rhodesiense infection is found primarily in East and Southern Africa, and is characterized by a more severe form of the disease. Symptoms can include fever, headache, joint pain, and skin rashes, as well as swelling of the lymph nodes and spleen. If left untreated, the disease can progress to a more advanced stage, characterized by neurological symptoms such as confusion, seizures, and coma.
* T. b. gambiense infection is found primarily in West and Central Africa, and is characterized by a milder form of the disease. Symptoms can include fever, joint pain, and skin rashes, as well as swelling of the lymph nodes and spleen.

Both forms of the disease are treatable with antiparasitic drugs, but if left untreated, they can be fatal. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scans. Treatment is usually with melarsoprol or eflornithine, and in some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove affected tissue or organs.

Prevention of trypanosomiasis involves controlling the population of tsetse flies through the use of insecticides, traps, and other methods, as well as educating people about how to avoid being bitten by infected flies. There is also ongoing research into the development of a vaccine against trypanosomiasis.

Chagas cardiomyopathy is a type of heart disease that is caused by the parasitic infection Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted through the feces of infected triatomine bugs. It is also known as American trypanosomiasis or Latin American trypanosomiasis.

The infection can cause inflammation and damage to the heart muscle, leading to cardiomyopathy, which is a condition where the heart muscle becomes weakened and cannot pump blood effectively. This can lead to symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, swelling, and irregular heartbeat.

Chagas cardiomyopathy is most commonly found in countries in Central and South America, where the disease is transmitted by triatomine bugs that are found in rural areas. It is estimated that around 8 million people are infected with Chagas disease worldwide, with the majority of cases occurring in Latin America.

There is no cure for Chagas cardiomyopathy, but medications and other treatments can help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Prevention is key to avoiding Chagas cardiomyopathy, and this includes avoiding triatomine bug bites, using insecticides to kill bugs in homes, and screening blood donors for the disease.

Overall, Chagas cardiomyopathy is a serious and debilitating condition that can have significant implications for quality of life and survival. It is important to be aware of the risk of infection and take steps to prevent it, particularly if you live in or travel to areas where the disease is common.

There are several types of Mycoplasma bacteria that can cause infection in humans, including:

1. Mycoplasma pneumoniae, which is the most common cause of atypical pneumonia and can also cause sinus infections, bronchitis, and other respiratory infections.
2. Mycoplasma genitalium, which can cause pelvic inflammatory disease, epididymitis, and urethritis.
3. Mycoplasma hominis, which is a common inhabitant of the human respiratory tract and can cause infections such as pneumonia and bronchitis.
4. Mycoplasma fermentans, which is associated with respiratory infections and has been linked to conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Mycoplasma infections are typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood cultures and PCR (polymerase chain reaction) tests. Treatment for Mycoplasma infections usually involves antibiotics, but the type and duration of treatment may vary depending on the severity and location of the infection.

Prevention measures for Mycoplasma infections include good hygiene practices such as frequent handwashing, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing. Vaccines are also available for some types of Mycoplasma bacteria, such as the M. pneumoniae vaccine, which is recommended for certain high-risk groups.

Overall, Mycoplasma infections can be serious and potentially life-threatening, especially in certain populations such as young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems. If you suspect that you or someone you know may have a Mycoplasma infection, it is important to seek medical attention right away.

There are several types of ulcers, including:

1. Peptic ulcer: A type of ulcer that occurs in the lining of the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). Peptic ulcers are caused by excess acid production and are often associated with stress, spicy foods, and certain medications.
2. Stomal ulcer: A type of ulcer that occurs in the stoma (the opening) of a surgically created ostomy (a procedure that creates an artificial opening in the abdominal wall).
3. Pressure ulcer: A type of ulcer that occurs as a result of prolonged pressure on the skin, often seen in people who are bedridden or have mobility issues.
4. Venous ulcer: A type of ulcer that occurs on the legs and is caused by poor blood flow and increased pressure in the veins.
5. Diabetic foot ulcer: A type of ulcer that occurs on the feet of people with diabetes, often as a result of nerve damage (neuropathy) and poor blood flow.

The symptoms of an ulcer can vary depending on its location and severity, but may include:

* Pain or discomfort in the affected area
* Redness and swelling around the ulcer
* Discharge or pus from the ulcer
* Fever or chills
* Difficulty healing

Treatment for an ulcer will depend on its cause and severity, but may include:

* Antibiotics to treat any underlying infections
* Medications to reduce acid production or protect the stomach lining
* Wound care and dressing changes to promote healing
* Surgery to close the ulcer or remove any dead tissue
* Changes to diet and lifestyle to manage underlying conditions such as diabetes or high blood pressure.

1. Common cold: A viral infection that affects the upper respiratory tract and causes symptoms such as sneezing, running nose, coughing, and mild fever.
2. Influenza (flu): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinus and ear infections.
3. Measles: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, rashes, coughing, and redness of the eyes.
4. Rubella (German measles): A mild viral infection that can cause fever, rashes, headache, and swollen lymph nodes.
5. Chickenpox: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, itching, and a characteristic rash of small blisters on the skin.
6. Herpes simplex virus (HSV): A viral infection that can cause genital herpes, cold sores, or other skin lesions.
7. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): A viral infection that attacks the immune system and can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
8. Hepatitis B: A viral infection that affects the liver, causing inflammation and damage to liver cells.
9. Hepatitis C: Another viral infection that affects the liver, often leading to chronic liver disease and liver cancer.
10. Ebola: A deadly viral infection that causes fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and internal bleeding.
11. SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia and respiratory failure.
12. West Nile virus: A viral infection that can cause fever, headache, and muscle pain, as well as more severe symptoms such as meningitis or encephalitis.

Viral infections can be spread through contact with an infected person or contaminated surfaces, objects, or insects such as mosquitoes. Prevention strategies include:

1. Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
3. Covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.
4. Avoiding sharing personal items such as towels or utensils.
5. Using condoms or other barrier methods during sexual activity.
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viral infections, such as HPV and hepatitis B.
7. Using insect repellents to prevent mosquito bites.
8. Screening blood products and organs for certain viruses before transfusion or transplantation.

Treatment for viral infections depends on the specific virus and the severity of the illness. Antiviral medications may be used to reduce the replication of the virus and alleviate symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, or mechanical ventilation.

Prevention is key in avoiding viral infections, so taking the necessary precautions and practicing good hygiene can go a long way in protecting oneself and others from these common and potentially debilitating illnesses.

Examples of pregnancy complications, parasitic include:

1. Toxoplasmosis: This is a condition caused by the Toxoplasma gondii parasite, which can infect the mother and/or the fetus during pregnancy. Symptoms include fever, headache, and fatigue. In severe cases, toxoplasmosis can cause birth defects, such as intellectual disability, blindness, and deafness.
2. Malaria: This is a condition caused by the Plasmodium spp. parasite, which can be transmitted to the mother and/or the fetus during pregnancy. Symptoms include fever, chills, and flu-like symptoms. In severe cases, malaria can cause anemia, organ failure, and death.
3. Schistosomiasis: This is a condition caused by the Schistosoma spp. parasite, which can infect the mother and/or the fetus during pregnancy. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and fatigue. In severe cases, schistosomiasis can cause organ damage and infertility.

Pregnancy complications, parasitic can be diagnosed through blood tests, imaging studies, and other medical procedures. Treatment depends on the type of parasite and the severity of the infection. In some cases, treatment may involve antibiotics, antimalarial drugs, or anti-parasitic medications.

Preventive measures for pregnancy complications, parasitic include:

1. Avoiding contact with cat feces, as Toxoplasma gondii can be transmitted through contaminated soil and food.
2. Avoiding travel to areas where malaria and other parasitic infections are common.
3. Taking antimalarial medications before and during pregnancy if living in an area where malaria is common.
4. Using insecticide-treated bed nets and wearing protective clothing to prevent mosquito bites.
5. Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, especially after handling food or coming into contact with cats.
6. Avoiding drinking unpasteurized dairy products and undercooked meat, as these can increase the risk of infection.
7. Ensuring that any water used for cooking or drinking is safe and free from parasites.

Preventive measures for pregnancy complications, parasitic are important for women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant, as well as for their partners and healthcare providers. By taking these preventive measures, the risk of infection and complications can be significantly reduced.

In conclusion, pregnancy complications, parasitic are a serious issue that can have severe consequences for both the mother and the fetus. However, by understanding the causes, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and preventive measures, women can take steps to protect themselves and their unborn babies from these infections. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of these issues and provide appropriate education and care to pregnant women to reduce the risk of complications.

FAQs
1. What are some common parasitic infections that can occur during pregnancy?
Ans: Some common parasitic infections that can occur during pregnancy include malaria, toxoplasmosis, and cytomegalovirus (CMV).
2. How do parasitic infections during pregnancy affect the baby?
Ans: Parasitic infections during pregnancy can have serious consequences for the developing fetus, including birth defects, growth restriction, and stillbirth.
3. Can parasitic infections during pregnancy be treated?
Ans: Yes, parasitic infections during pregnancy can be treated with antibiotics and other medications. Early detection and treatment are important to prevent complications.
4. How can I prevent parasitic infections during pregnancy?
Ans: Preventive measures include avoiding areas where parasites are common, using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and practicing good hygiene. Pregnant women should also avoid undercooked meat and unpasteurized dairy products.
5. Do all pregnant women need to be tested for parasitic infections?
Ans: No, not all pregnant women need to be tested for parasitic infections. However, certain groups of women, such as those who live in areas where parasites are common or have a history of previous parasitic infections, may need to be tested and monitored more closely.
6. Can I prevent my baby from getting a parasitic infection during pregnancy?
Ans: Yes, there are several steps you can take to reduce the risk of your baby getting a parasitic infection during pregnancy, such as avoiding certain foods and taking antibiotics if necessary. Your healthcare provider can provide guidance on how to prevent and treat parasitic infections during pregnancy.
7. How are parasitic infections diagnosed during pregnancy?
Ans: Parasitic infections can be diagnosed through blood tests, stool samples, or imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI. Your healthcare provider may also perform a physical exam and take a medical history to determine the likelihood of a parasitic infection.
8. Can parasitic infections cause long-term health problems for my baby?
Ans: Yes, some parasitic infections can cause long-term health problems for your baby, such as developmental delays or learning disabilities. In rare cases, parasitic infections can also lead to more serious complications, such as organ damage or death.
9. How are parasitic infections treated during pregnancy?
Ans: Treatment for parasitic infections during pregnancy may involve antibiotics, antiparasitic medications, or other supportive care. Your healthcare provider will determine the best course of treatment based on the severity and type of infection, as well as your individual circumstances.
10. Can I take steps to prevent parasitic infections during pregnancy?
Ans: Yes, there are several steps you can take to prevent parasitic infections during pregnancy, such as avoiding undercooked meat and fish, washing fruits and vegetables thoroughly, and practicing good hygiene. Additionally, if you have a higher risk of parasitic infections due to travel or other factors, your healthcare provider may recommend preventative medications or screening tests.
11. I'm pregnant and have been exposed to a parasitic infection. What should I do?
Ans: If you suspect that you have been exposed to a parasitic infection during pregnancy, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Your healthcare provider can perform tests to determine if you have an infection and provide appropriate treatment to prevent any potential complications for your baby.
12. Can I breastfeed while taking medication for a parasitic infection?
Ans: It may be safe to breastfeed while taking medication for a parasitic infection, but it is important to consult with your healthcare provider before doing so. Some medications may not be safe for your baby and could potentially be passed through your milk. Your healthcare provider can provide guidance on the safest treatment options for you and your baby.
13. What are some common complications of parasitic infections during pregnancy?
Ans: Complications of parasitic infections during pregnancy can include miscarriage, preterm labor, low birth weight, and congenital anomalies. In rare cases, parasitic infections can also be transmitted to the baby during pregnancy or childbirth, which can lead to serious health problems for the baby.
14. Can I get a parasitic infection from my pet?
Ans: Yes, it is possible to get a parasitic infection from your pet if you come into contact with their feces or other bodily fluids. For example, toxoplasmosis can be transmitted through contact with cat feces, while hookworm infections can be spread through contact with contaminated soil or feces. It is important to practice good hygiene and take precautions when handling pets or coming into contact with potentially contaminated areas.
15. How can I prevent parasitic infections?
Ans: Preventing parasitic infections involves taking steps to avoid exposure to parasites and their vectors, as well as practicing good hygiene and taking precautions when traveling or engaging in activities that may put you at risk. Some ways to prevent parasitic infections include:
* Avoiding undercooked meat, especially pork and wild game
* Avoiding raw or unpasteurized dairy products
* Avoiding contaminated water and food
* Washing your hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom or before handling food
* Avoiding contact with cat feces, as toxoplasmosis can be transmitted through contact with cat feces
* Using protective clothing and insect repellent when outdoors in areas where parasites are common
* Keeping your home clean and free of clutter to reduce the risk of parasite infestations
* Avoiding touching or eating wild animals or plants that may be contaminated with parasites
16. What are some common misconceptions about parasitic infections?
Ans: There are several common misconceptions about parasitic infections, including:
* All parasites are the same and have similar symptoms
* Parasitic infections are only a problem for people who live in developing countries or have poor hygiene
* Only certain groups of people, such as children or pregnant women, are at risk for parasitic infections
* Parasitic infections are rare in developed countries
* All parasites can be treated with antibiotics
* Parasitic infections are not serious and do not require medical attention
17. How can I diagnose a parasitic infection?
Ans: Diagnosing a parasitic infection typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. Some common methods for diagnosing parasitic infections include:
* Physical examination to look for signs such as skin lesions or abdominal pain
* Blood tests to check for the presence of parasites or their waste products
* Stool tests to detect the presence of parasite eggs or larvae
* Imaging tests, such as X-rays or CT scans, to look for signs of parasite infection in internal organs
* Endoscopy, which involves inserting a flexible tube with a camera into the body to visualize the inside of the digestive tract and other organs.
18. How are parasitic infections treated?
Ans: Treatment for parasitic infections depends on the type of parasite and the severity of the infection. Some common methods for treating parasitic infections include:
* Antiparasitic drugs, such as antibiotics or antimalarials, to kill the parasites
* Supportive care, such as fluids and electrolytes, to manage symptoms and prevent complications
* Surgery to remove parasites or repair damaged tissues
* Antibiotics to treat secondary bacterial infections that may have developed as a result of the parasitic infection.
It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you have a parasitic infection, as untreated infections can lead to serious complications and can be difficult to diagnose.
19. How can I prevent parasitic infections?
Ans: Preventing parasitic infections involves taking steps to avoid contact with parasites and their vectors, as well as maintaining good hygiene practices. Some ways to prevent parasitic infections include:
* Avoiding undercooked meat and unpasteurized dairy products, which can contain harmful parasites such as Trichinella spiralis and Toxoplasma gondii
* Washing your hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom or before eating
* Avoiding contact with contaminated water or soil, which can harbor parasites such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium
* Using insecticides and repellents to prevent mosquito bites, which can transmit diseases such as malaria and dengue fever
* Wearing protective clothing and applying insect repellent when outdoors in areas where ticks and other vectors are common
* Avoiding contact with animals that may carry parasites, such as dogs and cats that can transmit Toxoplasma gondii
* Using clean water and proper sanitation to prevent the spread of parasitic infections in communities and developing countries.
It is also important to be aware of the risks of parasitic infections when traveling to areas where they are common, and to take appropriate precautions such as avoiding undercooked meat and unpasteurized dairy products, and using insecticides and repellents to prevent mosquito bites.
20. What is the prognosis for parasitic infections?
Ans: The prognosis for parasitic infections varies depending on the specific type of infection and the severity of symptoms. Some parasitic infections can be easily treated with antiparasitic medications, while others may require more extensive treatment and management.
In general, the prognosis for parasitic infections is good if the infection is detected early and properly treated. However, some parasitic infections can cause long-term health problems or death if left untreated. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
It is also important to note that some parasitic infections can be prevented through public health measures such as using clean water and proper sanitation, and controlling the spread of insect vectors. Prevention is key to avoiding the negative outcomes associated with these types of infections.
21. What are some common complications of parasitic infections?
Ans: Some common complications of parasitic infections include:
* Anemia and other blood disorders, such as thrombocytopenia and leukopenia
* Allergic reactions to parasite antigens
* Inflammation and damage to organs and tissues, such as the liver, kidneys, and brain
* Increased risk of infections with other microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses
* Malnutrition and deficiencies in essential nutrients
* Organ failure and death.
22. Can parasitic infections be prevented? If so, how?
Ans: Yes, some parasitic infections can be prevented through public health measures such as:
* Using clean water and proper sanitation to reduce the risk of ingesting infected parasites.
* Avoiding contact with insect vectors, such as mosquitoes and ticks, by using repellents, wearing protective clothing, and staying indoors during peak biting hours.
* Properly cooking and storing food to kill parasites that may be present.
* Avoiding consuming undercooked or raw meat, especially pork and wild game.
* Practicing safe sex to prevent the transmission of parasitic infections through sexual contact.
* Keeping children away from areas where they may come into contact with contaminated soil or water.
* Using antiparasitic drugs and other treatments as recommended by healthcare providers.
* Implementing control measures for insect vectors, such as spraying insecticides and removing breeding sites.
30. Can parasitic infections be treated with antibiotics? If so, which ones and why?
Ans: No, antibiotics are not effective against parasitic infections caused by protozoa, such as giardiasis and amoebiasis, because these organisms are not bacteria. However, antibiotics may be used to treat secondary bacterial infections that can develop as a complication of parasitic infections.
32. What is the difference between a parasite and a pathogen?
Ans: A parasite is an organism that lives on or in another organism, called the host, and feeds on the host's tissues or fluids without providing any benefits. A pathogen, on the other hand, is an organism that causes disease. While all parasites are pathogens, not all pathogens are parasites. For example, bacteria and viruses can cause diseases but are not considered parasites because they do not live within the host's body.

Symptoms of whooping cough typically appear within 7-14 days after exposure and may include:

* Mild fever
* Runny nose
* Sneezing
* Dry, irritating cough that progresses to spasmodic, convulsive coughing fits
* Vomiting after coughing
* Apnea (pause in breathing)

In infants, the symptoms may be milder and include:

* Mild fever
* Lack of appetite
* Irritability
* Cyanosis (blue discoloration of the skin)

If left untreated, whooping cough can lead to serious complications such as pneumonia, seizures, and brain damage. Diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and medical imaging. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Prevention measures include immunization with the pertussis vaccine, which is routinely given to infants and children in early childhood, as well as booster shots during adolescence and adulthood. Good hygiene practices, such as frequent handwashing and avoiding close contact with people who are sick, can also help prevent the spread of the disease.

There are two main forms of TB:

1. Active TB: This is the form of the disease where the bacteria are actively growing and causing symptoms such as coughing, fever, chest pain, and fatigue. Active TB can be contagious and can spread to others if not treated properly.
2. Latent TB: This is the form of the disease where the bacteria are present in the body but are not actively growing or causing symptoms. People with latent TB do not feel sick and are not contagious, but they can still become sick with active TB if their immune system is weakened.

TB is a major public health concern, especially in developing countries where access to healthcare may be limited. The disease is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical imaging, and laboratory tests such as skin tests or blood tests. Treatment for TB typically involves a course of antibiotics, which can be effective in curing the disease if taken properly. However, drug-resistant forms of TB have emerged in some parts of the world, making treatment more challenging.

Preventive measures against TB include:

1. Vaccination with BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) vaccine, which can provide some protection against severe forms of the disease but not against latent TB.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who have active TB, especially if they are coughing or sneezing.
3. Practicing good hygiene, such as covering one's mouth when coughing or sneezing and regularly washing hands.
4. Getting regular screenings for TB if you are in a high-risk group, such as healthcare workers or people with weakened immune systems.
5. Avoiding sharing personal items such as towels, utensils, or drinking glasses with people who have active TB.

Overall, while TB is a serious disease that can be challenging to treat and prevent, with the right measures in place, it is possible to reduce its impact on public health and improve outcomes for those affected by the disease.

There are several types of hepatitis C, including genotype 1, which is the most common and accounts for approximately 70% of cases in the United States. Other genotypes include 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The symptoms of hepatitis C can range from mild to severe and may include fatigue, fever, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, joint pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), dark urine, pale stools, and itching all over the body. Some people with hepatitis C may not experience any symptoms at all.

Hepatitis C is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests that detect the presence of antibodies against HCV or the virus itself. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, including interferon and ribavirin, which can cure the infection but may have side effects such as fatigue, nausea, and depression. In recent years, new drugs known as direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have become available, which can cure the infection with fewer side effects and in a shorter period of time.

Prevention measures for hepatitis C include avoiding sharing needles or other drug paraphernalia, using condoms to prevent sexual transmission, and ensuring that any tattoos or piercings are performed with sterilized equipment. Vaccines are also available for people who are at high risk of contracting the virus, such as healthcare workers and individuals who engage in high-risk behaviors.

Overall, hepatitis C is a serious and common liver disease that can lead to significant health complications if left untreated. Fortunately, with advances in medical technology and treatment options, it is possible to manage and cure the virus with proper care and attention.

Like HIV, HTLV-II targets the body's immune system and can cause damage to specific cells and tissues over time. However, HTLV-II infections tend to progress more slowly than HIV infections and may not lead to AIDS as quickly or with the same severity of symptoms.

HTLV-II infections are typically transmitted through sexual contact with an infected person, although they can also be spread from mother to child during pregnancy or childbirth. There is no cure for HTLV-II infections, but antiretroviral therapy (ART) and other treatments can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.

Preventing the spread of HTLV-II infections is important, as they can have serious consequences for individuals and public health. Safe sex practices, including the use of condoms and other barrier methods, can reduce the risk of transmission during sexual activity. Additionally, pregnant women who are infected with HTLV-II should receive appropriate medical care to prevent the transmission of the virus to their child.

In summary, HTLV-II infections are a type of retrovirus that can cause damage to the immune system and increase the risk of developing AIDS. While there is no cure for these infections, treatment and prevention strategies can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.

Some common types of Chlamydophila infections include:

1. Pneumonia: Chlamydophila pneumoniae can cause pneumonia, which is an inflammation of the lungs that can lead to fever, cough, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
2. Trachoma: Chlamydia trachomatis can cause trachoma, a highly contagious eye infection that can lead to blindness if left untreated.
3. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia psittaci can cause PID, an infection of the female reproductive organs that can lead to chronic pelvic pain, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy.
4. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia caviae can cause UTIs, which are infections of the urinary tract that can lead to symptoms such as burning during urination and frequent urination.
5. Rectal infections: Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia psittaci can cause rectal infections, which can lead to symptoms such as rectal pain, bleeding, and discharge.

Chlamydophila infections are typically treated with antibiotics, and early treatment can help prevent long-term complications and reduce the risk of transmission to others. It is important to practice safe sex and good hygiene to prevent the spread of these infections.

A peptic ulcer is a break in the lining of the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine), which can cause pain and bleeding. The stomach acid and digestive enzymes flowing through the ulcer can irritate the surrounding tissue, leading to inflammation and discomfort.

Peptic ulcers are commonly caused by an infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacteria or long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen or aspirin. Other contributing factors include stress, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption.

Symptoms of a peptic ulcer may include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite. Treatment options typically involve antibiotics to eradicate H. pylori infection or stopping NSAID use, along with medications to reduce acid production in the stomach and protect the ulcer from further damage. Surgery may be necessary for severe cases or if other treatments fail.

Prevention methods include avoiding NSAIDs, maintaining a healthy lifestyle, managing stress, and getting regular screenings for H. pylori infection. Early detection and proper treatment can help alleviate symptoms and prevent complications such as ulcer perforation or bleeding.

In summary, peptic ulcers are painful and potentially harmful conditions that can be caused by various factors. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and improve quality of life.

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.

There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:

1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)

The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss

If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:

1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)

HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.

Prevention methods for HIV infection include:

1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.

It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.

Source: 'Rubella' in Duane Gubler (ed.), up-to-date online clinical reference, retrieved on March 14, 2023 from

Some common horse diseases include:

1. Equine Influenza (EI): A highly contagious respiratory disease caused by the equine influenza virus. It can cause fever, coughing, and nasal discharge.
2. Strangles: A bacterial infection of the lymph nodes, which can cause swelling of the neck and difficulty breathing.
3. West Nile Virus (WNV): A viral infection that can cause fever, weakness, and loss of coordination. It is transmitted by mosquitoes and can be fatal in some cases.
4. Tetanus: A bacterial infection caused by Clostridium tetani, which can cause muscle stiffness, spasms, and rigidity.
5. Rabies: A viral infection that affects the central nervous system and can be fatal if left untreated. It is transmitted through the saliva of infected animals, usually through a bite.
6. Cushing's Disease: A hormonal disorder caused by an overproduction of cortisol, which can cause weight gain, muscle wasting, and other health issues.
7. Laminitis: An inflammation of the laminae, the tissues that connect the hoof to the bone. It can be caused by obesity, overeating, or excessive exercise.
8. Navicular Syndrome: A condition that affects the navicular bone and surrounding tissue, causing pain and lameness in the foot.
9. Pneumonia: An inflammation of the lungs, which can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
10. Colic: A general term for abdominal pain, which can be caused by a variety of factors, including gas, impaction, or twisting of the intestines.

These are just a few examples of the many potential health issues that can affect horses. Regular veterinary care and proper management can help prevent many of these conditions, and early diagnosis and treatment can improve the chances of a successful outcome.

Symptoms of dengue fever typically begin within 2-7 days after the bite of an infected mosquito and can include:

* High fever
* Severe headache
* Pain behind the eyes
* Severe joint and muscle pain
* Rash
* Fatigue
* Nausea
* Vomiting

In some cases, dengue fever can develop into a more severe form of the disease, known as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), which can be life-threatening. Symptoms of DHF include:

* Severe abdominal pain
* Vomiting
* Diarrhea
* Bleeding from the nose, gums, or under the skin
* Easy bruising
* Petechiae (small red spots on the skin)
* Black stools
* Decreased urine output

Dengue fever is diagnosed based on a combination of symptoms, physical examination findings, and laboratory tests. Treatment for dengue fever is primarily focused on relieving symptoms and managing fluid and electrolyte imbalances. There is no specific treatment for the virus itself, but early detection and proper medical care can significantly lower the risk of complications and death.

Prevention of dengue fever relies on measures to prevent mosquito bites, such as using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and eliminating standing water around homes and communities to reduce the breeding of mosquitoes. Vaccines against dengue fever are also being developed, but none are currently available for widespread use.

In summary, dengue is a viral disease that is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes and can cause a range of symptoms from mild to severe. Early detection and proper medical care are essential to prevent complications and death from dengue fever. Prevention of dengue relies on measures to prevent mosquito bites and eliminating standing water around homes and communities.

References:

1. World Health Organization. (2020). Dengue and severe dengue. Retrieved from
2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020). Dengue fever: Background. Retrieved from
3. Mayo Clinic. (2020). Dengue fever. Retrieved from
4. MedlinePlus. (2020). Dengue fever. Retrieved from

There are several types of hepatitis, including:

1. Hepatitis A: This type is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV) and is usually transmitted through contaminated food or water or through close contact with someone who has the infection.
2. Hepatitis B: This type is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and can be spread through sexual contact, sharing of needles, or mother-to-child transmission during childbirth.
3. Hepatitis C: This type is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and is primarily spread through blood-to-blood contact, such as sharing of needles or receiving a tainted blood transfusion.
4. Alcoholic hepatitis: This type is caused by excessive alcohol consumption and can lead to inflammation and scarring in the liver.
5. Drug-induced hepatitis: This type is caused by certain medications, such as antidepressants, anti-seizure drugs, or chemotherapy agents.
6. Autoimmune hepatitis: This type is caused by an abnormal immune response and can lead to inflammation in the liver.

Symptoms of hepatitis may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, and yellowing of the skin (jaundice). In severe cases, it can lead to liver failure or even death.

Diagnosis of hepatitis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests such as blood tests and imaging studies like ultrasound or CT scans. Treatment options vary depending on the cause and severity of the condition, but may include medications to manage symptoms, antiviral therapy, or in severe cases, liver transplantation. Prevention measures for hepatitis include vaccination against certain types of the disease, practicing safe sex, avoiding sharing needles or other drug paraphernalia, and following proper hygiene practices.

In conclusion, hepatitis is a serious condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It is important to be aware of the different types of hepatitis and their causes in order to prevent and manage this condition effectively. By taking appropriate measures such as getting vaccinated and practicing safe sex, individuals can reduce their risk of contracting hepatitis. In severe cases, early diagnosis and treatment can help to minimize damage to the liver and improve outcomes for patients.

Symptoms of gastritis may include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and difficulty swallowing. In severe cases, bleeding may occur in the stomach and black tarry stools may be present.

Diagnosis of gastritis is typically made through endoscopy, during which a flexible tube with a camera and light on the end is inserted through the mouth to visualize the inside of the stomach. Biopsies may also be taken during this procedure to examine the stomach tissue under a microscope for signs of inflammation or infection.

Treatment of gastritis depends on the underlying cause, but may include antibiotics for bacterial infections, anti-inflammatory medications, and lifestyle modifications such as avoiding alcohol, losing weight, and eating smaller more frequent meals. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue or repair any ulcers that have developed.

The symptoms of chlamydia infections can vary depending on the location of the infection. In genital infections, symptoms may include:

* Discharge from the penis or vagina
* Painful urination
* Abnormal bleeding or spotting
* Painful sex
* Testicular pain in men
* Pelvic pain in women

In eye infections, symptoms can include:

* Redness and swelling of the eye
* Discharge from the eye
* Pain or sensitivity to light

In respiratory infections, symptoms may include:

* Cough
* Fever
* Shortness of breath or wheezing

If left untreated, chlamydia infections can lead to serious complications, such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women and epididymitis in men. Chlamydia infections can also increase the risk of infertility and other long-term health problems.

Chlamydia infections are typically diagnosed through a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) or a culture test. Treatment for chlamydia infections typically involves antibiotics, which can effectively cure the infection. It is important to note that sexual partners of someone with a chlamydia infection should also be tested and treated, as they may also have the infection.

Prevention methods for chlamydia infections include safe sex practices such as using condoms and dental dams, as well as regular screening and testing for the infection. It is important to note that chlamydia infections can be asymptomatic, so regular testing is crucial for early detection and treatment.

In conclusion, chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted bacterial infection that can cause serious complications if left untreated. Early detection and treatment are key to preventing long-term health problems and the spread of the infection. Safe sex practices and regular screening are also important for preventing chlamydia infections.

The symptoms of hepatitis B can range from mild to severe and may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, joint pain, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). In some cases, hepatitis B can be asymptomatic, meaning that individuals may not experience any symptoms at all.

Hepatitis B is diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of HBV antigens or antibodies in the body. Treatment for acute hepatitis B typically involves rest, hydration, and medication to manage symptoms, while chronic hepatitis B may require ongoing therapy with antiviral drugs to suppress the virus and prevent liver damage.

Preventive measures for hepatitis B include vaccination, which is recommended for individuals at high risk of infection, such as healthcare workers, sexually active individuals, and those traveling to areas where HBV is common. In addition, safe sex practices, avoiding sharing of needles or other bodily fluids, and proper sterilization of medical equipment can help reduce the risk of transmission.

Overall, hepatitis B is a serious infection that can have long-term consequences for liver health, and it is important to take preventive measures and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Herpesviridae infections are caused by the Herpesviridae family of viruses and can be transmitted through skin-to-skin contact, sexual contact, or from mother to child during pregnancy or childbirth. Symptoms of herpesviridae infections can vary depending on the type of virus and the individual infected, but may include fever, fatigue, muscle aches, and skin sores or rashes.

There is no cure for herpesviridae infections, but antiviral medications can help manage symptoms and reduce the risk of transmission to others. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly and avoiding close contact with those who are infected, can also help prevent the spread of these viruses.

Some common types of herpesviridae infections include:

* Herpes simplex virus (HSV) - Causes cold sores and genital herpes.
* Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) - Causes chickenpox and shingles.
* Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) - Associated with certain types of cancer, such as Kaposi's sarcoma.

STDs can cause a range of symptoms, including genital itching, burning during urination, unusual discharge, and painful sex. Some STDs can also lead to long-term health problems, such as infertility, chronic pain, and an increased risk of certain types of cancer.

STDs are usually diagnosed through a physical exam, blood tests, or other diagnostic tests. Treatment for STDs varies depending on the specific infection and can include antibiotics, antiviral medication, or other therapies. It's important to practice safe sex, such as using condoms, to reduce the risk of getting an STD.

Some of the most common STDs include:

* Chlamydia: A bacterial infection that can cause genital itching, burning during urination, and unusual discharge.
* Gonorrhea: A bacterial infection that can cause similar symptoms to chlamydia.
* Syphilis: A bacterial infection that can cause a painless sore on the genitals, followed by a rash and other symptoms.
* Herpes: A viral infection that can cause genital itching, burning during urination, and painful sex.
* HPV: A viral infection that can cause genital warts and increase the risk of cervical cancer.
* HIV/AIDS: A viral infection that can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, fatigue, and weight loss, and can lead to AIDS if left untreated.

It's important to note that some STDs can be spread through non-sexual contact, such as sharing needles or mother-to-child transmission during childbirth. It's also important to know that many STDs can be asymptomatic, meaning you may not have any symptoms even if you are infected.

If you think you may have been exposed to an STD, it's important to get tested as soon as possible. Many STDs can be easily treated with antibiotics or other medications, but if left untreated, they can lead to serious complications and long-term health problems.

It's also important to practice safe sex to reduce the risk of getting an STD. This includes using condoms, as well as getting vaccinated against HPV and Hepatitis B, which are both common causes of STDs.

In addition to getting tested and practicing safe sex, it's important to be aware of your sexual health and the risks associated with sex. This includes being aware of any symptoms you may experience, as well as being aware of your partner's sexual history and any STDs they may have. By being informed and proactive about your sexual health, you can help reduce the risk of getting an STD and maintain good sexual health.

2. Chronic HTLV-I infection: This occurs when the acute phase of HTLV-I infection persists for more than 6 months, leading to the development of chronic inflammation and immune dysregulation.
3. Carrier state: A person who has been infected with HTLV-I but does not show any symptoms can be considered a carrier of the virus.
4. Vertically transmitted HTLV-I infection: This refers to the transmission of the virus from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding.
5. Horizontally transmitted HTLV-I infection: This occurs when the virus is transmitted through contact with infected bodily fluids, such as blood, semen, and breast milk.
6. Symptomatic HTLV-I infection: This refers to a condition where the patient shows symptoms of the disease, such as TSP/HAM or ATLL.
7. Asymptomatic HTLV-I infection: This occurs when the patient does not show any symptoms despite being infected with the virus.
8. Latent HTLV-I infection: This refers to a condition where the virus is present in the body but is not actively replicating or causing symptoms.
9. Reactivated HTLV-I infection: This occurs when the virus becomes active again after a period of latency, leading to a recurrence of symptoms.

These categories are important for understanding the progression and management of HTLV-I infection, as well as for determining the risk of transmission to others.

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.

What is a Chronic Disease?

A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:

1. Diabetes
2. Heart disease
3. Arthritis
4. Asthma
5. Cancer
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
8. Hypertension
9. Osteoporosis
10. Stroke

Impact of Chronic Diseases

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.

Addressing Chronic Diseases

Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:

1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.

Conclusion

Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.

... or by genetic testing. As of 2019, serologic testing for Vel is mainly performed using polyclonal antibodies isolated from the ... Harmening D (10 July 2012). "Part II: Blood groups and serologic testing". Modern Blood Banking and Transfusion Practices (6th ... during compatibility testing). Anti-Vel can be mistaken for a typical cold antibody in compatibility testing if inappropriate ... An individual's Vel blood type can be determined by serologic methods, which use reagents containing anti-Vel antibodies to ...
"Interassay correlation of human herpesvirus 8 serologic tests. HHV-8 Interlaboratory Collaborative Group". The Journal of ... Testing for HHV-8 must be negative to diagnose iMCD. Laboratory testing may demonstrate low hemoglobin levels (anemia), ... HHV-8-associated MCD is diagnosed based on patient history, physical exam, laboratory testing, radiologic imaging, and ... Follow-up visits may include evaluation of symptoms, physical examination, laboratory testing, and radiologic imaging. Outcomes ...
Infection can be confirmed through serologic IgM testing. The virus is found in the Mediterranean, Middle East, and parts of ... There is little or no serologic cross-reactivity between sandfly fever viruses. ...
Most commonly, serologic testing and PCR amplification are used. E. chaffeensis is susceptible to tetracyclines. Doxycycline ...
The monospot test is not recommended for general use by the CDC due to its poor accuracy. Serologic tests detect antibodies ... The Paul-Bunnell Test or PBT was later replaced by the heterophile antibody test. The Epstein-Barr virus was first identified ... The heterophile antibody test is a screening test that gives results within a day, but has significantly less than full ... The heterophile antibody test, or monospot test, works by agglutination of red blood cells from guinea pigs, sheep and horses. ...
Hagebock JM, Schlater LK, Frerichs WM, Olson DP (January 1993). "Serologic responses to the mallein test for glanders in ... "Comparative evaluation of Rose Bengal plate agglutination test, mallein test, and some conventional serological tests for ... The mallein test is a sensitive and specific clinical test for glanders, a common bacterial disease of equids (horses, donkeys ... mules). This test is an allergic hypersensitivity test used as a diagnosis for glanders. It is caused by a bacterium called ...
323 In serologic testing, D positive blood is easily identified. Units that are D negative are often retested to rule out a ... Based on the serologic similarities, Rh factor was later also used for antigens, and anti-Rh for antibodies, found in humans ... Because it is simpler to explain, the Fisher-Race theory has become more widely used.[citation needed] DNA testing has shown ... Some keystones were to recognize its importance for blood transfusion (including reliable diagnostic tests), hemolytic disease ...
Serologic testing has a sensitivity of 80% after two weeks. Serologic testing may not be specific for serotype (has some cross ... DFA test for the L-type serovar of C. trachomatis is the most sensitive and specific test, but is not readily available.[ ... It has been noted that one type of testing may not be thorough enough.[citation needed] Treatment involves antibiotics and may ... As with all STIs, sex partners of patients who have LGV should be examined and tested for urethral or cervical chlamydial ...
Serologic testing, radiological imaging and histological analysis can help diagnose SSC. First lines of treatment can include ...
Serologic testing looks for the presence of antibodies against the adult schistosome in the blood. This can only take place 6 ... However, serologic testing is not useful for patients with previous infections. Praziquantel is an effective treatment against ...
At the time, serologic testing was negative for viral hemorrhagic fever. She was discharged on January 19, 2008. After the ... Many candidate vaccines have been developed and tested in various animal models. Of those, the most promising ones are DNA ... death of the Dutch patient and the discovery that the American woman had visited Python Cave, further testing confirmed the ...
246-8. ISBN 978-0-323-01319-2. Horn T, Kazakis A (1987). "Pityriasis rosea and the need for a serologic test for syphilis". ... If the diagnosis is in doubt, tests may be performed to rule out similar conditions such as Lyme disease, ringworm, guttate ... and rapid plasma reagin testing should be performed if there is any clinical concern for syphilis. A biopsy of the lesions will ...
However, serologic tests have high sensitivity only in people with total villous atrophy and have a very low ability to detect ... tTG testing should be done first as it is an easier test to perform. An equivocal result on tTG testing should be followed by ... Several tests can be used. The level of symptoms may determine the order of the tests, but all tests lose their usefulness if ... Antibody testing may be combined with HLA testing if the diagnosis is unclear. TGA and EMA testing are the most sensitive serum ...
EEG, CT or MRI, CSF examination, and measles serologic testing are done. EEG shows periodic complexes with high-voltage ... If test results are inconclusive, brain biopsy may be needed." If the diagnosis is made during stage 1 it may be possible to ...
... an available serologic test may be useful in diagnosis. Affected dogs are sometimes isolated from other dogs and their bedding ... The test is also positive in animals with ear mites, an ear canal infection caused by a different but closely related mite ( ... topical ivermectin has not been well enough tested to be approved for this use in dogs, and is theoretically much more ...
... the development of the Wassermann test by August von Wassermann). The same technique is used today in serologic testing for ... These studies became the basis for complement-fixation testing methods that enabled the development of serological tests for ...
Serologic testing using enzyme-linked immunosorbent serologic assay (ELISA) can be made afterward. Treatment consists of ...
A Sabin-Feldman dye test is a serologic test to diagnose for toxoplasmosis. Patient serum is treated with Toxoplasma ... The test is highly sensitive and specific with no false positives reported so far.[clarification needed] Drawbacks of this test ... v t e (Wikipedia articles needing clarification from March 2020, Infectious disease blood tests, All stub articles, Medical ... The dilution of the test serum at which 50% of the tachyzoites are thin, distorted and colorless is reported as antibody titer ...
A number of serologic tests have been employed for the diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis. Double diffusion in agar gel and ... which might provide a basis for the development of a diagnostic test. Tests targeting the presence of serum antibodies to P. ... complement fixation test, are amongst the most commonly used tests in serodiagnosis. Culture extracts of the yeast or mycelia ... "Rapid and reliable method for production of a specific Paracoccidioides brasiliensis immunodiffucsion test antigen". J. Clin. ...
2007). "Accuracy of serologic tests and HLA-DQ typing for diagnosing celiac disease". Annals of Internal Medicine. 147 (5): 294 ... Note some population test DR3 or DQA1:DQB1, the DR3-DQ2 serotype is generally synonymous in frequency with DQ2.5] DR3-DQ2 ...
His areas of research while in Washington included serologic testing methods and hepatitis screening. He was a clinical ...
Serologic testing can be helpful but should not be the sole basis for diagnosis. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) issued a ... he was noted to have positive serologic tests for Borrelia burgdorferi. Treatment with a 14 day course of intravenous ... Upon performance of a CCK test, standard imaging techniques are done with the patient lying prone, in this instance it was done ... cautionary statement (MMWR 54;125) regarding the use of several commercial tests. Clinical diagnostic criteria have been issued ...
... from which serologic tests can be performed ..." from categories of individuals which include "Department of Defense military ... "will not be used for any genetics related testing". As a result of clinically indicated HIV testing performed on civilians and ... Contracts for HIV testing, negotiated by the individual military services, covered all specimens shipped from Military ... A condition of some early laboratory testing contracts specified that remnant serum were to remain in frozen storage. In 1989, ...
The sensitivity of various serologic tests in the diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Am J Trop Med Hyg 35:840-844. (All ... The Weil-Felix test is an agglutination test for the diagnosis of rickettsial infections. It was first described in 1916. By ... Weil-Felix is a nonspecific agglutination test which detects anti-rickettsial antibodies in patient's serum. Weil-Felix test is ... The Weil-Felix test can be done as either a slide or a tube test. The antigens necessary (OX2, OX19, and OXK) can be obtained ...
Most often, PCR testing is used in conjunction with blood film examination and possibly serologic testing. Other laboratory ... serologic testing may be falsely negative early in the disease course. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test has been ... Serologic testing for antibodies against Babesia (both IgG and IgM) can detect low-level infection in cases with a high ... April 1994). "Diagnosis of babesiosis: evaluation of a serologic test for the detection of Babesia microti antibody". J. Infect ...
If routine serologic testing for RhD results in a score of 2+ or less, the antiglobulin test can be used to demonstrate the ... Blood types can also be determined through genetic testing, which is used when conditions that interfere with serologic testing ... 275-6 Genetic testing can be used to determine a person's blood type in certain situations where serologic testing is ... For example, if a person has been transfused with large volumes of donor blood, the results of serologic testing will reflect ...
If serologic tests detect a positive or high titer of IgG, this result should not automatically be interpreted to mean that ... For these reasons, CMV serologic testing is routine for both bone marrow donors and recipients. A phase 2 study of a CMV- ... The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (or ELISA) is the most commonly available serologic test for measuring antibody to CMV. ... However, routine testing of all pregnant women is costly and the need for testing should therefore be evaluated on a case-by- ...
Sometimes serologic testing is used as supportive evidence, although no commercial serologic test is currently available. Other ... The fact that no commercial serologic test exists for the diagnosis of B. procyonis infection makes the diagnosis and treatment ... Laboratory and clinical diagnosis can be challenging: there is no commercially available serologic test in the United States, ... differential diagnoses among other laboratory tests. Human Baylisascariasis is under-recognized, as the knowledge of the ...
Serologic analysis can be also used - ELISA test for IgG antibodies against antigens of M. conjunctus. Drugs used to treat ...
Serologic testing has also been used to diagnose the presence of botfly larvae in human ophthalmomyiasis. Ultrasound showing ...
"Serologic Evaluation of Patients from Missouri with Erythema Migrans-Like Skin Lesions with the C6 Lyme Test". Clin. Vaccine ...
Culture or PCR are the current means for detecting the presence of the organism, as serologic studies only test for antibodies ... Blood tests are often negative in the early stages of the disease. Testing of individual ticks is not typically useful. ... The CDC does not recommend urine antigen tests, PCR tests on urine, immunofluorescent staining for cell-wall-deficient forms of ... Unlike blood and intrathecal antibody tests, CSF pleocytosis tests revert to normal after infection ends and therefore can be ...
Retrospective serologic testing subsequently demonstrated that up to 230 soldiers had been infected with the novel virus, which ... of those tested were positive for the disease. Four of those who tested positive from these 185 died due to this disease. The ... The Chinese CDC said it had implemented an influenza surveillance program in 2010, analyzing more than 400,000 tests annually, ... After 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) virus samples were tested, only 4% (of 853 samples) showed resistance to oseltamivir (again, no ...
HIV testing should also be performed, as some patients may be co-infected with both viruses.[citation needed] Allogenic bone ... Although little serologic data exist, the prevalence of infection is thought to be highest among blacks living in the Southeast ...
During those 28 years, she published several studies concerning the standardization and relative sensitivity of serologic tests ... She undertook a study of erythrocyte survival and devised a serologic technique for accurately measuring erythrocyte survival. ...
In microbiology, serologic tests are used to determine if a person has antibodies against a specific pathogen, or to detect ... Most serologic tests measure one of two types of antibodies: immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG). IgM is produced ... Serologic tests are especially useful for organisms that are difficult to culture by routine laboratory methods, like Treponema ... Serologic tests can help to diagnose autoimmune disorders by identifying abnormal antibodies directed against a person's own ...
Serologic testing seeks evidence of the antibodies that the body produces against the streptococcal infection, including ... The rapid antigen detection test is a very specific test but not very sensitive. This means that if the result is positive ( ... The Dick test involved injecting a diluted strain of the streptococci known to cause scarlet fever; a reaction in the skin at ... The Dick test, developed in 1924 by George F. Dick and Gladys Dick, was used to identify those susceptible to scarlet fever. ...
Chesla, S; Henry, S; Eatz, R; Sinor, L (2010). "Solid phase syphilis test utilizing KODE technology". Transfusion. 50: 196A- ... Henry, Stephen; Perry, Holly (2012). FSL-A+B(tri) Serologic Teaching Kit Technical Bulletin. Scholarly Commons. hdl:10292/2827 ... serologic teaching kits and a syphilis diagnostic. Kodecytes have also demonstrated that FSL-FLRO4 is a suitable reagent for ...
... polio vaccine variants developed by Albert Sabin Sabin-Feldman dye test, a serologic test to diagnose for toxoplasmosis Doo- ...
2007). "Scrub typhus serologic testing with the indirect immunofluorescence method as a diagnostic gold standard: a lack of ... The cheapest and most easily available serological test is the Weil-Felix test, but this is notoriously unreliable. The gold ... since the serological test involved is not included in the routine screening tests for PUO, especially in Burma (Myanmar).[ ... citation needed] The choice of laboratory test is not straightforward, and all currently available tests have their limitations ...
Sometimes serologic testing is used to rule out the disease, but due to high rates of false positives, serologies are not ... Seropositivity (positive blood test result) for Toxoplasma is very common and therefore not useful in diagnosis; however, a ... In atypical cases, ocular fluid testing to detect parasite DNA by polymerase chain reaction or to determine intraocular ... In contrast, pregnant women without serologic evidence of prior exposure to Toxoplasma should take sanitary precautions such as ...
J. J. VAN LOGHEM, Jn.; E. MENDES DE LEON, M.D.; HERTA FRENKEL-TIETZ; IIA VAN DER HART (1952). "Two Different Serologic ... biologic test with bovine red cells". Annals of Internal Medicine. 44 (2): 221-40. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-44-2-221. ISSN 0003- ...
... followed by confirmation using Western Blot test. It cannot be cultured from synovial fluid. However, PCR testing yields 85% ... Serologic studies should be done if lyme disease is suspected. Blood cultures can be positive in 25 to 50% of those with septic ... Laboratory testing includes white blood cell count, ESR and CRP. These values are usually elevated in those with septic ... If the culture is negative or if a gonococcal cause is suspected, NAAT testing of the synovial fluid should be done. Positive ...
... clinical trials testing the efficacy of the influenza vaccine have been slowly coming in: 2,058 people were vaccinated in ... With serologic end points included, efficacy was demonstrated for the inactivated vaccine in a year with low influenza attack ... which were both intended to test an experimental HIV vaccine . In these cases, the formula would yield a negative efficacy ... "The impact of selection bias on vaccine effectiveness estimates from test-negative studies". Vaccine. 36 (5): 751--757. doi: ...
A serologic survey of residents in the area revealed a 13% antibody prevalence. No person-to-person transmissions were found. ... All of the hamsters tested positive for CHOV, but none exhibited any symptoms. The virus was isolated from the northern pygmy ... There were three fatalities among those who tested negative for the virus. Before this outbreak, there were no documented cases ...
As the virus was distinct from the classification of virus, serologic testing of the samples resulted negative for phlebovirus ...
However, these genes, as it was discovered by serologic and chemical methods, could be highly polymorphic. This polymorphism is ... Which were practically used in forensic medicine and in paternity testing, before replaced by modern day DNA fingerprinting. ...
Testing of IgG is not indicated for diagnosis of allergy, and there is no evidence that it has any relationship to food ... A common example of this practice are titers drawn to demonstrate serologic immunity to measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), ... "Testing for IgG4 against foods is not recommended as a diagnostic tool: EAACI Task Force Report". Allergy. 63 (7): 793-796. doi ... "Pearls and pitfalls of allergy diagnostic testing: report from the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology/American ...
... causes and effects of a disease on a specific population on the basis of serologic tests) in Egypt was the first to show the ... In a 2000 study in Jordan, 83% of the 32 camels studied tested positive for sarcoptic mange. In another study, dromedaries were ...
As of February 2015[update] a number of rapid diagnostic tests were under trial. In September 2015, a new chip-based testing ... 10 January 2018). "Serologic Evidence of Ebolavirus Infection in a Population With No History of Outbreaks in the Democratic ... "Guinea says two people tested positive for Ebola". Reuters. 17 March 2016. Reilly, Katie. "2 Test Positive for Ebola in Guinea ... "Sierra Leone Stops Mandatory Testing Of Corpses For Ebola". Agence France Presse. Retrieved 1 August 2016. "2 of 5 Test ...
The laboratories report 750 biochemical tests, 510 complete blood counts, 100 serologic tests, 20 cytology samples and 15 ... But since 2017 institute admitting the students from NEET-UG & NEET-PG ( National Eligibility cum Entrance Test ) The institute ... which includes a multiple choice question test on physics, chemistry and biology and a special theory paper on Gandhian ... was having special reservations for students from rural areas of the count and the institute was having its own premedical test ...
Serologic studies have shown that by the age of five, virtually all children worldwide have been exposed to the virus. Despite ... detection of hMPV antigens in nasopharyngeal secretions by immunofluorescent-antibody test the use of immunofluorescence ...
About 30% of patients' allergies with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and mucosal lesions, but negative results from serologic ( ... without special testing. Several different criteria developed for research have also been validated to aid in diagnosis. Of ... TG2 antibodies) or genetic tests (DQ2 or DQ8 genotype) for celiac disease, had reduced GI and atopic symptoms when they were ...
Serologic tests and enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), which measured variola virus-specific immunoglobulin and ... An outbreak of weaponized smallpox occurred during testing at a facility on an island in the Aral Sea in 1971. General Prof. ... Did bioweapons test cause a deadly smallpox outbreak?". Science. 296 (5576): 2116-17. doi:10.1126/science.296.5576.2116. PMID ... Some scientists have argued that the stocks may be useful in developing new vaccines, antiviral drugs, and diagnostic tests; a ...
A great benefit to this method of hapten conjugation is that there is automated analysis of sample and the testing of sample ... Based on K. Landsteiner, 1962, The Specificity of Serologic Reactions, Dover Press Tagliaferro, P; Tandler, C.J; Ramos, A.J; ...
"Laboratory Serologic Problems Associated with Administration of Intravenous IgG". The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer ... In the later 1990s, large-scale trials began in Europe to test the feasibility of subcutaneous immunoglobulin administration, ...
Gronowitz JS, Bergström R, Nôu E, Påhlman S, Brodin O, Nilsson S, Källander CF (1990). "Clinical and serologic markers of stage ... Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers. 21 (8): 471-478. doi:10.1089/gtmb.2017.0003. PMID 28817340. Chen F, Tang L, Xia T, He ... A prognostic test after surgical resection". Molecular Oncology. 9 (6): 1129-39. doi:10.1016/j.molonc.2015.02.005. PMC 5528761 ... Laboratory Testing for Cancer. Antibiotics and Chemotherapy. Vol. 22. pp. 16-31. doi:10.1159/000401148. ISBN 978-3-8055-2765-1 ...
Serologic Testing. Acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is diagnosed in immunocompetent individuals based on the detection ... the specificity of both rapid tests was 100%. [39] Therefore, anti-HEV IgM rapid assays may be used as a first-line test in ... The test for the presence of anti-HEV IgM is performed by the detection of specific IgM antibodies directed against a range of ... Evaluation of rapid tests for diagnosis of acute hepatitis E. J Clin Virol. 2016 May. 78:4-8. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
Notice to Readers Recommendations for Test Performance and Interpretation from the Second National Conference on Serologic ... serologic test performance and interpretation, 2) quality-assurance practices, 3) new test evaluation and clearance, and 4) ... communication of developments in Lyme disease (LD) testing. This report presents recommendations for serologic test performance ... If a patient with suspected early LD has a negative serology, serologic evidence of infection is best obtained by testing of ...
Unfortunately, due to the limited availability of commercial tests and the lack of reliable trials establishing the sensitivity ... Serologic tests are one of the available diagnostic tools in COVID-19. Growing literature highlights their role in the clinical ... Update on serologic testing in COVID-19 Rafał Krajewski 1 , Justyna Gołębiowska 1 , Sebastian Makuch 2 , Grzegorz Mazur 1 , ... Update on serologic testing in COVID-19 Rafał Krajewski et al. Clin Chim Acta. 2020 Nov. ...
Limited Specificity of Serologic Tests for SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Detection, Benin Anges Yadouleton1, Anna-Lena Sander1, Andres ... Molecular and serologic test results for betacoronaviruses and co-existing pathogens in Benin. Individual results are shown for ... Limited Specificity of Serologic Tests for SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Detection, Benin. ... plaque reduction neutralization test; RT-PCR, reverse transcription PCR; SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome ...
Material strategies and considerations for serologic testing of global infectious diseases Jessica E Manning et al. MRS Bull. ... Material strategies and considerations for serologic testing of global infectious diseases Jessica E Manning 1 , Patrick E ... Diagnostic testing for SARS-CoV-2/COVID19. Spearman P. Spearman P. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2021 Feb 1;33(1):122-128. doi: 10.1097/ ... The Role of Antibody Testing for SARS-CoV-2: Is There One? Theel ES, Slev P, Wheeler S, Couturier MR, Wong SJ, Kadkhoda K. ...
... Research Letter Serologic Tests Skin Ulcer ... Rapid Serologic Test for Diagnosis of Yaws in Patients with Suspicious Skin Ulcers. 29(8). Suñer, Clara et al. "Rapid Serologic ... "Rapid Serologic Test for Diagnosis of Yaws in Patients with Suspicious Skin Ulcers" vol. 29, no. 8, 2023. Export RIS Citation ... Title : Rapid Serologic Test for Diagnosis of Yaws in Patients with Suspicious Skin Ulcers Personal Author(s) : Suñer, Clara; ...
... isolation and serologic tests through indirect immunofluorescence in equines of southern region of Minas Gerais state Download ...
Start Over You searched for: Subjects Serologic Tests ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Serologic Tests Publication Year 2000 to ... Serologic Tests. Trypanosoma cruzi. Chagas Disease -- prevention & control. Risk Management. Humans. United States. United ... 1. Use of serological tests to reduce the risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in blood and blood components ... Use of serological tests to reduce the risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in blood and blood components1 ...
If serologic tests suggest celiac disease, intestinal biopsies are used to confirm the diagnosis. ... Overview of serologic and genetic tests for celiac disease. ... Serologic tests. Ordering serologic tests-blood tests that ... Celiac Disease Tests Celiac Disease Tests. Health care professionals most often use serologic tests and intestinal biopsies to ... The tTG-IgA test is the preferred celiac disease serologic test for most patients.1 Research suggests that the tTG-IgA test has ...
... rapid test at our Pharmacy You can book it on this website or through our App Farmacia della Condotta The rapid antigen test ... carried out with a nasopharyngeal swab allows to identify the presence of virus proteins antigens In order to perform the test ... It is also possible to perform the rapid serological test: The rapid serological tests, carried out on capillary blood samples ... The tests will be carried out in the pharmacy, and will be coordinated by the pharmacy staff. The time slot available is from ...
Commercial serodiagnostic tests for diagnosis of tuberculosis: policy statement. by World Health Organization. ...
... may interfere with serologic tests for red cell antibodies such as the antiglobulin test (Coombs test). ... 5.6 Interference with Serologic Testing 5.7 Transmissible Infectious Agents 6 ADVERSE REACTIONS 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience ... 5.6 Interference with Serologic Testing *A transient rise of the various passively transferred antibodies in the patients ... Individual plasma units are tested using FDA-licensed serologic assays for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and for ...
Use of a commercial serologic test for Angiostrongylus vasorum for the detection of A. chabaudi in wildcats and A. daskalovi in ... Use of a commercial serologic test for Angiostrongylus vasorum for the detection of A. cha ... vasorum using a commercial serologic test developed for domestic dogs. Badgers (Meles meles) (n=10) and wildcats (Felis ... The 100% correlation between the necropsy results and the serologic positivity to IDEXX Angio Detect™ in badgers infected with ...
Accuracy of supplementary serologic testing for human T-lymphotropic virus types I and II in US blood donors. Retrovirus ... and by repeat serologic testing (4 cases). The three false-positive results occurred in the first year of testing. Of 425 HTLV- ... Accuracy of supplementary serologic testing for human T-lymphotropic virus types I and II in US blood donors. Retrovirus ... Home Publications Accuracy of supplementary serologic testing for human T-lymphotropic virus types I and II in US blood donors ...
Tests that may be done to diagnose the condition include:. *Biopsy of the spleen and culture ...
Establishment of serologic testing as a primary endpoint for vaccine trials in Mali, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone ... Testing and refinement of diagnostic assays for alternative matrices to support public-health measures and clinical-trial ... Use of surrogate systems to test clinical hypotheses. *Use of biological systems to answer questions regarding disease ...
Testing for Congential Zika Virus Infection. Molecular and serologic diagnostic testing for Zika virus is recommended for ... In patients with indeterminate IgM antibody testing, repeat IgM testing or confirmatory PRNTs test should be performed. ... Diagnostic testing of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is based on molecular and serologic methods. [32] Nucleic acid amplification ... Serologic Testing. Zika virus infection is diagnosed based on detection and isolation of Zika virus RNA from serum using ...
Pretest Probability of Lyme Disease and Serologic Testing Poster [PDF - 2 pages] *Printable [PDF - 2 pages] ... New! Lyme Disease Serologic Testing and Pretest Probability. A patients pretest probability for Lyme disease helps inform ... Diagnosis and testingplus icon *Laboratory tests that are not recommended. *HHS federal research updates on Lyme disease ... Suggested reporting language, interpretation and guidance regarding Lyme disease serologic test results. [PDF - 17 pages] 2021. ...
Serologic Testing. Serologic evidence of past dengue infection was identified in 40% (95% confidence interval [CI] 34%-45%) of ... negative control serum samples to test on the ELISA kits (Panbio) before testing the serum specimens. CDC also tested a random ... Serologic test results for serosurvey, Brownsville, Texas, and Matamoros, Mexico, 2004 * Table 3. Population characteristics ... and CDC Test Results. The IgG capture ELISA (Panbio) calculates a positive result based in units. This test determines the ...
The new criteria were 96% sensitive and 96% specific when tested with SLE and control patient data gathered from 18 ...
The answers may depend on where a person lives and works, findings from antibody tests, and other factors. ... What about using serologic (antibody) tests to guide our return to work?. Serologic tests identify antibodies in your blood ... Negative antibody tests: Good news and bad news. A negative serologic test generally means you havent been exposed to the ... Relying on serologic testing to decide who can return to work has been a focus of government leaders, including those in New ...
Serologic testing for immunity to varicella is not needed. Patients can receive other vaccines, such as influenza and ...
Prolonged IgM Antibody Response in People Infected with Zika Virus: Implications for Interpreting Serologic Testing Results for ... Zika virus nucleic acid test (NAT) testing at least once per trimester should be considered, in addition to IgM testing as ... NAT testing may be useful in testing pregnant women as an indicator of current infection and increased risk to the fetus. In ... NAT testing should be performed for any pregnant woman who becomes symptomatic or who has a sexual partner who tests positive ...
This category includes antibody (serologic) tests.. *Antibody (Serologic) Tests can provide evidence of previous infection with ... SARS-CoV-2 Tests. Viral Tests: tests that detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid or proteins. This category includes ... Test Selection. *Decisions about testing platforms may take into account local epidemiology and test characteristics such as ... Home / Critical Updates on COVID-19 / COVID-19 Interim Guidance / COVID-19 Testing Guidance / SARS-CoV-2 Tests, Selection and ...
Although anal Papanicolaou testing is available to screen for cytologic abnormalities, there are no consistent guidelines about ... Type-specific serologic testing. Test MSM with genital ulcers or other mucocutaneous lesions. Not recommended for asymptomatic ... HIV serologic testing (type 1 and 2 antibody). At least annually for sexually active MSM if HIV status is unknown or negative, ... Serologic testing. At least annually for sexually active MSM. Recommended for MSM who engage in high-risk sexual behavior; no ...
Serologic Tests. EN. dc.title. Engima of Laboratory Confirmation of Dengue.. EN. ...
Additional neuromuscular and serologic testing may be necessary. Treatment with immunosuppressive agents may be required. ... Atorvastatin was negative in the in vivo mouse micronucleus test. In female rats, atorvastatin at doses up to 225 mg/kg (56 ... Your doctor should do blood tests to check your liver before you start taking atorvastatin calcium tablets and if you have ... It is recommended that liver enzyme tests be performed before the initiation of atorvastatin calcium tablets and if signs or ...
  • The test for the presence of anti-HEV IgM is performed by the detection of specific IgM antibodies directed against a range of recombinant viral antigens by enzyme immunoassay or rapid immunochromatography kits. (medscape.com)
  • Ordering serologic tests-blood tests that check for antibodies-is typically the first step in diagnosing celiac disease. (nih.gov)
  • The serologic tests that check for IgA antibodies are more sensitive for celiac disease than the tests for IgG antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • Health care professionals may also order an IgA-based test and an IgG-based test at the same time to check for both types of antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • After the initial week of illness, serologic testing for virus-specific immunoglobin M (IgM) and neutralizing antibodies against Zika virus infection can be performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (medscape.com)
  • Serologic tests identify antibodies in your blood that your immune system produced to fight off the virus and to be ready in case you're exposed to it again. (harvard.edu)
  • Samples from all tested patients on D14 were positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with Luminex tests, while 97% of samples were positive with CLIA. (news-medical.net)
  • Hepatitis B testing looks for antigens, antibodies, or the genetic material of HBV. (testing.com)
  • This test detects two types of anti-HBc antibodies, called IgM and IgG anti-HBc antibodies. (testing.com)
  • This test detects only IgM anti-HBc antibodies. (testing.com)
  • Testing the serum of an infant who has IgG antibodies for T. gondii every 1 - 2 months will aid in determining if the baby is producing its own antibodies. (sutterhealth.org)
  • The Association of State and Territorial Public Health Laboratory Directors, CDC, the Food and Drug Administration, the National Institutes of Health, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, and the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards cosponsored the Second National Conference on Serologic Diagnosis of Lyme Disease held October 27-29, 1994. (cdc.gov)
  • If serologic tests suggest that a patient could have celiac disease, health care professionals should then order intestinal biopsies to confirm the diagnosis. (nih.gov)
  • Health care professionals may use the EMA-IgA test after the tTG-IgA test to help make a diagnosis of celiac disease more certain. (nih.gov)
  • 1 In patients with IgA deficiency, IgA-based tests-such as tTG-IgA-may not accurately detect celiac disease, and IgG-based tests can help with diagnosis. (nih.gov)
  • Antibody (Serologic) Tests can provide evidence of previous infection with SARS-CoV-2 but are not useful for the diagnosis of acute infection. (aap.org)
  • The Infectious Diseases Society of America Guidelines on the Diagnosis of COVID-19: Molecular Diagnostic Testing. (seattlechildrens.org)
  • If a patient with suspected early LD has a negative serology, serologic evidence of infection is best obtained by testing of paired acute- and convalescent-phase serum samples. (cdc.gov)
  • In this paper, we discuss the utility of anti-SARS-CoV-2 serology testing in a clinical setting and propose diagnostic algorithms that include serological tests in patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19. (nih.gov)
  • If a tTG-IgA or EMA-IgA test result is negative in a patient with suspected celiac disease, health care professionals may order a total IgA test, a serology test for IgA deficiency. (nih.gov)
  • Badgers (Meles meles) (n=10) and wildcats ( Felis silvestris) (n=8) were examined between 2015 and 2016 by full parasitological necropsy with subsequent morphological and molecular identification of nematodes and by serology , using IDEXX Angio Detect™ tests. (bvsalud.org)
  • Of 410 confirmed HTLV-I/II donations, 407 (99.3%) were infected with HTLV-I/II, as determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (403 cases) and by repeat serologic testing (4 cases). (nih.gov)
  • Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAATs) include polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests as well as strategies for isothermal amplification of nucleic acid, such as loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and nicking enzyme amplification reaction (NEAR). (aap.org)
  • 3. Hepatitis C virus infection detected by antibody tests and the polymerase chain reaction as a cause of liver dysfunction in renal transplant recipients. (nih.gov)
  • [ 39 ] Therefore, anti-HEV IgM rapid assays may be used as a first-line test in primary healthcare settings, particularly for patients with chronic liver disease or pregnant women who urgently need an antiviral treatment. (medscape.com)
  • In this article, we focus on the engineering platforms and considerations when applying serologic assays to multiple geographic locations, climates with varying endemic virus repertoires, and different laboratory and clinical resource settings. (nih.gov)
  • Of HTLV-I/II-seropositive specimens, 80.2% to 95.4% could be typed as HTLV-I or HTLV-II by type-specific serologic assays. (nih.gov)
  • The apparent molecular mass of OspC is dependent on the strain of B. burgdorferi being tested. (cdc.gov)
  • Molecular and serologic test results for betacoronaviruses and co-existing pathogens in Benin. (cdc.gov)
  • Diagnostic testing of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is based on molecular and serologic methods. (medscape.com)
  • Antigen tests generally have lower sensitivity than molecular tests, particularly in later stages of COVID-19. (aap.org)
  • Unfortunately, due to the limited availability of commercial tests and the lack of reliable trials establishing the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic method, the clinical application of the test needs to be precisely determined. (nih.gov)
  • Confirmation of Zika virus infection based on diagnostic testing is challenging due to test sensitivity, specificity, and the epidemiologic prevelance of Zika. (medscape.com)
  • Decisions about testing platforms may take into account local epidemiology and test characteristics such as sensitivity, specificity and positive/negative predictive values. (aap.org)
  • [ 34 ] However, immunocompromised individuals (such as patients with autoimmune hepatitis who receive immunosuppressant agents) should always be tested for HEV RNA if there is suspicion that they are infected because seroconversion could be delayed in these patients. (medscape.com)
  • 15. Serologic and virologic profiles of hepatitis C infection in renal transplant candidates. (nih.gov)
  • Testing for hepatitis B provides information about a current or past infection with HBV. (testing.com)
  • Hepatitis B testing is performed on a blood sample. (testing.com)
  • Testing may be used to diagnose hepatitis B, assess its severity, and determine whether you have immunity to this disease. (testing.com)
  • Test results can identify present hepatitis B infection, past exposure to HBV, or immunity to the virus. (testing.com)
  • Hepatitis B testing can identify whether you have a current hepatitis B infection, if it is acute or chronic, and whether you can spread the virus to others. (testing.com)
  • Tests for hepatitis B can show whether you are immune either due to HBV vaccination or having recovered from a past infection. (testing.com)
  • Hepatitis B testing may also be used to assess whether vaccination successfully generated immunity and to identify who is at an increased risk of HBV reactivation. (testing.com)
  • Testing may be used after a person is diagnosed with hepatitis B to monitor the disease, detect complications, and assess response to treatment. (testing.com)
  • If you are diagnosed with hepatitis B based on these initial tests, additional testing may be used to monitor the disease, guide treatment, and determine if you can spread hepatitis B to others. (testing.com)
  • Understand the different serologic tests for Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection, and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. (texas.gov)
  • Identify appropriate hepatitis serologic tests when presented with patient information. (texas.gov)
  • Conference recommendations were grouped into four categories: 1) serologic test performance and interpretation, 2) quality-assurance practices, 3) new test evaluation and clearance, and 4) communication of developments in Lyme disease (LD) testing. (cdc.gov)
  • This report presents recommendations for serologic test performance and interpretation, which included substantial changes in the recommended tests and their interpretation for the serodiagnosis of LD. (cdc.gov)
  • This report describes the proper interpretation of serologic testing for B. burgdorferi and identifies best practices for reporting results to clinicians, public health agencies, and patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Although IgM persistence could affect IgM test interpretation for all infected people, it would have the greatest effect on clinical management of pregnant women with a history of living in or traveling to areas with Zika virus transmission before conception. (cdc.gov)
  • Interpretation of the clinical significance of PCR results will be enhanced if results of serologic testing of the patient's serum in our laboratory is available to our medical consultant. (sutterhealth.org)
  • Serologic testing for immunity to varicella is not needed. (medscape.com)
  • There is insufficient evidence for the Panel to recommend either for or against the use of SARS-CoV-2 serologic testing to assess for immunity or to guide clinical decisions about using COVID-19 vaccines. (nih.gov)
  • Tests for HCV fall into two categories: serologic and virologic. (ccjm.org)
  • Serologic testing with immunoglobulin IgM can be performed as early as 7 days after symptom onset. (medscape.com)
  • A negative immunoglobulin IgM serologic test does not rule out infection due to lack of precise timing to detect presence of antibody response. (medscape.com)
  • In July 2016, CDC issued Interim Guidance for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women with Possible Zika Virus Exposure - United States, July 2016 ( https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/65/wr/mm6529e1.htm ) that includes Zika virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) testing of pregnant women. (cdc.gov)
  • The rapid serological tests, carried out on capillary blood samples obtained with a lancet device, allows to identify whether people have come in contact with the virus. (farmaciadellacondotta.it)
  • Two serological tests assessed anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG in samples: chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) and an in-house Luminex assay. (news-medical.net)
  • What kind of specimen do you need for serological testing in peripheral blood? (sutterhealth.org)
  • Our specimen requirement for serological testing is 2ml [minimum 0.5, but this amount may be insufficient for repeat testing of serum. (sutterhealth.org)
  • The rapid antigen test, carried out with a nasopharyngeal swab, allows to identify the presence of virus proteins (antigens). (farmaciadellacondotta.it)
  • A positive antibody test result does not prove that a patient has protection against SARS-CoV-2, and results of these tests should not be used to guide decisions about the need for vaccination or to group people in classrooms or other facilities. (aap.org)
  • tests that detect immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination. (aap.org)
  • [ 32 ] Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) is standard diagnostic testing for confirmation of acute infection. (medscape.com)
  • For accurate diagnostic test results, a patient must be eating a diet that contains gluten. (nih.gov)
  • The EMA-IgA test is also qualitative, making the results more subjective than tTG-IgA test results. (nih.gov)
  • The 100% correlation between the necropsy results and the serologic positivity to IDEXX Angio Detect™ in badgers infected with A. daskalovi and wildcats infected with A. chabaudi suggest that these rapid tests are able to identify circulating antigens of all species of Angiostrongylus found in European carnivores A. vasorum, A. daskalovi and A. chabaudi. (bvsalud.org)
  • The three false-positive results occurred in the first year of testing. (nih.gov)
  • As the prevelance of Zika virus infection has declined, potential detection of false-positive test results is likely. (medscape.com)
  • [ 18 ] Serum IgM antibody testing should be performed if NAAT results are negative, regardless of when the specimen was collected. (medscape.com)
  • The NAAT should be repeated on newly extracted RNA from the same specimen to rule out false-positive test results. (medscape.com)
  • Other diagnostic methods, such as NAT testing of amniocentesis specimens or serial ultrasounds, may provide additional information to help determine whether the IgM test results suggest a recent infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Below are brief descriptions of the types of SARS-CoV-2 tests, when they should be used and how best to interpret their results. (aap.org)
  • At D7, 97% of patients had positive results using either testing method. (news-medical.net)
  • The results of this test are interpreted alongside other tests to assess recovery from a previous HBV infection and to differentiate between acute and chronic infections. (testing.com)
  • These tests are quite different from nasal swab testing performed to identify current infection. (harvard.edu)
  • Ability of the test to correctly identify those with SARS-CoV-2 infection (true positive rate). (aap.org)
  • Check liver enzyme tests before initiating therapy and as clinically indicated thereafter ( 5.3 ). (nih.gov)
  • The authors plotted a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to assess the performance of serologic tests on D0 to predict the need for invasive ventilation. (news-medical.net)
  • In addition to using serologic tests to help diagnose celiac disease, health care professionals may use them to monitor how well patients are following a gluten-free diet. (nih.gov)
  • The tTG-IgA test is the preferred celiac disease serologic test for most patients. (nih.gov)
  • 2 The performance of this test may depend on the degree of intestinal damage, making the test less sensitive in patients who have mild celiac disease. (nih.gov)
  • Health care professionals may order the tTG-IgG test to help diagnose celiac disease in patients who have IgA deficiency. (nih.gov)
  • 1 For patients with IgA deficiency, health care professionals may order the DGP-IgG test. (nih.gov)
  • For patients with a high chance of having celiac disease who could be IgA deficient, health care professionals may order the total IgA and tTG-IgA tests at the same time. (nih.gov)
  • In patients within 7 days of symptom onset, a negative serum NAAT and IgM antibody testing is suggestive of absence of Zika virus infection. (medscape.com)
  • In patients more than 7 days to 12 weeks from symptom onset, a negative IgM antibody testing is suggestive of absence of Zika virus infection. (medscape.com)
  • In patients with indeterminate IgM antibody testing, repeat IgM testing or confirmatory PRNTs test should be performed. (medscape.com)
  • In patients with positive IgM antibody testing without positive NAAT, a confirmatory PRNTs test should be performed. (medscape.com)
  • Providers should use clinical judgement, taking into account the patient's history, diagnostic testing, and prior treatment when making clinical decisions for their patients. (cdc.gov)
  • These latter patients will receive a paid receipt after testing is completed. (sutterhealth.org)
  • Zika virus infection is diagnosed based on detection and isolation of Zika virus RNA from serum using nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). (medscape.com)
  • Workers in healthcare settings (such as hospitals, medical practices, or nursing homes) with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 The guidelines allow discontinuation of isolation and returning to work once fever has resolved, symptoms have improved, and swab tests for the virus are negative twice at least 24 hours apart. (harvard.edu)
  • If no symptoms were ever present but a test was positive A person can discontinue isolation if a lack of symptoms continues and it's been 10 days since the first positive test or if two follow-up tests for the virus are negative at least 24 hours apart. (harvard.edu)
  • If testing was never performed for a person with suspected COVID-19 A person can discontinue isolation once they have had three or more days of improved symptoms without fever and ten days have passed since symptoms began. (harvard.edu)
  • Serologic tests are one of the available diagnostic tools in COVID-19. (nih.gov)
  • Use of a commercial serologic test for Angiostrongylus vasorum for the detection of A. chabaudi in wildcats and A. daskalovi in badgers. (bvsalud.org)
  • tests that detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid or proteins. (aap.org)
  • This test may be used to screen for, detect, and help diagnose acute and chronic HBV infections. (testing.com)
  • All specimens positive or equivocal by a sensitive EIA or IFA should be tested by a standardized Western immunoblot. (cdc.gov)
  • Specimens negative by a sensitive EIA or IFA need not be tested further. (cdc.gov)
  • Specimens repeatedly found to be reactive by EIA undergo confirmation by supplementary serologic tests. (nih.gov)
  • We assessed the accuracy of blood center testing of 994 HTLV-I EIA repeat-reactive specimens in five US blood centers between November 1988 and December 1991. (nih.gov)
  • Of 425 HTLV-indeterminate specimens, 6 (1.4%) were found to be infected by PCR (5 with HTLV-II and 1 with HTLV-I). None of 159 confirmatory test-negative donations was PCR positive. (nih.gov)
  • Consider NAT testing of amniocentesis specimens if amniocentesis is performed for other reasons. (cdc.gov)
  • Antigen Tests are generally performed on nasal or oral swab specimens. (aap.org)
  • The last locally-acquired Zika nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT)-confirmed case in the continental United States was in September 2017 and in the US territories was reported in May 2018. (medscape.com)
  • For asymptomatic pregnant women living in or frequently traveling to areas with Zika virus transmission, Zika virus nucleic acid test (NAT) testing at least once per trimester should be considered, in addition to IgM testing as previously recommended. (cdc.gov)
  • A positive IgM test result alone is not recommended for use in determining active disease in persons with illness greater than 1 month's duration because the likelihood of a false-positive test result for a current infection is high for these persons. (cdc.gov)
  • A patient's pretest probability for Lyme disease helps inform whether they should be tested for Lyme disease. (cdc.gov)
  • HTLV confirmatory test-negative donors should be reassured that they are not infected with HTLV-I or HTLV-II. (nih.gov)
  • 1 The tTG-IgA test is most often an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (nih.gov)
  • A two-test approach for active disease and for previous infection using a sensitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) or immunofluorescent assay (IFA) followed by a Western immunoblot was the algorithm of choice. (cdc.gov)
  • The EMA-IgA test is an immunofluorescent assay that is more expensive and time-consuming to perform than the tTG-IgA test. (nih.gov)
  • NAT testing should be performed for any pregnant woman who becomes symptomatic or who has a sexual partner who tests positive for Zika virus infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Promptly test pregnant women with NAT if they become symptomatic during their pregnancy or if a sexual partner tests positive for Zika virus infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Recommendations for testing symptomatic pregnant women, remain unchanged ( https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/65/wr/mm6529e1.htm ). (cdc.gov)
  • Some antigen tests have rapid turnaround at the point of care, making them useful for specific situations, including screening testing and at-home use, particularly for those who are symptomatic. (aap.org)
  • Celiac panels that include a combination of serologic tests are available. (nih.gov)
  • Ancillary TB diagnostics include comparative skin testing, thoracic radiography, gastric or bronchoalveolar lavage for mycobacterial PCR or culture, gamma interferon testing, and serologic testing. (vin.com)
  • The minimum requests for serologic testing should include IgG and IgM. (sutterhealth.org)
  • However, if the tTG-IgG alone is positive, and the patient does not have IgA deficiency, then the tTG-IgG test is rather inaccurate. (nih.gov)
  • False-positive IgM test result can occur due to cross-reactivity with other flaviviruses (eg, yellow fever, dengue, Japenese encephalitis, West Nile). (medscape.com)
  • Pregnant women who test positive for IgM antibody may have been infected with Zika virus and developed an IgM response before conception. (cdc.gov)
  • Consider NAT testing at least once per trimester, unless a previous test has been positive. (cdc.gov)
  • Individuals with positive antibody tests should continue to adhere to guidelines about masking, physical distancing and other preventive measures. (aap.org)
  • There are positive and negative aspects to all available SARS-CoV-2 testing platforms. (aap.org)
  • Probability that people who test positive are truly positive (ie, they have SARS-CoV-2 infection). (aap.org)
  • In presence of concern for cross-reactivity with other flaviviruses, plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNTs) provide quantitative virus-specific antibody titers for dengue, Zika, and other flaviviruses. (medscape.com)
  • The recommendations vary depending on where you work - in healthcare or critical infrastructure, for example - whether you had symptoms of COVID-19, and whether a test confirmed that you had COVID-19. (harvard.edu)
  • If follow-up testing is not performed Those who had COVID-19 should wait until they've had three or more days of improved symptoms without fever and ten days have passed since symptoms began. (harvard.edu)
  • Screening tests attempt to find a disease before a person develops symptoms. (testing.com)
  • Overall, 133 serum samples were tested with Luminex and CLIA tests. (news-medical.net)
  • Accuracy of supplementary serologic testing for human T-lymphotropic virus types I and II in US blood donors. (nih.gov)
  • Some experts have suggested serologic (antibody) tests to determine who has had the virus and to guide decisions about returning to work. (harvard.edu)
  • Consider IgM testing to determine baseline Zika virus IgM levels as part of preconception counseling. (cdc.gov)
  • Early or late antibody testing can result in a false negative result due to lack of antibody development or waning of antibody response post infection, respectively. (medscape.com)
  • A serum specimen should ideally accompany PCR test requests for any patient not recently tested in our laboratory. (sutterhealth.org)
  • The new criteria were 96% sensitive and 96% specific when tested with SLE and control patient data gathered from 18 participating clinics. (nih.gov)
  • Annual tuberculosis (TB) testing of staff is recommended for patient and staff safety. (vin.com)
  • Can the patient or the insurance be billed for testing? (sutterhealth.org)
  • Performance Standards for Susceptibility Testing of Mycobacteria, Nocardia spp. (clsi.org)
  • FDA has issued emergency use authorization on Zika NAAT testing to be performed on serum, plasma, whole blood, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, or amniotic fluid. (medscape.com)
  • A PCR test that has received FDA authorization or approval is the "gold standard" for testing an individual child for acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. (aap.org)
  • Health care professionals most often use serologic tests and intestinal biopsies to diagnose celiac disease. (nih.gov)
  • All samples received for PCR testing will be prepared for testing, and will not be suitable for return. (sutterhealth.org)
  • Genetic tests that confirm the presence or absence of specific genes associated with celiac disease may be beneficial in some cases. (nih.gov)