Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Drug Administration Routes: The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Bundle-Branch Block: A form of heart block in which the electrical stimulation of HEART VENTRICLES is interrupted at either one of the branches of BUNDLE OF HIS thus preventing the simultaneous depolarization of the two ventricles.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Retinal Vein Occlusion: Blockage of the RETINAL VEIN. Those at high risk for this condition include patients with HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; and other CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Mice, Inbred BALB CGene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.L Cells (Cell Line): A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.Mice, Inbred C57BLDose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Bundle of His: Small band of specialized CARDIAC MUSCLE fibers that originates in the ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE and extends into the membranous part of the interventricular septum. The bundle of His, consisting of the left and the right bundle branches, conducts the electrical impulses to the HEART VENTRICLES in generation of MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Dissection: The separation and isolation of tissues for surgical purposes, or for the analysis or study of their structures.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Retinal Artery Occlusion: Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.DNA, Cruciform: A cross-shaped DNA structure that can be observed under the electron microscope. It is formed by the incomplete exchange of strands between two double-stranded helices or by complementary INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES that refold into hairpin loops on opposite strands across from each other.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Corrosion Casting: A tissue preparation technique that involves the injecting of plastic (acrylates) into blood vessels or other hollow viscera and treating the tissue with a caustic substance. This results in a negative copy or a solid replica of the enclosed space of the tissue that is ready for viewing under a scanning electron microscope.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.RNA Precursors: RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Neuroblastoma: A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Nerve Transfer: Surgical reinnervation of a denervated peripheral target using a healthy donor nerve and/or its proximal stump. The direct connection is usually made to a healthy postlesional distal portion of a non-functioning nerve or implanted directly into denervated muscle or insensitive skin. Nerve sprouts will grow from the transferred nerve into the denervated elements and establish contact between them and the neurons that formerly controlled another area.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Ribonucleoprotein, U2 Small Nuclear: A nuclear RNA-protein complex that plays a role in RNA processing. In the nucleoplasm, the U2 snRNP along with other small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (U1, U4-U6, and U5) assemble into SPLICEOSOMES that remove introns from pre-mRNA by splicing. The U2 snRNA forms base pairs with conserved sequence motifs at the branch point, which associates with a heat- and RNAase-sensitive factor in an early step of splicing.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Administration, Rectal: The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
... would build the Ingleton Branch Line from the existing Ingleton Station to Low Gill. By the time the branch was completed in ... A complex sequence of negotiations over the building of line north of Ingleton followed. A number of railway companies were ... and the LNWR did everything in its power to frustrate the MR's ambition of using the new line as a main route to Scotland. Thus ... the company ran into financial difficulty and decided to concentrate on the less expensive construction of a branch line to ...
... run in sequence over both routes. At the same time, a branch line was opened from Biebermühle station, which is located at the ... a branch line from Homburg to Zweibrucken. In 1844, a committee was formed in Zweibrücken to promote a branch line from Homburg ... Ingbert-Saarbrücken route. This high traffic density made it necessary to increase the capacity of the line, so that was the ... The line between Landau and Zweibrücken was built as a single line for the purposes of rail operations and was initially called ...
Network Rail: Sectional Appetndix module KSW2/LOR SO500 Sequence 010 Moody (1979) p163 Moody (1979) p219 "Quail Route Map 5". [ ... branch lines A semi-fast/fast through branch line Semi-fast/fast branch lines A direct service to Reigate on this line has long ... A fast/semi-fast through branch line A fast/semi-fast through branch line eastward, a line to East Grinstead closed in 1967 At ... the Oxted branch line at Purley, the Caterham and Tattenham Corner Lines at Redhill, the North Downs Line to the west, and the ...
The S-Bahn trains branch off from the main line tracks in the apron area of the main line station, and are routed underground ... Connected to the station Schwabstrasse, there is a subterranean terminal loop, which enables the trains of the routes S 4, S 5 ... so that the train sequence can be normalized in case of any operational anomalies. The top speed on this section is 60 ... Lines U2, U4 and U14 operate there, but due to Stuttgart 21 project, lines are redirected in 2017 (now U1, U14 and U21). The ...
1900: The Keelung and Hsinchu lines were repaired. Rolling stock was added. Work commenced on the short branch line from ... Like New York's Penn Station project, which buried 5.5 route-miles between North Bergen, N.J. and Hunterspoint, Queens by 1908 ... Stationmasters regulate trains by enforcing correct train sequences and departure times; holding to time is actually a legal ... Taipei Rapid Transit Corporation's (TRTC) Red Line was converted from TRA's Damshui branch, while Blue (Bannan) and Green Lines ...
... into the canopy of a tropical rainforest the crew used a catapult to fire a fishing line 100 metres into the uppermost branches ... For a sequence featuring grizzly bears at close quarters, the camera team were accompanied by Buck Wilde, an ursine specialist ... watching out for passing snakes and primates en route to the top. Big cats that hunt nocturnally, such as lions, leopards and ...
... to enable safe working of single-line railways. If a branch line is a dead end with a simple shuttle train service, then a ... Where the single line section is part of a through route, then it is likely that each passing train would require to surrender ... There are variations on this sequence of events.) By this means, it can be ensured that at any one time, only one token is ... the Heart of Wales Line (commissioned in 1986), the Matlock branch in Derbyshire and the Liskeard to Looe line in Cornwall. ...
... an underground tram line between South Kensington and the Albert Hall but it was withdrawn in 1891 and a pedestrian only route ... A branch into Forestdale to give an overlap service from Sutton was also included. During the 1970s, several BR directors and ... This number was the next in sequence from the last London tram, number 2529, withdrawn in 1952. Since it opened on 11 May 2000 ... After a demonstration line was built at the Crystal Palace, the first lines authorised by the Act of Parliament in 1870 ran ...
Death of these buds is likely to cause death of the entire branch of the plant. The most recent activity of this virus has not ... A negative drawback to this antiviral approach is that RNAi is highly sequence specific. Viruses with more than 10% nucleotide ... However, the study also collected RT-PCR data that suggested all asymptomatic plants also lacked detectable levels of UCBSV. ... However, the study included two transgenic plant lines in which remained completely immune to viral infection against six ...
There was to be a branch from that line to Penclawdd. A second line was to run from Llandilo back to Carmarthen, joining the ... The sequence of stations at Llanelly developed over time; the first (1839) station was close to the dock, on the direct line ... The (Great) Mountain branch opened on 6 May 1841 to goods and mineral traffic only; the route, included a half mile balanced ... The sole remaining colliery branch line was the line to Gwaun-cae-Gurwen. For some years this was dormant but in 2012 traffic ...
Two common forms of test coverage are statement (or line) coverage and branch (or edge) coverage. Line coverage reports on the ... Branch/Decision, Modified Condition/Decision Coverage(MC/DC), LCSAJ (Linear Code Sequence and Jump) Will coverage be measured ... Has every possible route through a given part of the code been executed? Entry/exit coverage - Has every possible call and ... This definition is not the same as branch coverage, however, some do use the term decision coverage as a synonym for branch ...
"Sloane's A108551 : Self-descriptive numbers in various bases". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. ... Virginia London Buses route 136 is a Transport for London contracted bus route in London 136 kHz band is the lowest frequency ... Force 136 branch of the British organization, the Special Operations Executive (SOE), in the South-East Asian Theatre of World ... "Sloane's A060544 : Centered 9-gonal numbers". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-05 ...
With MPLS, corporate branches would often have extensive wait periods for the leased lines to be in service and ready. SD-WAN ... Proactive vs Reactive vs Hybrid OpenFlow uses TCAM tables to route packet sequences (flows). If flows arrive at a switch, a ... A major advantage in proactive mode is that all packets are forwarded in line rate (considering all flow table entries in TCAM ... The main driver of SD-WAN is to lower WAN costs using more affordable and commercially available leased lines, as an ...
A typical branch line service using a non-air conditioned DR2100 series DMU, at Shifen Station on the Pingxi line in the 1990s. ... Replaced by the Taipei Metro Songshan-Xindian line of Taipei Metro on a similar route.[64] ... Stationmasters regulate trains by enforcing correct train sequences and departure times; holding to time is actually a legal ... Tamsui-Xinyi line was converted from Tamsui railway line, while Bannan line and Songshan-Xindian line roughly follow the TRA ...
All stations on the Orange Line, Blue Line, and the non-trolley branches of the Red Line have high level platforms on the same ... Elevators connecting the Green Line platforms to an underground connecting passage provide a redundant route in case of an ... platforms are connected by a sequence of two ramps that run downhill from the outbound platform to the lower turnstile area and ... Needham Line, Framingham/Worcester Line, Fitchburg Line, Lowell Line, Haverhill Line, and Newburyport/Rockport Line, as well as ...
TAPS Public Transit is the sole transit provider for Sherman, with two fixed routes (the Roo and Viking Routes), and curb to ... About 9.6% of families and 13.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.7% of those under the age of 18 ... TXU Oncor Verizon Texas portal May 1896 tornado outbreak sequence Sherman, Texas bus accident Census of Urban areas "American ... Grayson College, a community college based in neighboring Denison, operates a branch campus in Sherman. The Sherman Public ...
All branch lines in Western Australia use Train Orders, formerly staff and ticket. Train Orders does utilize a signal at the ... The aspects shown depend on the allowable speed for the route set. If the route was for Normal speed, the 'proceed' component ... The sequence of aspects on the approach to a preceding train in areas where the Low Speed indication is in use is as follows: ... Previously SM-South Main Line), PM-Port Main Line, NM-North Main Line, RD-Railcar Depot (No longer used), SY-Stabling Siding ( ...
The southeast branch of the American Red Cross serves Hiram Clarke. Vince Young, an American football player who grew up in the ... Several intersecting routes meet at the transit center. The METRO hired Del E. Webb Construction Services, a Phoenix, Arizona- ... But because METRO demanded the changes, Webb had to perform work out of sequence, costing the company time and money. Webb said ... The haircut features a narrow path etched on the head in a long, straight line. Ananiaz Johnson, a 1989 graduate of James ...
As much as possible, such combinations need to be placed as non-blocking sequences. Whilst the letter E is normally regarded as ... "Keyboard Letter Layouts". IEE London Branch - Kingston. 2003-05-06. "COMPUTER RELATED UPPER LIMB DISORDER: A Keyboard to ... and arrow keys arranged UP/DN and LF/RT on either thumb, later models were to introduce a complete design philosophy where such ... evolutions include moving the pseudo-standard 12 Function keys into a new top row inside the bowl rather than a straight line ...
Today, only the Canada Dock branch line is used to serve the docks, using diesel locomotives. The first rail link to the docks ... On the opposite side of the river, the Birkenhead Dock Branch served the docks between 1847 and 1993. This route remains intact ... this seven-mile sequence of granite-lipped lagoons, which is invested ... with some conspicuous properties of romance; and yet ... Both White Star Line and Cunard Line were based at the port. It was also the home port of many great ships, including RMS ...
This domain appears to be the recognition sequence for rhombosortase, a branch of the rhomboid protease family limited to just ... One area of uncertainty has been the route of substrate access. Substrates were initially proposed to enter between ... The principles of substrate TMS recognition by rhomboid remain poorly understood, but numerous lines of evidence indicate that ... Strisovsky, K.; Sharpe, H. J.; Freeman, M. (2009). "Sequence-specific intramembrane proteolysis: identification of a ...
I-35 splits into two branch routes, I-35W and I-35E at Hillsboro. I-35E travels northward for 97 miles (156 km), maintaining I- ... From the Dallas-Ellis County line to downtown Dallas, I-35E is called South R.L. Thornton Freeway and varies from eight to ten ... 35's sequence of exit numbers. It travels through Dallas before rejoining with I-35W to reform I-35 in Denton. This is one of ... Dallas portal Texas portal U.S. Roads portal "Route Log - Main Routes of the Eisenhower National System Of Interstate and ...
The route was built upon the right-of-way for the Los Altos branch of the Peninsular Railway. The buildings along the route at ... Montague continues east as an 8 lane road until it crosses Interstate 880 on the San Jose/Milpitas city line, where it loses a ... Through this section Central Expressway has a wide center divider and a sequence of several separated grade interchanges with ... Route 101. County Route G7 bypasses the State Route 152 at U.S. Route 101 interchange, where State Route 152 is signed as 10th ...
On the other hand, the attachment of a glycan residue to a protein requires the recognition of a consensus sequence. N-linked ... Hybrid oligosaccharides contain a mannose residues on one side of the branch, while on the other side a N-acetylglucosamine ... In eukaryotes, the original precursor oligosaccharide is extensively modified en route to the cell surface. N-linked glycans ... These include yeasts such as Pichia pastoris, insect cell lines, green plants, and even bacteria. Glycosylation O-linked ...
Fallen trees and branches blocked the main road and the hiking trail to the monument in several places. The museum and water ... An ongoing line of thunderstorms moved east across West Virginia as the atmosphere began to destabilize. The thunderstorms ... Parts of Interstate 65 and U.S. Route 31 were temporarily shut down. Thirty thousand people in Indiana lost power during the ... The tornado outbreak sequence of June 3-11, 2008 was a series of tornado outbreaks affecting most of central and eastern North ...
The Baltic Sea- Vistula- Dnieper- Black Sea route with its rivers was one of the most ancient trade routes, the Amber Road, on ... in the city the river divides into several separate branches that reach the Baltic Sea at different points, the main branch ... For hundreds of years the river was one of the main trading arteries of Poland, and the castles that line its banks were highly ... "Record of the Vistula ice lobe advances in the Late Weichselian glacial sequence in north-central Poland". Quaternary ...
The RT-PCR strategy employed for mapping branch point sequence is outlined. The intron 3 lariat is represented by a blue line. ... Plant Branch Point Sequences. Direct identification of sequences within the branch point of plant introns has been severely ... PCR technique to precisely map the first branch point nucleotide sequence in a monocot. This branch point bears little ... A mammalian consensus branch point sequence of CU (A/G) A(C/T) has been proposed (Green, 1991). Recently, Simpson et al.(1996) ...
... and detailed route info like climbing type and grade ... Find climbing areas and routes in Crackline Boulder and ... Routes. Sequence. Sequence numbers indicate the left (L) to right (R) order of the routes.. Rating. Route. Difficulty. Ascents ... Routes : North America : United States : Maryland : Central Md. : Northwest Branch : Crackline Boulder ... Click on "Routes" to subscribe to a RSS feed of all new routes added to this category. Click on "Ascents" for a RSS feed of all ...
... would build the Ingleton Branch Line from the existing Ingleton Station to Low Gill. By the time the branch was completed in ... A complex sequence of negotiations over the building of line north of Ingleton followed. A number of railway companies were ... and the LNWR did everything in its power to frustrate the MRs ambition of using the new line as a main route to Scotland. Thus ... the company ran into financial difficulty and decided to concentrate on the less expensive construction of a branch line to ...
A) Alignment of putative protein sequences of LjCYC2 and CYC. TCP domain is underlined with straight lines and R domain is ... Gene Cloning and RT-PCR.. Fragments of CYC-like genes were amplified from L. japonicus by using degenerate oligonucleotide ... D) Unrooted phylogram of protein NJ analysis of TCP domain region suing MGA3.1 (24). Branches with bootstrap support (1,000 ... C) The unsplicing of intron in squ1 was confirmed by RT-PCR using two primers nested to the intron. The transcript from squ1 is ...
Figure 3. Typical theoretical oligosaccharide sequences for rt-PA peptide T45. Mass-to-charge ratios and charge states for the ... All have the same core structure with extensions and branches composed prim arily of sialic acid, galactose and N- ... Alternatively, fractions may be collected after the HPLC separation and analyzed off-line by matrix-assisted laser desorption ... CastAway Precast Gels for Rapid Automated DNA Sequence Analysis. 7. Single-cell RT-PCR Analysis of Paramecium Primaurelia with ...
Network Rail: Sectional Appetndix module KSW2/LOR SO500 Sequence 010 Moody (1979) p163 Moody (1979) p219 "Quail Route Map 5". [ ... branch lines A semi-fast/fast through branch line Semi-fast/fast branch lines A direct service to Reigate on this line has long ... A fast/semi-fast through branch line A fast/semi-fast through branch line eastward, a line to East Grinstead closed in 1967 At ... the Oxted branch line at Purley, the Caterham and Tattenham Corner Lines at Redhill, the North Downs Line to the west, and the ...
... dotted line) identical oligonucleotide sequence; (dashed lines) identical amino acid sequence; RT-PCR primer binding sites ... The melanoma cell line SK-MEL-37 was provided by the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research (LICR), New York Branch. Protocols ... DNA Sequencing.. RT-PCR products were cut from agarose gels and the DNA purified with Qiagen gel extraction kits and sequenced ... a RT-PCR product was amplified from the melanoma cell line SK-MEL-37, with the LAGE-1 RT-PCR primers (LAGE-1A and LAGE-1B) and ...
RT dose 35-45 Gy at 50% isodose line. Mean time to follow-up imaging 61 days ... The 3-D-FIESTA sequence also allowed visualization of the branches of the trigeminal nerve inside Meckels cavity. ... Evaluation of 3-D-FIESTA sequence in 15 patients. 3-D-FIESTA sequence successfully demonstrated the trigeminal complex (root ... Target enhancement in 10/15; remaining 5 had RT dose 35 Gy ... Multiple imaging sequences evaluated. CISS/3D-Flash preferred ...
We used CRISPR/Cas9 to inactivate both Alg8 alleles in our mouse epithelial cell line expressing Pkd1F/H-BAC. Sanger sequencing ... J) Alg8-/- cells activate the IRE1α/XBP1 branch of UPR, demonstrated by presence of XBP1s by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR ... HEK 293T cells were cotransfected with pCDNA3.1 containing PRKCSH cDNA sequence and pCDNA3.1 containing GANAB sequence using ... and screened by Sanger sequencing for frameshifting mutations. Ganab-/- and Sec61b-/- cell lines were generated in a population ...
Reproducibility between laboratories using diluted fusion-positive cell lines was 100%. A cohort of lung clinical research ... NCI-navy medical oncology branch cell line data base. J Cell Biochem Suppl. 1996;24:32-91. ... Cell lines. Using the cocktail of RNA from the ALK, ROS1, and RET fusion-positive cell lines, each of the ten participating ... Libraries were sequenced using the Ion PGM Sequencing 200 v2 kit on an Ion 316 v2 or 318 v2 chip on the Ion PGM instrument. ( ...
Six black lines show segmental sequence comparisons to AKR6 for Bxv1 and 5 AKR-derived AKR6-related sequences, two from the AKR ... a) RTpol, (b,c) the env and U3-LTR enhancer substitutions in AKR6, (d) the 5 VRA-containing end of env. The percentage of ... The percentage of trees in which the associated taxa clustered together is shown next to the branches. The trees are drawn to ... Six black lines show segmental sequence comparisons to AKR6 for Bxv1 and 5 AKR-derived AKR6-related sequences, two from the AKR ...
The biggest tree, the one with the largest number of branches, is rooted by strain SB0140, suggesting this as the oldest strain ... SB0145 and SB0971 have their own evolution route since other spoligotypes are derived from them (SB0663 and SB1116, ... Figure 2 shows the spoligoforest hierarchical layout of isolates from Jalisco, where the continuity of lines indicates the ... Whole genome sequencing for detection of zoonotic tuberculosis in Querétaro, Mexico. J. Infect. Dis. Prev. Med. 5:158.. ...
A) Maximum likelihood tree constructed using the conserved regions of TPC sequences from the representative organis ... Bootstrap values ,50 are shown at the branches. (B) End point RT-PCR analysis showing expression of transcripts for TPC ... Black lines indicate that intervening lanes have been spliced out. (C) Quantitative RT-PCR of TPC isoforms. Data were ... 1 A and Table S1). These genes are predicted to encode for proteins that display ∼35% sequence similarity (Table S2). ...
All RT-PCR-reactive specimens were further subjected to virus isolation by using the C6/36 mosquito cell line. Complete ... Using partial nonstructural protein 1 gene sequences, Ciccozzi et al. identified the DENV-2 Cosmopolitan genotype as the virus ... Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree of dengue virus type 2 isolates from Taiz, Yemen, 2016 (top branch), and reference ... were serotyped by RT-PCR as DENV-2. The remaining 36 RT-RPA-reactive specimens were nonreactive by RT-PCR. However, the RT-RPA ...
RT-PCR was performed on total RNA isolated from the wild type and three independent 35S:Flag-LRB1 lrb1-1 lrb2-1 lines (lines 5 ... nuclear localization sequence. RT. reverse transcription. Y2H. yeast two-hybrid. LDs. long days. SDs. short days. Rc. ... S2). Asterisks at selected internal nodes indicate branches identified by maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and neighbor- ... and sequence alignments. Multiple sequence alignments of the predicted full-length amino acid sequences and BTB domains alone ...
That doesnt change the fact that if you draw a line north from Crimea, pretty much all the Z93 is on one side and pretty much ... R1b-2103 branches are found in Osset/Alan region-R1b-L277+,R1b-L584+, and R1b-7822+. 1 Digor Ossetian[R1b1a2a2 Z2105+ CTS9219+ ... The task was to identify the nucleotide sequences of the hypervariable regions HVS-1, HVS-2, HVS -3 of mtDNA with subsequent ... with subsequent determination of individuals and the predictions of migration routes. As a result, in the 6 samples was found ...
One branch of the theropod dinosaur line gave rise to birds; others gave rise to different non-bird theropods. Note that even ... That was the excuse offered me when I told an atheist about the out of sequence tetrapod prints in Poland! Is there any way ... round these escape routes, other than say that this is yet another example of evolutionism being unfalsifiable!? ...
... with its RT sequence in the class II group. Interestingly, such chimerisms between sequences of the CKS17-positive branch on ... but clearly major chimerisms between the RT and TM domains can be observed (dotted lines in Fig. 5), which involve both ... branch with the HERV-F family, theAC016509 sequence branches with the HERV-U2 family, and the AC007204sequence branches with ... 5, retroelements in violet), again branch together on the separate class II branch of the RT tree, with the RT data being ...
RT-PCR primer sequences are provided in Table S6 in the supplementary material. ... Secondary branches are considered any branch, as defined above, arising from primary branches. The statistical significance of ... One representative line is shown (tpl-1 R). (H-J) Confocal images of wild-type, tpl-1 and tpl-1 embryos rescued by REL2-YFP ( ... Tassel and ear branch numbers were determined by counting all primary branches, considered as any branch carrying more than two ...
North Branch Adoption Center. P.O. Box 5281. 3201 Route 22 East. North Branch, NJ 08876. (908) 526-3330. Fax (908) 526-0056. ... Challenging sequences and courses will be presented. Handler will polish course analysis skills and begin applying advanced ... Note: Class may be held indoors in Rings 2&3 in case of inclement weather; location changes will be posted on weather line. ...
We analyzed the complete Astroviridae family for the inference of adaptive molecular evolution at sites and in branches. High ... Complete genome sequences of the Astroviridae include human, non-human mammalian and avian species. A consensus topology of ... at the source of the sequences involved has pointed out that the sequences of turkey species have been determined by RT-PCR of ... mutations have been associated with isolation and passage in primate cell lines [31, 32]. In conclusion, selection at the level ...
Branches point to the sequences deleted in the two alleles ok871 and ok886. Black arrowheads indicate the position of primers ... Bottom Line: Using a combination of genetic and molecular approaches, we showed that GCN-2 kinase activity plays a central role ... Black arrowheads indicate the position of primers used in this study (Table S2). (B) Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analysis ... Branches point to the sequences deleted in the two alleles ok871 and ok886. ...
RNA extraction from WAT, RT-PCR, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were carried out as described (10). Primer sequences are listed in ... 4B). Two TG lines were established with nine- and threefold more Xbp1s mRNA in WAT than WT littermates (Fig. 1E and F), termed ... Of the three branches of mammalian UPR, inositol-requiring enzyme-1α (IRE1α) and its downstream target X-box-binding protein 1 ... E: RT-PCR analysis of Xbp1 transcripts in WAT. F: qPCR analysis in WAT of WT (n = 6), TGm (n = 3), and TG (n = 6) females. G: ...
The branches are projected onto the globe with pop-up windows to show how strains mutate over space and time and infect new ... "The fact that we are prepared as a system to lose this amount of money from our bottom line is a testament to our commitment to ... For Janies, genome sequencing provides a much more accurate way of identifying a viruss subtype. Once an expensive, tedious, ... If the movement of a pathogen is related to bird flyways, for example, and those routes are shifting because of something like ...
  • DNA sequence analysis of the bt2 - 7503 mutant allele of the maize brittle-2 gene revealed a point mutation in the 5′ terminal sequence of intron 3 changing GT to AT. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Accumulation of this splicing intermediate and use of an innovative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction technique (J. Vogel, R.H. Wolfgang, T. Borner Nucleic Acids Res 25: 2030-2031) led to the identification of 3′ intron sequences needed for lariat formation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The first reaction involves cleavage of the 5′ terminal nucleotide of the intron with subsequent covalent linkage to an adenosine at the branch point within the 3′ portion of the intron. (plantphysiol.org)
  • They recognize DNA target sites largely by base pairing of sequences within the intron RNA and achieve high DNA target specificity by using the ribozyme active site to couple correct base pairing to RNA-catalyzed intron integration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Finally, spurred by new methods for expressing group II intron reverse transcriptases that yield large amounts of highly active protein, thermostable group II intron reverse transcriptases from bacterial thermophiles are being used as research tools for a variety of applications, including qRT-PCR and next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The high processivity and fidelity of group II intron reverse transcriptases along with their novel template-switching activity, which can directly link RNA-seq adaptor sequences to cDNAs during reverse transcription, open new approaches for RNA-seq and the identification and profiling of non-coding RNAs, with potentially wide applications in research and biotechnology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Group II intron RTs function in retrohoming by synthesizing a full-length cDNA of the highly structured intron RNA with high processivity and fidelity [ 8 - 10 ], properties that are useful for biotechnological applications involving cDNA synthesis, such as qRT-PCR and next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additionally, NGS can be used for the detection of chromosome rearrangements in a large set of genes by targeted sequencing of the fusion junctions or by paired-end mapping methods. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among the gag , pol , and env retroviral genes, the pol gene, encoding reverse transcriptase (RT), is by far the most conserved among the retroid elements ( 33 ). (asm.org)
  • The transcripts from human and mouse genes are detectable, all but two (human ISG12(b) and ISG12(c) ) being upregulated in response to type I IFN in the cell lines tested. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We analyzed sequences derived from Y-specific BAC clones to identify genes with potentially male-specific function. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, RT contains signature motifs allowing an easy search for RT-containing elements within genomes, especially in the case of humans, where systematic sequencing should now enable rapid and extensive identification of retroelements. (asm.org)
  • The RT motifs of Est2p are essential for telomeric DNA synthesis in vivo and in vitro ( 11 , 13 ), supporting the conclusion that Est2p and p123 are the catalytic subunits of telomerase. (sciencemag.org)
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of S. pombe DNA was carried out with degenerate-sequence primers designed from the Euplotes p123 RT motifs B′ and C. Of the four prominent products generated, the ∼120-base pair (bp) band encoded a peptide sequence homologous to p123 and Est2p. (sciencemag.org)
  • We used a DENV-specific reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) to screen for DENV RNA ( 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • We used a phylodynamics approach to better understand this sub-epidemic by analyzing 270 HIV-1 polymerase ( pol ) sequences collected from persons diagnosed with HIV/AIDS between 1995 and 2019. (cdc.gov)
  • In order to effectively identify the vaccine and field strains of Canine distemper virus (CDV), a new differential diagnostic test has been developed based on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, cell culture,SYBR Green I based real time RT-PCR and RT-PCR were performed to analyze the cell susceptibility and other biological characteristics of the NDiV isolates. (bvsalud.org)
  • Finally, there is a region with significant homology among retroviruses, namely, the immunosuppressive domain, so called because 17-mer peptides derived from this relatively conserved sequence have immunosuppressive properties as assayed in vitro by their effects on the proliferation and/or differentiation of lymphocytes ( 12 , 41 ). (asm.org)
  • Both the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of four Shenzhen isolates showed more than 99.00% homology with the Vietnam representative NDiV strain (02VN178). (bvsalud.org)
  • B) Neighbor-joining phylogeny of complete coding sequences of representative Yellow Fever virus strains identified by strain name, country, year of isolation (where applicable) and GenBank accession number. (cdc.gov)
  • IMPORTANCE This research offers a new route for a wider understanding of the dependency between pathogenicity and phylogeny of a natural bacterial population, specifically within Bacillus cereus sensu lato , that is widely distributed around the world and easily transferred into food products. (asm.org)
  • Using this reporter system, we have demonstrated significant differences in the response to interferon alpha-2b in cell lines containing replicons derived from these two strains of HCV. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, an RT-PCR-RFLP method based on CDV N gene was established, which could effectively differentiate the vaccine and field strains of CDV. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The material was successfully sequenced and a Bayesian phylogenetic reconstruction achieved adequate resolution to establish temporal relationships within or between the geographical clusters of the PPRV strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While non-consensus, this sequence still permits both trans-esterification reactions of pre-mRNA splicing. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Bench protocol for real-time RT-PCR assays. (cdc.gov)
  • Analytical sensitivity of YFV real-time RT-PCR assays. (cdc.gov)
  • b) We evaluated RT variability by carrying out RT-qPCR assays targeting GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) #1 on 10 cDNA replicates from of each of 6 RTases. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The strong HRE of ONSEN is conserved over millions of years and has evolved by duplication of a proto-HRE sequence, which was already present early in the evolution of the Brassicaceae . (biomedcentral.com)
  • While these Mbnl3?E2/Y knockout mice do not recapitulate the CDM phenotype, upregulation of other Mbnl3 isoforms occurs in this line suggesting the possibility of functional complementation. (ufl.edu)
  • Since Hamori and Ruskin proposed H-curve for studying genomic data in 1983, more and more improved graphical representations of DNA sequences were introduced to analyze gene data [ 6 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Cell culture studies of Sub-Saharan African subtype C proviral plasmids are hampered by the low replication capacity of the resulting viruses, although viral loads in subtype C infected patients are as high as those from patients with subtype B. Here, we describe the sequencing and construction of a new HIV-1 subtype C proviral clone (pZAC), replicating more than one order of magnitude better than the previous subtype C plasmids. (mdpi.com)
  • Bold and red type indicates sequences of the current outbreak in Brazil ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Technological advances in diagnostic tools, genome sequencing, computing power, and communications devices can augment traditional surveillance methods to acquire and disseminate information in real time, offering the possibility of better outbreak management and thereby saving lives. (sciencemag.org)
  • Arabidopsis lines overexpressing PAGR exhibit pleiotropic developmental phenotypes and the loss of apical dominance as well as an increase in RG-I type-II arabinogalactan content. (biomedcentral.com)
  • rel2 mutants dramatically increase the formation of long branches in ears of both ra1 and ra2 mutants. (biologists.org)
  • Notice, for example, that Hooded Warbler and American Redstart are both on long branches coming from the base of the Dendroica group, and that Black-throated Blue Warbler stands alone among the other former Dendroica . (sibleyguides.com)
  • the London and North Western Railway (LNWR) already had such a route and were opposed to their competitors gaining one. (wikipedia.org)
  • The branch line from Brighton to Shoreham-by-Sea was finished on 12 May 1840, before the main line, as it did not involve significant civil engineering works (all the materials arrived by sea from mainland Europe). (wikipedia.org)
  • Important real-world decisions are often arduous as they frequently involve sequences of choices, with initial selections affecting future options. (jneurosci.org)
  • Most important decisions are difficult as they involve sequences of consequential choices. (jneurosci.org)
  • Branches point to the sequences deleted in the two alleles ok871 and ok886. (nih.gov)
  • Trip: Bear Mountain - North Buttress: Beckey Route Trip Date: 07/15/2018 Trip Report: Bear Mountain: Two new dads trying to keep a 10 year dream alive For me, mountains can become obsessions, sometimes to the point of irrationality. (cascadeclimbers.com)