The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Amino acids with side chains that are positively charged at physiological pH.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.
Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.

Novel regulation of the homeotic gene Scr associated with a crustacean leg-to-maxilliped appendage transformation. (1/50418)

Homeotic genes are known to be involved in patterning morphological structures along the antero-posterior axis of insects and vertebrates. Because of their important roles in development, changes in the function and expression patterns of homeotic genes may have played a major role in the evolution of different body plans. For example, it has been proposed that during the evolution of several crustacean lineages, changes in the expression patterns of the homeotic genes Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A have played a role in transformation of the anterior thoracic appendages into mouthparts termed maxillipeds. This homeotic-like transformation is recapitulated at the late stages of the direct embryonic development of the crustacean Porcellio scaber (Oniscidea, Isopoda). Interestingly, this morphological change is associated with apparent novelties both in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the Porcellio scaber ortholog of the Drosophila homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr). Specifically, we find that Scr mRNA is present in the second maxillary segment and the first pair of thoracic legs (T1) in early embryos, whereas protein accumulates only in the second maxillae. In later stages, however, high levels of SCR appear in the T1 legs, which correlates temporally with the transformation of these appendages into maxillipeds. Our observations provide further insight into the process of the homeotic leg-to-maxilliped transformation in the evolution of crustaceans and suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for this process in this group of arthropods.  (+info)

The Drosophila kismet gene is related to chromatin-remodeling factors and is required for both segmentation and segment identity. (2/50418)

The Drosophila kismet gene was identified in a screen for dominant suppressors of Polycomb, a repressor of homeotic genes. Here we show that kismet mutations suppress the Polycomb mutant phenotype by blocking the ectopic transcription of homeotic genes. Loss of zygotic kismet function causes homeotic transformations similar to those associated with loss-of-function mutations in the homeotic genes Sex combs reduced and Abdominal-B. kismet is also required for proper larval body segmentation. Loss of maternal kismet function causes segmentation defects similar to those caused by mutations in the pair-rule gene even-skipped. The kismet gene encodes several large nuclear proteins that are ubiquitously expressed along the anterior-posterior axis. The Kismet proteins contain a domain conserved in the trithorax group protein Brahma and related chromatin-remodeling factors, providing further evidence that alterations in chromatin structure are required to maintain the spatially restricted patterns of homeotic gene transcription.  (+info)

The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping. (3/50418)

Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut.  (+info)

Mrj encodes a DnaJ-related co-chaperone that is essential for murine placental development. (4/50418)

We have identified a novel gene in a gene trap screen that encodes a protein related to the DnaJ co-chaperone in E. coli. The gene, named Mrj (mammalian relative of DnaJ) was expressed throughout development in both the embryo and placenta. Within the placenta, expression was particularly high in trophoblast giant cells but moderate levels were also observed in trophoblast cells of the chorion at embryonic day 8.5, and later in the labyrinth which arises from the attachment of the chorion to the allantois (a process called chorioallantoic fusion). Insertion of the ROSAbetageo gene trap vector into the Mrj gene created a null allele. Homozygous Mrj mutants died at mid-gestation due to a failure of chorioallantoic fusion at embryonic day 8.5, which precluded formation of the mature placenta. At embryonic day 8.5, the chorion in mutants was morphologically normal and expressed the cell adhesion molecule beta4 integrin that is known to be required for chorioallantoic fusion. However, expression of the chorionic trophoblast-specific transcription factor genes Err2 and Gcm1 was significantly reduced. The mutants showed no abnormal phenotypes in other trophoblast cell types or in the embryo proper. This study indicates a previously unsuspected role for chaperone proteins in placental development and represents the first genetic analysis of DnaJ-related protein function in higher eukaryotes. Based on a survey of EST databases representing different mouse tissues and embryonic stages, there are 40 or more DnaJ-related genes in mammals. In addition to Mrj, at least two of these genes are also expressed in the developing mouse placenta. The specificity of the developmental defect in Mrj mutants suggests that each of these genes may have unique tissue and cellular activities.  (+info)

A Drosophila doublesex-related gene, terra, is involved in somitogenesis in vertebrates. (5/50418)

The Drosophila doublesex (dsx) gene encodes a transcription factor that mediates sex determination. We describe the characterization of a novel zebrafish zinc-finger gene, terra, which contains a DNA binding domain similar to that of the Drosophila dsx gene. However, unlike dsx, terra is transiently expressed in the presomitic mesoderm and newly formed somites. Expression of terra in presomitic mesoderm is restricted to cells that lack expression of MyoD. In vivo, terra expression is reduced by hedgehog but enhanced by BMP signals. Overexpression of terra induces rapid apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that a tight regulation of terra expression is required during embryogenesis. Terra has both human and mouse homologs and is specifically expressed in mouse somites. Taken together, our findings suggest that terra is a highly conserved protein that plays specific roles in early somitogenesis of vertebrates.  (+info)

Requirement of a novel gene, Xin, in cardiac morphogenesis. (6/50418)

A novel gene, Xin, from chick (cXin) and mouse (mXin) embryonic hearts, may be required for cardiac morphogenesis and looping. Both cloned cDNAs have a single open reading frame, encoding proteins with 2,562 and 1,677 amino acids for cXin and mXin, respectively. The derived amino acid sequences share 46% similarity. The overall domain structures of the predicted cXin and mXin proteins, including proline-rich regions, 16 amino acid repeats, DNA-binding domains, SH3-binding motifs and nuclear localization signals, are highly conserved. Northern blot analyses detect a single message of 8.9 and 5.8 kilo base (kb) from both cardiac and skeletal muscle of chick and mouse, respectively. In situ hybridization reveals that the cXin gene is specifically expressed in cardiac progenitor cells of chick embryos as early as stage 8, prior to heart tube formation. cXin continues to be expressed in the myocardium of developing hearts. By stage 15, cXin expression is also detected in the myotomes of developing somites. Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that the mXin protein is colocalized with N-cadherin and connexin-43 in the intercalated discs of adult mouse hearts. Incubation of stage 6 chick embryos with cXin antisense oligonucleotides results in abnormal cardiac morphogenesis and an alteration of cardiac looping. The myocardium of the affected hearts becomes thickened and tends to form multiple invaginations into the heart cavity. This abnormal cellular process may account in part for the abnormal looping. cXin expression can be induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in explants of anterior medial mesoendoderm from stage 6 chick embryos, a tissue that is normally non-cardiogenic. This induction occurs following the BMP-mediated induction of two cardiac-restricted transcription factors, Nkx2.5 and MEF2C. Furthermore, either MEF2C or Nkx2.5 can transactivate a luciferase reporter driven by the mXin promoter in mouse fibroblasts. These results suggest that Xin may participate in a BMP-Nkx2.5-MEF2C pathway to control cardiac morphogenesis and looping.  (+info)

Mechanisms of GDF-5 action during skeletal development. (7/50418)

Mutations in GDF-5, a member of the TGF-beta superfamily, result in the autosomal recessive syndromes brachypod (bp) in mice and Hunter-Thompson and Grebe-type chondrodysplasias in humans. These syndromes are all characterised by the shortening of the appendicular skeleton and loss or abnormal development of some joints. To investigate how GDF-5 controls skeletogenesis, we overexpressed GDF-5 during chick limb development using the retrovirus, RCASBP. This resulted in up to a 37.5% increase in length of the skeletal elements, which was predominantly due to an increase in the number of chondrocytes. By injecting virus at different stages of development, we show that GDF-5 can increase both the size of the early cartilage condensation and the later developing skeletal element. Using in vitro micromass cultures as a model system to study the early steps of chondrogenesis, we show that GDF-5 increases chondrogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. We did not detect changes in proliferation. However, cell suspension cultures showed that GDF-5 might act at these stages by increasing cell adhesion, a critical determinant of early chondrogenesis. In contrast, pulse labelling experiments of GDF-5-infected limbs showed that at later stages of skeletal development GDF-5 can increase proliferation of chondrocytes. Thus, here we show two mechanisms of how GDF-5 may control different stages of skeletogenesis. Finally, our data show that levels of GDF-5 expression/activity are important in controlling the size of skeletal elements and provides a possible explanation for the variation in the severity of skeletal defects resulting from mutations in GDF-5.  (+info)

Regulation of body length and male tail ray pattern formation of Caenorhabditis elegans by a member of TGF-beta family. (8/50418)

We have identified a new member of the TGF-beta superfamily, CET-1, from Caenorhabditis elegans, which is expressed in the ventral nerve cord and other neurons. cet-1 null mutants have shortened bodies and male tail abnormal phenotype resembling sma mutants, suggesting cet-1, sma-2, sma-3 and sma-4 share a common pathway. Overexpression experiments demonstrated that cet-1 function requires wild-type sma genes. Interestingly, CET-1 appears to affect body length in a dose-dependent manner. Heterozygotes for cet-1 displayed body lengths ranging between null mutant and wild type, and overexpression of CET-1 in wild-type worms elongated body length close to lon mutants. In male sensory ray patterning, lack of cet-1 function results in ray fusions. Epistasis analysis revealed that mab-21 lies downstream and is negatively regulated by the cet-1/sma pathway in the male tail. Our results show that cet-1 controls diverse biological processes during C. elegans development probably through different target genes.  (+info)

Some common effects of chromosomal deletions include:

1. Genetic disorders: Chromosomal deletions can lead to a variety of genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, which is caused by a deletion of a portion of chromosome 21. Other examples include Prader-Willi syndrome (deletion of chromosome 15), and Williams syndrome (deletion of chromosome 7).
2. Birth defects: Chromosomal deletions can increase the risk of birth defects, such as heart defects, cleft palate, and limb abnormalities.
3. Developmental delays: Children with chromosomal deletions may experience developmental delays, learning disabilities, and intellectual disability.
4. Increased cancer risk: Some chromosomal deletions can increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and breast cancer.
5. Reproductive problems: Chromosomal deletions can lead to reproductive problems, such as infertility or recurrent miscarriage.

Chromosomal deletions can be diagnosed through a variety of techniques, including karyotyping (examination of the chromosomes), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and microarray analysis. Treatment options for chromosomal deletions depend on the specific effects of the deletion and may include medication, surgery, or other forms of therapy.

There are several types of inborn errors of amino acid metabolism, including:

1. Phenylketonuria (PKU): This is the most common inborn error of amino acid metabolism and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. This enzyme is needed to break down the amino acid phenylalanine, which is found in many protein-containing foods. If phenylalanine is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and brain and cause serious health problems.
2. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. These amino acids are important for growth and development, but if they are not properly broken down, they can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
3. Homocystinuria: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid methionine. Methionine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
4. Arginase deficiency: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid arginine. Arginine is important for the body's production of nitric oxide, a compound that helps to relax blood vessels and improve blood flow.
5. Citrullinemia: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid citrulline. Citrulline is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
6. Tyrosinemia: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid tyrosine. Tyrosine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
7. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. These amino acids are important for growth and development, but if they are not properly broken down, they can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
8. PKU (phenylketonuria): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid phenylalanine. Phenylalanine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
9. Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) deficiency: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid methionine. Methionine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.
10. Homocystinuria: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the breakdown of the amino acid homocysteine. Homocysteine is important for the body's production of proteins and other compounds, but if it is not properly broken down, it can build up in the blood and cause serious health problems.

It is important to note that these disorders are rare and affect a small percentage of the population. However, they can be serious and potentially life-threatening, so it is important to be aware of them and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Explanation: Neoplastic cell transformation is a complex process that involves multiple steps and can occur as a result of genetic mutations, environmental factors, or a combination of both. The process typically begins with a series of subtle changes in the DNA of individual cells, which can lead to the loss of normal cellular functions and the acquisition of abnormal growth and reproduction patterns.

Over time, these transformed cells can accumulate further mutations that allow them to survive and proliferate despite adverse conditions. As the transformed cells continue to divide and grow, they can eventually form a tumor, which is a mass of abnormal cells that can invade and damage surrounding tissues.

In some cases, cancer cells can also break away from the primary tumor and travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to other parts of the body, where they can establish new tumors. This process, known as metastasis, is a major cause of death in many types of cancer.

It's worth noting that not all transformed cells will become cancerous. Some forms of cellular transformation, such as those that occur during embryonic development or tissue regeneration, are normal and necessary for the proper functioning of the body. However, when these transformations occur in adult tissues, they can be a sign of cancer.

See also: Cancer, Tumor

Word count: 190

1. Activation of oncogenes: Some viruses contain genes that code for proteins that can activate existing oncogenes in the host cell, leading to uncontrolled cell growth.
2. Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes: Other viruses may contain genes that inhibit the expression of tumor suppressor genes, allowing cells to grow and divide uncontrollably.
3. Insertional mutagenesis: Some viruses can insert their own DNA into the host cell's genome, leading to disruptions in normal cellular function and potentially causing cancer.
4. Epigenetic changes: Viral infection can also cause epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation or histone modification, that can lead to the silencing of tumor suppressor genes and the activation of oncogenes.

Viral cell transformation is a key factor in the development of many types of cancer, including cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), and liver cancer caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). In addition, some viruses are specifically known to cause cancer, such as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV).

Early detection and treatment of viral infections can help prevent the development of cancer. Vaccines are also available for some viruses that are known to cause cancer, such as HPV and hepatitis B. Additionally, antiviral therapy can be used to treat existing infections and may help reduce the risk of cancer development.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements. › Medical Dictionary › G

A genetic translocation is a change in the number or arrangement of the chromosomes in a cell. It occurs when a portion of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. This can result in a gain or loss of genetic material, which can have significant effects on the individual.

Genetic Translocation | Definition & Facts | Britannica › science › Genetic-tr...

Genetic translocation, also called chromosomal translocation, a type of chromosomal aberration in which a portion of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. This can result in a gain or loss of genetic material. Genetic translocations are often found in cancer cells and may play a role in the development and progression of cancer.

Translocation, Genetic | health Encyclopedia - UPMC › health-library › gene...

A genetic translocation is a change in the number or arrangement of the chromosomes in a cell. It occurs when a portion of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. This can result in a gain or loss of genetic material, which can have significant effects on the individual.

Genetic Translocation | Genetics Home Reference - NIH › condition › ge...

A genetic translocation is a change in the number or arrangement of the chromosomes in a cell. It occurs when a portion of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. This can result in a gain or loss of genetic material, which can have significant effects on the individual.

In conclusion, Genetic Translocation is an abnormality in the number or arrangement of chromosomes in a cell. It occurs when a portion of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome, resulting in a gain or loss of genetic material that can have significant effects on the individual.

Hartnup disease is a rare genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to absorb vitamin B12 (cobalamin) and other nutrients. It is caused by a mutation in the HCN1 gene, which codes for a protein involved in the transport of cobalamin into the cells.

Symptoms of Hartnup Disease:

The symptoms of Hartnup disease can vary in severity and may include:

* Fatigue
* Weakness
* Pale skin
* Shortness of breath
* Dizziness
* Headaches
* Numbness or tingling in the hands and feet
* Seizures
* Poor appetite
* Diarrhea

Complications of Hartnup Disease:

If left untreated, Hartnup disease can lead to complications such as:

* Anemia (low red blood cell count)
* Nerve damage
* Skin problems
* Eye problems
* Hearing loss
* Increased risk of infections

Treatment of Hartnup Disease:

The treatment of Hartnup disease typically involves a combination of dietary changes and supplements. Patients with the condition may need to follow a strict diet that includes foods high in vitamin B12, such as meat, fish, and dairy products. They may also need to take supplements to ensure they are getting enough of this important nutrient. In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help manage symptoms.

Prognosis of Hartnup Disease:

The prognosis for Hartnup disease is generally good if the condition is diagnosed and treated early. With proper management, most patients with Hartnup disease can lead active and healthy lives. However, if left untreated, the condition can have serious complications that can be difficult to reverse.

Inheritance Pattern of Hartnup Disease:

Hartnup disease is an autosomal recessive disorder, which means that a person must inherit two copies of the mutated HCN1 gene (one from each parent) in order to develop the condition. If a person inherits only one copy of the mutated gene, they will be a carrier of the condition but are unlikely to develop symptoms themselves. Carriers of Hartnup disease can pass the mutated gene on to their children, who have a 25% chance of inheriting two copies of the gene and developing the condition.

Prevention of Hartnup Disease:

There is no known prevention for Hartnup disease. However, if a person knows they are a carrier of the condition, they can work with their healthcare provider to ensure they are getting enough vitamin B12 and monitoring their diet to prevent any complications.

In conclusion, Hartnup disease is a rare genetic disorder that affects the absorption of vitamin B12 in the small intestine. It can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fatigue. Treatment typically involves a combination of dietary changes and supplements, and early diagnosis and management can lead to a good prognosis. However, if left untreated, the condition can have serious complications. If you suspect you or someone you know may be experiencing symptoms of Hartnup disease, it is important to speak with a healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment.

The ABCD1 gene plays a critical role in the energy metabolism of the nervous system, and mutations in this gene can disrupt normal nerve cell function. As a result, Kearns-Sayre Syndrome is considered an example of a mitochondrial disorder - a group of diseases caused by defects in the mitochondria, the energy-producing structures within cells.

Kearns-Sayre Syndrome is extremely rare and affects approximately one in 1 million people worldwide. It is usually inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, meaning that a child must inherit two copies of the mutated gene - one from each parent - to develop the syndrome. However, some cases may also be caused by spontaneous genetic mutations.

There is currently no cure for Kearns-Sayre Syndrome, but various treatments are available to manage its symptoms and slow its progression. These may include medications to control seizures, physical therapy to maintain muscle strength and function, and supportive care to address any associated complications. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation or enzyme replacement therapy may also be considered as potential treatment options.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

Cystinuria is caused by mutations in the SLC7A9 gene, which codes for a protein involved in the transport of cystine across the brush border membrane of renal tubular cells. The disorder is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, meaning that affected individuals must inherit two copies of the mutated gene (one from each parent) to develop symptoms.

There is no cure for cystinuria, but various treatments can help manage its symptoms. These may include medications to reduce the acidity of the urine and prevent infection, as well as surgical procedures to remove stones or repair damaged kidneys. In some cases, a kidney transplant may be necessary.

It's important for individuals with cystinuria to drink plenty of water and maintain good hydration to help flush out the urinary tract and prevent stone formation. They should also avoid certain foods that may increase the risk of stone formation, such as oxalate-rich foods like spinach and rhubarb.

Overall, while there is no cure for cystinuria, with proper management and care, individuals with this disorder can lead relatively normal lives and minimize the complications associated with it.

There are two main types of hemolysis:

1. Intravascular hemolysis: This type occurs within the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as mechanical injury, oxidative stress, and certain infections.
2. Extravascular hemolysis: This type occurs outside the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as bone marrow disorders, splenic rupture, and certain medications.

Hemolytic anemia is a condition that occurs when there is excessive hemolysis of RBCs, leading to a decrease in the number of healthy red blood cells in the body. This can cause symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, pale skin, and shortness of breath.

Some common causes of hemolysis include:

1. Genetic disorders such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia.
2. Autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA).
3. Infections such as malaria, babesiosis, and toxoplasmosis.
4. Medications such as antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and blood thinners.
5. Bone marrow disorders such as aplastic anemia and myelofibrosis.
6. Splenic rupture or surgical removal of the spleen.
7. Mechanical injury to the blood vessels.

Diagnosis of hemolysis is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as complete blood count (CBC), blood smear examination, and direct Coombs test. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include supportive care, blood transfusions, and medications to suppress the immune system or prevent infection.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

Inversions are classified based on their location along the chromosome:

* Interstitial inversion: A segment of DNA is reversed within a larger gene or group of genes.
* Pericentric inversion: A segment of DNA is reversed near the centromere, the region of the chromosome where the sister chromatids are most closely attached.

Chromosome inversions can be detected through cytogenetic analysis, which allows visualization of the chromosomes and their structure. They can also be identified using molecular genetic techniques such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH).

Chromosome inversions are relatively rare in the general population, but they have been associated with various developmental disorders and an increased risk of certain diseases. For example, individuals with an inversion on chromosome 8p have an increased risk of developing cancer, while those with an inversion on chromosome 9q have a higher risk of developing neurological disorders.

Inversions can be inherited from one or both parents, and they can also occur spontaneously as a result of errors during DNA replication or repair. In some cases, inversions may be associated with other genetic abnormalities, such as translocations or deletions.

Overall, chromosome inversions are an important aspect of human genetics and can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms underlying developmental disorders and disease susceptibility.

Starvation is a condition where an individual's body does not receive enough nutrients to maintain proper bodily functions and growth. It can be caused by a lack of access to food, poverty, poor nutrition, or other factors that prevent the intake of sufficient calories and essential nutrients. Starvation can lead to severe health consequences, including weight loss, weakness, fatigue, and even death.

Types of Starvation:

There are several types of starvation, each with different causes and effects. These include:

1. Acute starvation: This occurs when an individual suddenly stops eating or has a limited access to food for a short period of time.
2. Chronic starvation: This occurs when an individual consistently does not consume enough calories and nutrients over a longer period of time, leading to gradual weight loss and other health problems.
3. Malnutrition starvation: This occurs when an individual's diet is deficient in essential nutrients, leading to malnutrition and other health problems.
4. Marasmus: This is a severe form of starvation that occurs in children, characterized by extreme weight loss, weakness, and wasting of muscles and organs.
5. Kwashiorkor: This is a form of malnutrition caused by a diet lacking in protein, leading to edema, diarrhea, and other health problems.

Effects of Starvation on the Body:

Starvation can have severe effects on the body, including:

1. Weight loss: Starvation causes weight loss, which can lead to a decrease in muscle mass and a loss of essential nutrients.
2. Fatigue: Starvation can cause fatigue, weakness, and a lack of energy, making it difficult to perform daily activities.
3. Weakened immune system: Starvation can weaken the immune system, making an individual more susceptible to illnesses and infections.
4. Nutrient deficiencies: Starvation can lead to a deficiency of essential nutrients, including vitamins and minerals, which can cause a range of health problems.
5. Increased risk of disease: Starvation can increase the risk of diseases such as tuberculosis, pellagra, and other infections.
6. Mental health issues: Starvation can lead to mental health issues such as depression, anxiety, and irritability.
7. Reproductive problems: Starvation can cause reproductive problems, including infertility and miscarriage.
8. Hair loss: Starvation can cause hair loss, which can be a sign of malnutrition.
9. Skin problems: Starvation can cause skin problems, such as dryness, irritation, and infections.
10. Increased risk of death: Starvation can lead to increased risk of death, especially in children and the elderly.

It is important to note that these effects can be reversed with proper nutrition and care. If you or someone you know is experiencing starvation, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately.

There are several types of PKU, including classic PKU, mild PKU, and hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA). Classic PKU is the most severe form of the disorder and is characterized by a complete deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), which is necessary for the breakdown of Phe. Mild PKU is characterized by a partial deficiency of PAH, while HPA is caused by a variety of other genetic defects that affect the breakdown of Phe.

Symptoms of PKU can vary depending on the severity of the disorder, but may include developmental delays, intellectual disability, seizures, and behavioral problems. If left untreated, PKU can lead to serious health complications such as brain damage, seizures, and even death.

The primary treatment for PKU is a strict diet that limits the intake of Phe. This typically involves avoiding foods that are high in Phe, such as meat, fish, eggs, and dairy products, and consuming specialized medical foods that are low in Phe. In some cases, medication may also be prescribed to help manage symptoms.

PKU is an autosomal recessive disorder, which means that it is inherited in an unusual way. Both parents must carry the genetic mutation that causes PKU, and each child has a 25% chance of inheriting the disorder. PKU can be diagnosed through newborn screening, which is typically performed soon after birth. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent or minimize the symptoms of PKU and improve quality of life for individuals with the disorder.

Also known as: aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase deficiency, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA synthetase deficiency, and amino acid transporter defects.

There are several types of melanoma, including:

1. Superficial spreading melanoma: This is the most common type of melanoma, accounting for about 70% of cases. It usually appears as a flat or slightly raised discolored patch on the skin.
2. Nodular melanoma: This type of melanoma is more aggressive and accounts for about 15% of cases. It typically appears as a raised bump on the skin, often with a darker color.
3. Acral lentiginous melanoma: This type of melanoma affects the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, or nail beds and accounts for about 5% of cases.
4. Lentigo maligna melanoma: This type of melanoma usually affects the face and is more common in older adults.

The risk factors for developing melanoma include:

1. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure from the sun or tanning beds
2. Fair skin, light hair, and light eyes
3. A history of sunburns
4. Weakened immune system
5. Family history of melanoma

The symptoms of melanoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Common symptoms include:

1. Changes in the size, shape, or color of a mole
2. A new mole or growth on the skin
3. A spot or sore that bleeds or crusts over
4. Itching or pain on the skin
5. Redness or swelling around a mole

If melanoma is suspected, a biopsy will be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options for melanoma depend on the stage and location of the cancer and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. Early detection and treatment are key to successful outcomes in melanoma cases.

In conclusion, melanoma is a type of skin cancer that can be deadly if not detected early. It is important to practice sun safety, perform regular self-exams, and seek medical attention if any suspicious changes are noticed on the skin. By being aware of the risk factors, symptoms, and treatment options for melanoma, individuals can take steps to protect themselves from this potentially deadly disease.

They display significant amino acid sequence homology. Sixteen cysteine residues, forming 8 disulfide bonds, are strictly ... Piscivorin has the following amino acid sequence. Piscivorin reduces high potassium-evoked smooth muscle contraction, but does ... A sequence comparison of piscivorin and other CRISP family proteins suggests that the Glu186 residue is the crucial site for ... The nucleotide sequence of piscivorin cDNA spans 1323 bp, containing an open reading frame of 240 codons. ...
Marcus F, Gontero B, Harrsch PB, Rittenhouse J (Mar 1986). "Amino acid sequence homology among fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases". ... Fructose bisphosphatase deficiency Fructose Gluconeogenesis Metabolism Marcus F, Harrsch PB (May 1990). "Amino acid sequence of ... IMPase and FBPase share a sequence motif (Asp-Pro-Ile/Leu-Asp-Gly/Ser-Thr/Ser) which has been shown to bind metal ions and ... do not show any significant sequence similarity to the enzymes from other organisms. The Bacillus subtilis enzyme is inhibited ...
It was subsequently cloned and sequenced by Radhey Gupta and coworkers. The amino acid sequence showed a strong homology to ... Waldinger D, Eckerskorn C, Lottspeich F, Cleve H (1988). "Amino-acid sequence homology of a polymorphic cellular protein from ... The cytoplasmic HSP60 contains a signal sequence of 26 amino acids on the N terminus. This sequence is highly degenerate and is ... With respect to the amino acid sequence, the cytoplasmic HSP60 has an N-terminal sequence not found in the mitochondrial ...
Amino acid sequence of MTA2 shares 68.2% homology with MTA1's sequence. MTA2 domains include, a BAH (Bromo-Adjacent Homology), ... inclusive of three protein-coding transcripts but predicted to code for two polypeptides of 688 amino acids and 495 amino acids ... The murine Mta2 consists of a 3.1-kb protein-coding transcript to code a protein of 668 amino acids, and five non-coding RNAs ... MTA2 was initially recognized as an MTA1 like 1 gene, named MTA1-L1, from a large scale sequencing of randomly selected clones ...
... they share gene sequence and amino acid sequence homology. They all also possess conserved amino acids that are important for ... those with a specific amino acid sequence (or motif) of glutamic acid-leucine-arginine (or ELR for short) immediately before ... The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino terminus. There have ... A loop of approximately ten amino acids follows the first two cysteines and is known as the N-loop. This is followed by a ...
... coding for 2,710 amino acids. TcdA and TcdB share 63% homology in their amino acid sequences. These genes are expressed during ... A centrally located hydrophobic domain containing a cluster of 172 highly conserved hydrophobic amino acids is thought to be ... which transfers a glucose molecule from UDP-Glucose and covalently attaches it to conserved amino acids in target molecules. ... Due to its homology with other proteins of similar function, as well as the location of the gene between tcdA and tcdB, tcdE is ...
Over 200 subtilases are presently known, more than 170 of which with their complete amino acid sequence. Subtilase is ... Based on sequence homology, a subdivision into six families has been proposed. The proprotein-processing endopeptidases kexin, ... These preferentially cleave C-terminally to paired basic amino acids. Members of this subfamily can be identified by subtly ... with the mature catalytic domains containing approximately 375 amino acids. The defining features of these enzymes are a unique ...
Kleeman TA, Wei D, Simpson KL, First EA (Jun 1997). "Human tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase shares amino acid sequence homology with a ... Living cells translate DNA sequences into RNA sequences and then into protein sequences. Proteins are chains of amino acids, ... As the protein grows, each amino acid is added to the end by an enzyme called transfer RNA (tRNA). Each amino acid has its own ... by their cognate amino acid. Because of their central role in linking amino acids with nucleotide triplets contained in tRNAs, ...
IL-36ra is 155 amino acids long and lacks a signal sequence. IL-36ra shares with IL-1ra 52% homology in the amino acid sequence ... IL-13 is very similar to IL-4 in amino acid sequence and structure. They also used the same type II IL-4 receptor to activate ... At the time of the assignment of these names, there was no amino acid sequence analysis known and the terms were used to define ... IL-1ra is synthesized as a preprotein containing a classical 25 amino acid long signal sequence that allows secretion via the ...
There is a high homology in the amino acid sequence within each family. Each family couples to the same second messenger ...
Lottspeich F, Geiger R, Henschen A, Kutzbach C (1980). "N-Terminal amino acid sequence of human urinary kallikrein homology ... Complete amino acid sequence and sites of glycosylation". Int. J. Pept. Protein Res. 33 (4): 237-49. doi:10.1111/j.1399- ... 1986). "N-terminal amino acid sequence of human urinary prokallikrein". J. Biochem. 99 (3): 989-92. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals. ... Kellermann J, Lottspeich F, Geiger R, Deutzmann R (1988). "Human urinary kallikrein--amino acid sequence and carbohydrate ...
They share 57% amino acid sequence homology and have some pharmacological characteristics in common. Both receptors are Gi- ... indicating a high degree of evolutionary conservation of genetic sequence, which suggests that the 5-HT1E receptor has an ...
Some of the proteins participating in T3SS share amino-acid sequence homology to flagellar proteins. Some of the bacteria ... Recognition is done through a secretion signal-a short sequence of amino acids located at the beginning (the N-terminus) of the ... This is done in order to define the function of specific amino acids or regions in a protein. The introduction of a gene or a ... usually within the first 20 amino acids), that the needle complex is able to recognize. Unlike other secretion systems, the ...
... have high homology. They have 65% amino acid sequences in common and 92% homology within their kinase domains. ROCKs are ... Mammalian ROCK consists of a kinase domain, a coiled-coil region and a Pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, which reduces the ... ROCK can also be regulated by lipids, in particular arachidonic acid, and protein oligomerization, which induces N-terminal ...
Huhtala ML, Seppälä M, Närvänen A, Palomäki P, Julkunen M, Bohn H (Jun 1987). "Amino acid sequence homology between human ... The N-terminal amino acid sequence of glycodelin is M D I P Q T K Q D L E L P K L A G T W H S M. This sequence can be compared ... Julkunen, M.; Seppala, M.; Janne, O. A. (1988-12-01). "Complete amino acid sequence of human placental protein 14: a ... Julkunen, M.; Seppala, M.; Janne, O. A. (1988-12-01). "Complete amino acid sequence of human placental protein 14: a ...
... complete amino acid sequence and homologies". Science. 230 (4732): 1385-8. Bibcode:1985Sci...230.1385G. doi:10.1126/science. ... These proteins had a high degree of sequence homology among their amino acid chains, but were determined to be distinct ... A short stretch of acidic amino acids located between the D1 and D2 domains has auto-inhibitory functions. This 'acid box' ... Although these factors possess remarkably similar sequence homology, they do not bind FGFRs and are involved in intracellular ...
... complete amino acid sequence and homologies". Science. 230 (4732): 1385-8. Bibcode:1985Sci...230.1385G. doi:10.1126/science. ... The majority of the substrates of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) exhibit similar structures to Src Homology 2 domain. ...
... is a 36-amino acid peptide found in the venom of the deathstalker scorpion (Leiurus quinquestriatus) which blocks ... Chlorotoxin has a considerable sequence homology to the class of small insectotoxins. Chlorotoxin is the first reported high- ... It is a peptide consisting of 36 amino acids, with 8 cysteines forming 4 disulfide bonds. ...
H9401 has 99.679% sequence homology with Ames Ancestor with an amino acid sequence homology of 99.870%. H9401 has a circular ... These include (1) N-glycosylation of N-acetyl-muramic acid, (2) O-acetylation of N-acetylmuramic acid and (3) N-deacetylation ... The sequencing coverage level suggests a molecular ratio of pXO1:pXO2:chromosome as 3:2:1 which is identical to the Ames ... The protein capsule (poly-D-gamma-glutamic acid) is key to evasion of the immune response. It feeds on the heme of blood ...
"Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of human intestinal alkaline phosphatase: close homology to placental alkaline phosphatase ... 2002). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... Berger J, Garattini E, Hua JC, Udenfriend S (February 1987). "Cloning and sequencing of human intestinal alkaline phosphatase ...
... homologies and mechanistic implications of deduced amino acid sequences". Cell. 44 (4): 597-607. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(86)90269 ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ...
This is not to be confused with conservation in amino acid sequences, where the amino acid at a specific position has been ... Sequence homology is the biological homology between DNA, RNA, or protein sequences, defined in terms of shared ancestry in the ... Homology among DNA, RNA, or proteins is typically inferred from their nucleotide or amino acid sequence similarity. Significant ... Alignments of multiple sequences are used to indicate which regions of each sequence are homologous. The term "percent homology ...
... with high amino acid sequence homology (approximately 90% identity). The sequences of their promoter regions are also highly ... Rao TR, Slobin LI (Mar 1986). "Structure of the amino-terminal end of mammalian elongation factor Tu". Nucleic Acids Research. ... Addition of ethanolamine-phosphoglycerol to specific glutamic acid residues on EF-1 alpha". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... Nucleic Acids Research. 18 (6): 1513-6. doi:10.1093/nar/18.6.1513. PMC 330519. PMID 2183196. Bec G, Kerjan P, Zha XD, Waller JP ...
Amino acid sequence homology with the other aspartic proteinases, disulfide bond arrangement and site of carbohydrate ... Mucorpepsin (EC, Mucor rennin, Mucor aspartic proteinase, Mucor acid proteinase, Mucor acid protease, Mucor miehei ... doi:10.1016/0076-6879(70)19033-1. Ottesen M, Rickert W (1970). "The acid protease of Mucor miehei". Methods Enzymol. 19: 459- ...
IUPAC needed a coding system that represented long sequences of amino acids. This would allow for these sequences to be ... compared to try to find homologies. These codes can consist of either a one-letter code or a three-letter code. These codes ... Amino Acid Codes Archived 5 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 15 April 2010 Amino Acid and Nucleotide Base Codes ... The codes for amino acids (24 amino acids and three special codes) are: The Experimental Thermodynamics books series covers ...
1990). "Complete amino acid sequence and homologies of human erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.2". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S ...
The human homolog of the CPT II enzyme shows 82.2% amino acid sequence homology with the rat protein. Significant structural ... This gene is composed of 5 exons that encode a protein 658 amino acids in length. To date, sixty disease-causing mutations ... within the coding sequence of CPT2 have been reported in the literature, of which 41 are thought to result in amino acid ... The majority of the genetic abnormalities in CPT II deficient patients affect amino acid residues somewhat removed from the ...
cDNA cloning and sequence homology with hydroxyamino acid dehydratases from other sources". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... Human and rat serine dehydratase cDNA are identical except for a 36 amino acid residue stretch. Similarities have also been ... Human SDH shows sequence homology of 27% with the yeast enzyme and 27% with the E. coli enzyme. Overall PLP enzymes exhibit ... homocysteine is an amino acid and metabolite of methionine; increased levels of homocysteine can lead to homocystinuria(see ...
The gene codes for a protein of 683 residues, which lacks a homology to known amino acid sequences. On evidence of ... 2004). "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs". Nat. Genet. 36 (1): 40-5. doi:10.1038/ ... 2004). "The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 13". Nature. 428 (6982): 522-8. Bibcode:2004Natur.428..522D. doi: ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ...
... amino acid sequence homology, and about 35% identity with IFNB. The high degree of amino-acid sequence similarity within the ... All of these IFN-α proteins exhibit high homology in their primary, secondary, and tertiary structures. IFNA and IFNB are ... Viruses and immune complexes (ICs) containing nucleic acids can access intracellular TLRs (TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9) after binding ... Shrivastav M, Niewold TB (2013). "Nucleic Acid sensors and type I interferon production in systemic lupus erythematosus". ...
Both the N-terminally attached myristic acid and the peptide sequences of the unique region are involved in the interaction. ... c-Src is made up of 6 functional regions: Src homology 4 domain (SH4 domain), unique region, SH3 domain, SH2 domain, catalytic ... "Increased pp60c-src tyrosyl kinase activity in human neuroblastomas is associated with amino-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation ...
2800 amino acids. Teneurins are highly conserved within and between species. The primary structure, or amino acid sequence ... There are 41 amino acids in TCAPs, except for TCAP-3 from Ten-m3, which has 40. TCAPs show structural homology to the CRF ... The linker region is made up of ~200 amino acid residues and is found immediately distal to the transmembrane domain. This is ... More distally is the globular domain consisting of a 700-800 amino acid residue region. There are 17 conserved cysteine ...
... which is formed after cleavage of the amino and carbonyl ends of the 15kDa protein. The 15 kDa form consists of 145 amino acids ... January 2003). "Sequence analysis of the granulysin and granzyme B genes in familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis". Human ... a human late T cell activation molecule with homology to small, lytic, granule proteins". Journal of Immunology. 158 (6): 2680- ... The 9 kDa form consists of 74 amino acids, and has a cytotoxic function. This molecule is found in cytotoxic granules, along ...
A third, more modified paralog to these genes exists in the same region, HSPA1L, which shares a 90% homology with the other two ... HSPA1A and HSPA1B produce nearly identical proteins because the few differences in their DNA sequences are almost exclusively ... Haag Breese E, Uversky VN, Georgiadis MM, Harrington MA (December 2006). "The disordered amino-terminus of SIMPL interacts with ... protein phosphatase 5 dissociates from heat-shock proteins and is proteolytically activated in response to arachidonic acid and ...
1986). "Complete amino acid sequence of human thyroxine-binding globulin deduced from cloned DNA: close homology to the serine ... 1989). "Sequence of the variant thyroxine-binding globulin of Australian aborigines. Only one of two amino acid replacements is ... "Partial amino acid sequence of human thyroxine-binding globulin. Further evidence for a single polypeptide chain". Biochem. ... 1994). "Sequence of a variant thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) in a family with partial TBG deficiency in Japanese (TBG-PDJ)". ...
CP detects both local errors in atomic coordinates and also correctly matches an amino acid sequence to its native three ... It is useful in homology modeling and protein design. A version of the plot (CPint) has also been built and made available to ... It is based on a probabilistic representation of preferred amino acid side-chain orientation, analogous to the preferred ... all-atom contacts and structure validation for proteins and nucleic acids. Nucl. Acids. Res.,35, W375-W383. Shapovalov, M.S., ...
The human thromboxane A (TXA) synthase is a 60 kDa cytochrome P450 protein with 533 amino acids and a heme prosthetic group. ... However, this protein is considered a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily on the basis of sequence similarity rather than ... of TXA synthase due to the requirement of detergent treatment extraction from the membrane but they have utilized homology ... Hsu PY, Tsai AL, Wang LH (2000). "Identification of Thromboxane Synthase Amino Acid Residues Involved in Heme-Propionate ...
It has 530 amino acid residues with 10-12 transmembrane segments, and is not homologous to other known monoamine transporters, ... It was initially identified by a search of the draft human genome database by its sequence homology to ENTs (equilibrative ...
The cytosolic C-terminal domain contains ~50 amino acids, including a signal sequence important for localizing the receptors to ... Next to the ligand binding domain is an EGF precursor homology domain (EGFP domain). This shows approximately 30% homology with ... The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) is a mosaic protein of 839 amino acids (after removal of 21-amino acid signal ... contains roughly 40 amino acids, including 6 cysteine residues that form disulfide bonds within the repeat. Additionally, each ...
The mammalian σ1 receptor is an integral membrane protein with 223 amino acids. It shows no homology to other mammalian ... proteins but strikingly shares 30% sequence identity and 69% similarity with the ERG2 gene product of yeast, which is a C8-C7 ...
... and ab initio prediction of protein tertiary structures based only on amino acid sequence. The experiment runs once every two ... in protein structure prediction that studies the performance of automated structure prediction webservers in homology modeling ...
... amino acid sequence identity between the unknown protein and the solved structure. 30-50% sequence identity gives a model of ... including experimental methods using genomic sequences or modeling-based approaches based on sequence or structural homology to ... This approach uses protein sequence data and the chemical and physical interactions of the encoded amino acids to predict the 3 ... Completed genome sequences allow every open reading frame (ORF), the part of a gene that is likely to contain the sequence for ...
... which has 76 amino acid residues arranged into a "beta-grasp" protein fold consisting of a five-strand antiparallel beta sheet ... UBLs that are capable of conjugation (sometimes known as Type I) have a characteristic sequence motif consisting of one to two ... Haas AL, Ahrens P, Bright PM, Ankel H (August 1987). "Interferon induces a 15-kilodalton protein exhibiting marked homology to ... The process of ubiquitination is a tightly regulated three-step sequence: activation, performed by ubiquitin-activating enzymes ...
The component protein, AbpA, shows homology, both at the sequence and structural level, to the bacterial protein TasA, a major ... amino acids, and lipids. Multiple dimethyl sulfoxide-molybdopterin (DMSO-MPT) oxidoreductase genes, which are implicated in the ... Its circular genome sequence is 2,222,430 Bp in length and contains 2605 protein-encoding sequences (CDS). Under anaerobic ... and casamino acids. The first of the Pyrobaculum species to be genetically sequenced, P. aerophilum (rod-shaped, 3-8 * 0.6 µm ...
Both enzyme families however target a shared amino acid sequence asparagine--any amino acid except proline-serine or threonine ... The Haemophilus influenzae N-glycosyltransferase has domains with homologies to glutathione S-transferase and glycogen synthase ... 2015, p. 6. Bause E, Legler G (June 1981). "The role of the hydroxy amino acid in the triplet sequence Asn-Xaa-Thr(Ser) for the ... There is evidence that amino acid sequences containing the sequon are selected against in Haemophilus influenzae proteins, ...
... including many proteins of over 2500 amino acids. A number of the members of this family have been designated adhesins, ... Its sequence contains two regions of tandem 19-residue repeats, where the repeat motif consists of short beta-strands separated ... Following this region, proteins typically have regions rich in repeats but may show no homology between the repeats of one ... Members generally have a signal sequence, then an intervening region, then the region described in this entry. ...
First, a cardiac-specific, 21 amino acid sequence insert in the 21st spectrin repeat, termed alpha II-cardi+, was identified as ... Nedrelow JH, Cianci CD, Morrow JS (Feb 2003). "c-Src binds alpha II spectrin's Src homology 3 (SH3) domain and blocks calpain ... Fourthly, a six amino acid insert in the twenty-first spectrin motif with unknown function has been reported. Alpha II-spectrin ... Thirdly, an insert of five amino acids in the fifteenth spectrin motif bears a highly antigenic epitope resembling an ankyrin- ...
The nucleotide sequence predicts a large prepro-peptide with homology to pro-peptides of other chymotrypsin-like enzymes". The ... where it was found to cleave preferentially after several small amino acids, including alanine, serine, threonine, valine, and ...
This patented peptide sequence is composed of eighteen hydrophilic amino acids. This short peptide does not adopt any ... significant homology to any existing proteins found in nature. This synthetic NE peptide adopts random coil conformation and ... The corresponding amino acid sequence is: TKENPRSNQEESYDDNES (Thr-Lys-Glu-Asn-Pro-Arg-Ser-Asn-Gln-Glu-Glu-Ser-Tyr-Asp-Asp-Asn- ... The DNA sequence of NE-tag is as follows: 5' ACC AAA gAA AAC CCg CgT AgC AAC Cag gAA gAA AgC TAT gAT gAT AAC gAA AgC 3' ...
1992). "Short amino acid sequences derived from C1q receptor (C1q-R) show homology with the alpha chains of fibronectin and ... Brazel D, Pollner R, Oberbäumer I, Kühn K (1988). "Human basement membrane collagen (type IV). The amino acid sequence of the ... "Nucleotide sequence coding for the human type IV collagen alpha 2 chain cDNA reveals extensive homology with the NC-1 domain of ... Gupta S, Batchu RB, Datta K (1992). "Purification, partial characterization of rat kidney hyaluronic acid binding protein and ...
The DNA-Pkcs protein is a serine/threonine protein kinase comprising a single polypeptide chain of 4,128 amino acids. DNA-PKcs ... Jin S, Kharbanda S, Mayer B, Kufe D, Weaver DT (October 1997). "Binding of Ku and c-Abl at the kinase homology region of DNA- ... "Targeted next-generation sequencing for molecular diagnosis of endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer". J. Mol. Med. 94 (7): ... Nucleic Acids Res. 27 (17): 3494-502. doi:10.1093/nar/27.17.3494. PMC 148593. PMID 10446239. Ko L, Cardona GR, Chin WW (May ...
Several amino acids within the catalytic pocket have been identified as important to DLD function, including R281 and N473. ... Homology to other disulfide oxidoreductases". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 262 (36): 17313-8. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18 ... March 1988). "Cloning and cDNA sequence of the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase component human alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase ... The DLD homodimer functions as the E3 component of the pyruvate, α-ketoglutarate, α-adipate and branched-chain amino acid- ...
It contains 48 amino acid residues. Substitution of the 16th amino acid, asparagine (N), into an aspartic acid (D) is named ... According to its sequence homology, it is likely that cangitoxin prolongs the inactivation of the voltage-gated sodium channels ... Sea anemone toxins act at the receptor site 3. On the basis of its sequence homology, cangitoxin most likely acts on the same ... It has two homologous amino acid substitutions (S17T and S19T) and one non-homologous substitution (V13S). This makes it 94% ...
... amino - amino acid - amino acid receptor - amino acid sequence - amino acid sequence homology - aminobutyric acid - ammonia - ... nucleic acid - nucleic acid regulatory sequence - nucleic acid repetitive sequence - nucleic acid sequence homology - nucleon ... sequence (biology) - sequence homology - sequence motif - sequencing - serine - serotonin - serotonin receptor - serpin - ... essential amino acid - ester - estradiol receptor - estrogen receptor - ethanol - ether - eukaryote - evolution - evolutionary ...
Detection of convergent and parallel evolution at the amino acid sequence level Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine. Mol ... A similar situation occurs considering the homology of morphological structures. For example, many insects possess two pairs of ... if the amino acids were grouped by similarity instead of being considered individually. As another example, if genes in two ... but examination of the actual DNA sequence will probably show only divergent changes in individual basepair positions, since a ...
When mice were created with this single, conservative amino acid substitution in TRβ, synaptic maturation and plasticity in the ... categorized according to sequence homology. The list also includes selected family members that lack human orthologs (NRNC ... Some of these receptors such as FXR, LXR, and PPAR bind a number of metabolic intermediates such as fatty acids, bile acids and ... Two putative orphan receptors, HNF4 and USP were found, via structural and mass spectrometry analysis, to bind fatty acids and ...
... is a zinc-containing dimeric enzyme with the MW: 86,000 Da, each subunit containing 429 amino acids with ... Hua JC, Berger J, Pan YC, Hulmes JD, Udenfriend S (April 1986). "Partial sequencing of human adult, human fetal, and bovine ... That same bovine enzyme has more than 70% homology with human placental enzyme. However, the human intestinal enzyme and the ... By changing the amino acids of the wild-type alkaline phosphatase enzyme produced by Escherichia coli, a mutant alkaline ...
The WD-repeat is a structural motif comprising approximately 40 amino acids usually ending with the amino acid sequence ... The unique region of yeast coronin shows homologies with microtubule binding domains of the MAPs and yeast coronin binds both ... The number of amino acids in this region varies greatly. The unique region of Dictyostelium has 22 amino acids whereas ... Contain 450-650 amino acids with C-terminus coiled coil region of 30-40 amino acids that mediates homophilic dimerization and/ ...
... which consists of a conserved 6-amino acid sequence of the following formula: YxLxP, where "x" can be any amino acid ... The TERF Homology Domain (TRFH; InterPro: IPR013867) is an area that helps to promote homodimerization of TERF2 with itself. ... the client proteins specific for TERF1 contain the TRFH binding motif sequence of FxLxP, where the amino acid Y (tyrosine) is ... Specifically, the sequence that this Myb domain targets on the DNA is (GGTTAG/CCAATC)n. Two other domains also work to bind and ...
The protein contains a putative 30- amino-acid signal peptide; removal of the signal sequence gives a predicted molecular ... The carboxy terminal portion of the protein exhibits extensive homology with the carboxy terminus of Staphylococcus aureus ... The speA gene was cloned and sequenced in 1986. It is 753 base pairs in length and encodes a 29.244 kiloDalton (kDa) protein. ... The first toxin which causes this disease was cloned and sequenced in 1986 by Weeks and Ferretti. The incidence of scarlet ...
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid Substances * Fungal Proteins * PES1 protein, human * Proteins * RNA-Binding Proteins ...
... aa homologies), and all belonged to HEV genotype 3. The amino acid homology among human HEV sequences was 96%. The phylogenetic ... HEV seroprevalence was 6.3%, and HEV genotype 3 strains with high sequence homology were detected. ... For phylogenetic analysis, internal primer sequences were used to amplify isolates of human and swine HEV. The 348-nt sequence ... Swine HEV sequences were closely related to human HEV sequences (76% nt and 92% ...
Sequence similarity and alignment as a means of determining homology. *Protein structure: the properties of amino acids, ... Common architectural features of proteins and their prediction from sequence. *Protein stereochemistry: physical constraints on ... Genomics: history and the present status of sequencing technologies and their application to model organisms ...
In effort to better understand how 2019-nCoV affects the infected I pulled one of the available genetic sequences and started ... Predicted to be a 44-amino-acid, highly hydrophobic protein with no identified sequence homology to other viral or cellular ... 2019-nCov Gene Sequence breakdown. In effort to better understand how 2019-nCoV affects the infected I pulled one of the ... Re: 2019-nCov Gene Sequence breakdown. I put most if not all of that into video form, as well as covering the pShuttle insert ...
Amino acid sequence analysis revealed 105 orthologs of human HYPK from plants, lower invertebrates to mammals. C-terminal part ... is an intrinsically unstructured chaperone-like protein with no sequence homology to known chaperones. HYPK is also known to be ... NPAA domain of human HYPK has unique amino acid composition preferring glutamic acid and happens to be more stable from a ...
... and do not share any amino acid sequence homology. The secondary protein structures of most soluble precursor proteins (except ... TTR is a tetramer of 4 identical subunits of 127 amino acids each. Normal-sequence TTR forms amyloid deposits in the cardiac ... Proteins that form amyloid fibrils differ in size, function, amino acid sequence, and native structure but become insoluble ... amino acid sequence analysis; thus, biopsy of the organ with the most severe clinical involvement is often unnecessary. ...
Based on the domain architectures and the amino acid sequence homology, the SWIRM domains can be classified into three main ... Bootstrap analysis was carried out with 1000 replicates based on the complete amino acid sequences. Amino acid sequences of ... To investigate the conserved amino acids of SWIRM domains, we performed multiple sequence alignments of the 11 amino acids ... The amino acid sequence of the AtSWI3A SWIRM domain was used as a query sequence to perform independent searches in NCBI ...
... although sharing with them low amino acid sequence homology. Also, p8 was found overexpressed in many human cancers. Therefore ... Pin1 possesses a WW domain which specificaly recognizes pSer-Pro and pThr-Pro motifs in which the first amino acid is ... Peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PPIases) are chaperone enzymes which alter the peptide bond between a given amino acid and a ... modifications of protein sequences and gene duplication. It also shows the need for studying a wider range of model organisms ...
From the cDNA nucleotide sequence of the entire coding region, the primary structure of a 340-amino acid protein was deduced. ... Furthermore, significant homology in primary structure and segmental sequence exists between the beta subunit and the yeast ... WD-40 repeats (also known as WD or beta-transducin repeats) are short ~40 amino acid motifs, often terminating in a Trp-Asp (W- ... 2017) Nucleic Acids Res doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx922. Letunic et al. (2020) Nucleic Acids Res doi: 10.1093/nar/gkaa937 ...
... latter represent an assortment of fairly unrelated sequences essentially characterised by a high content of basic amino acids ... Up to now, numerous sequences have been reported to show cell-penetrating properties and many of them have been used to ... In this review, we will summarise the latest developments in peptide-based cellular delivery of nucleic acid cargos. We will ... CPPs are capable of mediating the cellular uptake of hydrophilic macromolecules like peptides and nucleic acids (e.g. siRNAs, ...
... uses sequence homology and the physical properties of amino acids to predict whether an amino acid substitution affects protein ... A sequence variant, that changes one or more bases, resulting in a different amino acid sequence but where the length is ... A sequence variant where there is no resulting change to the encoded amino acid. ... LRT (Likelihood Ratio Test) uses comparative genomics to identify variants that disrupt highly conserved amino acids. Variants ...
Hits with a minimum of 70% homology to reference SSU gene sequences were extracted for further analysis. Putative SSU reads ... Acceptance criteria were 60% identity over alignments with at least 35 amino acids. Functional gene abundances were calculated ... Martin, M. Cutadapt removes adapter sequences from high-throughput sequencing reads. EMBnet J. 17, 10-12 (2011). ... Metagenome and 16S amplicon sequence files are available at the NCBI Sequence Read Archive under accession numbers SRR14067720 ...
... sequences ranged from 50-60% and were 62% identical over AA lengths from 10-12 AA residues. Based on these sequence homologies ... Amino acid sequences. List of Abbreviations:. AA, amino acid; AFP, alpha-fetoprotein; APC, antigen presenting cells; AR, ... Amino Acid Sequence Matching Analysis:. Multiple AFP AA sequence matching searches were performed using the GenBank database ... the many structure/function sequences identified on the entire HAFP amino-acid sequence (Mizejewski, 2001a; Terentiev and ...
HOMOLOGY: Predicted species reactivity based on immunogen sequence: Bovine. *IMMUNOGEN: This SERINC1 antibody is generated from ... rabbits immunized with a KLH conjugated synthetic peptide between 353-379 amino acids from the C-terminal region of human ...
SAA4 shows 54-56% homology to SAA1, 2, and 3, so it is more distantly related. However, it retains the hydrophobic amino acids ... 2009) Site directed processing: role of amino acid sequences and glycosylation of acceptor glycopeptides in the assembly of ... and retains the hydrophobic amino acids that are predicted to line the hydrophobic binding pocket in SAA3. Further, homology ... Further, we performed homology modeling using the mouse SAA3 structure and the mouse SAA4 sequence that yielded a SAA4 model ...
... uses sequence homology and the physical properties of amino acids to predict whether an amino acid substitution affects protein ... A sequence variant, that changes one or more bases, resulting in a different amino acid sequence but where the length is ... A sequence variant where there is no resulting change to the encoded amino acid. ... LRT (Likelihood Ratio Test) uses comparative genomics to identify variants that disrupt highly conserved amino acids. Variants ...
Although the 7b gene was also found to contain mutations, these were primarily point mutations resulting in minor amino acid ... The nucleotide sequences of the 7a7b amplification products were determined and analyzed. Results-In most isolates, substantial ... most of which had considerable homology with each other. On comparison of predicted amino acid sequences from representative ... e Nucleic acid sequences corresponding to the 7a7b regions from all isolates were compared. The predicted amino acid sequences ...
Firstly, the protein sequences are extracted by combining pseudo-position specific scoring matrix (PsePSSM) and detrended cross ... PsePSSM method can get homology and sequence information of amino acids in the protein sequences. DCCA coefficient method is an ... where L is total number of amino acids in the protein sequence, Ei, j represents the evolution information of amino acids in ... 42] proposed a novel pseudo-amino acid model which extracted the sequence characteristics of proteins using amino acid ...
While many proteins contain this core amino acid RRPFF motif, amino acid residues that flank this sequence and are unique to ... with core sequence homology mapped to identical RRPFF residues within these fragments. ... We now demonstrate further cross-reactivity between EBNA1 amino acids 402 to 406 and CRYAB amino acids 11 to 15, ... and we have previously demonstrated the same for EBNA1 amino acids 431 to 440 with ANO2 (17). In addition, EBNA1 amino acids ...
... uses sequence homology and the physical properties of amino acids to predict whether an amino acid substitution affects protein ... A sequence variant, that changes one or more bases, resulting in a different amino acid sequence but where the length is ... A sequence variant where there is no resulting change to the encoded amino acid. ... LRT (Likelihood Ratio Test) uses comparative genomics to identify variants that disrupt highly conserved amino acids. Variants ...
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid Entry term(s). Amino Acid Sequence Homology Homologies, Protein Sequence Homology, Protein ... Amino Acid Sequence Homology. Homolog, Protein Sequence. Homologies, Protein Sequence. Homologous Sequences, Amino Acid. ... Protein Sequence Homology Sequence Homologies, Protein Sequence Homology, Protein Homologous Sequences, Amino Acid - Related ... Amino Acid Entry term(s). Homolog, Protein Sequence Homologs, Amino Acid Sequence Homologs, Protein Sequence Protein Sequence ...
The amino acid sequence of amylovorin L471 shared significant homology with lactacin X, one of the two bactericidal peptides ... N-terminal amino acid sequencing identified 35 amino acid residues as being identical to the N-terminal sequence of lactobin A ... N-terminal amino acid sequencing identified 35 amino acid residues as being identical to the N-terminal sequence of lactobin A ... The amino acid sequence of amylovorin L471 shared significant homology with lactacin X, one of the two bactericidal peptides ...
Amino acid sequence homology. Motifs. Previous article in this issue Next article in this issue ... We hypothesized that a thyroid hormone (TH)-binding consensus sequence, which is shared by human and animal TH plasma carriers ... In the 49 position-long THPC consensus, eight positions were occupied by very highly conserved (,50% of sequences) and 11 by ... was also confirmed in the total 9,741 sequences (W/F/Y,L/I/V/M,I/V/M/L,P,L/V/I/M). In conclusion, proteins so genetically and ...
B) Homologous amino acid sequence distribution of gene 101 product (gray bar). White and black bars show partial regions of ... Homology searches against matched protein sequences were conducted using the BLASTp program4. ... The detected amino acid residues from MS analysis are underlined. The nucleotide sequence is from position 88621 to 68627 of ... The molecular weight of gene 101 contained 119,592 Da including 1,109 amino acids. Of the sequence, 52% from the N-terminus to ...
Significant amino acid sequence homology was found between portions of the putative ERCC-1 product and the protein encoded by ... Regional homology was also discovered between a part of ERCC-1 and uvrA. On the basis of homology with functional protein ... Sequence analysis of full-length cDNA copies of the two ERCC-1 mRNAs revealed open reading frames for proteins of 297 and 273 ... DNA binding domain and ADP-ribosylation site could be identified in the ERCC-1 aa sequence. ...
The instant invention also provides nucleic acids, compositions, and methods effective against paramyxovirus infection. ... Current U.S. Class: Disclosed Amino Acid Sequence Derived From Virus (424/186.1); Amino Acid Sequence Disclosed In Whole Or In ... L. F. (1998a). The attachment protein of Hendra virus has high structural similarity but limited primary sequence homology ... This deletion can be of one or more amino or carboxy terminal amino acids or one or more internal amino acids (e.g. silent ...
Based on high amino acid sequence homology, we hypothesized and demonstrated cross-reactivity of anti-ChIL-1β pAb and HfIL-1β. ... Based on high amino acid sequence homology, we hypothesized and demonstrated cross-reactivity of anti-ChIL-1β pAb and HfIL-1β. ... Based on the high amino acid sequence homology of IL-1β between chicken and house finch, our previous work demonstrated the ... Adsorption occurs passively as the result of hydrophobic interactions between the amino acid side chains on the antibody or ...
In addition, three regions of amino acid sequence homology in the putative RAD1 and RAD2 polypeptides were observed. ... In addition, three regions of amino acid sequence homology in the putative RAD1 and RAD2 polypeptides were observed.", ... In addition, three regions of amino acid sequence homology in the putative RAD1 and RAD2 polypeptides were observed. ... In addition, three regions of amino acid sequence homology in the putative RAD1 and RAD2 polypeptides were observed. ...
RDC4 is an intronless gene encoding a protein of 377 amino acids, which exhibits greatest sequence identity (43%) to the 5-HT1A ... receptor and lower overall homology to other serotonergic and catecholaminergic receptors. Membranes prepared from murine LM ( ...
Romiplostim has no amino acid sequence homology to endogenous TPO. Romiplostim is produced by recombinant DNA technology in ...
  • The computational sequence-profile analysis indicates that the typical SWIRM domain consists of 85 amino acid residues and forms a compact helix-turn-helix (HTH)-related structure [ 12 ]. (
  • The latter represent an assortment of fairly unrelated sequences essentially characterised by a high content of basic amino acids and a length of 10-30 residues. (
  • We now demonstrate further cross-reactivity between EBNA1 amino acids 402 to 406 and CRYAB amino acids 11 to 15 , with core sequence homology mapped to identical RRPFF residues within these fragments. (
  • While many proteins contain this core amino acid RRPFF motif, amino acid residues that flank this sequence and are unique to CRYAB are also necessary for antibody binding. (
  • N-terminal amino acid sequencing identified 35 amino acid residues as being identical to the N-terminal sequence of lactobin A, a bacteriocin from another L. amylovorus strain. (
  • 33-50% of sequences) groups of residues. (
  • Predicted to be a 44-amino-acid, highly hydrophobic protein with no identified sequence homology to other viral or cellular proteins. (
  • The specificity of the proteins is determined by the sequences outside the repeats themselves. (
  • We chose proteins that include amino and carboxyl extensions as well as proteins that are made up entirely of WD-repeats. (
  • The atlas further shows AFP as a protein consisting of multiple peptide-cassettes consisting of amino acid (AA) sequence stretches matched to peptide segments on prohormones and biological response modifier proteins. (
  • The AFP molecule is also viewed as a carrier/transport protein based on AA sequence comparison of various proteins that bind hydrophobic ligands and heavy metals similar to AFP binding of such components. (
  • AFP AA sequences are further presented as peptide identification sites for growth factors, receptors, cytoskeletal proteins, and chemokines. (
  • Sequence analysis of full-length cDNA copies of the two ERCC-1 mRNAs revealed open reading frames for proteins of 297 and 273 amino acids, respectively. (
  • These types of RNA help assemble protein building blocks (amino acids) into functioning proteins. (
  • WD-40 repeats (also known as WD or beta-transducin repeats) are short ~40 amino acid motifs, often terminating in a Trp-Asp (W-D) dipeptide. (
  • An analysis of transcription factors, tumor suppressors, and AA-rich motifs follows, interfaced with dimerization and nuclear localization sequence matches identified on the AFP molecule. (
  • A closing discussion summarizes the multiple and varied motifs of peptide sequences matched to AAs on each of AFP's three domains. (
  • CPPs are capable of mediating the cellular uptake of hydrophilic macromolecules like peptides and nucleic acids (e.g. siRNAs, aptamers and antisense-oligonucleotides), which are internalised by cells at a very low rate when applied alone. (
  • The amino acid sequence of amylovorin L471 shared significant homology with lactacin X, one of the two bactericidal peptides produced by Lactobacillus johnsonii VPI11088 . (
  • The Human Genome Variation Society (HGVS) has established a sequence variant nomenclature , an international standard used to report variation in genomic, transcript and protein sequences. (
  • There are significant structural features in the viral genomic RNA that could, by themselves, explain the retention of the ORF10 nucleotide sequences without the need for a functional protein product. (
  • Despite the fact that non-viral nucleic acid delivery systems are generally considered to be less efficient than viral vectors, they have gained much interest in recent years due to their superior safety profile compared to their viral counterpart. (
  • showed serum antibodies from MS patients are cross-reactive between amino acids 411-440 of the viral protein EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) and the human chloride-channel protein, anoctamin 2 (ANO2), which is associated with electrical conduction in axons (11). (
  • Sequencing of viral RNA in the lungs of hamsters infected with ORF10KO virus revealed that this virus frequently reverts to WT. (
  • Viral sequences, that passed genome quality control criteria, from subjects who received molnupiravir (n=59) or a placebo (n=65) were analysed by high-throughput amplicon sequencing. (
  • Unlike ALB, high concentrations of hydrophobic ligands (i.e., fatty acids, estrogens) have been reported to induce multiple conformational transition forms, which are reversible, in the tertiary structure of HAFP (see ref. (
  • We hypothesized that a thyroid hormone (TH)-binding consensus sequence, which is shared by human and animal TH plasma carriers (THPC), might also be shared by cell surface TH transporters (CMTTH) and TH nuclear receptors (THR). (
  • On the basis of homology with functional protein domains a tentative nuclear location signal, DNA binding domain and ADP-ribosylation site could be identified in the ERCC-1 aa sequence. (
  • Firstly, the protein sequences are extracted by combining pseudo-position specific scoring matrix (PsePSSM) and detrended cross-correlation analysis coefficient (DCCA coefficient), then the extracted feature information is reduced dimensionality by LFDA (local Fisher discriminant analysis). (
  • As for protein subcellular localization prediction methods, we found that the research focuses on the following two aspects: (1) Feature extraction of protein sequences. (
  • The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. (
  • This sequence contains amino acids common to the ligands of G protein-coupled receptors, but has no known homology. (
  • Significant amino acid sequence homology was found between portions of the putative ERCC-1 product and the protein encoded by the yeast excision-repair gene RAD10 . (
  • Emphasis is further placed upon homeodomain and apoptosis AA sequence identities given that AFP serves as a fetal, phase-specific protein throughout embryogenesis, histogenesis, and organogenesis. (
  • Zhou and Doctor [ 36 ] constructed 98 protein apoptosis protein dataset, using the amino acid composition and covariance discriminant method, the overall prediction accuracy reached 72.5% by jackknife test. (
  • This SERINC1 antibody is generated from rabbits immunized with a KLH conjugated synthetic peptide between 353-379 amino acids from the C-terminal region of human SERINC1. (
  • To explore this question further we made two recombinant viruses, firstly a control virus (WT) based on the genome sequence of the original Wuhan isolate and with the inclusion of the early D614G mutation in the Spike protein. (
  • Our data suggests that the retention of a functional ORF10 sequence is highly desirable for SARS-CoV-2 infection of hamsters and affects the virus's ability to propagate in the lower respiratory tract. (
  • However, treating the cells with retinol or the molecule it is broken down into-called retinoic acid-caused more SAAs to be made. (
  • Numbers along rows represent predicted amino acid position within the 7a7b gene product. (
  • Fusion sequences characteristic of defective RNAs were identified that could be linked between patients. (
  • In addition, EBNA1 amino acids 411 to 426 and myelin basic protein cross-reactivity has been demonstrated in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) (36), and EBNA1-specific T cells have been shown to react to a mixed myelin antigen pool (33). (
  • NPAA domain of human HYPK has unique amino acid composition preferring glutamic acid and happens to be more stable from a conformational point of view having higher content of 𝛼-helices than the rest. (
  • Amino acid sequence analysis revealed 105 orthologs of human HYPK from plants, lower invertebrates to mammals. (
  • Because recombinant antibody production involves sequencing the antibody light and heavy chains, it is a highly controlled and reliable process. (
  • We generated the consensus for CMTTH or THR from 8,691 or 624 sequences. (
  • The sequence data confirmed that the dominant consensus genomes shared very close homology. (
  • Growth competition experiments were used whereby the two viruses were mixed, passaged in either VTN or A549-AT cells and the resulting output virus was sequenced. (
  • In effort to better understand how 2019-nCoV affects the infected I pulled one of the available genetic sequences and started researching each component. (
  • 13 Amino acid matches to reference strain are indicated by a dash. (
  • Current hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing guidance recommends a two-step testing sequence for diagnosis of HCV infection. (
  • Ils ont été soumis au test de détection des virus de la grippe A et B via la méthode d'analyse RT-PCR simplex en temps réel. (
  • Human HYPK (Huntingtin Yeast-two-hybrid Protein K) is an intrinsically unstructured chaperone-like protein with no sequence homology to known chaperones. (
  • Based on the domain architectures and the amino acid sequence homology, the SWIRM domains can be classified into three main types: Swi3/MYSM1 (human MYb-like, Swirm, and Mpn domain-containing protein-1), LSD1 (Lysine-specific demethylase 1), and Ada2 (Adenosine deaminase isoenzymes 2) types [ 13 ]. (
  • Cet article illustre ces aspects en prenant pour exemples deux maladies héréditaires, la myopathie de Duchenne et la chorée de Huntington. (
  • The non-WD-repeat amino terminal alpha helix of G beta does not inhibit folding because G beta does not fold even when this region is removed. (
  • Characterization and production of amylovorin L471, a bacteriocin purified from Lactobacillus amylovorus DCE 471 by a novel three-step methodThe GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession number for the sequence reported in this paper is P81927. (
  • Native or wild-type quaternary protein structure is usually born from a single translated protein sequence with one ordered conformation with downstream protein interactions. (
  • [ 4 ] It is also important to understand that the same polypeptide sequence can produce many different patterns of interresidue or intraresidue interactions. (