Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Structural Homology, Protein: The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Amino Acids, SulfurCyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.src Homology Domains: Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Amino Acids, Basic: Amino acids with side chains that are positively charged at physiological pH.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Chymotrypsin: A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Protein PrecursorsPhenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Amino Acids, DiaminoMethionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Excitatory Amino Acids: Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Repetitive Sequences, Amino Acid: A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Amino Acid Transport System A: A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.Amino Acids, Neutral: Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Genomic Library: A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases: A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.

Novel regulation of the homeotic gene Scr associated with a crustacean leg-to-maxilliped appendage transformation. (1/50418)

Homeotic genes are known to be involved in patterning morphological structures along the antero-posterior axis of insects and vertebrates. Because of their important roles in development, changes in the function and expression patterns of homeotic genes may have played a major role in the evolution of different body plans. For example, it has been proposed that during the evolution of several crustacean lineages, changes in the expression patterns of the homeotic genes Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A have played a role in transformation of the anterior thoracic appendages into mouthparts termed maxillipeds. This homeotic-like transformation is recapitulated at the late stages of the direct embryonic development of the crustacean Porcellio scaber (Oniscidea, Isopoda). Interestingly, this morphological change is associated with apparent novelties both in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the Porcellio scaber ortholog of the Drosophila homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr). Specifically, we find that Scr mRNA is present in the second maxillary segment and the first pair of thoracic legs (T1) in early embryos, whereas protein accumulates only in the second maxillae. In later stages, however, high levels of SCR appear in the T1 legs, which correlates temporally with the transformation of these appendages into maxillipeds. Our observations provide further insight into the process of the homeotic leg-to-maxilliped transformation in the evolution of crustaceans and suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for this process in this group of arthropods.  (+info)

The Drosophila kismet gene is related to chromatin-remodeling factors and is required for both segmentation and segment identity. (2/50418)

The Drosophila kismet gene was identified in a screen for dominant suppressors of Polycomb, a repressor of homeotic genes. Here we show that kismet mutations suppress the Polycomb mutant phenotype by blocking the ectopic transcription of homeotic genes. Loss of zygotic kismet function causes homeotic transformations similar to those associated with loss-of-function mutations in the homeotic genes Sex combs reduced and Abdominal-B. kismet is also required for proper larval body segmentation. Loss of maternal kismet function causes segmentation defects similar to those caused by mutations in the pair-rule gene even-skipped. The kismet gene encodes several large nuclear proteins that are ubiquitously expressed along the anterior-posterior axis. The Kismet proteins contain a domain conserved in the trithorax group protein Brahma and related chromatin-remodeling factors, providing further evidence that alterations in chromatin structure are required to maintain the spatially restricted patterns of homeotic gene transcription.  (+info)

The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping. (3/50418)

Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut.  (+info)

Mrj encodes a DnaJ-related co-chaperone that is essential for murine placental development. (4/50418)

We have identified a novel gene in a gene trap screen that encodes a protein related to the DnaJ co-chaperone in E. coli. The gene, named Mrj (mammalian relative of DnaJ) was expressed throughout development in both the embryo and placenta. Within the placenta, expression was particularly high in trophoblast giant cells but moderate levels were also observed in trophoblast cells of the chorion at embryonic day 8.5, and later in the labyrinth which arises from the attachment of the chorion to the allantois (a process called chorioallantoic fusion). Insertion of the ROSAbetageo gene trap vector into the Mrj gene created a null allele. Homozygous Mrj mutants died at mid-gestation due to a failure of chorioallantoic fusion at embryonic day 8.5, which precluded formation of the mature placenta. At embryonic day 8.5, the chorion in mutants was morphologically normal and expressed the cell adhesion molecule beta4 integrin that is known to be required for chorioallantoic fusion. However, expression of the chorionic trophoblast-specific transcription factor genes Err2 and Gcm1 was significantly reduced. The mutants showed no abnormal phenotypes in other trophoblast cell types or in the embryo proper. This study indicates a previously unsuspected role for chaperone proteins in placental development and represents the first genetic analysis of DnaJ-related protein function in higher eukaryotes. Based on a survey of EST databases representing different mouse tissues and embryonic stages, there are 40 or more DnaJ-related genes in mammals. In addition to Mrj, at least two of these genes are also expressed in the developing mouse placenta. The specificity of the developmental defect in Mrj mutants suggests that each of these genes may have unique tissue and cellular activities.  (+info)

A Drosophila doublesex-related gene, terra, is involved in somitogenesis in vertebrates. (5/50418)

The Drosophila doublesex (dsx) gene encodes a transcription factor that mediates sex determination. We describe the characterization of a novel zebrafish zinc-finger gene, terra, which contains a DNA binding domain similar to that of the Drosophila dsx gene. However, unlike dsx, terra is transiently expressed in the presomitic mesoderm and newly formed somites. Expression of terra in presomitic mesoderm is restricted to cells that lack expression of MyoD. In vivo, terra expression is reduced by hedgehog but enhanced by BMP signals. Overexpression of terra induces rapid apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that a tight regulation of terra expression is required during embryogenesis. Terra has both human and mouse homologs and is specifically expressed in mouse somites. Taken together, our findings suggest that terra is a highly conserved protein that plays specific roles in early somitogenesis of vertebrates.  (+info)

Requirement of a novel gene, Xin, in cardiac morphogenesis. (6/50418)

A novel gene, Xin, from chick (cXin) and mouse (mXin) embryonic hearts, may be required for cardiac morphogenesis and looping. Both cloned cDNAs have a single open reading frame, encoding proteins with 2,562 and 1,677 amino acids for cXin and mXin, respectively. The derived amino acid sequences share 46% similarity. The overall domain structures of the predicted cXin and mXin proteins, including proline-rich regions, 16 amino acid repeats, DNA-binding domains, SH3-binding motifs and nuclear localization signals, are highly conserved. Northern blot analyses detect a single message of 8.9 and 5.8 kilo base (kb) from both cardiac and skeletal muscle of chick and mouse, respectively. In situ hybridization reveals that the cXin gene is specifically expressed in cardiac progenitor cells of chick embryos as early as stage 8, prior to heart tube formation. cXin continues to be expressed in the myocardium of developing hearts. By stage 15, cXin expression is also detected in the myotomes of developing somites. Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that the mXin protein is colocalized with N-cadherin and connexin-43 in the intercalated discs of adult mouse hearts. Incubation of stage 6 chick embryos with cXin antisense oligonucleotides results in abnormal cardiac morphogenesis and an alteration of cardiac looping. The myocardium of the affected hearts becomes thickened and tends to form multiple invaginations into the heart cavity. This abnormal cellular process may account in part for the abnormal looping. cXin expression can be induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in explants of anterior medial mesoendoderm from stage 6 chick embryos, a tissue that is normally non-cardiogenic. This induction occurs following the BMP-mediated induction of two cardiac-restricted transcription factors, Nkx2.5 and MEF2C. Furthermore, either MEF2C or Nkx2.5 can transactivate a luciferase reporter driven by the mXin promoter in mouse fibroblasts. These results suggest that Xin may participate in a BMP-Nkx2.5-MEF2C pathway to control cardiac morphogenesis and looping.  (+info)

Mechanisms of GDF-5 action during skeletal development. (7/50418)

Mutations in GDF-5, a member of the TGF-beta superfamily, result in the autosomal recessive syndromes brachypod (bp) in mice and Hunter-Thompson and Grebe-type chondrodysplasias in humans. These syndromes are all characterised by the shortening of the appendicular skeleton and loss or abnormal development of some joints. To investigate how GDF-5 controls skeletogenesis, we overexpressed GDF-5 during chick limb development using the retrovirus, RCASBP. This resulted in up to a 37.5% increase in length of the skeletal elements, which was predominantly due to an increase in the number of chondrocytes. By injecting virus at different stages of development, we show that GDF-5 can increase both the size of the early cartilage condensation and the later developing skeletal element. Using in vitro micromass cultures as a model system to study the early steps of chondrogenesis, we show that GDF-5 increases chondrogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. We did not detect changes in proliferation. However, cell suspension cultures showed that GDF-5 might act at these stages by increasing cell adhesion, a critical determinant of early chondrogenesis. In contrast, pulse labelling experiments of GDF-5-infected limbs showed that at later stages of skeletal development GDF-5 can increase proliferation of chondrocytes. Thus, here we show two mechanisms of how GDF-5 may control different stages of skeletogenesis. Finally, our data show that levels of GDF-5 expression/activity are important in controlling the size of skeletal elements and provides a possible explanation for the variation in the severity of skeletal defects resulting from mutations in GDF-5.  (+info)

Regulation of body length and male tail ray pattern formation of Caenorhabditis elegans by a member of TGF-beta family. (8/50418)

We have identified a new member of the TGF-beta superfamily, CET-1, from Caenorhabditis elegans, which is expressed in the ventral nerve cord and other neurons. cet-1 null mutants have shortened bodies and male tail abnormal phenotype resembling sma mutants, suggesting cet-1, sma-2, sma-3 and sma-4 share a common pathway. Overexpression experiments demonstrated that cet-1 function requires wild-type sma genes. Interestingly, CET-1 appears to affect body length in a dose-dependent manner. Heterozygotes for cet-1 displayed body lengths ranging between null mutant and wild type, and overexpression of CET-1 in wild-type worms elongated body length close to lon mutants. In male sensory ray patterning, lack of cet-1 function results in ray fusions. Epistasis analysis revealed that mab-21 lies downstream and is negatively regulated by the cet-1/sma pathway in the male tail. Our results show that cet-1 controls diverse biological processes during C. elegans development probably through different target genes.  (+info)

A review of the literature on homology indicates that the theory does not provide evidence for evolutionary naturalism, and that the common examples of homology can be better explained by Creation.
I will describe a spectral sequence that starts at reduced odd Khovanov homology and converges to a version of instanton homology for double branched covers.. ...
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Foods with amino acids are the building blocks of protein. That means they are responsible for strength, repair and rebuilding inside your body. Your tissues, your cells, your enzymes and your brain all get their nourishment and protection from amino acids.. Why You Need Amino Acids Daily. Amino acids make up 75% of the human body, and are vital to every part of human function. One of the most talked about properties of amino acids is how it can assist in muscle building. Amino acids are boasted as the key ingredients in many body-building supplements, though the degree of success they achieve in that form is debatable. Careful attention to amino acids isnt just for people who want to build muscle. Different studies have linked amino acid balances with fighting everything from depression to Fibromyalgia. You Cant Store Amino Acids. The problem with amino acids is that they deteriorate. The body will store extra starch and protein as fat, to use later. Amino acids are not stored, but they can ...
Amino acids uses are plenty. However, when it comes to depression, amino acids uses are even more prominent and beneficial. To begin with, GABA is an amino acid that is consumed all over the world. It gets converter into neurotransmitter and has a soothing impact on the behavior of the individual. It is extremely useful in making the person relax and calm down. It is a highly recommended amino acid by experts especially in cases of stress disorder. Glutamine is an amino acid which is not essential as such to the body.. However, if the GABA level is low, you should supply Glutamine to the body. People with low levels of Glutamine usually suffer from fatigue and depression. Taurine is also a non essential kind of amino acid. It keeps a check on over activity of neurotransmitters. Hence, this amino acid is highly recommended for people who over-react and over-hype situations. These are some of the few amino acids uses. Apart from depression, amino acids also have a number of other benefits.. ...
Amino acid biochemistry and nutrition spans a broad range of fields including biochemistry, metabolism, physiology, immunology, reproduction, pathology, and cell biology. In the last half-century, there have been many conceptual and technical advancements, from analysis of amino acids by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to molecular cloning of transporters for amino acids and small peptides. Amino Acids: Biochemistry and Nutrition presents comprehensive coverage of these scientific developments, providing a useful reference for students and researchers in both biomedicine and agriculture. The text begins with the discoveries and basic concepts of amino acids, peptides, and proteins, and then moves to protein digestion and absorption of peptides and amino acids. Additional chapters cover cell-, tissue-, and species-specific synthesis and catabolism of amino acids and related nitrogenous substances, as well as the use of isotopes to study amino acid metabolism in cells ...
Amino acid sequence in DENV2 NS2B/NS3 protease. The residues marked in bold are part of NS2B amino acid sequence. The residues marked in underline are His-tag.
WHAT ARE AMINO ACIDS? Amino acids are the building blocks of protein, and are vital to understanding the Krebs Cycle. They are individual crystalline molecules that make up protein, similar to the way letters make up the alphabet. There are 20 basic amino acids that produce over 1600 substances in the body. They make up 3/4ths of the body s solid material and are found in muscle tissue, organs, blood and skin. Amino acids also make hormones, enzymes, and vitamins, and are essential for a healthy immune system and proper neurological functions. It is necessary to replace amino acids constantly to nourish the body and to repair and regenerate tissue. Amino acids are generally ingested in the food we eat, however, because of processed foods, inadequate diets, and food restrictive programs, a proper balance is rarely achieved and supplementation is advisable. This holds to be true during illness, trauma, surgery and stress. More amino acids are required than can be obtained by food alone. In the chronically
There is a great deal of scientific information on amino acid structure and biochemical functioning. However, medical professionals and health-concerned individuals are typically most interested in the amino acid function. This web site provides information on each of the 20 "primary" amino acids as well as many of the "secondary" or "minor amino acids" so that you can better understand the powerful role amino acids play in your life.. Information on amino acids is presented at three levels depending on your interest/background:. 1) General Introduction to Amino Acids ...
NPC1s amino acid sequence homology to PATCHED, human HMG-CoA reductase and SCAP. Credit: Reprinted with permission from AAAS / Carstea et al., Science 277:228, 1997." />NPC1s amino acid sequence homology to PATCHED, human HMG-CoA reductase and SCAP. Credit: Reprinted with permission from AAAS / Carstea et al., Science 277:228, 1997. In the 1990s, the Ara Parseghian Foundation donated money to the National I. 0 Comments. ...
(A) Alignment of amino acid sequence of all mouse Sox-high-mobility group (HMG) domains shaded with BOXSHADE. The Sox subfamilies are indicated to the right. Th
How Much Protein do You need?. A healthy adult is estimated to need around 40 to 65 grams of protein per day. If this is not provided in the food you eat, your body will begin to break down muscle and other tissues to obtain the amino acids it needs. Inadequate intake and digestion of amino acids from protein can lead to stunting, poor muscle formation, thin and fragile hair, skin lesions, a poorly functioning immune system, and many other symptoms.. In plant and animal foods, the amino acids you need are mainly provided in the form of large protein molecules that require all aspects of protein digestion-denaturation in the stomach and protease action in the intestines-before absorption. Free amino acids, which require no processing by the body before absorption, may also be present but are generally not found in large amounts.. In processed foods, protein is sometimes provided as hydrolyzed protein, which means it has been chemically cut into smaller chains from two to 200 amino acids called ...
M.P.E.P. Section 1823.02: Nucleotide and/or Amino Acid Sequence Listings, and Tables Related to Sequence Listings. Taken from the 9th Edition of the MPEP, Revision 08.2017, (Last Revised Jan. 2018). Updated in BitLaw in February 2018
... are building blocks of proteins. All amino acids are comprised of 4 groups. The first three are common in all amino acids. They are: Alpha Carbon (C-H) Amine Group (N-H-H) Carboxyl Group (O-C-OH) The last is the R Group. The R Groups are what defines the individual amino acids. Some are polar…
Complete Amino Acids/Muscle Support Natures Life Amino Acid 750 mg capsules provide high quality protein from peptides and free-form amino acids. Amino acids are essential to build muscles, skin and...
Amino acids are an essential part of what keeps the human body healthy, though its a known fact that most people dont know enough about amino acids despite the fact that they might have heard of them before. Have you ever heard of amino acids and do you know what they do? Even though you might know about amino acids, you might not know just what they do in the body.. ...
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Alex X. - As I said at the beginning, amino acid is good for our body. It is the building block of proteins. Even if we are not sick, it is always good for our body to ingest some amino acids. There are particular pills made for that. And amino acids can also be used to treat disease. Here is an example that I found online: tyrosine, which is one of the amino acids, can be used to treat Alzhemers disease. ...
In this article, we reviewed the specificity of amino acid metabolism in the brain. We considered the results of many basic studies that supported a role of amino acids as neurotransmitters, substrates for synthesis of neuroactive peptides, proteins, and other biologically active substances in the CNS. These data suggest that changes in the pool of amino acids may be involved in the development of CNS pathologies ...
Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids to make proteins to help the body. We Have a Big Selection for every Athlete Needs
Any protein that you consume must be broken down into amino acids in the small intestines, absorbed through the tissues and then taken to the liver where it is broken into ketones. At this point, amino acids can be used for repair. Since you dont use protein for fuel during exercise, the protein that is in a bar or packaged food is broken down many times before it can be used to repair. So if you look at a bar that has 10, 15 or 20 grams of protein, think about how much protein you are actually getting into the muscles and tissues after it is broken down? Not very much. However, BCAAs are not broken down in the liver. They go right to the skeletal muscles and after they are metabolized they can actually be used for immediate fuel. I think everyone would benefit from amino acids during exercise to help you go longer and to delay fatigue. Even for the short workouts, a scoop of base performance with 30 calories may help you increase your running or cycling pace and help you get in a high ...
Amino acids are a group of organic compounds that are essential for all life forms. There are several and different types of amino acids.
Every protein in a cell is created through the transcription of a specific sequence, that is part of the DNA. This transcription provides the sequence in which amino acids are to be linked, to form a protein.
What are free form amino acids? What amino acids should vegans supplement with? What amino acids are best for the gym? These questions and more are answered...
... are important for health and well-being. They help grow hair, skin, and nails as well as help the formation of enzymes. Amino acids help the bodys immune system ward off disease. Amino acids make up proteins.
... are important for health and well-being. They help grow hair, skin, and nails as well as help the formation of enzymes. Amino acids help the bodys immune system ward off disease. Amino acids make up proteins.
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Amino acids are the basic building blocks for tissues, organs, muscles, skin and hair. As the precursors of enzymes and neurotransmitters amino acids regulate almost all of the metabolic processes in the human body, and they are essential for a healthy body. LEARN MORE...
Amino acids serve many functions including as building blocks for proteins, neurotransmitters, precursors to hormones, and enzyme co-factors. More than 70 disorders of amino acid metabolism have been described. The clinical manifestations of these disorders are diverse.
Amino acids display remarkable metabolic and regulatory versatility. They serve as essential precursors for the synthesis of proteins and other biologically important molecules and also regulate metabolic pathways vital to the health, growth, development, and functional integrity of animals. Future studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanisms that regulate amino acid metabolism at cellular, tissue, and whole-body levels. Better understand ing of these processes will lead to improved efficiency of protein production by animals.. Was this article helpful?. ...
Amino Acids list and information including what is Amino Acids, health benefits and usage indications. Find articles and product list for other top low-carb products, fat-burners, nutrition bars and shakes.
Amino Acids list and information including what is Amino Acids, health benefits and usage indications. Find articles and product list for other top low-carb products, fat-burners, nutrition bars and shakes.
Amino acids are used in the human body to make proteins which help the body grow, repair body tissue and break down food. Amino acids help with muscle control, build muscle tissue and protect the...
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From strengthening plant cells to resisting disease, or breaking down nutrients in the soil to strengthening roots, amino acids are the building blocks of
Anti-aging amino acids like creatine help with collagen production and maintain the youthful glow on skin. Learn how they work here.
Amino acid drink is quite a beneficial supplement of the present-day age. Not only adults, but young fellows can also have the same. If you … Read More ›. ...
Anyway, if you get some proteins, you identify them with mass spec (either MALDI or digest on LC-MS) and this information you use for the identification ...
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Amino acids are the building blocks of protein. They are vital for building and maintaining your cells and tissues (including muscles).
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Amino acids are critically important for all times to exist they usually have an necessary function in function such as the metabolism of an organism. Cole, J.,
In the search for amino acids in lunar fines, a major problem is the prevention of contamination from terrestrial sources, and the recognition of terrestrial contamination when it has occurred....
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Get an answer for Describe the link between DNA and protein manufacture - within your response explain the terms; proteins, amino acids and polypeptides.someone please help me answer this! and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
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View Notes - L37S07_Polyprotic Acids, Amino Acids 04-20-07 from CHEM 1A at Berkeley. A.Pines,M.Kubinec,UCB 2) HCO3 -1 3) CO3 -2 L37-9 PolyProtic Acids/Blood Buffer Blood pH Stats: pH PCO = 40 torr 2
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Members of this family are uncharacterized proteins sporadically distributed in bacteria and archaea, about 880 amino acids in length. This protein is repeatedly found upstream of another uncharacterized protein of about 470 amino acids in length, modeled by TIGR02688 ...
The GTP is hyrdolysed and hence EF1A-GDP + Pi released from the complex. This leads to a physical change in terms of where the amino acids are. The change in shape allows amino acid 2 (at the A site) to be pushed closer to the amino acid 1 (P site) ...
Amino Acids , Standard Amino Acids , Amino Acids - Cys , Boc-Cys(Trt)-OH; C27H29NO4S
Amino Acids , Standard Amino Acids , Amino Acids - Arg , Fmoc-Arg(Pbf)-OH; C34H40N4O7S
1L67: Folding and function of a T4 lysozyme containing 10 consecutive alanines illustrate the redundancy of information in an amino acid sequence.
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human CSDE1 protein: amino acid sequence in first source; unr gene located close to N-ras locus and may interact with it; RefSeq NM_007158
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gamma-kainylglutamic acid: RN & structure given in first source; RN given refers to (L)-isomer; selective antagonist of amino acid induced neuroexcitation
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Table of Contents of Amino Acid Analyzer Market:. 1 Study Coverage. 1.1 Amino Acid Analyzer Product. 1.2 Key Market Segments in This Study. 1.3 Key Manufacturers Covered. 1.4 Market by Type. 1.5 Market by Application. 2 Executive Summary. 2.1 Global Amino Acid Analyzer Production. 2.2 Amino Acid Analyzer Growth Rate (CAGR) 2018-2024. 2.3 Analysis of Competitive Landscape. 2.4 Market Drivers, Trends and Issues. 2.5 Macroscopic Indicator. Purchase This Report (Price 3480 USD for single user license): https://www.absolutereports.com/purchase/13837546. 4 Amino Acid Analyzer Production by Regions. 4.1 United States. 4.2 Europe. 4.3 China. 4.4 Japan. 4.5 Other Regions. 6 Market Size by Type. 6.1 Global Amino Acid Analyzer Breakdown Data by Type. 6.2 Global Amino Acid Analyzer Revenue by Type. 6.3 Amino Acid Analyzer Price by Type. 7 Market Size by Application. 7.1 Overview. 7.2 Global Amino Acid Analyzer Breakdown Data by Application. 7.2.1 Global Amino Acid Analyzer Consumption by Application. 7.2.2 ...
Translations: Asparagīna Amino Acid, Asparaginas aminorūgšties, Asparagina aminoacizi, Asparagin Aminokiselinska, Amino Acid Asparagine, Asparaginy aminokwasów, Asparagine एमिनो एसिड, Aminoácido asparagina, Аспарагин Аминокислоты, Ασπαραγίνη Αμινοξύ, الهليونين الأحماض الأمينية, 아스파라긴 아미노산, Asparagin aminokyselin, Asparagina Asam Amino, Asparagine Amino acid, 天冬酰胺氨基酸, Asparagina Aminoàcids, Asparagin Amino Acid, Asparagín aminokyselín, Amminoacido asparagina, אספרגין חומצה אמינו, Asparagin Amino Acid, Аспарагин амино киселина, アスパラギンアミノ酸, Acide aminé asparagine, Asparagin Amino Acid, Asparagin Amino Acid, Asparaginer Amino Acid, Asparagina Aminoácidos, Аспарагін Амінокислоти, Asparagiini Aminohappo, Аспарагин амино ...
Just like a Lego house is made of bricks, proteins are made up of lots of tiny building blocks. These building blocks are called amino acids.. To build a protein, first the amino acids are connected into long chains. These chains of amino acid building blocks can then fold into all types of shapes. Some chains fold into spirals. Other chains make zigzag sheets, and loops.. Combining these spirals, sheets, and loops is how the three-dimensional shape of the protein is made. You can also combine multiple strands of amino acids to make even bigger protein shapes.. 21 is all it takes. The human body uses just 21 amino acids to make all the proteins it needs to function and grow. Because amino acids can be arranged in many different combinations, its possible for your body to make thousands of different kinds of proteins from just the same 21 amino acids. You may see books that say there are only 20 amino acids. Dont worry, thats just because the 21st one was discovered pretty recently and not all ...
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Low prices on Amino Acids! Amino acids are the most important nutrients for bodybuilders and strength trainers. Amino acids are used singly and in combination with other amino acids. Amino acids support protein synthesis and muscle building.*Branched chain amino acids (or BCAAs) have well-documented anti-catabolic benefits, helping to preserve muscle and lean body mass during intensive training and dieting periods.*
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The aim of the thesis was to optimise the separation and purify an amino acid solution consisting of mono-valent amino acids. Amino acids have historically been separated by chromatographic separation for analytical requirements but separation commercially has not been possible due to the close physical and chemical properties of the amino acids. The study looks at two amino acids, isoleucine and alpha amino butyric acid and used operating and process variables to conclude whether a commercial application is possible. A 3m glass column operating at atmospheric conditions was set up in the development laboratory at SA Bioproducts for test work. Pulse tests were carried out to evaluate the separation of the individual amino acids and the samples were analysed using HPLC. The column incorporated a jacket which allowed for constant temperature during the experiments. Experiments started initially with the column being tested for hydraulic consistency and this was done using resin in the Na+ ionic ...
The aim of the thesis was to optimise the separation and purify an amino acid solution consisting of mono-valent amino acids. Amino acids have historically been separated by chromatographic separation for analytical requirements but separation commercially has not been possible due to the close physical and chemical properties of the amino acids. The study looks at two amino acids, isoleucine and alpha amino butyric acid and used operating and process variables to conclude whether a commercial application is possible. A 3m glass column operating at atmospheric conditions was set up in the development laboratory at SA Bioproducts for test work. Pulse tests were carried out to evaluate the separation of the individual amino acids and the samples were analysed using HPLC. The column incorporated a jacket which allowed for constant temperature during the experiments. Experiments started initially with the column being tested for hydraulic consistency and this was done using resin in the Na+ ionic ...
Maloy W.L.; Nathenson S.G.; Coligan J.E., 1981: Primary structure of murine major histo compatibility complex allo antigens amino acid sequence of the amino terminal 98 residues of the h 2d b glyco protein
Amino Acids …….. by Theresa Smith. Supplement: Amino acids supplements are a safe, highly effective way to improve overall physical well-being and appearance. Amino acids are critically important to life and health - they are crucial for growth, maintenance and repair of the human body as they are involved in the formation of muscle and tissue proteins, skin, hair, nails and enzymes. They are also a vital part of the immune system, the bodys defense mechanism.. History: Amino acids have been heavily researched for their amazing healing potential and powerful contribution and effects on the bodys metabolism. Amino acids are called the "building blocks" of protein since about 40,000+ different types of proteins found in the body are made from only 20 amino acids. Roughly 75% of the material found in most cells, excluding water, is protein. Consequently, the body needs thousands of complex proteins to run every second. And the body constantly builds these new proteins from isolated, singular ...
develop a new model summarizing the entire process of transcription and translation with your lab group you will be asked to communicate share amino acid sequence chart dna.. ...
Many theories have been presented to explain the origin of life: Some claim that life is of extraterrestrial origin, some believe that life began in the atmosphere, and some hold that the sea is the cradle of life. In all cases, however, amino acids are said to be the source of life.. Some meteorites that collided with the earth after a long journey from the remotest corner of the universe contained amino acids. Trace amounts of glycine, alanine, glutamate and alanine were detected in a meteorite that struck Murchison (Australia) in 1969. The amino acids in meteorites are considered to be a trace of life elsewhere in the universe. A trilobite fossil dating back 500 million years was found to contain the amino acid alanine. Science continues its search for an answer to the intriguing mystery of the origin of life by studying the amino acids detected in fossils and meteorites.. Well it makes proud to tell you all that we are having 20 amino acids in potentise form in all our Nanosolutions ...
The observed gene overlays in the viruses ФX174 and SV40 show a surprising economy of information storage; two different amino acid sequences are read in different frames from the same stretch of DNA.
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Amino Acids Definition Amino acids are, in fact, the building blocks of all proteins. Amino acids are organic compounds that contain amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid. The key elements of an amino acid are carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), and… Read More. ...
Patenting around nuisance prior art. Patenting gene sequences. Patenting nucleotide and amino acid sequences in view of electronic sequence database searches
Bio synthesis provides Amino Acid Analysis Service, tryptophan amino acid determination, amino acid testing, amino acid hydrolysis and normal hcl hydrolysis
Amino acid sequence from degu islet amyloid-derived insulin shows unique sequence characteristics.: The main protein of enriched and purified amyloid from Octod
Amino acids are the monomer of protein containing both amino group and carboxyl group.. Structure of amino acids:. Each amino acid has an α-amino group (- NH3+), an α-carboxyl group (- COOH), and a distinctive side chain (R- group) attached to the α-carbon atom.. Types of amino acids:. 20 amino acids are necessary for human body. Of these, some can be produced by the liver - called non essential amino acids; the rest must be supplied by food - called essential amino acids.. According to nutritional value, amino acids may be classified as:. Essential amino acids - Amino acids that cannot be produced by the body but essential for growth and development of body. These amino acids must be obtained from diet. Protein containing diet including milk, egg, meat, and cheese contain all essential amino acids but grains and vegetables do not contain all the essential amino acids.. Non essential amino acids - These amino acids that can be produced by the body.. List of 20 Amino acids: ...
We report the sequence of a 4.5-kb cDNA clone isolated from a human melanoma library which bears high amino acid sequence identity to the yeast mitochondrial (mt) DNA polymerase (Mip1p). This cDNA contains a 3720-bp open reading frame encoding a predicted 140-kDa polypeptide that is 43% identical to Mip1p. The N-terminal part of the sequence contains a 13 glutamine stretch encoded by a CAG trinucleotide repeat which is not found in the other DNA polymerases gamma (Pol gamma). Multiple amino acid sequence alignments with Pol gamma from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Pichia pastoris, Drosophila melanogaster, Xenopus laevis and Mus musculus show that these DNA polymerases form a family strongly conserved from yeast to man and are only loosely related to the Family A DNA polymerases. ...
The invention provides a method for determining an amino acid sequence motif for a phosphorylation site of a protein kinase. In the method of the invention, a protein kinase is contacted with an oriented degenerate peptide library, peptides within the library which are substrates for the kinase are converted to phosphopeptides and the phosphopeptides are separated from non-phosphorylated peptides. The isolated phosphopeptides are sequenced and an amino acid sequence motif for the phosphorylation site is determined based upon the relative abundance of different amino acids residues at each degenerate position. The invention also provides peptide substrates for protein kinase A, cell cycle control kinases, src family kinases, the EGF receptor and p92.sup.c-fps/fes based upon amino acid sequence motifs for the phosphorylation sites of these kinases.
Abstract. The use of recombinant peptides based upon the repeated amino acid sequences of Plasmodium has been proposed for malaria vaccines. By reducing homologies of such peptide vaccines to host proteins, the possibility of autoimmune complications may be reduced, and the effective immune response may be enhanced. The Wilbur and Lipman Wordsearch algorithm was used to identify homologous amino acid sequences between tandemly repeated Plasmodium amino acid sequences and the human and human viral sequences compiled in the National Biomedical Research Foundation database. Six published repetitive immunogenic amino acid sequences from the circumsporozoite (CS) antigen, ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (RESA), soluble (S) antigen, and falciparum interspersed repetitive antigen (FIRA) of P. falciparum, and the CS protein of P. vivax, were analyzed by computer. Matches of at least 4 amino acids were found for all sequences. In the database, 29 matches were found for human proteins and 26 matches
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular Cloning and Primary Structure of Rat Testes Metalloendopeptidase EC 3.4.24.15. AU - Pierotti, Adrian. AU - Glucksman, Marc J.. AU - Roberts, James L.. AU - Dong, Ke Wen. AU - Pierotti, Adrian. AU - Orlowski, Marian. PY - 1990/11/1. Y1 - 1990/11/1. N2 - The complete amino acid sequence of rat testes metalloendopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.15) was deduced from the nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone isolated by screening a rat testes library with a polyclonal antibody raised against a homogeneous preparation of the rat testes enzyme. The correctness of the sequence was verified by N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of the isolated enzyme and by partial amino acid sequence analysis of three tryptic peptides located near the N-terminus, the middle, and C-terminus of the native protein. The enzyme is composed of 645 amino acids with a molecular weight of 72 985. This value is close to that of the purified rat testes and brain enzyme as determined by polyacrylamide gel ...
[Objective] The research aimed to study the amino acids and mineral elements contents of Chengdu Ma goat.[Method] A completely ranomized design involving a 2×2×3 factorial arrangement at different ages(adult,one-year old),gender(male,female) and anatomical regions(longissmus dorsi muscle,biceps femoris muscle,psoas major muscle) was designed.And amino acids and mineral elements contents were analyzed.[Result] The results showed that the contents of mean total amino acid,adult essential amino acid,and baby essential amino acid were(21.41±1.93),(9.27±0.89) and(10.74±1.02)mg/100 mg respectively.The contents of examined 17 amino acids were affected by age,gender,and anatomical regions.Except threonine,the contents of all examined amino acids tasty amino acids contents(P0.05),and total amino acid contents(P0.01) were affected by age greatly,and the adult Ma goat was larger.The total amino acid content and adult essential amino acid content were affected by gender(P0.05) and anatomical regions(P0.05)
1. A double-lumen perfusion technique has been used in man to study jejunal absorption of individual amino acids from an amino acid mixture simulating casein, and a tryptic hydrolysate of casein consisting of oligopeptides and amino acids.. 2. Total absorption was greater from the tryptic hydrolysate than from the amino acid mixture. There was wide variation in the extent to which individual amino acids were absorbed from the amino acid mixture. This was decreased when the tryptic hydrolysate was perfused. Amino acids which were particularly poorly absorbed from the amino acid mixture were absorbed to a substantially greater extent from the tryptic hydrolysate.. 3. The results suggest that the characteristics of absorption of amino acid mixtures do not represent those of absorption of the physiological products of intraluminal digestion, oligopeptides and amino acids.. ...
They display significant amino acid sequence homology. Sixteen cysteine residues, forming 8 disulfide bonds, are strictly ... Piscivorin has the following amino acid sequence. Piscivorin reduces high potassium-evoked smooth muscle contraction, but does ... A sequence comparison of piscivorin and other CRISP family proteins suggests that the Glu186 residue is the crucial site for ... The nucleotide sequence of piscivorin cDNA spans 1323 bp, containing an open reading frame of 240 codons. ...
Marcus F, Gontero B, Harrsch PB, Rittenhouse J (Mar 1986). "Amino acid sequence homology among fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases". ... Fructose bisphosphatase deficiency Fructose Gluconeogenesis Metabolism Marcus F, Harrsch PB (May 1990). "Amino acid sequence of ... IMPase and FBPase share a sequence motif (Asp-Pro-Ile/Leu-Asp-Gly/Ser-Thr/Ser) which has been shown to bind metal ions and ... do not show any significant sequence similarity to the enzymes from other organisms. The Bacillus subtilis enzyme is inhibited ...
This is not to be confused with conservation in amino acid sequences, where the amino acid at a specific position has been ... Homology among DNA, RNA, or proteins is typically inferred from their nucleotide or amino acid sequence similarity. Significant ... A sequence alignment of mammalian histone proteins. Sequences are the middle 120-180 amino acid residues of the proteins. ... Sequence homology is the biological homology between DNA, RNA, or protein sequences, defined in terms of shared ancestry in the ...
It was subsequently cloned and sequenced by Radhey Gupta and coworkers. The amino acid sequence showed a strong homology to ... The cytoplasmic HSP60 contains a signal sequence of 26 amino acids on the N terminus. This sequence is highly degenerate and is ... With respect to the amino acid sequence, the cytoplasmic HSP60 has an N-terminal sequence not found in the mitochondrial ... Moreover, HSP60's amino acid sequence bears a similarity to its homolog in plants, bacteria, and humans. Heat shock proteins ...
Amino acid sequence of MTA2 shares 68.2% homology with MTA1's sequence. MTA2 domains include, a BAH (Bromo-Adjacent Homology), ... inclusive of three protein-coding transcripts but predicted to code for two polypeptides of 688 amino acids and 495 amino acids ... The murine Mta2 consists of a 3.1-kb protein-coding transcript to code a protein of 668 amino acids, and five non-coding RNAs ... MTA2 was initially recognized as an MTA1 like 1 gene, named MTA1-L1, from a large scale sequencing of randomly selected clones ...
... they share gene sequence and amino acid sequence homology. They all also possess conserved amino acids that are important for ... those with a specific amino acid sequence (or motif) of glutamic acid-leucine-arginine (or ELR for short) immediately before ... The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino terminus. There have ... A loop of approximately ten amino acids follows the first two cysteines and is known as the N-loop. This is followed by a ...
Over 200 subtilases are presently known, more than 170 of which with their complete amino acid sequence. Subtilase is ... Based on sequence homology, a subdivision into six families has been proposed. The proprotein-processing endopeptidases kexin, ... These preferentially cleave C-terminally to paired basic amino acids. Members of this subfamily can be identified by subtly ... with the mature catalytic domains containing approximately 375 amino acids. The defining features of these enzymes are a unique ...
Kleeman TA, Wei D, Simpson KL, First EA (Jun 1997). "Human tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase shares amino acid sequence homology with a ... by their cognate amino acid. Because of their central role in linking amino acids with nucleotide triplets contained in tRNAs, ... 2004). "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs". Nat. Genet. 36 (1): 40-5. doi:10.1038/ ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ...
There is a high homology in the amino acid sequence within each family. Each family couples to the same second messenger ...
The amino acid sequence of human insulin-like growth factor I and its structural homology with proinsulin. J Biol Chem. 1978, ... Sequence of cDNA encoding human insulin-like growth factor I precursor. Nature. 1983, 306 (5943): 609-11. PMID 6358902. doi: ...
Lottspeich F, Geiger R, Henschen A, Kutzbach C (1980). "N-Terminal amino acid sequence of human urinary kallikrein homology ... Complete amino acid sequence and sites of glycosylation". Int. J. Pept. Protein Res. 33 (4): 237-49. doi:10.1111/j.1399- ... 1986). "N-terminal amino acid sequence of human urinary prokallikrein". J. Biochem. 99 (3): 989-92. PMID 3635530. Baker AR, ... Kellermann J, Lottspeich F, Geiger R, Deutzmann R (1988). "Human urinary kallikrein--amino acid sequence and carbohydrate ...
They share 57% amino acid sequence homology and have some pharmacological characteristics in common. Both receptors are Gi- ... indicating a high degree of evolutionary conservation of genetic sequence, which suggests that the 5-HT1E receptor has an ...
... coding for 2,710 amino acids. TcdA and TcdB share 63% homology in their amino acid sequences. These genes are expressed during ... A centrally located hydrophobic domain containing a cluster of 172 highly conserved hydrophobic amino acids is thought to be ... which transfers a glucose molecule from UDP-Glucose and covalently attaches it to conserved amino acids in target molecules. ... Due to its homology with other proteins of similar function, as well as the location of the gene between tcdA and tcdB, tcdE is ...
Some of the proteins participating in T3SS share amino-acid sequence homology to flagellar proteins. Some of the bacteria ... Recognition is done through a secretion signal-a short sequence of amino acids located at the beginning (the N-terminus) of the ... This is done in order to define the function of specific amino acids or regions in a protein. The introduction of a gene or a ... usually within the first 20 amino acids), that the needle complex is able to recognize. Unlike other secretion systems, the ...
Huhtala ML, Seppälä M, Närvänen A, Palomäki P, Julkunen M, Bohn H (Jun 1987). "Amino acid sequence homology between human ... Julkunen M, Seppälä M, Jänne OA (Dec 1988). "Complete amino acid sequence of human placental protein 14: a progesterone- ... This gene is a member of the kernel lipocalin superfamily whose members share relatively low sequence similarity but have ... Vaisse C, Atger M, Potier B, Milgrom E (1990). "Human placental protein 14 gene: sequence and characterization of a short ...
... complete amino acid sequence and homologies". Science. 230 (4732): 1385-8. Bibcode:1985Sci...230.1385G. doi:10.1126/science. ... A short stretch of acidic amino acids located between the D1 and D2 domains has auto-inhibitory functions. This 'acid box' ... Although these factors possess remarkably similar sequence homology, they do not bind FGFRs and are involved in intracellular ... These proteins had a high degree of amino acid identity but were determined to be distinct mitogens. Human FGF2 occurs in low ...
The order of these seven LSm proteins in this ring is not known, but based on amino acid sequence homology with the Sm proteins ... Each of the seven Sm proteins has greater amino acid sequence homology to a corresponding Lsm protein than to the other Sm ... such as multiple sequence alignment of the primary structure (amino acid sequence), and structural alignment of the tertiary ... comparisons between the various LSm homologs identified two sequence motifs, 32 nucleic acids long (14 amino acids), that were ...
Rinderknecht E, Humbel RE (1978). "The amino acid sequence of human insulin-like growth factor I and its structural homology ... "Sequence of cDNA encoding human insulin-like growth factor I precursor". Nature. 306 (5943): 609-11. doi:10.1038/306609a0. PMID ...
H9401 has 99.679% sequence homology with Ames Ancestor with an amino acid sequence homology of 99.870%. H9401 has a circular ... These include 1) N-glycosylation of N-acetyl-muramic acid, 2) O-acetylation of N-acetylmuramic acid and 3) N-deacetylation of N ... The sequencing coverage level suggests a molecular ratio of pXO1:pXO2:chromosome as 3:2:1 which is identical to the Ames ... Due to the high pathogenecity and sequence similarity to the Ames Ancestor, H9401 will be used as a reference for testing the ...
... is a 36-amino acid peptide found in the venom of the deathstalker scorpion (Leiurus quinquestriatus) which blocks ... Chlorotoxin has a considerable sequence homology to the class of small insectotoxins. Chlorotoxin is the first reported high- ... It is a peptide consisting of 36 amino acids, with 8 cysteines forming 4 disulfide bonds. ...
... with high amino acid sequence homology (approximately 90% identity). The sequences of their promoter regions are also highly ... Rao TR, Slobin LI (Mar 1986). "Structure of the amino-terminal end of mammalian elongation factor Tu". Nucleic Acids Research. ... Addition of ethanolamine-phosphoglycerol to specific glutamic acid residues on EF-1 alpha". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... Nucleic Acids Research. 18 (6): 1513-6. doi:10.1093/nar/18.6.1513. PMC 330519 . PMID 2183196. Bec G, Kerjan P, Zha XD, Waller ...
Amino acid sequence homology with the other aspartic proteinases, disulfide bond arrangement and site of carbohydrate ... Mucorpepsin (EC 3.4.23.23, Mucor rennin, Mucor aspartic proteinase, Mucor acid proteinase, Mucor acid protease, Mucor miehei ... doi:10.1016/0076-6879(70)19033-1. Ottesen, M.; Rickert, W. (1970). "The acid protease of Mucor miehei". Methods Enzymol. 19: ...
1990). "Complete amino acid sequence and homologies of human erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.2". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S ...
... s (HATs) are enzymes that acetylate conserved lysine amino acids on histone proteins by transferring ... ACTR (also known as RAC3, AIB1, and TRAM-1 in humans) shares significant sequence homology with SRC-1, in particular in the N- ... PCAF (p300/CBP-associated factor) and GCN5 are mammalian GNATs that share a high degree of homology throughout their sequences ... HATs can be grouped into several different families based on sequence homology as well as shared structural features and ...
... amino acid sequence homology, and about 35% identity with IFNB. The high degree of amino-acid sequence similarity within the ... All of these IFN-α proteins exhibit high homology in their primary, secondary, and tertiary structures. IFNA and IFNB are ... Viruses and immune complexes (ICs) containing nucleic acids can access intracellular TLRs (TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9) after binding ... Shrivastav M, Niewold TB (2013). "Nucleic Acid sensors and type I interferon production in systemic lupus erythematosus". ...
The protein shares extensive amino acid sequence homology with phosducin, a phosphoprotein expressed in retina and pineal gland ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... 2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs ... 2006). "The LIFEdb database in 2006". Nucleic Acids Res. 34 (Database issue): D415-8. doi:10.1093/nar/gkj139. PMC 1347501 . ...
They each share about 25% amino acid sequence identity with RAD51 and with each other.[28] ... RAD51 is involved in the search for homology and strand pairing stages of the process. ... In humans, RAD51 is a 339-amino acid protein that plays a major role in homologous recombination of DNA during double strand ... "Nucleic Acids Research. 25 (19): 3868-74. doi:10.1093/nar/25.19.3868. PMC 146972 . PMID 9380510.. ...
The human homolog of the CPT II enzyme shows 82.2% amino acid sequence homology with the rat protein. Significant structural ... This gene is composed of 5 exons that encode a protein 658 amino acids in length. To date, sixty disease-causing mutations ... within the coding sequence of CPT2 have been reported in the literature, of which 41 are thought to result in amino acid ... The majority of the genetic abnormalities in CPT II deficient patients affect amino acid residues somewhat removed from the ...
Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA encodes a protein of 596 amino acid residues with Mw ≈ 67.29 kD. In order to analyze the ... The homology of amino acid sequence between the four basic peptidases is quite low, but recent crystal structure determination ... Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA encodes a protein of 596 amino acid residues with Mw ≈ 67.29 kD. In order to analyze the ... We used the full-length amino acid sequences with BLAST (basic local alignment search tool) [28] and ClustalW [29], conducting ...
Amino Acid Sequence Homology. The degree of similarity between sequences of Amino Acids. This information is useful for the ...
The predicted amino acid sequence of Piv shows significant homology solely with the transposases/integrases of a family of ... Amino acid sequence homology between Piv, an essential protein in site-specific DNA inversion in Moraxella lacunata, and ... Amino acid sequence homology between Piv, an essential protein in site-specific DNA inversion in Moraxella lacunata, and ... Amino acid sequence homology between Piv, an essential protein in site-specific DNA inversion in Moraxella lacunata, and ...
By reducing homologies of such peptide vaccines to host proteins, the possibility of autoimmune complications may be reduced, ... amino acid sequences between tandemly repeated Plasmodium amino acid sequences and the human and human viral sequences compiled ... Matches of at least 4 amino acids were found for all sequences. In the database, 29 matches were found for human proteins and ... Six published repetitive immunogenic amino acid sequences from the circumsporozoite (CS) antigen, ring-infected erythrocyte ...
Amino acid sequence of the Fc region of a canine immunoglobulin M: interspecies homology for the IgM class ... Amino acid sequence of the Fc region of a canine immunoglobulin M: interspecies homology for the IgM class ... Amino acid sequence of the Fc region of a canine immunoglobulin M: interspecies homology for the IgM class ... Amino acid sequence of the Fc region of a canine immunoglobulin M: interspecies homology for the IgM class ...
A Homology of the Deduced Amino Acid Sequence of MGDG Synthase cDNA with That of MurG in Bacteria.. A homology search of all ... Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the cucumber MGDG synthase. Amino acid sequences of peptides obtained from the ... The deduced amino acid sequence of the MGDG synthase cDNA shows homology with MurG, of Bacillus subtilis and E. coli, which ... In addition, the deduced amino acid sequence of the MGDG synthase cDNA showed homology with MurG of Bacillus subtilis and E. ...
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid. *Substrate Specificity. *Transfection. Get free article suggestions today. Mendeley saves you ... Interestingly, bfGnRHR-2 has an 85% amino acid homology with Xenopus GnRHR. Less than 53% amino acid identity was observed ... The bfGnRHR-1, bfGnRHR-2, and bfGnRHR-3 proteins have an amino acid identity of approximately 30% to approximately 35% with ...
... amino acid sequence and results of homology search), and expression profile ... Representative amino acid sequence translated from DNA sequence.. Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames). Amino acid ... Contig sequences and their annotation (amino acid sequence and results of homology search), and expression profile Data detail ... Contig sequences and their annotation (amino acid sequence and results of homology search), and expression profile. ...
RAT EPIDERMAL GROWTH-FACTOR - COMPLETE AMINO-ACID-SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY WITH THE CORRESPONDING MURINE AND HUMAN PROTEINS - ...
B) Amino acid sequence homology between myocardin and MRTFs. Colored bars correspond to the conserved regions shown in A. (C) ... The overall amino acid identity between the three proteins is ≈35%, whereas they share ,60% amino acid identity within the ... 6). The mouse myocardin protein sequence reported here has an additional 128 amino acid residues at the N terminus of the ... In the course of characterizing the MRTF sequences, we discovered that myocardin contains an additional 128 amino acids N- ...
Sequence Analysis, DNA. Sequence Homology, Amino Acid. Grant Support. ID/Acronym/Agency: RR12596/RR/NCRR NIH HHS ... BLAST searches of the databanks using complete or partial MUA-3 amino acid sequence revealed a closely related C. elegans gene ... B) The domain/module structure of the MUA-3 protein as deduced from the predicted amino acid sequence. The two letter module ... amino acid sequence identity with MUA-3 in the shared portions of the extracellular domain. The cytoplasmic domains of MUA-3 ...
... was isolated and its DNA sequence determined. The cDNA is assumed to encode alpha-1-antitrypsin on the basis of its sequence ... A cDNA clone encoding the complete coding sequence for porcine alpha-1-antitrypsin (or alpha 1-protease inhibitor, PI) ... Sequence Analysis, DNA. Sequence Homology, Amino Acid. Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid. Swine / genetics*. alpha 1-Antitrypsin ... was isolated and its DNA sequence determined. The cDNA is assumed to encode alpha-1-antitrypsin on the basis of its sequence ...
Complete amino acid sequence homology was found. Detection of wolf and dog IgA was ascertained by showing identity using double ... and their nucleotide sequences were determined. A comparative analysis of the amino acid sequences for IgY, IgA, IgE and IgG ... amino acids, whereas all other positions were essentially unaffected. A weakened preference for acidic amino acids at position ... A comparative analysis of the amino acid sequences for IgM from various animal species showed that opossum IgM, within the ...
4.2 Amino acid sequence homologies and why they occur. In this unit we explore how proteins are the doers of the cell. They ...
4.2 Amino acid sequence homologies and why they occur. Consider two genes encoding proteins that have 50% of their amino acid ...
The deduced amino acid sequence of hupR shares high homology with bacterial rubredoxins. HupZ and HupR may both be involved in ... The amino acid sequence deduced from hupZ has the characteristics of a b-type cytochrome. Insertion mutagenesis of hupZ ... The sequencing of the intervening 4.8 kb of hup-specific DNA has now been completed. This revealed eight additional closely ... Sequences, organization and analysis of the hupZMNOQRTV genes from the Azotobacter chroococcum hydrogenase gene cluster.. Du L1 ...
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid * Urea / pharmacology Substances * Antibodies, Monoclonal * CD4 Antigens * Epitopes ... These data suggested that the primary sequence of the HIV Can0A V3 loop exists in a conformer that mimicks a non-V3 determinant ...
Sequence Analysis, DNA * Sequence Homology, Amino Acid * Transcription, Genetic / physiology Substances * Bacterial Proteins ... and 252 amino acid residues (prgK). Synthesis of the 2.6 kb prgHIJK transcript was repressed in bacteria that activate PhoP/ ...
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid * Virulence Substances * Bacterial Proteins * DNA Primers * DNA, Bacterial ... had imperfect 29 bp terminal inverted repeats and had duplicated a 3 bp target sequence. Sequence comparisons indicated that ... Sequence comparisons indicated that ISAS1 is unique among reported IS elements. It is 1223 bp long with imperfect terminal ... inverted repeats of 22 bp and insertion resulted in a duplicated 8 bp target sequence in vapA. ISAS1 expressed a 42,000 ...
Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid. *Retrotransposons*. *Sequence Homology, Amino Acid. *Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... A polymerase chain reaction assay was developed based on conserved amino acid sequences shared between the Ta11-1 reverse ... these sequences over most of their evolutionary history. One sequence, Ta17, is located in the mitochondrial genome. The ... DNA sequence analysis near the Arabidopsis thaliana ABI3 gene revealed the presence of a non-LTR retrotransposon insertion that ...
Sequence Analysis, DNA. *Sequence Homology, Amino Acid. *Support, Non-U.S. Govt ...
Several interesting homology relationships (or the lack thereof) are apparent when the Ia polypeptides from the I-EC subregion ... Partial amino acid sequences of the Ia molecule encoded by the I-E or I-C (I-EC) subregion of the major histocompatibility ... Structure of murine Ia antigens: Partial NH2-terminal amino acid sequences of products of the I-E or I-C subregion ... Partial NH2-terminal amino acid sequences of products of the I-E or I-C subregion. Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
The nucleotide sequence homology was 98% with 1 amino acid change, N474S. The HBoV st2 branch could be separated into 2 ... In both, sequences were identical and clustered within the proposed subgroup B. In a third child, HBoV sequences were detected ... Comparative sequences were obtained from GenBank and included HBoV isolate st1 (DQ000495), HBoV isolate st2 (DQ000496), and a ... Characterization and complete genome sequence of a novel coronavirus, coronavirus HKU1, from patients with pneumonia. J Virol. ...
The amino acid sequence shows no homology to other proteins. However, the presence of the Walker A motif G-X-X-X-X-G-K-T ... The amino acid residues and waters at the active site form an extensive hydrogen-bonded network that maintains the pseudo 2- ... Although fluorinated amino acid residues have frequently been used in biochemical and NMR investigations of proteins, no ... Amino acid residues involved in substrate binding and catalysis have been identified. The structure analysis suggests large ...
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid. *Syndrome. *Tunisia. Substances. *Carrier Proteins. *Intracellular Signaling Peptides and ... Additional protein domains include a coiled-coil domain (amino acids 593-627) and a PDZ-binding domain (amino acids 640-643) at ... Shaded amino acids are conserved in all the depicted proteins. The underlined sequence HCSDGWDRT is conserved 100% in all ... Bottom, Sequence alignment of the PTPc/DSPc homology domain in Hs MTMR13 and homologous proteins. Names of the proteins are on ...
  • A more detailed knowledge about which amino acids that confer the specificity of an enzyme can prove to be of major importance for development of highly specific inhibitors for the human chymase and other medically important enzymes. (diva-portal.org)
  • it forms three helices that nestle neatly into a groove formed by the DNA spiral, and the amino acids in these regions assign binding specificity to particular sequences in the DNA. (scienceblogs.com)
  • To overcome this difficulty, sequencing of the putative VP1/2A junction of the virus genome is used to differentiate HAV isolates into seven genotypes ( 32 ). (asm.org)
  • Here, we test the hypothesis that the putative transporter is the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VIAAT), a neuronal transmembrane transporter of GABA and glycine. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the A. thaliana sequences are more closely related to each other than to elements from other organisms, consistent with the vertical evolution of these sequences over most of their evolutionary history. (harvard.edu)
  • A selection of the inner VP1/2 amplicons obtained from samples taken over the year were sequenced directly and aligned in ClustalX, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed with the Kimura 2-parameter neighbor-joining method with 1,000 bootstrap resamplings. (cdc.gov)
  • For phylogenetic analysis, internal primer sequences were used to amplify isolates of human and swine HEV. (cdc.gov)
  • As it has been shown that caution should be taken when using the best BLAST hit to infer gene homology -, we performed phylogenetic analyses to further test the assignments of the newly isolated Hox genes. (nih.gov)
  • Orthologous sequences provide useful information in taxonomic classification and phylogenetic studies of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • By site-directed mutatgenesis, we have previously shown that basic amino acids in positions 143 and 192 (Arg and Lys respectively) of the human mast cell chymase are responsible for an acidic amino acid residue preference in the P2' position of substrates. (diva-portal.org)
  • A short stretch of acidic amino acids located between the D1 and D2 domains has auto-inhibitory functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA sequence analysis near the Arabidopsis thaliana ABI3 gene revealed the presence of a non-LTR retrotransposon insertion that we have designated Ta11-1. (harvard.edu)
  • 1 The PIPs with 13 members in Arabidopsis represent the most abundant aquaporins in the plasma membrane (PM) and can be further divided into two sequence homology groups ( At PIP1 and At PIP2). (mcponline.org)
  • Six published repetitive immunogenic amino acid sequences from the circumsporozoite (CS) antigen, ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (RESA), soluble (S) antigen, and falciparum interspersed repetitive antigen (FIRA) of P. falciparum, and the CS protein of P. vivax, were analyzed by computer. (ajtmh.org)
  • The alignment looked good, you can see in the image above that over half the amino acids are identical and the E value, at 3 x 10 -31 shows me there's very little chance of getting a match this good from random sequences. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Both isoforms have similar functional properties, and they show striking homology in their amino acid sequences with eight predicted transmembrane domains and a large hydrophilic loop between the third and forth transmembrane domains. (physiology.org)
  • Credit: Courtesy of Adam Johnson When chemistry graduate student Stanley Miller first heard University of Chicago professor and Nobel laureate Harold Urey's idea that organic compounds, such as amino acids, arose in a reducing atmosphere, Miller was determined to find out. (the-scientist.com)
  • Loss of Csy1p results in a lack of amino acid-mediated activation of amino acid transport and a lack of induction of transcription of specific amino acid permease genes. (asm.org)
  • NF-κB subunits are able to homo- or heterodimerize through the Rel homology domain, forming transcription factor complexes with a wide range of DNA-binding and activation potentials. (asm.org)
  • They form a family of enzymes, which require Ca 2+ and catalyze the hydrolysis of glycerophospholipids at the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone to produce free fatty acids and lysophospholipids [ 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • In the presence of water, they catalyze the hydrolysis of triglycerides to form monoglycerides, diglycerides, glycerol and free fatty acids. (scielo.br)
  • The sequence was compared with those of two human mu chains, and a high degree of interspecies homology was observed. (sciencemag.org)
  • HEV seroprevalence was 6.3%, and HEV genotype 3 strains with high sequence homology were detected. (cdc.gov)
  • The results indicate a high homology with other known EPOR sequences, and show increased expression of pEPOR mRNA in porcine liver during a time corresponding to a rapid expansion of the erythron and a critical time for fetal survival in a crowded uterine environment. (usda.gov)
  • Serum, Lee's medium (rich in amino acids), high temperatures (37°C), and neutral pHs are among the conditions that positively influence hyphal morphogenesis ( 11 , 40 ). (asm.org)
  • ratAurA , cloned from a rat mammary gland cDNA library, is a bona fide Ser/Thr kinase, and sequence comparison demonstrated high homology to members of the entire AurA kinase family. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Analysis of its crystal structure reveals a novel two domain structure, with each domain showing significant homology to the cytokine fold in GMCSF, MCSF, IL2, IL4 and growth hormone. (abcam.com)
  • IL-17A and IL-17F show the most homology among the IL-17 cytokine family. (biolegend.com)
  • Using Blink can save you lots of time because it organizes blast results from all the organisms in the non-redundant protein sequence database, but getting to Blink can be tricky because it's a little hard to find. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The aim of this study was to collect Ixodes ricinus ticks from the Ljubljana area to determine if they were infected with an ehrlichial species and, if so, to assess the DNA sequence homologies between amplicons derived from ticks with those obtained from three of the patients (one patient developed antibodies to the HGE agent, but no ehrlichial DNA was recovered). (asm.org)
  • 9 ) reported lipid requirement for the activity of the MGDG synthase solubilized with 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonic acid (CHAPS), although cholate-solubilized enzyme did not show such requirement for the enzyme activity ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Inactivation of Phaseolamin, an alpha-amylase inhibitor from Phaseolus vulgaris by gastric acid and digestive proteases. (springer.com)
  • B, Location of the two ESTs, LOC19611 / LOC283105 and KIAA1766, from which the coding sequence of MTMR13 ( top ) and intron-exon structure of MTMR13 ( bottom ) was constructed. (nih.gov)
  • Note that all new sequences group to expected homologs. (nih.gov)
  • A Neighbour Joining analysis of only the six potentially unambiguous new homeobox sequences (lab, pb, Dfd, Ubx, Abd-B) groups all new fragments into the expected clades of homologs from other insects and thus confirms the results of NCBI Blast (Fig. 2), except for abd-A which appears paraphyletic. (nih.gov)
  • GAD65 and GAD67 catalyze the formation of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from glutamate. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A vesicular transporter of GABA and glycine has been identified in mouse and rat brain: the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VIAAT) ( 12 , 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These data suggested that the primary sequence of the HIV Can0A V3 loop exists in a conformer that mimicks a non-V3 determinant of native gp120 exposed subsequent to CD4 binding on the surface of gp120 of laboratory-adapted HIV strains. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, loss of the SSY1 gene is not compensated for by overexpression of AAP genes, and its overexpression does not rescue the loss of amino acid uptake in strains containing multiple deletions of amino acid transporter genes ( 10 ). (asm.org)
  • Link to the list of clones constituting the contig, the information on its mapping to the genome mapped to genome sequence and the list of top 10 hits in the results of homology search are provided. (biosciencedbc.jp)
  • MTA2 was initially recognized as an MTA1 like 1 gene, named MTA1-L1, from a large scale sequencing of randomly selected clones from human cDNA libraries in 1999. (wikidoc.org)
  • The spectrum of genes activated by SRF is dictated by its differential affinity for different CArG-box sequences ( 3 ) and its association with a variety of positive and negative cofactors, many of which are cell type-specific and signal-responsive (reviewed in ref. 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • One sequence, Ta17, is located in the mitochondrial genome. (harvard.edu)
  • The paucity of retrotransposons and the small genome size of A. thaliana support the hypothesis that most repetitive sequences have been lost from the genome and that mechanisms may exist to prevent amplification of extant element families. (harvard.edu)
  • During DNA sequence analysis of cosmid L373 from the Mycobacterium leprae genome, an open reading frame of 1.4 kb encoding a protein with some homology to the immunodominant 34-kDa protein of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, but lacking significant serological activity, was detected. (epfl.ch)