The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Amino acids with side chains that are positively charged at physiological pH.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.
Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.

Novel regulation of the homeotic gene Scr associated with a crustacean leg-to-maxilliped appendage transformation. (1/50418)

Homeotic genes are known to be involved in patterning morphological structures along the antero-posterior axis of insects and vertebrates. Because of their important roles in development, changes in the function and expression patterns of homeotic genes may have played a major role in the evolution of different body plans. For example, it has been proposed that during the evolution of several crustacean lineages, changes in the expression patterns of the homeotic genes Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A have played a role in transformation of the anterior thoracic appendages into mouthparts termed maxillipeds. This homeotic-like transformation is recapitulated at the late stages of the direct embryonic development of the crustacean Porcellio scaber (Oniscidea, Isopoda). Interestingly, this morphological change is associated with apparent novelties both in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the Porcellio scaber ortholog of the Drosophila homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr). Specifically, we find that Scr mRNA is present in the second maxillary segment and the first pair of thoracic legs (T1) in early embryos, whereas protein accumulates only in the second maxillae. In later stages, however, high levels of SCR appear in the T1 legs, which correlates temporally with the transformation of these appendages into maxillipeds. Our observations provide further insight into the process of the homeotic leg-to-maxilliped transformation in the evolution of crustaceans and suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for this process in this group of arthropods.  (+info)

The Drosophila kismet gene is related to chromatin-remodeling factors and is required for both segmentation and segment identity. (2/50418)

The Drosophila kismet gene was identified in a screen for dominant suppressors of Polycomb, a repressor of homeotic genes. Here we show that kismet mutations suppress the Polycomb mutant phenotype by blocking the ectopic transcription of homeotic genes. Loss of zygotic kismet function causes homeotic transformations similar to those associated with loss-of-function mutations in the homeotic genes Sex combs reduced and Abdominal-B. kismet is also required for proper larval body segmentation. Loss of maternal kismet function causes segmentation defects similar to those caused by mutations in the pair-rule gene even-skipped. The kismet gene encodes several large nuclear proteins that are ubiquitously expressed along the anterior-posterior axis. The Kismet proteins contain a domain conserved in the trithorax group protein Brahma and related chromatin-remodeling factors, providing further evidence that alterations in chromatin structure are required to maintain the spatially restricted patterns of homeotic gene transcription.  (+info)

The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping. (3/50418)

Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut.  (+info)

Mrj encodes a DnaJ-related co-chaperone that is essential for murine placental development. (4/50418)

We have identified a novel gene in a gene trap screen that encodes a protein related to the DnaJ co-chaperone in E. coli. The gene, named Mrj (mammalian relative of DnaJ) was expressed throughout development in both the embryo and placenta. Within the placenta, expression was particularly high in trophoblast giant cells but moderate levels were also observed in trophoblast cells of the chorion at embryonic day 8.5, and later in the labyrinth which arises from the attachment of the chorion to the allantois (a process called chorioallantoic fusion). Insertion of the ROSAbetageo gene trap vector into the Mrj gene created a null allele. Homozygous Mrj mutants died at mid-gestation due to a failure of chorioallantoic fusion at embryonic day 8.5, which precluded formation of the mature placenta. At embryonic day 8.5, the chorion in mutants was morphologically normal and expressed the cell adhesion molecule beta4 integrin that is known to be required for chorioallantoic fusion. However, expression of the chorionic trophoblast-specific transcription factor genes Err2 and Gcm1 was significantly reduced. The mutants showed no abnormal phenotypes in other trophoblast cell types or in the embryo proper. This study indicates a previously unsuspected role for chaperone proteins in placental development and represents the first genetic analysis of DnaJ-related protein function in higher eukaryotes. Based on a survey of EST databases representing different mouse tissues and embryonic stages, there are 40 or more DnaJ-related genes in mammals. In addition to Mrj, at least two of these genes are also expressed in the developing mouse placenta. The specificity of the developmental defect in Mrj mutants suggests that each of these genes may have unique tissue and cellular activities.  (+info)

A Drosophila doublesex-related gene, terra, is involved in somitogenesis in vertebrates. (5/50418)

The Drosophila doublesex (dsx) gene encodes a transcription factor that mediates sex determination. We describe the characterization of a novel zebrafish zinc-finger gene, terra, which contains a DNA binding domain similar to that of the Drosophila dsx gene. However, unlike dsx, terra is transiently expressed in the presomitic mesoderm and newly formed somites. Expression of terra in presomitic mesoderm is restricted to cells that lack expression of MyoD. In vivo, terra expression is reduced by hedgehog but enhanced by BMP signals. Overexpression of terra induces rapid apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that a tight regulation of terra expression is required during embryogenesis. Terra has both human and mouse homologs and is specifically expressed in mouse somites. Taken together, our findings suggest that terra is a highly conserved protein that plays specific roles in early somitogenesis of vertebrates.  (+info)

Requirement of a novel gene, Xin, in cardiac morphogenesis. (6/50418)

A novel gene, Xin, from chick (cXin) and mouse (mXin) embryonic hearts, may be required for cardiac morphogenesis and looping. Both cloned cDNAs have a single open reading frame, encoding proteins with 2,562 and 1,677 amino acids for cXin and mXin, respectively. The derived amino acid sequences share 46% similarity. The overall domain structures of the predicted cXin and mXin proteins, including proline-rich regions, 16 amino acid repeats, DNA-binding domains, SH3-binding motifs and nuclear localization signals, are highly conserved. Northern blot analyses detect a single message of 8.9 and 5.8 kilo base (kb) from both cardiac and skeletal muscle of chick and mouse, respectively. In situ hybridization reveals that the cXin gene is specifically expressed in cardiac progenitor cells of chick embryos as early as stage 8, prior to heart tube formation. cXin continues to be expressed in the myocardium of developing hearts. By stage 15, cXin expression is also detected in the myotomes of developing somites. Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that the mXin protein is colocalized with N-cadherin and connexin-43 in the intercalated discs of adult mouse hearts. Incubation of stage 6 chick embryos with cXin antisense oligonucleotides results in abnormal cardiac morphogenesis and an alteration of cardiac looping. The myocardium of the affected hearts becomes thickened and tends to form multiple invaginations into the heart cavity. This abnormal cellular process may account in part for the abnormal looping. cXin expression can be induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in explants of anterior medial mesoendoderm from stage 6 chick embryos, a tissue that is normally non-cardiogenic. This induction occurs following the BMP-mediated induction of two cardiac-restricted transcription factors, Nkx2.5 and MEF2C. Furthermore, either MEF2C or Nkx2.5 can transactivate a luciferase reporter driven by the mXin promoter in mouse fibroblasts. These results suggest that Xin may participate in a BMP-Nkx2.5-MEF2C pathway to control cardiac morphogenesis and looping.  (+info)

Mechanisms of GDF-5 action during skeletal development. (7/50418)

Mutations in GDF-5, a member of the TGF-beta superfamily, result in the autosomal recessive syndromes brachypod (bp) in mice and Hunter-Thompson and Grebe-type chondrodysplasias in humans. These syndromes are all characterised by the shortening of the appendicular skeleton and loss or abnormal development of some joints. To investigate how GDF-5 controls skeletogenesis, we overexpressed GDF-5 during chick limb development using the retrovirus, RCASBP. This resulted in up to a 37.5% increase in length of the skeletal elements, which was predominantly due to an increase in the number of chondrocytes. By injecting virus at different stages of development, we show that GDF-5 can increase both the size of the early cartilage condensation and the later developing skeletal element. Using in vitro micromass cultures as a model system to study the early steps of chondrogenesis, we show that GDF-5 increases chondrogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. We did not detect changes in proliferation. However, cell suspension cultures showed that GDF-5 might act at these stages by increasing cell adhesion, a critical determinant of early chondrogenesis. In contrast, pulse labelling experiments of GDF-5-infected limbs showed that at later stages of skeletal development GDF-5 can increase proliferation of chondrocytes. Thus, here we show two mechanisms of how GDF-5 may control different stages of skeletogenesis. Finally, our data show that levels of GDF-5 expression/activity are important in controlling the size of skeletal elements and provides a possible explanation for the variation in the severity of skeletal defects resulting from mutations in GDF-5.  (+info)

Regulation of body length and male tail ray pattern formation of Caenorhabditis elegans by a member of TGF-beta family. (8/50418)

We have identified a new member of the TGF-beta superfamily, CET-1, from Caenorhabditis elegans, which is expressed in the ventral nerve cord and other neurons. cet-1 null mutants have shortened bodies and male tail abnormal phenotype resembling sma mutants, suggesting cet-1, sma-2, sma-3 and sma-4 share a common pathway. Overexpression experiments demonstrated that cet-1 function requires wild-type sma genes. Interestingly, CET-1 appears to affect body length in a dose-dependent manner. Heterozygotes for cet-1 displayed body lengths ranging between null mutant and wild type, and overexpression of CET-1 in wild-type worms elongated body length close to lon mutants. In male sensory ray patterning, lack of cet-1 function results in ray fusions. Epistasis analysis revealed that mab-21 lies downstream and is negatively regulated by the cet-1/sma pathway in the male tail. Our results show that cet-1 controls diverse biological processes during C. elegans development probably through different target genes.  (+info)

A review of the literature on homology indicates that the theory does not provide evidence for evolutionary naturalism, and that the common examples of homology can be better explained by Creation.
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I will describe a spectral sequence that starts at reduced odd Khovanov homology and converges to a version of instanton homology for double branched covers.. ...
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Foods with amino acids are the building blocks of protein. That means they are responsible for strength, repair and rebuilding inside your body. Your tissues, your cells, your enzymes and your brain all get their nourishment and protection from amino acids.. Why You Need Amino Acids Daily. Amino acids make up 75% of the human body, and are vital to every part of human function. One of the most talked about properties of amino acids is how it can assist in muscle building. Amino acids are boasted as the key ingredients in many body-building supplements, though the degree of success they achieve in that form is debatable. Careful attention to amino acids isnt just for people who want to build muscle. Different studies have linked amino acid balances with fighting everything from depression to Fibromyalgia. You Cant Store Amino Acids. The problem with amino acids is that they deteriorate. The body will store extra starch and protein as fat, to use later. Amino acids are not stored, but they can ...
Amino acids uses are plenty. However, when it comes to depression, amino acids uses are even more prominent and beneficial. To begin with, GABA is an amino acid that is consumed all over the world. It gets converter into neurotransmitter and has a soothing impact on the behavior of the individual. It is extremely useful in making the person relax and calm down. It is a highly recommended amino acid by experts especially in cases of stress disorder. Glutamine is an amino acid which is not essential as such to the body.. However, if the GABA level is low, you should supply Glutamine to the body. People with low levels of Glutamine usually suffer from fatigue and depression. Taurine is also a non essential kind of amino acid. It keeps a check on over activity of neurotransmitters. Hence, this amino acid is highly recommended for people who over-react and over-hype situations. These are some of the few amino acids uses. Apart from depression, amino acids also have a number of other benefits.. ...
Amino acid biochemistry and nutrition spans a broad range of fields including biochemistry, metabolism, physiology, immunology, reproduction, pathology, and cell biology. In the last half-century, there have been many conceptual and technical advancements, from analysis of amino acids by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to molecular cloning of transporters for amino acids and small peptides. Amino Acids: Biochemistry and Nutrition presents comprehensive coverage of these scientific developments, providing a useful reference for students and researchers in both biomedicine and agriculture. The text begins with the discoveries and basic concepts of amino acids, peptides, and proteins, and then moves to protein digestion and absorption of peptides and amino acids. Additional chapters cover cell-, tissue-, and species-specific synthesis and catabolism of amino acids and related nitrogenous substances, as well as the use of isotopes to study amino acid metabolism in cells ...
Amino acid sequence in DENV2 NS2B/NS3 protease. The residues marked in bold are part of NS2B amino acid sequence. The residues marked in underline are His-tag.
WHAT ARE AMINO ACIDS? Amino acids are the building blocks of protein, and are vital to understanding the Krebs Cycle. They are individual crystalline molecules that make up protein, similar to the way letters make up the alphabet. There are 20 basic amino acids that produce over 1600 substances in the body. They make up 3/4ths of the body s solid material and are found in muscle tissue, organs, blood and skin. Amino acids also make hormones, enzymes, and vitamins, and are essential for a healthy immune system and proper neurological functions. It is necessary to replace amino acids constantly to nourish the body and to repair and regenerate tissue. Amino acids are generally ingested in the food we eat, however, because of processed foods, inadequate diets, and food restrictive programs, a proper balance is rarely achieved and supplementation is advisable. This holds to be true during illness, trauma, surgery and stress. More amino acids are required than can be obtained by food alone. In the chronically
There is a great deal of scientific information on amino acid structure and biochemical functioning. However, medical professionals and health-concerned individuals are typically most interested in the amino acid function. This web site provides information on each of the 20 primary amino acids as well as many of the secondary or minor amino acids so that you can better understand the powerful role amino acids play in your life.. Information on amino acids is presented at three levels depending on your interest/background:. 1) General Introduction to Amino Acids ...
NPC1s amino acid sequence homology to PATCHED, human HMG-CoA reductase and SCAP. Credit: Reprinted with permission from AAAS / Carstea et al., Science 277:228, 1997. />NPC1s amino acid sequence homology to PATCHED, human HMG-CoA reductase and SCAP. Credit: Reprinted with permission from AAAS / Carstea et al., Science 277:228, 1997. In the 1990s, the Ara Parseghian Foundation donated money to the National I. 0 Comments. ...
Amino acids functions AMINO ACIDS: DEFICITS, TYPES AND EXCESS Are amino acids very important? Amino acids are essential for proper functioning of our body. The contribution of amino acids through food proteins must be constant because if this contribution is stopped, our reserves would diminish (
(A) Alignment of amino acid sequence of all mouse Sox-high-mobility group (HMG) domains shaded with BOXSHADE. The Sox subfamilies are indicated to the right. Th
How Much Protein do You need?. A healthy adult is estimated to need around 40 to 65 grams of protein per day. If this is not provided in the food you eat, your body will begin to break down muscle and other tissues to obtain the amino acids it needs. Inadequate intake and digestion of amino acids from protein can lead to stunting, poor muscle formation, thin and fragile hair, skin lesions, a poorly functioning immune system, and many other symptoms.. In plant and animal foods, the amino acids you need are mainly provided in the form of large protein molecules that require all aspects of protein digestion-denaturation in the stomach and protease action in the intestines-before absorption. Free amino acids, which require no processing by the body before absorption, may also be present but are generally not found in large amounts.. In processed foods, protein is sometimes provided as hydrolyzed protein, which means it has been chemically cut into smaller chains from two to 200 amino acids called ...
WE offers a spectrum of amino acid products to support protein production and optimal health. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids to make proteins to help the body
M.P.E.P. Section 1823.02: Nucleotide and/or Amino Acid Sequence Listings, and Tables Related to Sequence Listings. Taken from the 9th Edition of the MPEP, Revision 08.2017, (Last Revised Jan. 2018). Updated in BitLaw in February 2018
Amino Acids are building blocks of proteins. All amino acids are comprised of 4 groups. The first three are common in all amino acids. They are: Alpha Carbon (C-H) Amine Group (N-H-H) Carboxyl Group (O-C-OH) The last is the R Group. The R Groups are what defines the individual amino acids. Some are polar…
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Amino acids are an essential part of what keeps the human body healthy, though its a known fact that most people dont know enough about amino acids despite the fact that they might have heard of them before. Have you ever heard of amino acids and do you know what they do? Even though you might know about amino acids, you might not know just what they do in the body.. ...
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Alex X. - As I said at the beginning, amino acid is good for our body. It is the building block of proteins. Even if we are not sick, it is always good for our body to ingest some amino acids. There are particular pills made for that. And amino acids can also be used to treat disease. Here is an example that I found online: tyrosine, which is one of the amino acids, can be used to treat Alzhemers disease. ...
In this article, we reviewed the specificity of amino acid metabolism in the brain. We considered the results of many basic studies that supported a role of amino acids as neurotransmitters, substrates for synthesis of neuroactive peptides, proteins, and other biologically active substances in the CNS. These data suggest that changes in the pool of amino acids may be involved in the development of CNS pathologies ...
Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids to make proteins to help the body. We Have a Big Selection for every Athlete Needs
Any protein that you consume must be broken down into amino acids in the small intestines, absorbed through the tissues and then taken to the liver where it is broken into ketones. At this point, amino acids can be used for repair. Since you dont use protein for fuel during exercise, the protein that is in a bar or packaged food is broken down many times before it can be used to repair. So if you look at a bar that has 10, 15 or 20 grams of protein, think about how much protein you are actually getting into the muscles and tissues after it is broken down? Not very much. However, BCAAs are not broken down in the liver. They go right to the skeletal muscles and after they are metabolized they can actually be used for immediate fuel. I think everyone would benefit from amino acids during exercise to help you go longer and to delay fatigue. Even for the short workouts, a scoop of base performance with 30 calories may help you increase your running or cycling pace and help you get in a high ...
Amino acids are a group of organic compounds that are essential for all life forms. There are several and different types of amino acids.
Every protein in a cell is created through the transcription of a specific sequence, that is part of the DNA. This transcription provides the sequence in which amino acids are to be linked, to form a protein.
What are free form amino acids? What amino acids should vegans supplement with? What amino acids are best for the gym? These questions and more are answered...
Amino acids are important for health and well-being. They help grow hair, skin, and nails as well as help the formation of enzymes. Amino acids help the bodys immune system ward off disease. Amino acids make up proteins.
Amino acids are important for health and well-being. They help grow hair, skin, and nails as well as help the formation of enzymes. Amino acids help the bodys immune system ward off disease. Amino acids make up proteins.
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Amino acids are the basic building blocks for tissues, organs, muscles, skin and hair. As the precursors of enzymes and neurotransmitters amino acids regulate almost all of the metabolic processes in the human body, and they are essential for a healthy body. LEARN MORE...
Amino acids serve many functions including as building blocks for proteins, neurotransmitters, precursors to hormones, and enzyme co-factors. More than 70 disorders of amino acid metabolism have been described. The clinical manifestations of these disorders are diverse.
Amino acids display remarkable metabolic and regulatory versatility. They serve as essential precursors for the synthesis of proteins and other biologically important molecules and also regulate metabolic pathways vital to the health, growth, development, and functional integrity of animals. Future studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanisms that regulate amino acid metabolism at cellular, tissue, and whole-body levels. Better understand ing of these processes will lead to improved efficiency of protein production by animals.. Was this article helpful?. ...
Amino Acids list and information including what is Amino Acids, health benefits and usage indications. Find articles and product list for other top low-carb products, fat-burners, nutrition bars and shakes.
Amino Acids list and information including what is Amino Acids, health benefits and usage indications. Find articles and product list for other top low-carb products, fat-burners, nutrition bars and shakes.
Amino acids are used in the human body to make proteins which help the body grow, repair body tissue and break down food. Amino acids help with muscle control, build muscle tissue and protect the...
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From strengthening plant cells to resisting disease, or breaking down nutrients in the soil to strengthening roots, amino acids are the building blocks of
Amino acids have many benefits for the body, but excessive levels of amino acids can harm the body, bringing on a whole host of side effects to your health.
Anti-aging amino acids like creatine help with collagen production and maintain the youthful glow on skin. Learn how they work here.
Healthy bodies require optimal nutrition. Contained within healthy foods are simple components called amino acids that are required to build protein. What are amino acids and what happens if the body lacks them?
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They display significant amino acid sequence homology. Sixteen cysteine residues, forming 8 disulfide bonds, are strictly ... Piscivorin has the following amino acid sequence. Piscivorin reduces high potassium-evoked smooth muscle contraction, but does ... A sequence comparison of piscivorin and other CRISP family proteins suggests that the Glu186 residue is the crucial site for ... The nucleotide sequence of piscivorin cDNA spans 1323 bp, containing an open reading frame of 240 codons. ...
There is a high homology in the amino acid sequence within each family. Each family couples to the same second messenger ...
... coding for 2,710 amino acids. TcdA and TcdB share 63% homology in their amino acid sequences. These genes are expressed during ... A centrally located hydrophobic domain containing a cluster of 172 highly conserved hydrophobic amino acids is thought to be ... which transfers a glucose molecule from UDP-Glucose and covalently attaches it to conserved amino acids in target molecules. ... Due to its homology with other proteins of similar function, as well as the location of the gene between tcdA and tcdB, tcdE is ...
The complete amino acid sequence has been defined and it displays 68% sequence homology with charybdotoxin. Iberiotoxin binds ... Iberiotoxin is a 37-amino acid peptide. The formula is C179H274N50O55S7. It is also known as "Potassium channel toxin alpha-KTx ...
The amino-acid sequence of WaTx bears little resemblance to other peptides in terms of homology. Although the toxin was ... which consists of 33 amino-acid residues. Its amino-acid sequence is as follows: Ala-Ser-Pro-Gln-Gln-Ala-Lys-Tyr-Cys-Tyr-Glu- ... Val-Pro-Phe-Asp-Asp-Gln-Cys-Tyr-Gln-Met-Cys-Ser-Pro-Leu-Glu-Arg-Ser The pattern of cysteine residues in the amino acid sequence ... Secondly, the amino-terminal in WaTx exhibits a dense dipole moment. Other proteins with the ability to penetrate the plasma ...
IUPAC needed a coding system that represented long sequences of amino acids. This would allow for these sequences to be ... compared to try to find homologies. These codes can consist of either a one-letter code or a three-letter code. These codes ... Amino Acid Codes Archived 5 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine retrieved 15 April 2010 Amino Acid and Nucleotide Base Codes ... The codes for amino acids (24 amino acids and three special codes) are: The Experimental Thermodynamics books series covers ...
HgTX1 is 39 amino acids long and shows an overall amino acid sequence homology of 89% to margatoxin (MgTX). Hongotoxin (HgTX) ...
Historically, the similarity of different amino acid sequences has been the most common method of inferring homology. Sequence ... Amino acid sequence is typically more conserved than DNA sequence (due to the degenerate genetic code), so is a more sensitive ... even if no sequence similarity is evident. Sequence homology can then be deduced even if not apparent (due to low sequence ... Over very long evolutionary timescales, very few residues show detectable amino acid sequence conservation, however secondary ...
Amino acid sequence alignment of the two β subunit types reveals a homology of ~50% identity, with specific regions conserved ... Because succinic acid can not be made from succinyl coa, treatment is with oral succinic acid, which allows the krebs cycle, ... an essential component of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. SCS-A hydrolyzes ATP to convert succinyl-CoA to succinate. Defects in ... as a step in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The ATP generated is then consumed in catabolic pathways. Since substrate- ...
Amino acid side groups extend into the tunnel and act as "gates". A couple of particularly bulky residues may be impassable by ... A crystal structure, with bound products, of aclacinomycin methylesterase, an [enzyme] with 53% sequence homology to Dnr P, ... The tunnel is about 17-Å long and one side has many charged amino acid residues which appear to be stabilizing the carbonyl ... Dnr C, alkalonic acid-O-methyltransferase methylates the carboxylic acid end of the molecule forming an ester, using S-adenosyl ...
... shows sequence homology with a twelve amino acid protein on the surface of human astrocytes. Antibodies are produced for the ... Assuming five to six amino acid residues are used to induce a monoclonal antibody response, the probability of 20 amino acids ... A twelve amino acid sequence (Leu-Gly-Ile-Trp-Gly-Cys-Ser-Gly-Lys-Leu-Ile-Cys) on gp41 of the HIV-1 virus (immunodominant ... Either the linear amino acid sequence or the conformational fit of the immunodominant epitope may be shared between the ...
TsPep2 differs in the mature sequence from TsPep3 only in one amino acid and TsPep1 shows 58,6% of sequence homology with ... The original encoded sequence of TsPep2 consists of 68 amino acids processed in a mature peptide of 29 amino acids with a final ... Furthermore, TsPep2 sequence alignment shows that a part of the amino acid consensus sequence (CXXXKCCXC) involved in the pore ... TsPep2 is identified from the venom of Tityus serrulatus by using a cDNA primer sequence based on the C-terminal amino acid ...
... ting transfer may be used for homology-based cloning on the basis of amino acid sequence of the protein product of ... Sequences that hybridize with the hybridization probe are further analysed, for example, to obtain the full length sequence of ... If some of the DNA fragments are larger than 15 kb, then prior to blotting, the gel may be treated with an acid, such as dilute ... A Southern blot is a method used in molecular biology for detection of a specific DNA sequence in DNA samples. Southern ...
"Human Thyroid Autoantigens and Proteins of Yersinia and Borrelia Share Amino Acid Sequence Homology That Includes Binding ...
... mutating into amino acid b {\displaystyle b} [2]. In a large set of sequence alignments, counting the number of amino acids as ... Homology is the relationship between biological structures or sequences derived from a common ancestor. Homologous proteins ( ... describes a sequence of amino acids around position l {\displaystyle l} of a sequence, is based on K {\displaystyle K} context ... A sequence profile represents a multiple alignment of homologous sequences and describes what amino acids are likely to occur ...
There is a 70% sequence homology between mouse and rat and a 45% homology between human and mouse. The N-terminal, however, is ... FDC-SP is a 68-amino acid protein containing a signal peptide at its N terminus, which is used for directing the transport of ... Although it shares no sequence homology with chemokines or cytokines, FDC-SP has several properties in common with several ... including molecular mass and amino acid composition. The FDC-SP gene is also located next to a group of proline-rich salivary ...
The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for ... Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It may be useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. ... An oligopeptide, often just called peptide (oligo-, "a few"), consists of two to twenty amino acids and can include dipeptides ... which act specifically to inhibit acid proteases such as pepsin and renin. Peptide T - N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl ...
The overall homology between rat SDH and human SDH is 81% in the nucleotide sequence and 84% in the amino acid sequence. ... Figure 8 shows the sequence similarities of the amino acid sequence of human SDH with those of rat SDH, and yeast and E. coli ... cDNA cloning and sequence homology with hydroxyamino acid dehydratases from other sources". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... Human SDH shows sequence homology of 27% with the yeast enzyme and 27% with the E. coli enzyme. Additionally, the primary ...
By comparison type C has a higher amino acid sequence homology to human MPV. HMPV and AMPV-C share up to 80% of the amino acid ... In comparison AMPV-C shares only 60-70% of the amino acid identity with AMPV-A and AMPV-B. The glycoproteins F and G, which are ... Even though there is a great homology between hMPV and aMPV-C, no infections of the aMPV-C in humans have been noticed. Also ... Sugiyama, Miki; Ito, Hiroshi; Hata, Yusuke; Ono, Eriko; Ito, Toshihiro (2010-07-31). "Complete nucleotide sequences of avian ...
The toxins AFT-II (from Anthopleura fuscoviridis) and ATX-II differ by only one amino acid, L36A, and the protein sequence of ... they belong to distinct families and share no sequence homology. ... Amino-Acid Sequence of a Coelenterate Toxin: Toxin II from ... "ATX-II" is an acronym for "anemone toxin". ATX-II is a protein comprising 47 amino acids crosslinked by three disulfide bridges ... Moreover, studies suggest that ATX-II interacts with glutamic acid residue (Glu-1613 and 1616 in Nav1.2) on the third and ...
100 amino acid residues and have distinct C-termini. The full-length MTag protein is around 420 amino acids long. Like STag, ... MTag is also well known from the hamster polyomavirus, although the sequence C-terminal to the J domain has little homology ... forming a protein domain called the J domain which has sequence homology to DnaJ molecular chaperone proteins. MTag and STag ... Until recently, these were the only two polyomaviruses known to encode MTag, but in 2015 the genome sequence of a rat ...
... or nonsynonymous mutation will affect protein function based on physical properties of the amino acid and sequence homology. ... Synonymous SNPs do not affect the protein sequence, while nonsynonymous SNPs change the amino acid sequence of protein. SNPs in ... SNPs within a coding sequence do not necessarily change the amino acid sequence of the protein that is produced, due to ... followed by a three-letter abbreviation for the amino acid, followed by a number for the position of the amino acid, followed ...
... with an amino acid sequence similar to innexins), in fact functions as a single-membrane channel that communicates with the ... Innexins have no significant sequence homology with connexins. Though differing in sequence to connexins, innexins are similar ... ISBN 978-0-8153-3218-3.[page needed] C. elegans Sequencing, Consortium (Dec 11, 1998). "Genome sequence of the nematode C. ... Prutkin L (February 1975). "Mucous metaplasia and gap junctions in the vitamin A acid-treated skin tumor, keratoacanthoma". ...
... a group of short peptides consisting of 36-37 amino acid residues and three disulfide bridges. LbTX displays 57% sequence ... homology with charybdotoxin and 70% sequence homology with iberiotoxin. LbTX contains a β-sheet formed by three anti-parallel β ... Limbatustoxin (LbTX; α-KTx 1.4) is a 37-amino acid peptide, which belongs to the α-KTx 1.x subfamily, ... Based on the 70% homology with iberiotoxin, it seems likely that the limbatustoxin selectively inhibits the current through the ...
... identified through gene knockout or proteomics approaches are often obscure if they have low amino acid sequence homology with ... of protein engineering for drug discovery or biophysics applications involve modification of the protein amino acid sequence ... Less flexible versions were obtained by truncating, mutating, and inserting T4 lysozyme in the recombinant sequence. One of the ... Thermofluor provides a high throughput method for the evaluation of the effects of such sequence variations on protein ...
Although reticulons do not share any primary sequence homology with DP1/Yop1p proteins, both families have a conserved domain ... of approximately 200 amino acids containing two hydrophobic segments (longer than conventional α-helical transmembrane domains ... REEP proteins can be classified into two groups or sub-families depending on their sequence. All of them have paired ...
... sequence homology, amino acid MeSH G06.184.842.200.820 - structural homology, protein MeSH G06.184.842.550 - sequence homology ... amino acid sequence MeSH G06.184.603.060.040 - amino acid motifs MeSH G06.184.603.060.040.500 - f-box motifs MeSH G06.184. ... repetitive sequences, amino acid MeSH G06.184.603.060.720.030 - ankyrin repeat MeSH G06.184.603.080 - base sequence MeSH ... repetitive sequences, nucleic acid MeSH G06.184.603.080.708.330 - interspersed repetitive sequences MeSH G06.184.603.080. ...
In protein redesign, most of the residues in the sequence are maintained as their wild-type amino-acid while a few are allowed ... Richardson and coworkers designed a 79-residue protein with no sequence homology to a known protein. In the 1990s, the advent ... In these cases, the amino acid identity of each rotamer can be ignored and all rotamers belonging to different amino acids can ... The goal in rational protein design is to predict amino acid sequences that will fold to a specific protein structure. Although ...
The amino acid sequence of the astrovirus capsid protein does not have similar homology to other known viral proteins, but the ... used Sanger sequencing to discover a novel astrovirus in stool samples from children suffering from an acute gastroenteritis ... sequence astrovirus RNA and determine the presence of three ORFs and ribosomal frameshifting 1993: Monroe et al. classify ... May 2009). "Complete sequence of a duck astrovirus associated with fatal hepatitis in ducklings". The Journal of General ...
This is not to be confused with conservation in amino acid sequences, where the amino acid at a specific position has been ... Homology among DNA, RNA, or proteins is typically inferred from their nucleotide or amino acid sequence similarity. Significant ... A sequence alignment of mammalian histone proteins. Sequences are the middle 120-180 amino acid residues of the proteins. ... Sequence homology is the biological homology between DNA, RNA, or protein sequences, defined in terms of shared ancestry in the ...
They each share about 25% amino acid sequence identity with RAD51 and with each other.[28] ... RAD51 is involved in the search for homology and strand pairing stages of the process. ... In humans, RAD51 is a 339-amino acid protein that plays a major role in homologous recombination of DNA during double strand ... "Nucleic Acids Research. 25 (19): 3868-74. doi:10.1093/nar/25.19.3868. PMC 146972 . PMID 9380510.. ...
Homology modeling can be used to construct an atomic-resolution model of the "target" integral protein from its amino acid ... sequence and an experimental three-dimensional structure of a related homologous protein. This procedure has been extensively ... "Nucleic Acids Res. 37 (Database issue): D274-8. doi:10.1093/nar/gkn862. PMC 2686586. PMID 19022853.. ... is embedded in the hydrophobic regions of the bilayer are alpha helical and composed of predominantly hydrophobic amino acids. ...
... it lacks D-amino acids and N-acetylmuramic acid.[102]. Archaea flagella operate like bacterial flagella-their long stalks are ... In 1977, Carl Woese, a microbiologist studying the genetic sequencing of organisms, developed a new sequencing method that ... Engelhardt H; Peters J (1998). "Structural research on surface layers: a focus on stability, surface layer homology domains, ... Deppenmeier, U. (2002). "The unique biochemistry of methanogenesis". Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. Progress in Nucleic Acid ...
... while long-period and short-period mutants of per changed the amino acid sequence of a still functional protein.[10][11] ... "Product of per locus of Drosophila shares homology with proteoglycans". Nature. 320 (6058): 185-188. doi:10.1038/320185a0 ... A new gene located on chromosome 2 was named timeless (tim) and was successfully cloned and sequenced. They found strong ... by determining the sequence of the gene on the X chromosome, they found that the arrhythmic mutation produced a functionless ...
They share amino acid sequence homology and core structural similarity to a specific class of major histones but also have ... compared amino acid compositions in the same histone from different organisms, and compared amino acid sequences of the same ... The single-letter amino acid abbreviation (e.g., K for Lysine) and the amino acid position in the protein ... 3. Complete amino acid sequence of pea seedling histone IV; comparison with the homologous calf thymus histone". The Journal of ...
... amino acids - anaphylactic shock - anemia - anergy - angiogenesis - angiomatosis - anorexia - antenatal - antibiotic - ... homology (biology) - hormone - host - host factors - HPTN - HPV - HRSA - HTLV-I - HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic ... long terminal repeat sequence (LTR) - long-term nonprogressors - LTR - lumbar - lumbar puncture - lymph - lymph nodes - ... nucleic acid - nucleic acid test - nucleocapsid - nucleoli - nucleoside - nucleoside analog - nucleoside reverse transcriptase ...
Specific amino acid sequences (PTS or peroxisomal targeting signal) at the C-terminus (PTS1) or N-terminus (PTS2) of ... Two independent evolutionary analyses of the peroxisomal proteome found homologies between the peroxisomal import machinery and ... They are involved in catabolism of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids, D-amino acids, and polyamines, ... The protein receptors, the peroxins PEX5 and PEX7, accompany their cargoes (containing a PTS1 or a PTS2 amino acid sequence, ...
... results in an amino acid switch: valine to methionine exchange at codon 66, Val66Met, which is in the prodomain of BDNF.[39][38 ... A common SNP in the BDNF gene is rs6265.[39] This point mutation in the coding sequence, a guanine to adenine switch at ... Fyn associates with the pICD-TrkB through its Src homology domain 2 (SH2) and is phosphorylated at its Y416 site.[47][48] Once ... as the amino acid change occurs on the portion of the prodomain where sortilin binds; and sortilin is essential for normal ...
... ting transfer may be used for homology-based cloning on the basis of amino acid sequence of the protein product of ... Sequences that hybridize with the hybridization probe are further analysed, for example, to obtain the full length sequence of ... A Southern blot is a method used in molecular biology for detection of a specific DNA sequence in DNA samples. Southern ... If some of the DNA fragments are larger than 15 kb, then prior to blotting, the gel may be treated with an acid, such as dilute ...
Implications of Comparative Analysis of Amino Acid Sequences". Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 28 (5): ... Patterson, C (November 1988). "Homology in classical and molecular biology.". Molecular Biology and Evolution 5 (6): 603-25. ... International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium (October 2004). "Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome". ... Watson, J. D.; Crick, FH (1953). "Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid" (PDF). Nature ...
TNF is primarily produced as a 233-amino acid-long type II transmembrane protein arranged in stable homotrimers.[24][25] From ... The sequential and functional homology of TNF and LT led to the renaming of TNF as TNFα (this article) and LT as TNFβ. In 1985 ... positive regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity. • cellular response to nicotine. • positive ... cellular response to amino acid stimulus. • negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand. ...
The Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASp) is a 502-amino acid protein expressed in cells of the hematopoietic system. In the ... It is located towards the C-terminal end of the protein and contains four motifs: two verprolin homology motifs (VV) binds ... A transcript variant arising as a result of alternative promoter usage, and containing a different 5' UTR sequence, has been ... Bunnell SC, Henry PA, Kolluri R, Kirchhausen T, Rickles RJ, Berg LJ (October 1996). "Identification of Itk/Tsk Src homology 3 ...
... s range in size from 12 to 80 amino acid residues and have a wide range of structures.[8] Most cathelicidins are ... The cathelicidin family shares primary sequence homology with the cystatin[9] family of cysteine proteinase inhibitors, ... Even larger cathelicidin peptides (39-80 amino acid residues) are also present. These larger cathelicidins display repetitive ... although amino acid residues thought to be important in such protease inhibition are usually lacking. ...
... and at 786 amino acids is the longest one.[10] Amino acid sequence homology of this isoform of human CASS4 with other family ... but lacks obvious similarity at the level of primary amino acid sequence. It also lacks a YDYVHL sequence at the N-terminal end ... 786 amino acids, considered the major isoform), the third one contains 6 exons and encodes a shorter isoform b (732 amino acids ... 349 amino acids). Cumulatively, the CASS4 transcripts are most highly expressed in spleen and lung among normal tissues, and ...
... based on the amino acid sequences of venom proteins". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 8 (3): 349-62. CiteSeerX 10.1. ... This result calls into question the monophyly of cobras and underscores the uncertainty of the homology of the hood spreading ...
The SET domain is a 130-amino acid sequence involved in modulating gene activities. This domain has been demonstrated to bind ... "DNA damage, homology-directed repair, and DNA methylation". PLoS Genet. 3 (7): e110. PMC 1913100 . PMID 17616978. doi:10.1371/ ... Histone proteins are made up of long chains of amino acids. If the amino acids that are in the chain are changed, the shape of ... The first way is post translational modification of the amino acids that make up histone proteins. ...
... and Estimation of Divergence Dates Based on α-Lactalbumin Amino Acid Sequences". Journal of Mammalian Evolution. 5 (1): 95-105 ... One of the X chromosomes of the platypus has great homology to the bird Z chromosome.[77] The platypus genome also has both ... More than 80% of the platypus's genes are common to the other mammals whose genomes have been sequenced.[40] ... A draft version of the platypus genome sequence was published in Nature on 8 May 2008, revealing both reptilian and mammalian ...
The individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues. The sequence of amino ... known as homology modeling, relies on the existence of a "template" structure with sequence similarity to the protein being ... Proteins are assembled from amino acids using information encoded in genes. Each protein has its own unique amino acid sequence ... amino acids. All proteinogenic amino acids possess common structural features, including an α-carbon to which an amino group, a ...
"Molecular cloning and amino acid sequence of human 5-lipoxygenase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85 (1): 26-30. doi:10.1073/ ... "5-Lipoxygenase contains a functional Src homology 3-binding motif that interacts with the Src homology 3 domain of Grb2 and ... Arachidonic acidEdit. ALOX5 metabolizes the omega-6 fatty acid, Arachidonic acid (AA, i.e. 5Z,8Z,11Z,15Z-eicosatrienoic acid), ... Eicosapentaenoic acidEdit. ALOX5 metabolizes the omega-3 fatty acid, Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, i.e. 4Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z- ...
... discovered the relationship between changes in amino-acid sequence and changes in protein structure by analyzing the mechanism ... known as homology modelling. ... sources and methods for sequence analysis. Oxford [Oxfordshire ... "The relation between the divergence of sequence and structure in proteins". The EMBO Journal. 5 (4): 823-826. doi:10.1002/j. ...
The amino acid sequence and arrangement of their residues that occur within the active site, the position where the substrate ... belonging to GH9 Family show highest sequence homology to metazoan endogenous cellulases. Algal cellulases are modular, ... Depending on their amino acid sequence and tertiary structures, cellulases are divided into clans and families.[15] ... Numerous "signature" sequences known as dockerins and cohesins have been identified in the genomes of bacteria that produce ...
... they share gene sequence and amino acid sequence homology. They all also possess conserved amino acids that are important for ... those with a specific amino acid sequence (or motif) of glutamic acid-leucine-arginine (or ELR for short) immediately before ... The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino terminus. There have ... A loop of approximately ten amino acids follows the first two cysteines and is known as the N-loop. This is followed by a ...
A study from Hokkaido University found a homology between the Hemagglutinin antigen amino acid residues found in the earlier ... Some discussion of sequence homologies can be found at "FluTracker.com". . The first strains released are A/California/09/2009 ... Gene sequences for every viral gene were made available through the Global Initiative on Sharing Avian Influenza Data (GISAID ... Gene sequence information from Influenza Research Database Graphical Image of the viral makeup of the 2009 pandemic h1n1 virus ...
"HMGB1 interacts with many apparently unrelated proteins by recognizing short amino acid sequences". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (9): ... transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcription regulatory region DNA binding. • sequence- ... "Nucleic Acids Res. 23 (7): 1184-91. doi:10.1093/nar/23.7.1184. PMC 306829 . PMID 7739897.. ... RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. Cellular component. • nucleoplasm. • actin ...
... amino acid sequences and DNA sequences. Proteins with the same three-dimensional structure need not have identical amino acid ... In contrast, there is evidence for homology of the central subunits of Transmembrane ATPases throughout all living organisms, ... that code redundantly for the same amino acid. Since many species use the same codon at the same place to specify an amino acid ... Had the amino acid sequences come from different ancestors, they would have been coded for by any of the redundant codons, and ...
Seddiqi N, Bollengier F, Alliel PM, Périn JP, Bonnet F, Bucquoy S, Jollès P, Schoentgen F (1994). "Amino acid sequence of the ... Tohdoh N, Tojo S, Agui H, Ojika K (1995). "Sequence homology of rat and human HCNP precursor proteins, bovine ... Hori N, Chae KS, Murakawa K, Matoba R, Fukushima A, Okubo K, Matsubara K (1994). "A human cDNA sequence homologue of bovine ... Moore C, Perry AC, Love S, Hall L (1996). "Sequence analysis and immunolocalisation of phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein ...
The complete amino acid sequence". European Journal of Biochemistry. 169 (3): 547-53. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1987.tb13644.x. ... study by chemical cross-linking and three-dimensional homology modeling". Biochemistry. 34 (22): 7311-21. doi:10.1021/ ... The complete amino acid sequence". European Journal of Biochemistry. 169 (3): 547-53. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1987.tb13644.x. ... Cyanogen bromide cleavage and N-terminal sequences of the fragments". The Biochemical Journal. 215 (3): 565-71. doi:10.1042/ ...
Rinderknecht E، Humbel RE (1978). "The amino acid sequence of human insulin-like growth factor I and its structural homology ... "Sequence of cDNA encoding human insulin-like growth factor I precursor". Nature. 306 (5943): 609-11. PMID 6358902. doi:10.1038/ ...
... corresponds either to one of the twenty possible amino acids in a protein or an instruction to end the amino acid sequence; ... By comparing the homology between different species' genomes, it is possible to calculate the evolutionary distance between ... The nucleotide sequence of a messenger RNA is used to create an amino acid sequence in protein; this translation between ... and the DNA sequence of a gene (through an RNA intermediate) is used to produce a specific amino acid sequence. This process ...
Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are enzymes that acetylate conserved lysine amino acids on histone proteins by transferring ... ACTR (also known as RAC3, AIB1, and TRAM-1 in humans) shares significant sequence homology with SRC-1, in particular in the N- ... PCAF (p300/CBP-associated factor) and GCN5 are mammalian GNATs that share a high degree of homology throughout their sequences ... HATs can be grouped into several different families based on sequence homology as well as shared structural features and ...
... and that the common examples of homology can be better explained by Creation. ... A review of the literature on homology indicates that the theory does not provide evidence for evolutionary naturalism, ... With some minor variations, all life uses the same sugar and lipid family, the same 20 amino acids, about 14 vitamins and the ... Genetics and homology According to the evolutionary theory, homologous features are programmed by similar genes. Gene sequence ...
Amino Acid Sequence Homology. The degree of similarity between sequences of Amino Acids. This information is useful for the ...
The predicted amino acid sequence of Piv shows significant homology solely with the transposases/integrases of a family of ... Amino acid sequence homology between Piv, an essential protein in site-specific DNA inversion in Moraxella lacunata, and ... Amino acid sequence homology between Piv, an essential protein in site-specific DNA inversion in Moraxella lacunata, and ... Amino acid sequence homology between Piv, an essential protein in site-specific DNA inversion in Moraxella lacunata, and ...
The complete nucleotide sequence of potato virus X and its homologies at the amino acid level with various plus-stranded RNA ... Double-stranded cDNA of potato virus X (PVX) genomic RNA has been cloned and sequenced. The sequence [6435 nucleotides ... The ORF 1 product contained domains of homology with the tobacco mosaic virus 126K and 183K products. The ORF 2 and 3 products ... The significance of these homologies with respect to putative functions of the PVX-encoded proteins are discussed. ...
By reducing homologies of such peptide vaccines to host proteins, the possibility of autoimmune complications may be reduced, ... amino acid sequences between tandemly repeated Plasmodium amino acid sequences and the human and human viral sequences compiled ... Matches of at least 4 amino acids were found for all sequences. In the database, 29 matches were found for human proteins and ... Six published repetitive immunogenic amino acid sequences from the circumsporozoite (CS) antigen, ring-infected erythrocyte ...
Results for Sequence Homology, Amino Acid. Publications & Outputs. *. Lymphocryptovirus phylogeny and the origins of Epstein- ... A multidimensional strategy to detect polypharmacological targets in the absence of structural and sequence homology. Durrant, ...
Amino acid sequence of the Fc region of a canine immunoglobulin M: interspecies homology for the IgM class ... Amino acid sequence of the Fc region of a canine immunoglobulin M: interspecies homology for the IgM class ... Amino acid sequence of the Fc region of a canine immunoglobulin M: interspecies homology for the IgM class ... Amino acid sequence of the Fc region of a canine immunoglobulin M: interspecies homology for the IgM class ...
... and the mature peptide sequences are indicated by red. b Comparison and analysis of amino acid sequence homology of mature IAPP ... The blue box marks the nucleotide sequence that does not cause amino acid changes. b A pie chart of amino acid differences ... Amino acid sequence homology analysis of IAPP mature peptides of various species. The human IAPP gene is located on the short ... 1a). The mature IAPP peptides between different species have high homology. The amino acid sequence of the IAPP mature peptide ...
They display significant amino acid sequence homology. Sixteen cysteine residues, forming 8 disulfide bonds, are strictly ... Piscivorin has the following amino acid sequence. Piscivorin reduces high potassium-evoked smooth muscle contraction, but does ... A sequence comparison of piscivorin and other CRISP family proteins suggests that the Glu186 residue is the crucial site for ... The nucleotide sequence of piscivorin cDNA spans 1323 bp, containing an open reading frame of 240 codons. ...
COMPASS is a profile-based method for the detection of remote sequence similarity and the prediction of protein structure. Here ... Sequence Homology, Amino Acid* * Software* * User-Computer Interface Grant support * GM67165/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/United States ... COMPASS server for homology detection: improved statistical accuracy, speed and functionality Nucleic Acids Res. 2009 Jul;37( ... COMPASS is a profile-based method for the detection of remote sequence similarity and the prediction of protein structure. Here ...
... distributes protein sequence data within the framework of the tripartite association of the PIR-International Protein Sequence ... Martinsried Institute for Protein Sequences) at the Max-Planck-Institute for Biochemistry, Martinsried near Munich, Germany, ... MIPS: a database for protein sequences, homology data and yeast genome information Nucleic Acids Res. 1997 Jan 1;25(1):28-30. ... Amino Acid Sequence* * Computer Communication Networks * Databases, Factual* * Genome, Fungal* * Germany * Saccharomyces ...
Karp, D. R., Parker, K. L., Shreffler, D. C., Slaughter, C. A., & Capra, J. D. (1982). Amino acid sequence homologies and ... Karp, D. R. ; Parker, K. L. ; Shreffler, D. C. ; Slaughter, Clive A. ; Capra, J. D. / Amino acid sequence homologies and ... Amino acid sequence homologies and glycosylation differences between the fourth component of murine complement and sex-limited ... Amino acid sequence homologies and glycosylation differences between the fourth component of murine complement and sex-limited ...
Amino acid substitutions in CL6 were found to alter Wzz-mediated O-antigen modality, with evidence suggesting that these ... as was the overall sequence homology between these two periplasmic loops in each protein. ... The amino acid sequence of the hydrophobic Iap peptide displayed sequence homology with a region in the first TMS of both Wzz ... Identification of sequence homology between PL3 and PL5 in WzyPa has led to the discovery of RX10G amino acid tracts in both ...
There is a high homology in the amino acid sequence within each family. Each family couples to the same second messenger ...
A Homology of the Deduced Amino Acid Sequence of MGDG Synthase cDNA with That of MurG in Bacteria.. A homology search of all ... Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the cucumber MGDG synthase. Amino acid sequences of peptides obtained from the ... The deduced amino acid sequence of the MGDG synthase cDNA shows homology with MurG, of Bacillus subtilis and E. coli, which ... In addition, the deduced amino acid sequence of the MGDG synthase cDNA showed homology with MurG of Bacillus subtilis and E. ...
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid. *Substrate Specificity. *Transfection. Get free article suggestions today. Mendeley saves you ... Interestingly, bfGnRHR-2 has an 85% amino acid homology with Xenopus GnRHR. Less than 53% amino acid identity was observed ... The bfGnRHR-1, bfGnRHR-2, and bfGnRHR-3 proteins have an amino acid identity of approximately 30% to approximately 35% with ...
... amino acid sequence and results of homology search), and expression profile ... Representative amino acid sequence translated from DNA sequence.. Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames). Amino acid ... Contig sequences and their annotation (amino acid sequence and results of homology search), and expression profile Data detail ... Contig sequences and their annotation (amino acid sequence and results of homology search), and expression profile. ...
RAT EPIDERMAL GROWTH-FACTOR - COMPLETE AMINO-ACID-SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY WITH THE CORRESPONDING MURINE AND HUMAN PROTEINS - ...
T1 - The amino acid sequence of rabbit skeletal muscle troponin C. T2 - Gene replication and homology with calcium -binding ... The amino acid sequence of rabbit skeletal muscle troponin C: Gene replication and homology with calcium -binding proteins from ... The amino acid sequence of rabbit skeletal muscle troponin C : Gene replication and homology with calcium -binding proteins ... The amino acid sequence of rabbit skeletal muscle troponin C : Gene replication and homology with calcium -binding proteins ...
... whose amino acid sequence was elucidated earlier, and to rat RBP. The rat RBP sequence was obtained by combining information ... was isolated and its amino acid sequence determined. Rabbit RBP was found to be highly homologous to human RBP, ... The amino acid differences between rabbit, rat, and human RBP are discussed in light of the recent elucidation of the three- ... The identity between the three proteins is approximately 90%. The high degree of homology between RBP molecules from different ...
Sequence homology between Hsm3 and Msh1. The deduced amino acid sequence of Hsm3 was compared with that of Msh1. For the two ... According to the GenBank database, the Hsm3 amino acid sequence shows weak homology to the S. cerevisiae MSH1 gene product (F ... protein sequences, the straight lines indicate identical amino acids, and dotted lines indicate similar amino acids (double ... 1989a Cloning and nucleotide sequence of DNA mismatch repair gene PMS1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Homology of PMS1 to ...
B) Amino acid sequence homology between myocardin and MRTFs. Colored bars correspond to the conserved regions shown in A. (C) ... The overall amino acid identity between the three proteins is ≈35%, whereas they share ,60% amino acid identity within the ... 6). The mouse myocardin protein sequence reported here has an additional 128 amino acid residues at the N terminus of the ... In the course of characterizing the MRTF sequences, we discovered that myocardin contains an additional 128 amino acids N- ...
Amino acid sequence homology searches were also performed. The 2mEPSPS protein did not display any characteristics of a ... The amino acid sequence of the 2mEPSPS was compared to several protein sequence databases and was shown to share no significant ... amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, gossypol and cyclopropenoid fatty acids all fall within the range of those of the ... Nutritional components of cotton event GHB614 such as proximates, amino acids and fatty acids were compared with unmodified ...
In this manner, the amino acid at position 434 contributes significantly to the selectivity. Another structural difference is ... the sequence homology is merely 65% [22]. Hence, in the case of meloxicam, a slightly different binding pattern in COX-1 and ... Accurate hydrogen bonding interactions occur with crucial active site key amino acids Arg120 (OCH3 (A2)), Ser530 (N-thiazole ( ... the meloxicam does not interact directly with binding site amino acid residues (Table 2) [22]. Particularly, meloxicam makes ...
Sequence Analysis, DNA. Sequence Homology, Amino Acid. Grant Support. ID/Acronym/Agency: RR12596/RR/NCRR NIH HHS ... BLAST searches of the databanks using complete or partial MUA-3 amino acid sequence revealed a closely related C. elegans gene ... B) The domain/module structure of the MUA-3 protein as deduced from the predicted amino acid sequence. The two letter module ... amino acid sequence identity with MUA-3 in the shared portions of the extracellular domain. The cytoplasmic domains of MUA-3 ...
... was isolated and its DNA sequence determined. The cDNA is assumed to encode alpha-1-antitrypsin on the basis of its sequence ... A cDNA clone encoding the complete coding sequence for porcine alpha-1-antitrypsin (or alpha 1-protease inhibitor, PI) ... Sequence Analysis, DNA. Sequence Homology, Amino Acid. Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid. Swine / genetics*. alpha 1-Antitrypsin ... was isolated and its DNA sequence determined. The cDNA is assumed to encode alpha-1-antitrypsin on the basis of its sequence ...
Complete amino acid sequence homology was found. Detection of wolf and dog IgA was ascertained by showing identity using double ... and their nucleotide sequences were determined. A comparative analysis of the amino acid sequences for IgY, IgA, IgE and IgG ... amino acids, whereas all other positions were essentially unaffected. A weakened preference for acidic amino acids at position ... A comparative analysis of the amino acid sequences for IgM from various animal species showed that opossum IgM, within the ...
This observation suggests that certain DNA polymerases might require the conservation of critical amino acid residues for ... Protein sequence comparison with other prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA polymerases reveals three major regions of homology. ... A 5600-base pair segment spanning the coding region of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA polymerase I gene was sequenced and ... DNA polymerase I gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: nucleotide sequence, mapping of a temperature-sensitive mutation, and ...
HEV seroprevalence was 6.3%, and HEV genotype 3 strains with high sequence homology were detected. ... aa homologies), and all belonged to HEV genotype 3. The amino acid homology among human HEV sequences was 96%. The phylogenetic ... HEV seroprevalence was 6.3%, and HEV genotype 3 strains with high sequence homology were detected. ... For phylogenetic analysis, internal primer sequences were used to amplify isolates of human and swine HEV. The 348-nt sequence ...
4.2 Amino acid sequence homologies and why they occur. In this unit we explore how proteins are the doers of the cell. They ...
4.2 Amino acid sequence homologies and why they occur. Consider two genes encoding proteins that have 50% of their amino acid ... 4.2 Peptide signal sequences. The distinct chemistry of proteins at the N- and C-termini provides protein molecules with two ...