The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Amino acids with side chains that are positively charged at physiological pH.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.
Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.

Novel regulation of the homeotic gene Scr associated with a crustacean leg-to-maxilliped appendage transformation. (1/50418)

Homeotic genes are known to be involved in patterning morphological structures along the antero-posterior axis of insects and vertebrates. Because of their important roles in development, changes in the function and expression patterns of homeotic genes may have played a major role in the evolution of different body plans. For example, it has been proposed that during the evolution of several crustacean lineages, changes in the expression patterns of the homeotic genes Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A have played a role in transformation of the anterior thoracic appendages into mouthparts termed maxillipeds. This homeotic-like transformation is recapitulated at the late stages of the direct embryonic development of the crustacean Porcellio scaber (Oniscidea, Isopoda). Interestingly, this morphological change is associated with apparent novelties both in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the Porcellio scaber ortholog of the Drosophila homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr). Specifically, we find that Scr mRNA is present in the second maxillary segment and the first pair of thoracic legs (T1) in early embryos, whereas protein accumulates only in the second maxillae. In later stages, however, high levels of SCR appear in the T1 legs, which correlates temporally with the transformation of these appendages into maxillipeds. Our observations provide further insight into the process of the homeotic leg-to-maxilliped transformation in the evolution of crustaceans and suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for this process in this group of arthropods.  (+info)

The Drosophila kismet gene is related to chromatin-remodeling factors and is required for both segmentation and segment identity. (2/50418)

The Drosophila kismet gene was identified in a screen for dominant suppressors of Polycomb, a repressor of homeotic genes. Here we show that kismet mutations suppress the Polycomb mutant phenotype by blocking the ectopic transcription of homeotic genes. Loss of zygotic kismet function causes homeotic transformations similar to those associated with loss-of-function mutations in the homeotic genes Sex combs reduced and Abdominal-B. kismet is also required for proper larval body segmentation. Loss of maternal kismet function causes segmentation defects similar to those caused by mutations in the pair-rule gene even-skipped. The kismet gene encodes several large nuclear proteins that are ubiquitously expressed along the anterior-posterior axis. The Kismet proteins contain a domain conserved in the trithorax group protein Brahma and related chromatin-remodeling factors, providing further evidence that alterations in chromatin structure are required to maintain the spatially restricted patterns of homeotic gene transcription.  (+info)

The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping. (3/50418)

Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut.  (+info)

Mrj encodes a DnaJ-related co-chaperone that is essential for murine placental development. (4/50418)

We have identified a novel gene in a gene trap screen that encodes a protein related to the DnaJ co-chaperone in E. coli. The gene, named Mrj (mammalian relative of DnaJ) was expressed throughout development in both the embryo and placenta. Within the placenta, expression was particularly high in trophoblast giant cells but moderate levels were also observed in trophoblast cells of the chorion at embryonic day 8.5, and later in the labyrinth which arises from the attachment of the chorion to the allantois (a process called chorioallantoic fusion). Insertion of the ROSAbetageo gene trap vector into the Mrj gene created a null allele. Homozygous Mrj mutants died at mid-gestation due to a failure of chorioallantoic fusion at embryonic day 8.5, which precluded formation of the mature placenta. At embryonic day 8.5, the chorion in mutants was morphologically normal and expressed the cell adhesion molecule beta4 integrin that is known to be required for chorioallantoic fusion. However, expression of the chorionic trophoblast-specific transcription factor genes Err2 and Gcm1 was significantly reduced. The mutants showed no abnormal phenotypes in other trophoblast cell types or in the embryo proper. This study indicates a previously unsuspected role for chaperone proteins in placental development and represents the first genetic analysis of DnaJ-related protein function in higher eukaryotes. Based on a survey of EST databases representing different mouse tissues and embryonic stages, there are 40 or more DnaJ-related genes in mammals. In addition to Mrj, at least two of these genes are also expressed in the developing mouse placenta. The specificity of the developmental defect in Mrj mutants suggests that each of these genes may have unique tissue and cellular activities.  (+info)

A Drosophila doublesex-related gene, terra, is involved in somitogenesis in vertebrates. (5/50418)

The Drosophila doublesex (dsx) gene encodes a transcription factor that mediates sex determination. We describe the characterization of a novel zebrafish zinc-finger gene, terra, which contains a DNA binding domain similar to that of the Drosophila dsx gene. However, unlike dsx, terra is transiently expressed in the presomitic mesoderm and newly formed somites. Expression of terra in presomitic mesoderm is restricted to cells that lack expression of MyoD. In vivo, terra expression is reduced by hedgehog but enhanced by BMP signals. Overexpression of terra induces rapid apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that a tight regulation of terra expression is required during embryogenesis. Terra has both human and mouse homologs and is specifically expressed in mouse somites. Taken together, our findings suggest that terra is a highly conserved protein that plays specific roles in early somitogenesis of vertebrates.  (+info)

Requirement of a novel gene, Xin, in cardiac morphogenesis. (6/50418)

A novel gene, Xin, from chick (cXin) and mouse (mXin) embryonic hearts, may be required for cardiac morphogenesis and looping. Both cloned cDNAs have a single open reading frame, encoding proteins with 2,562 and 1,677 amino acids for cXin and mXin, respectively. The derived amino acid sequences share 46% similarity. The overall domain structures of the predicted cXin and mXin proteins, including proline-rich regions, 16 amino acid repeats, DNA-binding domains, SH3-binding motifs and nuclear localization signals, are highly conserved. Northern blot analyses detect a single message of 8.9 and 5.8 kilo base (kb) from both cardiac and skeletal muscle of chick and mouse, respectively. In situ hybridization reveals that the cXin gene is specifically expressed in cardiac progenitor cells of chick embryos as early as stage 8, prior to heart tube formation. cXin continues to be expressed in the myocardium of developing hearts. By stage 15, cXin expression is also detected in the myotomes of developing somites. Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that the mXin protein is colocalized with N-cadherin and connexin-43 in the intercalated discs of adult mouse hearts. Incubation of stage 6 chick embryos with cXin antisense oligonucleotides results in abnormal cardiac morphogenesis and an alteration of cardiac looping. The myocardium of the affected hearts becomes thickened and tends to form multiple invaginations into the heart cavity. This abnormal cellular process may account in part for the abnormal looping. cXin expression can be induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in explants of anterior medial mesoendoderm from stage 6 chick embryos, a tissue that is normally non-cardiogenic. This induction occurs following the BMP-mediated induction of two cardiac-restricted transcription factors, Nkx2.5 and MEF2C. Furthermore, either MEF2C or Nkx2.5 can transactivate a luciferase reporter driven by the mXin promoter in mouse fibroblasts. These results suggest that Xin may participate in a BMP-Nkx2.5-MEF2C pathway to control cardiac morphogenesis and looping.  (+info)

Mechanisms of GDF-5 action during skeletal development. (7/50418)

Mutations in GDF-5, a member of the TGF-beta superfamily, result in the autosomal recessive syndromes brachypod (bp) in mice and Hunter-Thompson and Grebe-type chondrodysplasias in humans. These syndromes are all characterised by the shortening of the appendicular skeleton and loss or abnormal development of some joints. To investigate how GDF-5 controls skeletogenesis, we overexpressed GDF-5 during chick limb development using the retrovirus, RCASBP. This resulted in up to a 37.5% increase in length of the skeletal elements, which was predominantly due to an increase in the number of chondrocytes. By injecting virus at different stages of development, we show that GDF-5 can increase both the size of the early cartilage condensation and the later developing skeletal element. Using in vitro micromass cultures as a model system to study the early steps of chondrogenesis, we show that GDF-5 increases chondrogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. We did not detect changes in proliferation. However, cell suspension cultures showed that GDF-5 might act at these stages by increasing cell adhesion, a critical determinant of early chondrogenesis. In contrast, pulse labelling experiments of GDF-5-infected limbs showed that at later stages of skeletal development GDF-5 can increase proliferation of chondrocytes. Thus, here we show two mechanisms of how GDF-5 may control different stages of skeletogenesis. Finally, our data show that levels of GDF-5 expression/activity are important in controlling the size of skeletal elements and provides a possible explanation for the variation in the severity of skeletal defects resulting from mutations in GDF-5.  (+info)

Regulation of body length and male tail ray pattern formation of Caenorhabditis elegans by a member of TGF-beta family. (8/50418)

We have identified a new member of the TGF-beta superfamily, CET-1, from Caenorhabditis elegans, which is expressed in the ventral nerve cord and other neurons. cet-1 null mutants have shortened bodies and male tail abnormal phenotype resembling sma mutants, suggesting cet-1, sma-2, sma-3 and sma-4 share a common pathway. Overexpression experiments demonstrated that cet-1 function requires wild-type sma genes. Interestingly, CET-1 appears to affect body length in a dose-dependent manner. Heterozygotes for cet-1 displayed body lengths ranging between null mutant and wild type, and overexpression of CET-1 in wild-type worms elongated body length close to lon mutants. In male sensory ray patterning, lack of cet-1 function results in ray fusions. Epistasis analysis revealed that mab-21 lies downstream and is negatively regulated by the cet-1/sma pathway in the male tail. Our results show that cet-1 controls diverse biological processes during C. elegans development probably through different target genes.  (+info)

A review of the literature on homology indicates that the theory does not provide evidence for evolutionary naturalism, and that the common examples of homology can be better explained by Creation.
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Foods with amino acids are the building blocks of protein. That means they are responsible for strength, repair and rebuilding inside your body. Your tissues, your cells, your enzymes and your brain all get their nourishment and protection from amino acids.. Why You Need Amino Acids Daily. Amino acids make up 75% of the human body, and are vital to every part of human function. One of the most talked about properties of amino acids is how it can assist in muscle building. Amino acids are boasted as the key ingredients in many body-building supplements, though the degree of success they achieve in that form is debatable. Careful attention to amino acids isnt just for people who want to build muscle. Different studies have linked amino acid balances with fighting everything from depression to Fibromyalgia. You Cant Store Amino Acids. The problem with amino acids is that they deteriorate. The body will store extra starch and protein as fat, to use later. Amino acids are not stored, but they can ...
The primary function of the amino acids is working as the monomers for the synthesis of the proteins. Proteins are the highly versatile bio-molecules in structure and function; the versatility of a protein is the combined result of the all amino acid. Unlike the other monomers of the bio-macromolecules (DNA, RNA, carbohydrate, lipid) amino acid is 20 in number with a different side chain, which possesses unique features that makes proteins so much exclusive in structure and functions. To study the protein structure one should aware of the structures of amino acid and to study amino acids one should aware of side chain of the amino acids because the side chain is the structural part of an amino acid which make an amino acid different from other and the unique feature of the side chain contribute for the unique nature of amino acid ...
Amino acids uses are plenty. However, when it comes to depression, amino acids uses are even more prominent and beneficial. To begin with, GABA is an amino acid that is consumed all over the world. It gets converter into neurotransmitter and has a soothing impact on the behavior of the individual. It is extremely useful in making the person relax and calm down. It is a highly recommended amino acid by experts especially in cases of stress disorder. Glutamine is an amino acid which is not essential as such to the body.. However, if the GABA level is low, you should supply Glutamine to the body. People with low levels of Glutamine usually suffer from fatigue and depression. Taurine is also a non essential kind of amino acid. It keeps a check on over activity of neurotransmitters. Hence, this amino acid is highly recommended for people who over-react and over-hype situations. These are some of the few amino acids uses. Apart from depression, amino acids also have a number of other benefits.. ...
Amino acid biochemistry and nutrition spans a broad range of fields including biochemistry, metabolism, physiology, immunology, reproduction, pathology, and cell biology. In the last half-century, there have been many conceptual and technical advancements, from analysis of amino acids by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to molecular cloning of transporters for amino acids and small peptides. Amino Acids: Biochemistry and Nutrition presents comprehensive coverage of these scientific developments, providing a useful reference for students and researchers in both biomedicine and agriculture. The text begins with the discoveries and basic concepts of amino acids, peptides, and proteins, and then moves to protein digestion and absorption of peptides and amino acids. Additional chapters cover cell-, tissue-, and species-specific synthesis and catabolism of amino acids and related nitrogenous substances, as well as the use of isotopes to study amino acid metabolism in cells ...
Amino acid sequence in DENV2 NS2B/NS3 protease. The residues marked in bold are part of NS2B amino acid sequence. The residues marked in underline are His-tag.
WHAT ARE AMINO ACIDS? Amino acids are the building blocks of protein, and are vital to understanding the Krebs Cycle. They are individual crystalline molecules that make up protein, similar to the way letters make up the alphabet. There are 20 basic amino acids that produce over 1600 substances in the body. They make up 3/4ths of the body s solid material and are found in muscle tissue, organs, blood and skin. Amino acids also make hormones, enzymes, and vitamins, and are essential for a healthy immune system and proper neurological functions. It is necessary to replace amino acids constantly to nourish the body and to repair and regenerate tissue. Amino acids are generally ingested in the food we eat, however, because of processed foods, inadequate diets, and food restrictive programs, a proper balance is rarely achieved and supplementation is advisable. This holds to be true during illness, trauma, surgery and stress. More amino acids are required than can be obtained by food alone. In the chronically
There is a great deal of scientific information on amino acid structure and biochemical functioning. However, medical professionals and health-concerned individuals are typically most interested in the amino acid function. This web site provides information on each of the 20 primary amino acids as well as many of the secondary or minor amino acids so that you can better understand the powerful role amino acids play in your life.. Information on amino acids is presented at three levels depending on your interest/background:. 1) General Introduction to Amino Acids ...
NPC1s amino acid sequence homology to PATCHED, human HMG-CoA reductase and SCAP. Credit: Reprinted with permission from AAAS / Carstea et al., Science 277:228, 1997. />NPC1s amino acid sequence homology to PATCHED, human HMG-CoA reductase and SCAP. Credit: Reprinted with permission from AAAS / Carstea et al., Science 277:228, 1997. In the 1990s, the Ara Parseghian Foundation donated money to the National I. 0 Comments. ...
Amino acids functions AMINO ACIDS: DEFICITS, TYPES AND EXCESS Are amino acids very important? Amino acids are essential for proper functioning of our body. The contribution of amino acids through food proteins must be constant because if this contribution is stopped, our reserves would diminish (
(A) Alignment of amino acid sequence of all mouse Sox-high-mobility group (HMG) domains shaded with BOXSHADE. The Sox subfamilies are indicated to the right. Th
How Much Protein do You need?. A healthy adult is estimated to need around 40 to 65 grams of protein per day. If this is not provided in the food you eat, your body will begin to break down muscle and other tissues to obtain the amino acids it needs. Inadequate intake and digestion of amino acids from protein can lead to stunting, poor muscle formation, thin and fragile hair, skin lesions, a poorly functioning immune system, and many other symptoms.. In plant and animal foods, the amino acids you need are mainly provided in the form of large protein molecules that require all aspects of protein digestion-denaturation in the stomach and protease action in the intestines-before absorption. Free amino acids, which require no processing by the body before absorption, may also be present but are generally not found in large amounts.. In processed foods, protein is sometimes provided as hydrolyzed protein, which means it has been chemically cut into smaller chains from two to 200 amino acids called ...
WE offers a spectrum of amino acid products to support protein production and optimal health. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids to make proteins to help the body
M.P.E.P. Section 1823.02: Nucleotide and/or Amino Acid Sequence Listings, and Tables Related to Sequence Listings. Taken from the 9th Edition of the MPEP, Revision 08.2017, (Last Revised Jan. 2018). Updated in BitLaw in February 2018
Amino Acids are building blocks of proteins. All amino acids are comprised of 4 groups. The first three are common in all amino acids. They are: Alpha Carbon (C-H) Amine Group (N-H-H) Carboxyl Group (O-C-OH) The last is the R Group. The R Groups are what defines the individual amino acids. Some are polar…
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Amino acids are an essential part of what keeps the human body healthy, though its a known fact that most people dont know enough about amino acids despite the fact that they might have heard of them before. Have you ever heard of amino acids and do you know what they do? Even though you might know about amino acids, you might not know just what they do in the body.. ...
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Alex X. - As I said at the beginning, amino acid is good for our body. It is the building block of proteins. Even if we are not sick, it is always good for our body to ingest some amino acids. There are particular pills made for that. And amino acids can also be used to treat disease. Here is an example that I found online: tyrosine, which is one of the amino acids, can be used to treat Alzhemers disease. ...
In this article, we reviewed the specificity of amino acid metabolism in the brain. We considered the results of many basic studies that supported a role of amino acids as neurotransmitters, substrates for synthesis of neuroactive peptides, proteins, and other biologically active substances in the CNS. These data suggest that changes in the pool of amino acids may be involved in the development of CNS pathologies ...
Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids to make proteins to help the body. We Have a Big Selection for every Athlete Needs
Any protein that you consume must be broken down into amino acids in the small intestines, absorbed through the tissues and then taken to the liver where it is broken into ketones. At this point, amino acids can be used for repair. Since you dont use protein for fuel during exercise, the protein that is in a bar or packaged food is broken down many times before it can be used to repair. So if you look at a bar that has 10, 15 or 20 grams of protein, think about how much protein you are actually getting into the muscles and tissues after it is broken down? Not very much. However, BCAAs are not broken down in the liver. They go right to the skeletal muscles and after they are metabolized they can actually be used for immediate fuel. I think everyone would benefit from amino acids during exercise to help you go longer and to delay fatigue. Even for the short workouts, a scoop of base performance with 30 calories may help you increase your running or cycling pace and help you get in a high ...
Amino acids are a group of organic compounds that are essential for all life forms. There are several and different types of amino acids.
Every protein in a cell is created through the transcription of a specific sequence, that is part of the DNA. This transcription provides the sequence in which amino acids are to be linked, to form a protein.
What are free form amino acids? What amino acids should vegans supplement with? What amino acids are best for the gym? These questions and more are answered...
Amino acids are important for health and well-being. They help grow hair, skin, and nails as well as help the formation of enzymes. Amino acids help the bodys immune system ward off disease. Amino acids make up proteins.
Amino acids are important for health and well-being. They help grow hair, skin, and nails as well as help the formation of enzymes. Amino acids help the bodys immune system ward off disease. Amino acids make up proteins.
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Amino acids are one of the central chemicals needed by the body to function well. They are the building blocks of proteins and serve as intermediates in protein metabolism. Amino acids are organic compounds that contain amino and carboxyl functional grou
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Amino acids are the basic building blocks for tissues, organs, muscles, skin and hair. As the precursors of enzymes and neurotransmitters amino acids regulate almost all of the metabolic processes in the human body, and they are essential for a healthy body. LEARN MORE...
Amino acids serve many functions including as building blocks for proteins, neurotransmitters, precursors to hormones, and enzyme co-factors. More than 70 disorders of amino acid metabolism have been described. The clinical manifestations of these disorders are diverse.
Amino acids are crucial for a healthy body and to improve your own health, it would be clever to expand your knowledge on amino acids. Here you have 4 key
Amino acids display remarkable metabolic and regulatory versatility. They serve as essential precursors for the synthesis of proteins and other biologically important molecules and also regulate metabolic pathways vital to the health, growth, development, and functional integrity of animals. Future studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanisms that regulate amino acid metabolism at cellular, tissue, and whole-body levels. Better understand ing of these processes will lead to improved efficiency of protein production by animals.. Was this article helpful?. ...
Amino Acids list and information including what is Amino Acids, health benefits and usage indications. Find articles and product list for other top low-carb products, fat-burners, nutrition bars and shakes.
Amino Acids list and information including what is Amino Acids, health benefits and usage indications. Find articles and product list for other top low-carb products, fat-burners, nutrition bars and shakes.
Amino acids are used in the human body to make proteins which help the body grow, repair body tissue and break down food. Amino acids help with muscle control, build muscle tissue and protect the...
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From strengthening plant cells to resisting disease, or breaking down nutrients in the soil to strengthening roots, amino acids are the building blocks of
They display significant amino acid sequence homology. Sixteen cysteine residues, forming 8 disulfide bonds, are strictly ... Piscivorin has the following amino acid sequence. Piscivorin reduces high potassium-evoked smooth muscle contraction, but does ... A sequence comparison of piscivorin and other CRISP family proteins suggests that the Glu186 residue is the crucial site for ... The nucleotide sequence of piscivorin cDNA spans 1323 bp, containing an open reading frame of 240 codons. ...
Marcus F, Gontero B, Harrsch PB, Rittenhouse J (Mar 1986). "Amino acid sequence homology among fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases". ... Fructose bisphosphatase deficiency Fructose Gluconeogenesis Metabolism Marcus F, Harrsch PB (May 1990). "Amino acid sequence of ... IMPase and FBPase share a sequence motif (Asp-Pro-Ile/Leu-Asp-Gly/Ser-Thr/Ser) which has been shown to bind metal ions and ... do not show any significant sequence similarity to the enzymes from other organisms. The Bacillus subtilis enzyme is inhibited ...
It was subsequently cloned and sequenced by Radhey Gupta and coworkers. The amino acid sequence showed a strong homology to ... Waldinger D, Eckerskorn C, Lottspeich F, Cleve H (1988). "Amino-acid sequence homology of a polymorphic cellular protein from ... The cytoplasmic HSP60 contains a signal sequence of 26 amino acids on the N terminus. This sequence is highly degenerate and is ... With respect to the amino acid sequence, the cytoplasmic HSP60 has an N-terminal sequence not found in the mitochondrial ...
Amino acid sequence of MTA2 shares 68.2% homology with MTA1's sequence. MTA2 domains include, a BAH (Bromo-Adjacent Homology), ... inclusive of three protein-coding transcripts but predicted to code for two polypeptides of 688 amino acids and 495 amino acids ... The murine Mta2 consists of a 3.1-kb protein-coding transcript to code a protein of 668 amino acids, and five non-coding RNAs ... MTA2 was initially recognized as an MTA1 like 1 gene, named MTA1-L1, from a large scale sequencing of randomly selected clones ...
... they share gene sequence and amino acid sequence homology. They all also possess conserved amino acids that are important for ... those with a specific amino acid sequence (or motif) of glutamic acid-leucine-arginine (or ELR for short) immediately before ... The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino terminus. There have ... A loop of approximately ten amino acids follows the first two cysteines and is known as the N-loop. This is followed by a ...
... coding for 2,710 amino acids. TcdA and TcdB share 63% homology in their amino acid sequences. These genes are expressed during ... A centrally located hydrophobic domain containing a cluster of 172 highly conserved hydrophobic amino acids is thought to be ... which transfers a glucose molecule from UDP-Glucose and covalently attaches it to conserved amino acids in target molecules. ... Due to its homology with other proteins of similar function, as well as the location of the gene between tcdA and tcdB, tcdE is ...
Over 200 subtilases are presently known, more than 170 of which with their complete amino acid sequence. Subtilase is ... Based on sequence homology, a subdivision into six families has been proposed. The proprotein-processing endopeptidases kexin, ... These preferentially cleave C-terminally to paired basic amino acids. Members of this subfamily can be identified by subtly ... with the mature catalytic domains containing approximately 375 amino acids. The defining features of these enzymes are a unique ...
This is not to be confused with conservation in amino acid sequences, where the amino acid at a specific position has been ... Homology among DNA, RNA, or proteins is typically inferred from their nucleotide or amino acid sequence similarity. Significant ... A sequence alignment of mammalian histone proteins. Sequences are the middle 120-180 amino acid residues of the proteins. ... Sequence homology is the biological homology between DNA, RNA, or protein sequences, defined in terms of shared ancestry in the ...
Kleeman TA, Wei D, Simpson KL, First EA (Jun 1997). "Human tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase shares amino acid sequence homology with a ... Living cells translate DNA sequences into RNA sequences and then into protein sequences. Proteins are chains of amino acids, ... As the protein grows, each amino acid is added to the end by an enzyme called transfer RNA (tRNA). Each amino acid has its own ... by their cognate amino acid. Because of their central role in linking amino acids with nucleotide triplets contained in tRNAs, ...
IL-36ra is 155 amino acids long and lacks a signal sequence. IL-36ra shares with IL-1ra 52% homology in the amino acid sequence ... IL-13 is very similar to IL-4 in amino acid sequence and structure. They also used the same type II IL-4 receptor to activate ... At the time of the assignment of these names, there was no amino acid sequence analysis known and the terms were used to define ... IL-1ra is synthesized as a preprotein containing a classical 25 amino acid long signal sequence that allows secretion via the ...
There is a high homology in the amino acid sequence within each family. Each family couples to the same second messenger ...
Lottspeich F, Geiger R, Henschen A, Kutzbach C (1980). "N-Terminal amino acid sequence of human urinary kallikrein homology ... Complete amino acid sequence and sites of glycosylation". Int. J. Pept. Protein Res. 33 (4): 237-49. doi:10.1111/j.1399- ... 1986). "N-terminal amino acid sequence of human urinary prokallikrein". J. Biochem. 99 (3): 989-92. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals. ... Kellermann J, Lottspeich F, Geiger R, Deutzmann R (1988). "Human urinary kallikrein--amino acid sequence and carbohydrate ...
They share 57% amino acid sequence homology and have some pharmacological characteristics in common. Both receptors are Gi- ... indicating a high degree of evolutionary conservation of genetic sequence, which suggests that the 5-HT1E receptor has an ...
Some of the proteins participating in T3SS share amino-acid sequence homology to flagellar proteins. Some of the bacteria ... Recognition is done through a secretion signal-a short sequence of amino acids located at the beginning (the N-terminus) of the ... This is done in order to define the function of specific amino acids or regions in a protein. The introduction of a gene or a ... usually within the first 20 amino acids), that the needle complex is able to recognize. Unlike other secretion systems, the ...
... have high homology. They have 65% amino acid sequences in common and 92% homology within their kinase domains. ROCKs are ... Mammalian ROCK consists of a kinase domain, a coiled-coil region and a Pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, which reduces the ... ROCK can also be regulated by lipids, in particular arachidonic acid, and protein oligomerization, which induces N-terminal ...
Huhtala ML, Seppälä M, Närvänen A, Palomäki P, Julkunen M, Bohn H (Jun 1987). "Amino acid sequence homology between human ... The N-terminal amino acid sequence of glycodelin is M D I P Q T K Q D L E L P K L A G T W H S M. This sequence can be compared ... Julkunen, M.; Seppala, M.; Janne, O. A. (1988-12-01). "Complete amino acid sequence of human placental protein 14: a ... Julkunen, M.; Seppala, M.; Janne, O. A. (1988-12-01). "Complete amino acid sequence of human placental protein 14: a ...
... complete amino acid sequence and homologies". Science. 230 (4732): 1385-8. Bibcode:1985Sci...230.1385G. doi:10.1126/science. ... These proteins had a high degree of sequence homology among their amino acid chains, but were determined to be distinct ... A short stretch of acidic amino acids located between the D1 and D2 domains has auto-inhibitory functions. This 'acid box' ... Although these factors possess remarkably similar sequence homology, they do not bind FGFRs and are involved in intracellular ...
... complete amino acid sequence and homologies". Science. 230 (4732): 1385-1388. Bibcode:1985Sci...230.1385G. doi:10.1126/science. ... one acid and the other basic, having between them 55% homology. These factors are not proteins secreted into the environment, ...
H9401 has 99.679% sequence homology with Ames Ancestor with an amino acid sequence homology of 99.870%. H9401 has a circular ... These include (1) N-glycosylation of N-acetyl-muramic acid, (2) O-acetylation of N-acetylmuramic acid and (3) N-deacetylation ... The sequencing coverage level suggests a molecular ratio of pXO1:pXO2:chromosome as 3:2:1 which is identical to the Ames ... The protein capsule (poly-D-gamma-glutamic acid) is key to evasion of the immune response. It feeds on the heme of blood ...
"Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of human intestinal alkaline phosphatase: close homology to placental alkaline phosphatase ... 2002). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... Berger J, Garattini E, Hua JC, Udenfriend S (February 1987). "Cloning and sequencing of human intestinal alkaline phosphatase ...
... is a 36-amino acid peptide found in the venom of the deathstalker scorpion (Leiurus quinquestriatus) which blocks ... Chlorotoxin has a considerable sequence homology to the class of small insectotoxins. Chlorotoxin is the first reported high- ... It is a peptide consisting of 36 amino acids, with 8 cysteines forming 4 disulfide bonds. ...
... homologies and mechanistic implications of deduced amino acid sequences". Cell. 44 (4): 597-607. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(86)90269 ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ...
... with high amino acid sequence homology (approximately 90% identity). The sequences of their promoter regions are also highly ... Rao TR, Slobin LI (Mar 1986). "Structure of the amino-terminal end of mammalian elongation factor Tu". Nucleic Acids Research. ... Addition of ethanolamine-phosphoglycerol to specific glutamic acid residues on EF-1 alpha". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... Nucleic Acids Research. 18 (6): 1513-6. doi:10.1093/nar/18.6.1513. PMC 330519. PMID 2183196. Bec G, Kerjan P, Zha XD, Waller JP ...
Amino acid sequence homology with the other aspartic proteinases, disulfide bond arrangement and site of carbohydrate ... Mucorpepsin (EC, Mucor rennin, Mucor aspartic proteinase, Mucor acid proteinase, Mucor acid protease, Mucor miehei ... doi:10.1016/0076-6879(70)19033-1. Ottesen M, Rickert W (1970). "The acid protease of Mucor miehei". Methods Enzymol. 19: 459- ...
IUPAC needed a coding system that represented long sequences of amino acids. This would allow for these sequences to be ... compared to try to find homologies. These codes can consist of either a one-letter code or a three-letter code. These codes ... Amino Acid Codes Archived 5 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine retrieved 15 April 2010 Amino Acid and Nucleotide Base Codes ... The codes for amino acids (24 amino acids and three special codes) are: The Experimental Thermodynamics books series covers ...
1990). "Complete amino acid sequence and homologies of human erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.2". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S ...
The human homolog of the CPT II enzyme shows 82.2% amino acid sequence homology with the rat protein. Significant structural ... This gene is composed of 5 exons that encode a protein 658 amino acids in length. To date, sixty disease-causing mutations ... within the coding sequence of CPT2 have been reported in the literature, of which 41 are thought to result in amino acid ... The majority of the genetic abnormalities in CPT II deficient patients affect amino acid residues somewhat removed from the ...
The gene codes for a protein of 683 residues, which lacks a homology to known amino acid sequences. On evidence of ... 2004). "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs". Nat. Genet. 36 (1): 40-5. doi:10.1038/ ... 2004). "The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 13". Nature. 428 (6982): 522-8. doi:10.1038/nature02379. PMC 2665288 ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ...
... amino acid sequence homology, and about 35% identity with IFNB. The high degree of amino-acid sequence similarity within the ... All of these IFN-α proteins exhibit high homology in their primary, secondary, and tertiary structures. IFNA and IFNB are ... Viruses and immune complexes (ICs) containing nucleic acids can access intracellular TLRs (TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9) after binding ... Shrivastav M, Niewold TB (2013). "Nucleic Acid sensors and type I interferon production in systemic lupus erythematosus". ...
The complete amino acid sequence has been defined and it displays 68% sequence homology with charybdotoxin. Iberiotoxin binds ... Iberiotoxin is a 37-amino acid peptide. The formula is C179H274N50O55S7. It is also known as "Potassium channel toxin alpha-KTx ...
They each share about 25% amino acid sequence identity with RAD51 and with each other.[28] ... RAD51 is involved in the search for homology and strand pairing stages of the process. ... In humans, RAD51 is a 339-amino acid protein that plays a major role in homologous recombination of DNA during double strand ... "Nucleic Acids Research. 25 (19): 3868-74. doi:10.1093/nar/25.19.3868. PMC 146972 . PMID 9380510.. ...
Homology modeling can be used to construct an atomic-resolution model of the "target" integral protein from its amino acid ... sequence and an experimental three-dimensional structure of a related homologous protein. This procedure has been extensively ... "Nucleic Acids Res. 37 (Database issue): D274-8. doi:10.1093/nar/gkn862. PMC 2686586. PMID 19022853.. ... is embedded in the hydrophobic regions of the bilayer are alpha helical and composed of predominantly hydrophobic amino acids. ...
... it lacks D-amino acids and N-acetylmuramic acid.[102]. Archaea flagella operate like bacterial flagella-their long stalks are ... In 1977, Carl Woese, a microbiologist studying the genetic sequencing of organisms, developed a new sequencing method that ... Engelhardt H; Peters J (1998). "Structural research on surface layers: a focus on stability, surface layer homology domains, ... Deppenmeier, U. (2002). "The unique biochemistry of methanogenesis". Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. Progress in Nucleic Acid ...
... while long-period and short-period mutants of per changed the amino acid sequence of a still functional protein.[10][11] ... "Product of per locus of Drosophila shares homology with proteoglycans". Nature. 320 (6058): 185-188. doi:10.1038/320185a0 ... A new gene located on chromosome 2 was named timeless (tim) and was successfully cloned and sequenced. They found strong ... by determining the sequence of the gene on the X chromosome, they found that the arrhythmic mutation produced a functionless ...
They share amino acid sequence homology and core structural similarity to a specific class of major histones but also have ... compared amino acid compositions in the same histone from different organisms, and compared amino acid sequences of the same ... The single-letter amino acid abbreviation (e.g., K for Lysine) and the amino acid position in the protein ... 3. Complete amino acid sequence of pea seedling histone IV; comparison with the homologous calf thymus histone". The Journal of ...
... amino acids - anaphylactic shock - anemia - anergy - angiogenesis - angiomatosis - anorexia - antenatal - antibiotic - ... homology (biology) - hormone - host - host factors - HPTN - HPV - HRSA - HTLV-I - HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic ... long terminal repeat sequence (LTR) - long-term nonprogressors - LTR - lumbar - lumbar puncture - lymph - lymph nodes - ... nucleic acid - nucleic acid test - nucleocapsid - nucleoli - nucleoside - nucleoside analog - nucleoside reverse transcriptase ...
Specific amino acid sequences (PTS or peroxisomal targeting signal) at the C-terminus (PTS1) or N-terminus (PTS2) of ... Two independent evolutionary analyses of the peroxisomal proteome found homologies between the peroxisomal import machinery and ... They are involved in catabolism of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids, D-amino acids, and polyamines, ... The protein receptors, the peroxins PEX5 and PEX7, accompany their cargoes (containing a PTS1 or a PTS2 amino acid sequence, ...
... results in an amino acid switch: valine to methionine exchange at codon 66, Val66Met, which is in the prodomain of BDNF.[39][38 ... A common SNP in the BDNF gene is rs6265.[39] This point mutation in the coding sequence, a guanine to adenine switch at ... Fyn associates with the pICD-TrkB through its Src homology domain 2 (SH2) and is phosphorylated at its Y416 site.[47][48] Once ... as the amino acid change occurs on the portion of the prodomain where sortilin binds; and sortilin is essential for normal ...
... ting transfer may be used for homology-based cloning on the basis of amino acid sequence of the protein product of ... Sequences that hybridize with the hybridization probe are further analysed, for example, to obtain the full length sequence of ... A Southern blot is a method used in molecular biology for detection of a specific DNA sequence in DNA samples. Southern ... If some of the DNA fragments are larger than 15 kb, then prior to blotting, the gel may be treated with an acid, such as dilute ...
Implications of Comparative Analysis of Amino Acid Sequences". Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 28 (5): ... Patterson, C (November 1988). "Homology in classical and molecular biology.". Molecular Biology and Evolution 5 (6): 603-25. ... International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium (October 2004). "Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome". ... Watson, J. D.; Crick, FH (1953). "Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid" (PDF). Nature ...
TNF is primarily produced as a 233-amino acid-long type II transmembrane protein arranged in stable homotrimers.[24][25] From ... The sequential and functional homology of TNF and LT led to the renaming of TNF as TNFα (this article) and LT as TNFβ. In 1985 ... positive regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity. • cellular response to nicotine. • positive ... cellular response to amino acid stimulus. • negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in absence of ligand. ...
The Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASp) is a 502-amino acid protein expressed in cells of the hematopoietic system. In the ... It is located towards the C-terminal end of the protein and contains four motifs: two verprolin homology motifs (VV) binds ... A transcript variant arising as a result of alternative promoter usage, and containing a different 5' UTR sequence, has been ... Bunnell SC, Henry PA, Kolluri R, Kirchhausen T, Rickles RJ, Berg LJ (October 1996). "Identification of Itk/Tsk Src homology 3 ...
... s range in size from 12 to 80 amino acid residues and have a wide range of structures.[8] Most cathelicidins are ... The cathelicidin family shares primary sequence homology with the cystatin[9] family of cysteine proteinase inhibitors, ... Even larger cathelicidin peptides (39-80 amino acid residues) are also present. These larger cathelicidins display repetitive ... although amino acid residues thought to be important in such protease inhibition are usually lacking. ...
... and at 786 amino acids is the longest one.[10] Amino acid sequence homology of this isoform of human CASS4 with other family ... but lacks obvious similarity at the level of primary amino acid sequence. It also lacks a YDYVHL sequence at the N-terminal end ... 786 amino acids, considered the major isoform), the third one contains 6 exons and encodes a shorter isoform b (732 amino acids ... 349 amino acids). Cumulatively, the CASS4 transcripts are most highly expressed in spleen and lung among normal tissues, and ...
... based on the amino acid sequences of venom proteins". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 8 (3): 349-62. CiteSeerX 10.1. ... This result calls into question the monophyly of cobras and underscores the uncertainty of the homology of the hood spreading ...
The SET domain is a 130-amino acid sequence involved in modulating gene activities. This domain has been demonstrated to bind ... "DNA damage, homology-directed repair, and DNA methylation". PLoS Genet. 3 (7): e110. PMC 1913100 . PMID 17616978. doi:10.1371/ ... Histone proteins are made up of long chains of amino acids. If the amino acids that are in the chain are changed, the shape of ... The first way is post translational modification of the amino acids that make up histone proteins. ...
... such as DNA sequences, protein amino acid sequences, or morphology, often under a specified model of evolution of these traits ... 1843, distinction between homology and analogy (the latter now referred to as homoplasy), Richard Owen, precursor concept ... Bremer, Kåre (1988). "The Limits of Amino Acid Sequence Data in Angiosperm Phylogenetic Reconstruction". Evolution. 42 (4): 795 ... In February 2021, scientists reported, for the first time, the sequencing of DNA from animal remains, a mammoth in this ...
... and Estimation of Divergence Dates Based on α-Lactalbumin Amino Acid Sequences". Journal of Mammalian Evolution. 5 (1): 95-105 ... One of the X chromosomes of the platypus has great homology to the bird Z chromosome.[77] The platypus genome also has both ... More than 80% of the platypus's genes are common to the other mammals whose genomes have been sequenced.[40] ... A draft version of the platypus genome sequence was published in Nature on 8 May 2008, revealing both reptilian and mammalian ...
The individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues. The sequence of amino ... known as homology modeling, relies on the existence of a "template" structure with sequence similarity to the protein being ... Proteins are assembled from amino acids using information encoded in genes. Each protein has its own unique amino acid sequence ... amino acids. All proteinogenic amino acids possess common structural features, including an α-carbon to which an amino group, a ...
"Molecular cloning and amino acid sequence of human 5-lipoxygenase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85 (1): 26-30. doi:10.1073/ ... "5-Lipoxygenase contains a functional Src homology 3-binding motif that interacts with the Src homology 3 domain of Grb2 and ... Arachidonic acidEdit. ALOX5 metabolizes the omega-6 fatty acid, Arachidonic acid (AA, i.e. 5Z,8Z,11Z,15Z-eicosatrienoic acid), ... Eicosapentaenoic acidEdit. ALOX5 metabolizes the omega-3 fatty acid, Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, i.e. 4Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z- ...
... discovered the relationship between changes in amino-acid sequence and changes in protein structure by analyzing the mechanism ... known as homology modelling. ... sources and methods for sequence analysis. Oxford [Oxfordshire ... "The relation between the divergence of sequence and structure in proteins". The EMBO Journal. 5 (4): 823-826. doi:10.1002/j. ...
The amino acid sequence and arrangement of their residues that occur within the active site, the position where the substrate ... belonging to GH9 Family show highest sequence homology to metazoan endogenous cellulases. Algal cellulases are modular, ... Depending on their amino acid sequence and tertiary structures, cellulases are divided into clans and families.[15] ... Numerous "signature" sequences known as dockerins and cohesins have been identified in the genomes of bacteria that produce ...
... they share gene sequence and amino acid sequence homology. They all also possess conserved amino acids that are important for ... those with a specific amino acid sequence (or motif) of glutamic acid-leucine-arginine (or ELR for short) immediately before ... The CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino terminus. There have ... A loop of approximately ten amino acids follows the first two cysteines and is known as the N-loop. This is followed by a ...
A study from Hokkaido University found a homology between the Hemagglutinin antigen amino acid residues found in the earlier ... Some discussion of sequence homologies can be found at "". . The first strains released are A/California/09/2009 ... Gene sequences for every viral gene were made available through the Global Initiative on Sharing Avian Influenza Data (GISAID ... Gene sequence information from Influenza Research Database Graphical Image of the viral makeup of the 2009 pandemic h1n1 virus ...
"HMGB1 interacts with many apparently unrelated proteins by recognizing short amino acid sequences". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (9): ... transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcription regulatory region DNA binding. • sequence- ... "Nucleic Acids Res. 23 (7): 1184-91. doi:10.1093/nar/23.7.1184. PMC 306829 . PMID 7739897.. ... RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. Cellular component. • nucleoplasm. • actin ...
... amino acid sequences and DNA sequences. Proteins with the same three-dimensional structure need not have identical amino acid ... In contrast, there is evidence for homology of the central subunits of Transmembrane ATPases throughout all living organisms, ... that code redundantly for the same amino acid. Since many species use the same codon at the same place to specify an amino acid ... Had the amino acid sequences come from different ancestors, they would have been coded for by any of the redundant codons, and ...
Seddiqi N, Bollengier F, Alliel PM, Périn JP, Bonnet F, Bucquoy S, Jollès P, Schoentgen F (1994). "Amino acid sequence of the ... Tohdoh N, Tojo S, Agui H, Ojika K (1995). "Sequence homology of rat and human HCNP precursor proteins, bovine ... Hori N, Chae KS, Murakawa K, Matoba R, Fukushima A, Okubo K, Matsubara K (1994). "A human cDNA sequence homologue of bovine ... Moore C, Perry AC, Love S, Hall L (1996). "Sequence analysis and immunolocalisation of phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein ...
The complete amino acid sequence". European Journal of Biochemistry. 169 (3): 547-53. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1987.tb13644.x. ... study by chemical cross-linking and three-dimensional homology modeling". Biochemistry. 34 (22): 7311-21. doi:10.1021/ ... The complete amino acid sequence". European Journal of Biochemistry. 169 (3): 547-53. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1987.tb13644.x. ... Cyanogen bromide cleavage and N-terminal sequences of the fragments". The Biochemical Journal. 215 (3): 565-71. doi:10.1042/ ...
"The role of conserved amino acid motifs within the integrin beta3 cytoplasmic domain in triggering focal adhesion kinase ... "The role of the Src homology 3-Src homology 2 interface in the regulation of Src kinases". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... "Identification of sequences required for the efficient localization of the focal adhesion kinase, pp125FAK, to cellular focal ... "Characterization of a focal adhesion protein, Hic-5, that shares extensive homology with paxillin". Journal of Cell Science 112 ...
Rinderknecht E، Humbel RE (1978). "The amino acid sequence of human insulin-like growth factor I and its structural homology ... "Sequence of cDNA encoding human insulin-like growth factor I precursor". Nature. 306 (5943): 609-11. PMID 6358902. doi:10.1038/ ...
Amino Acid Sequence Homology. The degree of similarity between sequences of Amino Acids. This information is useful for the ...
Publications about Experts and Doctors on amino acid sequence homology in China ... Experts and Doctors on amino acid sequence homology in China. Summary. Locale: China ... Experts and Doctors on molecular sequence data in China*Experts and Doctors on amino acid sequence in China*Experts and Doctors ... You are here: Locale , Experts and Doctors on amino acid sequence homology in China ...
The predicted amino acid sequence of Piv shows significant homology solely with the transposases/integrases of a family of ... Amino acid sequence homology between Piv, an essential protein in site-specific DNA inversion in Moraxella lacunata, and ... Amino acid sequence homology between Piv, an essential protein in site-specific DNA inversion in Moraxella lacunata, and ... Amino acid sequence homology between Piv, an essential protein in site-specific DNA inversion in Moraxella lacunata, and ...
The complete nucleotide sequence of potato virus X and its homologies at the amino acid level with various plus-stranded RNA ... Double-stranded cDNA of potato virus X (PVX) genomic RNA has been cloned and sequenced. The sequence [6435 nucleotides ... The ORF 1 product contained domains of homology with the tobacco mosaic virus 126K and 183K products. The ORF 2 and 3 products ... The significance of these homologies with respect to putative functions of the PVX-encoded proteins are discussed. ...
By reducing homologies of such peptide vaccines to host proteins, the possibility of autoimmune complications may be reduced, ... amino acid sequences between tandemly repeated Plasmodium amino acid sequences and the human and human viral sequences compiled ... Matches of at least 4 amino acids were found for all sequences. In the database, 29 matches were found for human proteins and ... Six published repetitive immunogenic amino acid sequences from the circumsporozoite (CS) antigen, ring-infected erythrocyte ...
Results for Sequence Homology, Amino Acid. Publications & Outputs. *. Lymphocryptovirus phylogeny and the origins of Epstein- ... A multidimensional strategy to detect polypharmacological targets in the absence of structural and sequence homology. Durrant, ...
Amino acid sequence of the Fc region of a canine immunoglobulin M: interspecies homology for the IgM class ... Amino acid sequence of the Fc region of a canine immunoglobulin M: interspecies homology for the IgM class ... Amino acid sequence of the Fc region of a canine immunoglobulin M: interspecies homology for the IgM class ... Amino acid sequence of the Fc region of a canine immunoglobulin M: interspecies homology for the IgM class ...
... and the mature peptide sequences are indicated by red. b Comparison and analysis of amino acid sequence homology of mature IAPP ... The blue box marks the nucleotide sequence that does not cause amino acid changes. b A pie chart of amino acid differences ... Amino acid sequence homology analysis of IAPP mature peptides of various species. The human IAPP gene is located on the short ... 1a). The mature IAPP peptides between different species have high homology. The amino acid sequence of the IAPP mature peptide ...
Karp, D. R., Parker, K. L., Shreffler, D. C., Slaughter, C. A., & Capra, J. D. (1982). Amino acid sequence homologies and ... Karp, D. R. ; Parker, K. L. ; Shreffler, D. C. ; Slaughter, Clive A. ; Capra, J. D. / Amino acid sequence homologies and ... Amino acid sequence homologies and glycosylation differences between the fourth component of murine complement and sex-limited ... Amino acid sequence homologies and glycosylation differences between the fourth component of murine complement and sex-limited ...
COMPASS is a profile-based method for the detection of remote sequence similarity and the prediction of protein structure. Here ... Sequence Homology, Amino Acid* * Software* * User-Computer Interface Grant support * GM67165/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/United States ... COMPASS server for homology detection: improved statistical accuracy, speed and functionality Nucleic Acids Res. 2009 Jul;37( ... COMPASS is a profile-based method for the detection of remote sequence similarity and the prediction of protein structure. Here ...
... distributes protein sequence data within the framework of the tripartite association of the PIR-International Protein Sequence ... Martinsried Institute for Protein Sequences) at the Max-Planck-Institute for Biochemistry, Martinsried near Munich, Germany, ... MIPS: a database for protein sequences, homology data and yeast genome information Nucleic Acids Res. 1997 Jan 1;25(1):28-30. ... Amino Acid Sequence* * Computer Communication Networks * Databases, Factual* * Genome, Fungal* * Germany * Saccharomyces ...
Amino acid substitutions in CL6 were found to alter Wzz-mediated O-antigen modality, with evidence suggesting that these ... as was the overall sequence homology between these two periplasmic loops in each protein. ... The amino acid sequence of the hydrophobic Iap peptide displayed sequence homology with a region in the first TMS of both Wzz ... Identification of sequence homology between PL3 and PL5 in WzyPa has led to the discovery of RX10G amino acid tracts in both ...
A Homology of the Deduced Amino Acid Sequence of MGDG Synthase cDNA with That of MurG in Bacteria.. A homology search of all ... Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the cucumber MGDG synthase. Amino acid sequences of peptides obtained from the ... The deduced amino acid sequence of the MGDG synthase cDNA shows homology with MurG, of Bacillus subtilis and E. coli, which ... In addition, the deduced amino acid sequence of the MGDG synthase cDNA showed homology with MurG of Bacillus subtilis and E. ...
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid. *Substrate Specificity. *Transfection. Get free article suggestions today. Mendeley saves you ... Interestingly, bfGnRHR-2 has an 85% amino acid homology with Xenopus GnRHR. Less than 53% amino acid identity was observed ... The bfGnRHR-1, bfGnRHR-2, and bfGnRHR-3 proteins have an amino acid identity of approximately 30% to approximately 35% with ...
Tracing the Evolutionary History of the CAP Superfamily of Proteins Using Amino Acid Sequence Homology and Conservation of ... Tracing the Evolutionary History of the CAP Superfamily of Proteins Using Amino Acid Sequence Homology and Conservation of ...
... amino acid sequence and results of homology search), and expression profile ... Representative amino acid sequence translated from DNA sequence.. Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames). Amino acid ... Contig sequences and their annotation (amino acid sequence and results of homology search), and expression profile Data detail ... Contig sequences and their annotation (amino acid sequence and results of homology search), and expression profile. ...
T1 - The amino acid sequence of rabbit skeletal muscle troponin C. T2 - Gene replication and homology with calcium -binding ... The amino acid sequence of rabbit skeletal muscle troponin C: Gene replication and homology with calcium -binding proteins from ... The amino acid sequence of rabbit skeletal muscle troponin C : Gene replication and homology with calcium -binding proteins ... The amino acid sequence of rabbit skeletal muscle troponin C : Gene replication and homology with calcium -binding proteins ...
Nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequence of Mycobacterium leprae gene showing homology to bacterial atp operon ... Nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequence of Mycobacterium leprae gene showing homology to bacterial atp operon ...
Sequence Alignment * Sequence Homology, Amino Acid * Species Specificity * Structure-Activity Relationship * T-Phages / ...
... whose amino acid sequence was elucidated earlier, and to rat RBP. The rat RBP sequence was obtained by combining information ... was isolated and its amino acid sequence determined. Rabbit RBP was found to be highly homologous to human RBP, ... The amino acid differences between rabbit, rat, and human RBP are discussed in light of the recent elucidation of the three- ... The identity between the three proteins is approximately 90%. The high degree of homology between RBP molecules from different ...
B) Amino acid sequence homology between myocardin and MRTFs. Colored bars correspond to the conserved regions shown in A. (C) ... The overall amino acid identity between the three proteins is ≈35%, whereas they share ,60% amino acid identity within the ... 6). The mouse myocardin protein sequence reported here has an additional 128 amino acid residues at the N terminus of the ... In the course of characterizing the MRTF sequences, we discovered that myocardin contains an additional 128 amino acids N- ...
Amino acid sequence homology searches were also performed. The 2mEPSPS protein did not display any characteristics of a ... The amino acid sequence of the 2mEPSPS was compared to several protein sequence databases and was shown to share no significant ... amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, gossypol and cyclopropenoid fatty acids all fall within the range of those of the ... Nutritional components of cotton event GHB614 such as proximates, amino acids and fatty acids were compared with unmodified ...
Sequence Analysis, DNA. Sequence Homology, Amino Acid. Grant Support. ID/Acronym/Agency: RR12596/RR/NCRR NIH HHS ... BLAST searches of the databanks using complete or partial MUA-3 amino acid sequence revealed a closely related C. elegans gene ... B) The domain/module structure of the MUA-3 protein as deduced from the predicted amino acid sequence. The two letter module ... amino acid sequence identity with MUA-3 in the shared portions of the extracellular domain. The cytoplasmic domains of MUA-3 ...
... was isolated and its DNA sequence determined. The cDNA is assumed to encode alpha-1-antitrypsin on the basis of its sequence ... A cDNA clone encoding the complete coding sequence for porcine alpha-1-antitrypsin (or alpha 1-protease inhibitor, PI) ... Sequence Analysis, DNA. Sequence Homology, Amino Acid. Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid. Swine / genetics*. alpha 1-Antitrypsin ... was isolated and its DNA sequence determined. The cDNA is assumed to encode alpha-1-antitrypsin on the basis of its sequence ...
Sequence homology between Hsm3 and Msh1. The deduced amino acid sequence of Hsm3 was compared with that of Msh1. For the two ... According to the GenBank database, the Hsm3 amino acid sequence shows weak homology to the S. cerevisiae MSH1 gene product (F ... protein sequences, the straight lines indicate identical amino acids, and dotted lines indicate similar amino acids (double ... 1989a Cloning and nucleotide sequence of DNA mismatch repair gene PMS1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Homology of PMS1 to ...
... peginesatide has no amino acid sequence homology to erythropoietin. The empirical formula is C2031H3950N62O958S6 (free base). ... amino acid chains covalently bonded to a linker derived from iminodiacetic acid and β-alanine. Peginesatide is manufactured as ... Each mL contains 10 mg peginesatide, 47 mg sorbitol, 5 mg phenol, 1.5 mg L-methionine, 0.6 mg glacial acetic acid, and water ... Multiple Use Vials: sorbitol, phenol, L-methionine, glacial acetic acid, and sodium hydroxide in Water for Injection. ...
Complete amino acid sequence homology was found. Detection of wolf and dog IgA was ascertained by showing identity using double ... and their nucleotide sequences were determined. A comparative analysis of the amino acid sequences for IgY, IgA, IgE and IgG ... amino acids, whereas all other positions were essentially unaffected. A weakened preference for acidic amino acids at position ... A comparative analysis of the amino acid sequences for IgM from various animal species showed that opossum IgM, within the ...
In this manner, the amino acid at position 434 contributes significantly to the selectivity. Another structural difference is ... the sequence homology is merely 65% [22]. Hence, in the case of meloxicam, a slightly different binding pattern in COX-1 and ... Accurate hydrogen bonding interactions occur with crucial active site key amino acids Arg120 (OCH3 (A2)), Ser530 (N-thiazole ( ... the meloxicam does not interact directly with binding site amino acid residues (Table 2) [22]. Particularly, meloxicam makes ...
HEV seroprevalence was 6.3%, and HEV genotype 3 strains with high sequence homology were detected. ... aa homologies), and all belonged to HEV genotype 3. The amino acid homology among human HEV sequences was 96%. The phylogenetic ... HEV seroprevalence was 6.3%, and HEV genotype 3 strains with high sequence homology were detected. ... For phylogenetic analysis, internal primer sequences were used to amplify isolates of human and swine HEV. The 348-nt sequence ...
  • Essential Arg residues in the RX 10 G motifs of PL3 and PL5 were found to be conserved in putative homologues of Wzy Pa , as was the overall sequence homology between these two periplasmic loops in each protein. (
  • 49. The method of claim 48, wherein said linker is between 1 and 10 amino acid residues. (
  • It exists as an antiparallel disulfide linked homodimeric glycoprotein with 115 amino acid residues in each chain. (
  • Among these, the zinc finger motif is composed of 25-30 amino acids containing cysteine and histidine residues that are involved in the tetrahedral coordination of a zinc atom. (
  • Sequences are the middle 120-180 amino acid residues of the proteins. (
  • Residues that are conserved across all sequences are highlighted in grey. (
  • The percentage of identical residues ( percent identity ) or the percentage of residues conserved with similar physicochemical properties ( percent similarity ), e.g. leucine and isoleucine , is usually used to "quantify the homology. (
  • The spectrum of genes activated by SRF is dictated by its differential affinity for different CArG-box sequences ( 3 ) and its association with a variety of positive and negative cofactors, many of which are cell type-specific and signal-responsive (reviewed in ref. 4 ). (
  • The mouse myocardin cDNA sequence was used to search NCBI databases to identify related genes. (
  • Sequence comparison of mitochondrial tRNA genes and origin of light strand replication in Bos taurus. (
  • Sequences, organization and analysis of the hupZMNOQRTV genes from the Azotobacter chroococcum hydrogenase gene cluster. (
  • We now report the cloning and sequence analysis of an 8,142-bp cluster of 15 putative gas vesicle genes ( gvp ) from Bacillus megaterium VT1660 and their functional expression in Escherichia coli . (
  • Evidence includes homologies by sequence analysis to known gas vesicle genes, the buoyancy phenotype of E. coli strains that carry this gvp gene cluster, the presence of pressure-sensitive, refractile bodies in phase-contrast microscopy, structural details in phase-constrast microscopy, structural details in direct interference-contrast microscopy, and shape and size revealed by transmission electron microscopy. (
  • Two Ca2+ ATPase genes: homologies and mechanistic implications of deduced amino acid sequences. (
  • Most SSGP-encoding genes appear under strong selection for mutations that generate amino acid changes within the coding region. (
  • Isolation of Hox cluster genes from insects reveals an accelerated sequence evolution rate. (
  • Surprisingly though, no Hox genes have been isolated from 26 out of 35 insect orders yet, and the existing sequences derive mainly from only two orders (61% from Hymenoptera and 22% from Diptera). (
  • As it has been shown that caution should be taken when using the best BLAST hit to infer gene homology [31]-[33], we performed phylogenetic analyses to further test the assignments of the newly isolated Hox genes. (
  • We believe that we have amplified both genes (different homeobox sequences) but we are reluctant to suggest an assignment to the Scr or Antp gene family in the absence of unambiguous differences in the homeodomain. (
  • Significant sequence similarity and shared functional domains indicate that these two genes are orthologous genes, [4] inherited from the shared ancestor . (
  • When molecular genetics came into vogue, and scientists started looking at the molecules responsible for homeosis and determined their sequence, they noticed a similarity: the genes were transcription factors that regulated the activity of other genes, and many of them contained a common motif, a stretch of DNA they named the homeobox. (
  • The homeobox is a 180-basepair sequence of DNA that has been found in many regulatory genes. (
  • Some vertebrate homeodomain sequences are more similar to their fly homologs, than that fly homolog is similar to other Hox genes in that same species. (
  • Monsanto has provided data on the identity of the Bollgard™ cotton lines, a detailed description of the modification method, data and information on the gene insertion sites, copy numbers and levels of expression in the plant, the role of the inserted genes and regulatory sequences in donor organisms, and full nucleotide sequences. (
  • Indeed, the computer programs that are used to compare molecular sequences have been written to produce trees showing common ancestors and branching relationships regardless of the extent to which the genes analyzed may or may not differ. (
  • Loss of Csy1p results in a lack of amino acid-mediated activation of amino acid transport and a lack of induction of transcription of specific amino acid permease genes. (
  • Unlike other members of this family, Ssy1p does not transport amino acids, and it contains an N-terminal domain involved in sensing amino acids and activating downstream factors that regulate the expression of AAP genes ( 10 , 21 , 25 ). (
  • When amino acids are available in the environment, Ssy1p activates the expression of AAP genes, which then mediate the transport of amino acids ( 10 , 21 , 25 ). (
  • Thus, SSY1 encodes a regulator of transcription of AAP genes rather than an amino acid transporter ( 10 ). (
  • Furthermore, loss of the SSY1 gene is not compensated for by overexpression of AAP genes, and its overexpression does not rescue the loss of amino acid uptake in strains containing multiple deletions of amino acid transporter genes ( 10 ). (
  • The degree of similarity between sequences of Amino Acids . (
  • COMPASS is a profile-based method for the detection of remote sequence similarity and the prediction of protein structure. (
  • i) Sequence similarity results from the FASTA program () are stored in the FASTA database for all proteins from PIR-International and PATCHX. (
  • The cDNA is assumed to encode alpha-1-antitrypsin on the basis of its sequence similarity to the corresponding cDNAs for human, baboon, rat, mouse, sheep and cow. (
  • An expressed sequence tag was characterized from the Schistosoma Genome Initiative with high similarity to TPx from other organisms. (
  • These secreted salivary gland proteins (SSGPs) can be classified into 97 groups based on their sequence similarity. (
  • Among the SSGP-encoding transcripts, 235 encoded unique proteins with no sequence similarity to any known protein. (
  • Homology among DNA, RNA, or proteins is typically inferred from their nucleotide or amino acid sequence similarity. (
  • Significant similarity is strong evidence that two sequences are related by evolutionary changes from a common ancestral sequence. (
  • The term "percent homology" is often used to mean "sequence similarity. (
  • Based on the definition of homology specified above this terminology is incorrect since sequence similarity is the observation, homology is the conclusion. (
  • As with morphological and anatomical structures, sequence similarity might occur because of convergent evolution , or, as with shorter sequences, by chance, meaning that they are not homologous. (
  • The fructose 1,6-bisphosphatases found within the Firmicutes (low GC Gram-positive bacteria) do not show any significant sequence similarity to the enzymes from other organisms. (
  • Galectins require fulfillment of two criteria: affinity for β-galactosides and significant sequence similarity in the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) (Hirabayashi J & Kasai K 1991 J Biol Chem 266:23648-23653). (
  • [10] Amino acid sequence homology of this isoform of human CASS4 with other family members is 26% overall identity and 42% similarity. (
  • A more detailed knowledge about which amino acids that confer the specificity of an enzyme can prove to be of major importance for development of highly specific inhibitors for the human chymase and other medically important enzymes. (
  • it forms three helices that nestle neatly into a groove formed by the DNA spiral, and the amino acids in these regions assign binding specificity to particular sequences in the DNA. (
  • The significance of these homologies with respect to putative functions of the PVX-encoded proteins are discussed. (
  • In a search of sequenced genomes, we found that many bacterial species contain putative ethylene receptors. (
  • the reading frame encodes a putative polypeptide of 200 amino acids including the signal sequence of 22 amino acids. (
  • To overcome this difficulty, sequencing of the putative VP1/2A junction of the virus genome is used to differentiate HAV isolates into seven genotypes ( 32 ). (
  • The Wilbur and Lipman Wordsearch algorithm was used to identify homologous amino acid sequences between tandemly repeated Plasmodium amino acid sequences and the human and human viral sequences compiled in the National Biomedical Research Foundation database. (
  • Rabbit RBP was found to be highly homologous to human RBP, whose amino acid sequence was elucidated earlier, and to rat RBP. (
  • Sequence analysis indicated that mGIF is homologous to the human TGF-β inducible early gene (TIEG) and human early growth response gene-α (EGR-α). (
  • Fifty percent of PRPF8 mutant and del(17p) cases were found in AML and conveyed poor prognosis.Whole-RNA deep sequencing of primary cells from patients with PRPF8 abnormalities demonstrated consistent missplicing defects.In yeast models, homologous mutations introduced into Prp8 abrogated a block experimentally produced in the second step of the RNA splicing process, suggesting that the mutants have defects in proof-reading functions. (
  • Alignments of multiple sequences are used to indicate which regions of each sequence are homologous. (
  • Sequences are either homologous or not. (
  • Homologous sequence regions are also called conserved . (
  • Homologous sequences are orthologous if they are inferred to be descended from the same ancestral sequence separated by a speciation event: when a species diverges into two separate species, the copies of a single gene in the two resulting species are said to be orthologous. (
  • A polymerase chain reaction assay was developed based on conserved amino acid sequences shared between the Ta11-1 reverse transcriptase and those of non-LTR retrotransposons from other species. (
  • Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers representing the conserved regions of fish GH sequences the 3′ region of catfish GH cDNA (540 bp) was cloned by random amplification of cDNA ends and the clone was used as a probe to isolate recombinant phages carrying the full-length cDNA sequence. (
  • Using total RNA from d 30 embryonic pig liver, reverse transcription (RT) followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers generated using an EPOR consensus sequence, a partial cDNA of 532 bp (corresponding to a portion of the extracellular domain) for pEPOR was subcloned and sequenced. (
  • mua-3 encodes a predicted 3,767 amino acid protein with a large extracellular domain, a single transmembrane helix, and a smaller cytoplasmic domain. (
  • The first and second each contain 7 exons and encode the same full-length protein isoform a (786 amino acids, considered the major isoform), the third one contains 6 exons and encodes a shorter isoform b (732 amino acids) and the fourth one contains 5 exons and encodes the shortest isoform c (349 amino acids). (
  • Human IL-18 R cDNA encodes a 541 amino acid (aa) precursor type I membrane protein with a hydrophobic signal, an extracellular domain comprised of three immunoglobulin-like domains, a transmembrane domain and a cytoplasmic region of approximately 200 aa. (
  • Clearly the most impressive homology relationship is that seen between the polypeptide from the I-EC subregion of mouse and its human counterpart. (
  • This is in striking contrast to the β polypeptide, which bears no apparent homology to its human counterpart. (
  • Homology alignment reveals that the amino acid sequences contain some conserved function domains. (
  • The alignment looked good, you can see in the image above that over half the amino acids are identical and the E value, at 3 x 10 -31 shows me there's very little chance of getting a match this good from random sequences. (
  • A sequence alignment of mammalian histone proteins. (
  • Six published repetitive immunogenic amino acid sequences from the circumsporozoite (CS) antigen, ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (RESA), soluble (S) antigen, and falciparum interspersed repetitive antigen (FIRA) of P. falciparum, and the CS protein of P. vivax, were analyzed by computer. (
  • In the database, 29 matches were found for human proteins and 26 matches were found for human viruses with the 6 antigen sequences. (
  • Amino acid substitutions in CL6 were found to alter Wzz-mediated O-antigen modality, with evidence suggesting that these changes may perturb the C-terminal Wzy Pa tertiary structure. (
  • The second is composed of a repeating trisaccharide unit containing a proximal D -fucosamine sugar and two distal substituted dideoxy-mannuronic acid sugars termed O-specific antigen (OSA, B-band). (
  • For phylogenetic analysis, internal primer sequences were used to amplify isolates of human and swine HEV. (
  • Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the A. thaliana sequences are more closely related to each other than to elements from other organisms, consistent with the vertical evolution of these sequences over most of their evolutionary history. (
  • Orthologous sequences provide useful information in taxonomic classification and phylogenetic studies of organisms. (
  • Phylogenetic studies compare two or more gene sequences and then use degrees of difference to determine divergence points and nodes on a phylogenetic tree. (
  • Credit: Courtesy of Adam Johnson When chemistry graduate student Stanley Miller first heard University of Chicago professor and Nobel laureate Harold Urey's idea that organic compounds, such as amino acids, arose in a reducing atmosphere, Miller was determined to find out. (
  • Over 202 plant genomes have been sequenced and are in the NCBI database. (
  • To be complete, I also used tblastn to translate the DNA from all 202 plant genomes and compare the predicted protein sequences to the insulin protein sequence. (
  • B) Homology of the mTFR11/hALK-3 to other receptors for ligands of the TGF-(3 superfamily. (
  • Similarly, S. cerevisiae possesses a sensor of amino acids, Ssy1p ( 10 , 21 , 25 ), which belongs to the amino acid permease (AAP) superfamily ( 14 , 42 , 50 ). (
  • The complete nucleotide sequence of potato virus X and its homologies at the amino acid level with various plus-stranded RNA viruses. (
  • Laal, Suman (1990) Nucleotide sequence and deduced amino acid sequence of Mycobacterium leprae gene showing homology to bacterial atp operon Nucleic Acids Research, 18 (16). (
  • The nucleotide sequence of piscivorin cDNA spans 1323 bp, containing an open reading frame of 240 codons. (
  • 1. A method of treating a condition associated with airway hyperresponsiveness in a subject comprising administering a vector containing a nucleotide sequence encoding IGFBP-3 or an analog thereof. (
  • 8. A method of treating an obstructive respiratory disorder comprising administering a vector containing a nucleotide sequence encoding IGFBP-3 or an analog thereof. (
  • 12. A method of decreasing inflammation in lower respiratory tissue comprising administering a vector containing a nucleotide sequence encoding IGFBP-3 or an analog thereof. (
  • Nucleotide Sequence Data. (
  • The nucleotide sequence data reported in this paper is available from EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ under accession number AB034727. (
  • The human leukocyte enzyme shares approximately 43% sequence homology with porcine pancreatic elastase. (
  • Even their full length homeodomain sequences do not allow an unambiguous assignment in a standard distance analysis (Fig. S1). (
  • Cotton event GHB614 was developed using Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer technology, resulting in the introduction of a 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (epsps) gene containing two amino acid substitutions. (
  • The introduction of the two amino acid substitutions in the EPSPS protein confers the tolerance to glyphosate. (
  • The isolated homeobox fragments differ between orders, but no amino acid substitutions are found in the short fragment spanning homeodomain positions 20 to 45 (Fig. 3). (
  • For these gene fragments more sequence information is required to distinguish between the two alternatives, since amino acid substitutions have been known to occur at positions 1, 4, 6, 7 and 60 only (Fig. 3). (
  • The high degree of homology between RBP molecules from different species is probably explained by the fact that RBP participates in at least three types of molecular interactions: in the binding of prealbumin, in the interaction with retinol, and in the recognition of a specific cell surface receptor. (
  • The paralog BBA01, which has the highest sequence homology to P13, is expressed during in vitro growth in all three Lyme disease causing species, although at very low levels. (
  • Furthermore, comparative distance analyses of homeobox sequences reveal a correlation between gene divergence rate and species radiation success with insects showing the highest rate of homeobox sequence evolution. (
  • Two of the most pressing today are "How good is the genetic colinearity between the model plants receiving DNA sequencing attention and their related crop species? (
  • This homology is conserved between phyla, as well as within a species. (
  • Isoform "a" of human CASS4 is considered the predominant species, and at 786 amino acids is the longest one. (
  • You have sequenced a bunch of cytochrome c proteins from a variety of difference species. (
  • The bfGnRHR-1, bfGnRHR-2, and bfGnRHR-3 proteins have an amino acid identity of approximately 30% to approximately 35% with mammalian GnRHRs and approximately 40% to approximately 50% with nonmammalian GnRHRs. (
  • [6] CAS proteins have an amino terminal SH3 domain enabling interaction with poly-proline motif-containing proteins such as FAK . (
  • The 70-amino-acid, extremely hydrophobic protein was first cloned from Calothrix sp. (
  • FGF-23 has a hydrophobic amino terminus ( approximately 24 amino acids), which is a typical signal sequence. (
  • The deduced amino acid sequence of hupR shares high homology with bacterial rubredoxins. (
  • The rat RBP sequence was obtained by combining information deduced from the nucleotide sequences of two overlapping cDNA clones with the NH2-terminal sequence of the isolated protein determined by automated Edman degradation. (
  • Several human, mouse, and Xenopus cDNA clones and ESTs with homology to myocardin were identified. (
  • Conservation of gene orders, but not intergenic sequences, over millions of years appears to be the rule within plant families. (
  • This is not to be confused with conservation in amino acid sequences, where the amino acid at a specific position has been substituted with a different one that has functionally equivalent physicochemical properties. (
  • The sequence was compared with those of two human mu chains, and a high degree of interspecies homology was observed. (
  • Amino acid sequence homologies between rabbit, rat, and human serum re" by J. Sundelin, B. C. Laurent et al. (
  • The amino acid differences between rabbit, rat, and human RBP are discussed in light of the recent elucidation of the three-dimensional structure of human RBP. (
  • By site-directed mutatgenesis, we have previously shown that basic amino acids in positions 143 and 192 (Arg and Lys respectively) of the human mast cell chymase are responsible for an acidic amino acid residue preference in the P2' position of substrates. (
  • We also isolated human cDNA encoding FGF-23 (251 amino acids), which is highly identical ( approximately 72% amino acid identity) to mouse FGF-23. (
  • Of human FGF family members, FGF-23 is most similar to FGF-21 and FGF-19 ( approximately 24% and approximately 22% amino acid identities, respectively). (
  • Human and mouse IL5 have 70% amino acid sequence homology. (
  • NPC1's amino acid sequence homology to PATCHED, human HMG-CoA reductase and SCAP. (
  • I got to the Blink results by finding the human insulin preproprotein sequence ( NP_001278826 ), then I clicked the Blink link on the side of the page to get all the Blink results for human insulin . (
  • Sequence of cDNA encoding human insulin-like growth factor I precursor. (
  • The amino acid sequence of human insulin-like growth factor I and its structural homology with proinsulin. (
  • Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) procedures were used to obtain the 3' end, which was cloned an sequenced, giving a total sequence of 1450 bp, corresponding to amino acids 80-508 of the human EPOR plus the 3' untranslated region. (
  • Human and mouse IL-18 R share 65% amino acid sequence homology. (
  • Recently, the structural biology efforts have centered on enzymes in the chorismate metabolic pathways involved in amino acid biosynthesis and in structural genomics that involves determining the structures of "hypotheti cal" proteins to aid in assigning function. (
  • Here, we describe the identification and characterization of the primary amino acid sensor of C. albicans , Csy1. (
  • The use of recombinant peptides based upon the repeated amino acid sequences of Plasmodium has been proposed for malaria vaccines. (
  • Partial amino acid sequences of the Ia molecule encoded by the I-E or I-C (I-EC) subregion of the major histocompatibility complex of the mouse are presented. (
  • Based on the partial homeobox sequences we cannot unambiguously distinguish between Scr and Antp homeobox fragments in Diplura, Archaeognatha, Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera and Dermaptera. (
  • Partial homology can occur where a segment of the compared sequences has a shared origin, while the rest does not. (
  • Such partial homology may result from a gene fusion event. (
  • Using Blink can save you lots of time because it organizes blast results from all the organisms in the non-redundant protein sequence database, but getting to Blink can be tricky because it's a little hard to find. (
  • [7] in 2008 following in silico screening of databases describing expressed sequence tags from an evolutionarily diverse group of organisms, using the CAS-related proteins ( p130Cas , NEDD9/HEF1 and EFS ) mRNAs as templates. (
  • This sequence homology implies that the machinery of chloroplast membrane biosynthesis is evolutionarily derived from that of cell wall biosynthesis in bacteria. (
  • article{Yamashita:2000aa, Abstract = {We isolated mouse cDNA encoding a novel FGF (251 amino acids). (
  • The DNA sequence predicted a signal peptide with a modified lipoprotein consensus sequence, but the protein proved to be devoid of lipid attachment. (
  • A) TGGT1_239010 codes for a 685-amino-acid protein that contains a predicted signal peptide (bold lettering) but no transmembrane domains internal to the protein, consistent with predictions for other effectors originating in dense granules. (
  • NCBI BLAST was used to compare TGGT1_239010 (Query) to the Neospora proteome, and the only similarities found were within the two displayed regions of BN1204_015825 (Sbjct), including the predicted signal peptide and a segment of ∼50 amino acids toward the C terminus. (
  • During DNA sequence analysis of cosmid L373 from the Mycobacterium leprae genome, an open reading frame of 1.4 kb encoding a protein with some homology to the immunodominant 34-kDa protein of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, but lacking significant serological activity, was detected. (
  • HEV seroprevalence was 6.3%, and HEV genotype 3 strains with high sequence homology were detected. (
  • We have developed methodologies for the molecular identification of rotavirus strains based on VP7 gene segment sequence. (
  • Analysis of its crystal structure reveals a novel two domain structure, with each domain showing significant homology to the cytokine fold in GMCSF, MCSF, IL2, IL4 and growth hormone. (
  • IL-17A and IL-17F show the most homology among the IL-17 cytokine family. (
  • Sequencing of these products is performed using truncated versions of the original primers. (
  • It exists as a single 238 amino acid-peptide chain with four disulfide bonds. (
  • The amino acid sequence deduced from hupZ has the characteristics of a b-type cytochrome. (
  • This gene is constitutively expressed, and its product has homology to a cytochrome P450. (
  • These new gene sequences provide a first step towards comparative Hox gene studies in insects. (
  • Bayer CropScience has provided data on the identity of cotton event GHB614, a description of the transformation method, data and information on the gene insertion site, gene copy number and levels of 2m EPSPS protein in the plant and the role of the inserted gene and regulatory sequences. (
  • Through its WWW server ( ) MIPS permits internet access to sequence databases, homology data and to yeast genome information. (
  • A CD-ROM based on the JAVA programming language providing dynamic interactive access to the yeast genome and the related protein sequences has been compiled and is available on request. (
  • Link to the list of clones constituting the contig, the information on its mapping to the genome mapped to genome sequence and the list of top 10 hits in the results of homology search are provided. (
  • One sequence, Ta17, is located in the mitochondrial genome. (
  • The paucity of retrotransposons and the small genome size of A. thaliana support the hypothesis that most repetitive sequences have been lost from the genome and that mechanisms may exist to prevent amplification of extant element families. (
  • Peginesatide is an ESA that is a synthetic, pegylated dimeric peptide comprised of two identical, 21- amino acid chains covalently bonded to a linker derived from iminodiacetic acid and β- alanine . (
  • Not only was this group the only lab to ever find a plant insulin protein, the protein they sequenced was identical to cow insulin, and they found it twice. (
  • Finally, genetic recombination produces regions of heteroduplex DNA that may contain mismatched nucleotides arising from the pairing of two different parental DNA sequences ( H olliday 1964 ). (
  • Full-length sequences of H7N9 viruses that emerged in Shanghai were collected from the Global Initiative on Sharing Avian Influenza Data to analyze the evolutionary and genetic features. (
  • In addition, the deduced amino acid sequence of the MGDG synthase cDNA showed homology with MurG of Bacillus subtilis and E. coli , which encode a glycosyltransferase catalyzing the last step of peptidoglycan synthesis in bacteria. (
  • The cDNA was cloned in the course of investigating transcription factors that bind to Sp1 consensus sequences, using the in situ filter detection method, and it was found to encode a protein having the same C 2 -H 2 zinc finger motif as Sp1. (
  • Despite a high level of sequence homology between them, PL3 and PL5 were found to possess distinct cationic and anionic characteristics, respectively. (
  • The results indicate a high homology with other known EPOR sequences, and show increased expression of pEPOR mRNA in porcine liver during a time corresponding to a rapid expansion of the erythron and a critical time for fetal survival in a crowded uterine environment. (
  • Serum, Lee's medium (rich in amino acids), high temperatures (37°C), and neutral pHs are among the conditions that positively influence hyphal morphogenesis ( 11 , 40 ). (
  • ratAurA , cloned from a rat mammary gland cDNA library, is a bona fide Ser/Thr kinase, and sequence comparison demonstrated high homology to members of the entire AurA kinase family. (
  • DNA sequence analysis near the Arabidopsis thaliana ABI3 gene revealed the presence of a non-LTR retrotransposon insertion that we have designated Ta11-1. (
  • B, Location of the two ESTs, LOC19611 / LOC283105 and KIAA1766, from which the coding sequence of MTMR13 ( top ) and intron-exon structure of MTMR13 ( bottom ) was constructed. (
  • comparisons of the homeodomain sequence shows even higher homology, since most of the nucleotide differences conserve the same amino acid. (
  • Further examination of samples typed by these methods, such as by sequence analysis, is usually required to further characterize diversity within serotypes. (
  • A Neighbour Joining analysis of only the six potentially unambiguous new homeobox sequences (lab, pb, Dfd, Ubx, Abd-B) groups all new fragments into the expected clades of homologs from other insects and thus confirms the results of NCBI Blast (Fig. 2), except for abd-A which appears paraphyletic. (
  • A highly conserved HPPTPLSLPH sequence was predicted to contact the aromatic ring of dihydrokaempferol. (
  • The homeodomain sequence is highly conserved. (
  • A cDNA clone encoding the complete coding sequence for porcine alpha-1-antitrypsin (or alpha 1-protease inhibitor, PI) was isolated and its DNA sequence determined. (
  • The sequence [6435 nucleotides excluding the poly(A) tract] revealed five open reading frames (ORFs) which were numbered one to five starting at the 5' terminus of the RNA. (