Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Nuclear Localization Signals: Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Nuclear Export Signals: Specific amino acid sequences present in the primary amino acid sequence of proteins which mediate their export from the CELL NUCLEUS. They are rich in hydrophobic residues, such as LEUCINE and ISOLEUCINE.Karyopherins: A family of proteins involved in NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT. Karyopherins are heteromeric molecules composed two major types of components, ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and BETA KARYOPHERINS, that function together to transport molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Several other proteins such as RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN and CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN bind to karyopherins and participate in the transport process.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.14-3-3 Proteins: A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Swiss 3T3 Cells: A cell line established in 1962 from disaggregated Swiss albino mouse embryos. This fibroblast cell line is extremely popular in research.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.PhosphoproteinsTumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.ran GTP-Binding Protein: A monomeric GTP-binding protein involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins into the nucleus and RNA into the cytoplasm. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 184.108.40.206.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Nucleoplasmins: A family of histone molecular chaperones that play roles in sperm CHROMATIN decondensation and CHROMATIN ASSEMBLY in fertilized eggs. They were originally discovered in XENOPUS egg extracts as histone-binding factors that mediate nucleosome formation in vitro.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Nuclear Envelope: The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Nerve Tissue ProteinsConserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.alpha Karyopherins: Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to the NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNALS of cytoplasmic molecules destined to be imported into the CELL NUCLEUS. Once attached to their cargo they bind to BETA KARYOPHERINS and are transported through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Inside the CELL NUCLEUS alpha karyopherins dissociate from beta karypherins and their cargo. They then form a complex with CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN and RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN which is exported to the CYTOPLASM.Hu Paraneoplastic Encephalomyelitis Antigens: A family of RNA-binding proteins that are homologues of ELAV protein, Drosophila. They were initially identified in humans as the targets of autoantibodies in patients with PARANEOPLASTIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS. They are thought to regulate GENE EXPRESSION at the post-transcriptional level.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Sound Localization: Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesLiver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Mutant Proteins: Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.beta Karyopherins: Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS in the CYTOSOL and are involved in transport of molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Once inside the CELL NUCLEUS beta karyopherins interact with RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN and dissociate from alpha karyopherins. Beta karyopherins bound to RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN are then re-transported to the cytoplasm where hydrolysis of the GTP of RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN causes release of karyopherin beta.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Cell Nucleolus: Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins: Proteins that form the structure of the NUCLEAR PORE. They are involved in active, facilitated and passive transport of molecules in and out of the CELL NUCLEUS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Ubiquitin: A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Nuclear Matrix: The residual framework structure of the CELL NUCLEUS that maintains many of the overall architectural features of the cell nucleus including the nuclear lamina with NUCLEAR PORE complex structures, residual CELL NUCLEOLI and an extensive fibrogranular structure in the nuclear interior. (Advan. Enzyme Regul. 2002; 42:39-52)Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Mice, Inbred C57BLOpen Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.HMGB1 Protein: A 24-kDa HMGB protein that binds to and distorts the minor grove of DNA.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins: A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.Nuclear Matrix-Associated Proteins: A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Antigens, Nuclear: Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.Nucleocytoplasmic Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the process of transporting molecules in and out the cell nucleus. Included here are: NUCLEOPORINS, which are membrane proteins that form the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX; KARYOPHERINS, which carry molecules through the nuclear pore complex; and proteins that play a direct role in the transport of karyopherin complexes through the nuclear pore complex.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 220.127.116.11.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.Poly Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: A polynucleotide formed from the ADP-RIBOSE moiety of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES.
Chatterjee TK, Fisher RA (Aug 2000). "Cytoplasmic, nuclear, and golgi localization of RGS proteins. Evidence for N-terminal and ... Regulator of G protein signaling 10 belongs to this family. All RGS proteins share a conserved 120-amino acid sequence termed ... RGS proteins are able to deactivate G protein subunits of the Gi alpha, Go alpha and Gq alpha subtypes. They drive G proteins ... Regulator of G-protein signaling 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RGS10 gene. Regulator of G protein signaling ...
Chatterjee TK, Fisher RA (2000). "Cytoplasmic, nuclear, and golgi localization of RGS proteins. Evidence for N-terminal and RGS ... Regulator of G protein signaling 4 belongs to this family. All RGS proteins share a conserved 120-amino acid sequence termed ... "GTPase-activating proteins for heterotrimeric G proteins: regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) and RGS-like proteins". ... RGS proteins are able to deactivate G protein subunits of the Gi alpha, Go alpha and Gq alpha subtypes. They drive G proteins ...
Chatterjee TK, Fisher RA (2000). "Cytoplasmic, nuclear, and golgi localization of RGS proteins. Evidence for N-terminal and RGS ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... Regulator of G-protein signaling 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RGS2 gene. It is part of a larger family of ... Nlend MC, Bookman RJ, Conner GE, Salathe M (2002). "Regulator of G-protein signaling protein 2 modulates purinergic calcium and ...
The nuclear import of karyophilic proteins is directed by short amino acid sequences termed nuclear localization signals (NLSs ... are cytoplasmic proteins that recognize NLSs and dock NLS-containing proteins to the nuclear pore complex. The protein encoded ... von Schwedler U, Kornbluth RS, Trono D (Jul 1994). "The nuclear localization signal of the matrix protein of human ... "The Vpr protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 influences nuclear localization of viral nucleic acids in nondividing ...
Chatterjee TK, Fisher RA (Aug 2000). "Cytoplasmic, nuclear, and golgi localization of RGS proteins. Evidence for N-terminal and ... RGS domain sequences as intracellular targeting motifs". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (31): 24013-21. doi:10.1074/ ... "GTPase-activating proteins for heterotrimeric G proteins: regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) and RGS-like proteins". ... Regulator of G-protein signaling 16 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RGS16 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ...
... according to homology of their DNA sequences, biochemical properties and cellular localization during the cell cycle. Type V ... The nuclear lamina consists of two components, lamins and nuclear lamin-associated membrane proteins. The lamins are type V ... intermediate filaments differ from cytoplasmic intermediate filaments in the way that they have an extended rod domain (42 ... The nuclear lamin-associated membrane proteins are either integral or peripheral membrane proteins. The most important are ...
"The Nucleo-cytoplasmic actin-binding protein CapG lacks a nuclear export sequence present in structurally related proteins". J ... 2002). "Cell cycle-dependent expression and nucleolar localization of hCAP-H". Mol. Biol. Cell. 12 (11): 3527-37. doi:10.1091/ ... Macrophage-capping protein (CAPG) also known as actin regulatory protein CAP-G is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... 2005). "Increased importin-beta-dependent nuclear import of the actin modulating protein CapG promotes cell invasion". J. Cell ...
... residue-rich domains that regulate nuclear/cytoplasmic partitioning and membrane localization of a kinase anchoring protein 12 ... Streb JW, Miano JM (2005). "Cross-species sequence analysis reveals multiple charged ... This protein and RII PKA colocalize at the cell periphery. This protein is a cell growth-related protein. Antibodies to this ... Fan G, Shumay E, Wang H, Malbon CC (2001). "The scaffold protein gravin (cAMP-dependent protein kinase-anchoring protein 250) ...
In the classical export scheme, proteins with a nuclear export sequence (NES) can bind in the nucleus to form a heterotrimeric ... This gradient arises from the exclusive nuclear localization of RanGEFs, proteins that exchange GDP to GTP on Ran molecules. ... This change may make the NPC more permeable to enzymes involved in the degradation of the NE such as cytoplasmic tubulin, as ... Nuclear pores are large protein complexes that cross the nuclear envelope, which is the double membrane surrounding the ...
"Sequence and characterization of cytoplasmic nuclear protein import factor p97". J. Cell Biol. 130 (2): 265-74. doi:10.1083/jcb ... The import of proteins containing a classical nuclear localization signal (NLS) requires the NLS import receptor, a heterodimer ... Kehlenbach RH, Gerace L (June 2000). "Phosphorylation of the nuclear transport machinery down-regulates nuclear protein import ... "A nuclear localization signal within HIV-1 matrix protein that governs infection of non-dividing cells". Nature. 365 (6447): ...
Its M9 domain acts as both a nuclear localization and nuclear export signal. The encoded protein is involved in the packaging ... "Association of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 and C proteins with reiterated AUUUA sequences". J. Biol. Chem. 268 ( ... Weighardt F, Biamonti G, Riva S (1995). "Nucleo-cytoplasmic distribution of human hnRNP proteins: a search for the targeting ... Siomi H, Dreyfuss G (1995). "A nuclear localization domain in the hnRNP A1 protein". J. Cell Biol. 129 (3): 551-60. doi:10.1083 ...
... for translocation of cytoplasmic Arc mRNA to activated synapses is an 11 nucleotide binding site for heterogeneous nuclear ... While Arc mRNA is subject to degradation by NMD, the translated protein contains a PEST sequence at amino acids 351-392, ... Arc is widely considered to be an important protein in neurobiology because of its activity regulation, localization, and ... Activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein is a plasticity protein that in humans is ecoded by the ARC gene. It was ...
They are cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins. However, since most mature RNA is exported from the nucleus relatively quickly, most ... cellular localization and stability. All RBPs bind RNA, however they do so with different RNA-sequence specificities and ... CPSF binds to the 3' tail (AAUAAA) sequence and together with another protein called poly(A)-binding protein, recruits and ... These structures illustrate the intricacy of protein-RNA recognition of RRM as it entails RNA-RNA and protein-protein ...
protein ubiquitination. • negative regulation of protein processing. • establishment of protein localization. • response to ... In addition, this region contains nuclear export and import signals that are essential for proper nuclear-cytoplasmic ... as well as a nucleolar localization sequence. The RING domain also binds specifically to RNA, although the function of this is ... protein binding. • enzyme binding. • metal ion binding. • identical protein binding. • ubiquitin protein ligase binding. • p53 ...
... nuclear localization signal) is predicted for FAM63B at RKRK at residue 599. In agreement, Reinhardt's method for cytoplasmic/ ... FAM63B protein may contain a signal sequence specifying return to the endoplasmic reticulum (KDEL) from residue 607 to 621 in ... Variant a of the protein also contains a hydrophobic stretch of alanine from 567 to 574 and a mixed charge sequence from ... Post-translational modifications of the FAM63B protein. FAM63B has predicted NES (nuclear export signals) at Val274 and Leu277 ...
Activated WASP leads to nuclear localization of actin filaments and this can lead to premature apoptosis, aneuploidy and ... The WASp gene product is a cytoplasmic protein, expressed exclusively in hematopoietic cells, which show signalling and ... In the inactive state, WASp exists in an autoinhibited conformation with sequences near its C-terminus binding to a region near ... protein binding. • identical protein binding. • actin binding. • protein kinase binding. • small GTPase binding. • Rac GTPase ...
... separates the nuclear processes of DNA replication and RNA transcription from the cytoplasmic process of protein production. ... A nuclear localization signal or sequence (NLS) is an amino acid sequence that 'tags' a protein for import into the cell ... This was made possible by the demonstration that nuclear protein import is a two-step process; the nuclear protein binds to the ... nuclear proteins contained a sequence similar to the SV40 NLS. A detailed examination of Nucleoplasmin identified a sequence ...
1991). "The human TTP protein: sequence, alignment with related proteins, and chromosomal localization of the mouse and human ... "A growth factor-inducible nuclear protein with a novel cysteine/histidine repetitive sequence". J Biol Chem. 265 (31): 19185-91 ... Johnson BA, Stehn JR, Yaffe MB, Blackwell TK (May 2002). "Cytoplasmic localization of tristetraprolin involves 14-3-3-dependent ... The subcellular localization of TTP is influenced by interactions with protein partners such as the 14-3-3 family of proteins. ...
It is predominantly cytoplasmic;its own nuclear import is regulated by a nuclear localization signal and nuclear export signals ... "A novel shuttling protein, 4E-T, mediates the nuclear import of the mRNA 5' cap-binding protein, eIF4E". EMBO J. 19 (12): 3142- ... 2004). "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs". Nat. Genet. 36 (1): 40-5. doi:10.1038/ ... This shuttle protein interacts with the importin alpha-beta complex to mediate nuclear import of eIF4E. ...
The encoded protein localizes to the nuclear matrix, PML nuclear bodies, and cytoplasmic vesicles. A highly similar gene in the ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 7 (4): 273-81. doi: ... mouse is required for localization of specific membrane proteins in polarized regions of neurons. Multiple transcript variants ... Nakayama M, Kikuno R, Ohara O (2003). "Protein-protein interactions between large proteins: two-hybrid screening using a ...
... proteins were described as latent cytoplasmic transcription factors as phosphorylation was thought to be required for nuclear ... while the coiled-coil domain functions partially as a nuclear localization signal (NLS). Transcriptional activity and DNA ... STAT1 homodimers are involved in type II interferon signalling, and bind to the GAS (Interferon-Gamma Activated Sequence) ... The STAT protein can be dephosphorylated by nuclear phosphatases, which leads to inactivation of STAT and subsequent transport ...
CBP and p300 are large nuclear proteins that bind to many sequence-specific factors involved in cell growth and/or ... leading to a reduction in PCAF acetyltransferase activity and cytoplasmic localisation. PCAF forms complexes with numerous ... results in reversible acetylation of EVI1 and in co-localization in nuclear speckles". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (48): 44936-43. doi: ... "Transcriptional activation by hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 requires synergism between multiple coactivator proteins". J. Biol. ...
... two nuclear localization signals, and several potential PKC and PKA phosphorylation sites. It is a predominantly cytoplasmic ... The encoded protein has sequence homology to diaphanous and formin proteins within the Formin Homology (FH)1 and FH2 domains. ... FH1/FH2 domain-containing protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FHOD1 gene. This gene encodes a protein which ... Wang Y, El-Zaru MR, Surks HK, Mendelsohn ME (2004). "Formin homology domain protein (FHOD1) is a cyclic GMP-dependent protein ...
Symplekin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SYMPK gene. This gene encodes a nuclear protein that functions in the ... "Chromosomal localization to 19q13.3, partial genomic structure and 5' cDNA sequence of the human symplekin gene". Somatic Cell ... The protein also localizes to the cytoplasmic plaques of tight junctions in some cell types. Model organisms have been used in ... The protein forms a high-molecular weight complex with components of the polyadenylation machinery. It is thought to serve as a ...
Activated WASP leads to nuclear localization of actin filaments and this can lead to premature apoptosis, aneuploidy and ... The WASp gene product is a cytoplasmic protein, expressed exclusively in hematopoietic cells, which show signalling and ... In the inactive state, WASp exists in an autoinhibited conformation with sequences near its C-terminus binding to a region near ... "The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein-interacting protein (WIP) binds to the adaptor protein Nck". The Journal of Biological ...
endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response. · protein localization to nucleus. · sterol regulatory element binding protein ... Association of emerin with nuclear and cytoplasmic actin is regulated in differentiating myoblasts. Biochem. Biophys. Res. ... Lamin A/C gene and a related sequence map to human chromosomes 1q12.1-q23 and 10. Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. March 1993, 19 (2): ... protein binding. 细胞成分. · nucleus. · nuclear envelope. · lamin filament. · nuclear lamina. · nucleoplasm. · cytoplasm. · cytosol ...
Next, HBx variants were constructed containing a functional or mutant nuclear localization sequence. We show that when HBx is ... The hepatitis B virus HBx protein is a dual specificity cytoplasmic activator of Ras and nuclear activator of transcription ... Furthermore, SV40 T antigen is shown to induce the nuclear sequestration of HBx protein and to block its activation of NF-kappa ... nuclear HBx fully retains the ability to stimulate HBV enhancer I, which is activated independently of the Ras and protein ...
Chatterjee TK, Fisher RA (Aug 2000). "Cytoplasmic, nuclear, and golgi localization of RGS proteins. Evidence for N-terminal and ... Regulator of G protein signaling 10 belongs to this family. All RGS proteins share a conserved 120-amino acid sequence termed ... RGS proteins are able to deactivate G protein subunits of the Gi alpha, Go alpha and Gq alpha subtypes. They drive G proteins ... Regulator of G-protein signaling 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RGS10 gene. Regulator of G protein signaling ...
Chatterjee TK, Fisher RA (2000). "Cytoplasmic, nuclear, and golgi localization of RGS proteins. Evidence for N-terminal and RGS ... Regulator of G protein signaling 4 belongs to this family. All RGS proteins share a conserved 120-amino acid sequence termed ... "GTPase-activating proteins for heterotrimeric G proteins: regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) and RGS-like proteins". ... RGS proteins are able to deactivate G protein subunits of the Gi alpha, Go alpha and Gq alpha subtypes. They drive G proteins ...
... protein is a regulatory molecule that belongs to a larger family of RGS proteins responsible for altering cellular signaling. ... Cytoplasmic, nuclear, and golgi localization of RGS proteins. Evidence for N-terminal and RGS domain sequences as intracellular ... RGS proteins deactivate G protein subunits by serving as GTPase activating proteins (GAPs), which enhance the intrinsic GTPase ... All RGS proteins share a conserved 120 amino acid helical RGS domain that is responsible for GAP activity. Based on sequence ...
The c-Abl protein contains three nuclear localization sequences and a DNA binding domain. In the nucleus, c-Abl binds to DNA ... The cytoplasmic c-Abl is regulated by the adherent status of a cell. When cells are attached to the extracellular matrix (ECM ... Interestingly, the nuclear pool of c-Abl tyrosine kinase is regulated by at least three signals, i.e., adhesion, the cell cycle ... The highest nuclear c-Abl kinase activity is achieved when adherent cells are exposed to DNA damaging agents such as ionizing ...
MDM2 is a nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling protein with well-defined nuclear localization signal (NLS; residues 179 to 184) and ... MDMX does not have conserved NLS or NES sequence, this is consistent with its largely cytoplasmic localization in unstressed ... The localization of MDMX has been described in several studies, and both nuclear and cytoplasmic distribution has been reported ... Nuclear translocation after DNA damage would require interaction with other nuclear proteins. Our results show that both MDM2 ...
Transgenic tadpoles expressing the eGFP fusion proteins were generated by nuclear transplantation. Subcellular localization of ... For PM constructs, eGFP and cytoplasmic GC1 sequences were ligated to the C-terminus of X. laevis rhodopsin lacking the ... As a group, fusion proteins containing the entire cytoplasmic domain of GC1 (GCct4, GCtm9, GCtm10 and GCtm12) targeted to the ... Three fusion proteins containing either C-term+CAT, KHD or KHD+DD, were excluded from the OS. Of the TM fusion proteins, GCtm10 ...
Protein Coding), Karyopherin Subunit Beta 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... Sequence and characterization of cytoplasmic nuclear protein import factor p97. (PMID: 7615630) Chi NC … Adam SA (The Journal ... The import of proteins containing a nuclear localization signal (NLS) requires the NLS import receptor, a heterodimer of ... Functions in nuclear protein import, either in association with an adapter protein, like an importin-alpha subunit, which binds ...
Ab156753 is a full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in SDS-PAGE. Abcam… ... Sequence similarities. Belongs to the cystatin family.. * Cellular localization. Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Nuclear and cytoplasmic in ... Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex miRNA assays. By ... The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) in 2010. Nucleic Acids Res. 38:D142-D148 (2010) . ...
Nuclear localization sequences (NLSs) are short peptides that enable cytoplasmic proteins to enter the cell nucleus (Jans, 1995 ... The NLS of the SV-40 T antigen was chosen because it is well known to mediate nuclear uptake of large cytoplasmic proteins. The ... Ragin AD, Morgan RA, and Chmielewski J (2002) Cellular import mediated by nuclear localization signal Peptide sequences. Chem ... nuclear localization sequence; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate; SV, simian virus; Fmoc, 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-t-butyl; ...
To restrict their whereabouts, the authors attached nuclear localization and nuclear export sequences. The aggregates were more ... Cytoplasmic protein aggregates interfere with nucleocytoplasmic transport of protein and RNA. Science. 2016 Jan 8;351(6269):173 ... "Protein aggregates in the cytoplasm, but not in the nucleus, inhibit transport of proteins and mRNA across the nuclear envelope ... A green fluorescent protein tagged with nuclear import and export signals tended to get stuck in the nucleus. Similarly, the ...
... and its nuclear vs. cytoplasmic localization during oocyte maturation is regulated by MAP kinase phosphorylation (20). The ... Xenopus nuclear factor-7 (XNF-7) is a B box protein with sequence similarity to Mid1 (20). XNF-7 functions in Xenopus dorsal- ... The Mid1 protein belongs to a RING finger family of nuclear factors that contain protein-protein interaction domains and have ... Mutated Mid1 proteins found in OS patients show a tendency to form either cytoplasmic foci or larger clumps (2). We expressed ...
Ab165101 is a full length protein produced in Wheat germ and has been validated in WB, ELISA. Abcam provides free protocols, ... Cellular localization. Nucleus matrix. Localized to the nuclear matrix-intermediate filament scaffold. Isoform 2 is also found ... Sequence. MDQTPPARPEYLVSGIRTPPVRRNSKLATLGRIFKPWKWRKKKNEKLKQT TSALEKKMAGRQGREELIKKGLLEMMEQDAESKTCNPDGGPRSVQSEPPT ... in some cytoplasmic extensions.. * Target information above from: UniProt accession Q96KR7. The UniProt Consortium. The ...
ZOPs bind to the cytoplasmic C termini of … ... proteins that are involved in the organization of epithelial ... Zonula occludens proteins (ZOPs), currently comprising ZO-1, ZO-2, and ZO-3, belong to the family of membrane-associated ... including nuclear localization and nuclear export signals and a leucine zipper-like sequence. Their potential involvement in ... The tight junction protein ZO-2 localizes to the nucleus and interacts with the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein ...
Such signal sequences are characteristic of proteins that undergo nuclear export. Examination of Mta localization in a ... nuclear localization signal) and a signal for nuclear export (nuclear export signal [NES]). It is the NES which appears to ... 1996) Protein sequence requirements for function of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Rex nuclear export signal delineated ... 1995) Arginine-rich regions succeeding the nuclear localization region of the herpes simplex virus type 1 regulatory protein ...
... and putative nuclear localization sequence are depicted in the full-length Stp1 (519 aa). Conserved Region I (aa 16-35) ... containing sequences important for cytoplasmic retention (anchor) and Region II (aa 65-97) are indicated in the enlargement of ... In such instances, nuclear targeting physically transmits signals from non-nuclear compartments to specific promoter sequences ... Δ mutants was not due to impaired nuclear targeting or accumulation (Figure 5). Similarly, the nuclear localization of Dal82 is ...
Redistribution of nuclear EGFP-SMNΔEx7 by cytoplasmic targeting sequences. A, Fusion of the QNQKE sequence to EGFP-DBF1 (EGFP- ... Gu W, Pan F, Zhang HL, Bassell GJ, Singer RH (2002) A predominantly nuclear protein affecting cytoplasmic localization of b- ... we fused it to a protein having an exclusive nuclear localization, and we asked whether the protein was redistributed to the ... Active Transport of the Survival Motor Neuron Protein and the Role of Exon-7 in Cytoplasmic Localization. Honglai L. Zhang, ...
... this was associated with MEN1 mutations affecting sequences involved in nuclear localization or protein-protein interaction. In ... Menin immunostaining showed strong nuclear and very faint cytoplasmic signal in normal islet cells, whereas it displayed ... PETs harboring MEN1 truncating mutations lacked nuclear protein, and most PETs with MEN1 missense mutations showed a strong ... no data exist on the cellular localization of MEN1-encoded protein, menin, in normal pancreas and PETs. A total of 169 PETs ...
The protein encoded by this gene is primarily nuclear, although some cytoplasmic localization has been observed. [provided by ... The RefSeq transcript and protein were derived from transcript and genomic sequence data to make the sequence consistent with ... Protein concentration was measured by BCA protein assay kit.This product is manufactured by and sold under license from OriGene ... Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post ...
A simple method for displaying the hydropathic character of a protein. ... from newly cloned proteins to entire genomes. As the DNA and protein sequence databases become more complete, a sequence ... Motivation: The prediction of localization sites of various proteins is an important and challenging problem in the field of ... whereas p50ATF6 is a nuclear protein. p90ATF6 is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein with a hydrophobic stretch in the middle ...
Mediates the nuclear import of EIF4E by a piggy-back mechanism. ... Nuclear localization signalBy similarityAdd BLAST. 17. ,p>This ... Sequence databases. Select the link destinations:. EMBL nucleotide sequence database. More...EMBLi. GenBank nucleotide sequence ... Note: Predominantly cytoplasmic. Shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in a CRM1-dependent manner. Localization to ... Sequence databases. Select the link destinations:. EMBL nucleotide sequence database. More...EMBLi. GenBank nucleotide sequence ...
nuclear export sequence;. GFP,. green fluorescent protein;. GST,. glutathione S-transferase;. NLS,. nuclear localization ... Immunoelectron microscopic localization of Nup82 to the cytoplasmic side of the NPC in isolated crude nuclear envelopes. (A) ... RNA but not for classical nuclear localization sequence (NLS)-mediated protein import. This study shows that Nup82, a protein ... but not for classical nuclear localization sequence-mediated nuclear protein import. ...
S1 shows the nuclear and cytoplasmic localization of Runx2 and CHIP proteins. Fig. S2 shows a quantitative analysis of Runx2 ... The siRNA target sequences for mouse CHIP is 5′-AACAGGCACTTGCTGACTG-3′ and for human CHIP is 5′-AGCAGGCCCTGGCCGACTG-3′. His- ... experiments using cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions show that Myc-Runx2 is precipitated by HA-CHIP protein in the nuclear ... Separation of nuclear and cytoplasm proteins indicates that although the majority of Myc-Runx2 is present in the nucleus, HA- ...
... cyclin A is nuclear and cyclin B1 is a cytoplasmic protein. To understand the basis of this difference we created deletion ... Although the cytoplasmic retention signal region is outside the cyclin box, its sequence is well conserved in human cyclin B2, ... Conversely, deleting the cytoplasmic retention signal region from cyclin B1 causes the protein to become nuclear. ... cyclin A is nuclear and cyclin B1 is a cytoplasmic protein. To understand the basis of this difference we created deletion ...
... sufficient to confer nuclear localization when conjugated to a carrier protein (46). Some proteins contain similar sequences ... c-cb1 and RNA pol II represent cytoplasmic and nuclear protein markers, respectively. (C) A14 cells were transfected and ... 1997) The K nuclear shuttling domain: a novel signal for nuclear import and nuclear export in the hRNP K protein. EMBO J. 16: ... mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 is a nuclear protein in unstimulated cells. In response to specific ...
CytoplasmMRNAGenesPore complexAmino acidEukaryotic cellsVitroPhosphorylationSubstratesMediatesAttached nuclear localization and nuclear exportPeptideSubcellular localization of a proteinSignal transductionInhibitorCellular LocalizationTranscriptionalInvestigated the subcellular localizationSpecificityTranscription factorsRegulatoryMotifEnvelopeCompartmentsNucleotideMass spectrometryAdapter proteinPredictionCrm1PeptidesGenomicNLSsModulateGolgiComplexesFluorescenceLeucine-rich nuclear exportInduceNucleocytoplasmicHeterotrimeric
- This protein negatively regulates signaling upstream or at the level of the heterotrimeric G protein and is localized in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
- Importin alpha binds the NLS-containing cargo in the cytoplasm and importin beta docks the complex at the cytoplasmic side of the nuclear pore complex. (genecards.org)
- It easily slips into the cytoplasm in control cells, or cells expressing a nuclear version of β-17 (NLS-β17). (alzforum.org)
- Exon-7 was necessary for localization of SMN into the cytoplasm but was not sufficient for granule formation and transport. (jneurosci.org)
- A cytoplasmic targeting signal within exon-7 was identified that could completely redistribute the nuclear protein D-box binding factor 1 into the cytoplasm. (jneurosci.org)
- We further showed that the C terminal exon-7 contains a sequence that is essential for localization of SMN in the cytoplasm. (jneurosci.org)
- We find that the N-terminus of cyclin B1 contains a 42 amino acid region that is sufficient to retain the normally nuclear cyclin A in the cytoplasm. (nih.gov)
- Although the cytoplasmic retention signal region is outside the cyclin box, its sequence is well conserved in human cyclin B2, and is both necessary and sufficient to keep cyclin B2 in the cytoplasm. (nih.gov)
- These sequences are recognized in the cytoplasm by a heterodimeric import receptor composed of importin α and importin β. (asm.org)
- The outside surface of the envelope is directly connected to the endoplasmic reticulum of the cytoplasm and is surrounded by a network of cytoplasmic intermediate filaments. (encyclopedia.com)
- To study the effects of TDP-43 localization, Lee, first author Lionel Igaz, and colleagues used a construct lacking the protein's nuclear localization sequence (ΔNLS), forcing it to remain in the cytoplasm. (alzforum.org)
- Another mechanism that promotes the development of various types of cancers, and probably colon, is through the expression of alternative splicing variants of KLF6, as SV1 and SV2, these splice variants are located abnormally in the cytoplasm, because they have lost their nuclear localization sites (Vetter et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Although previous reports indicated that PCV2 capsid proteins localized predominantly in the nuclei of infected cells, we observed an abundant amount of PCV2 capsid proteins in the cytoplasm of many cells of the infected cultures. (deepdyve.com)
- Although many different RNAs are made, only a subset is allowed access to the cytoplasm, primarily RNAs involved in protein synthesis (mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA). (frontiersin.org)
- In the absence of this quality control, spurious transcripts and misprocessed mRNAs would be exported to the cytoplasm and then translated into toxic proteins. (frontiersin.org)
- The same result was obtained by transient expression of fusion constructs with the green fluorescent protein in Arabidopsis protoplasts, whereas AtStr2 was exclusively localized to the cytoplasm by this method. (plantphysiol.org)
- The 3-mercaptopyruvate Str protein was localized by immunogold-labeling and western-blot analysis to the cytoplasm and the mitochondria, whereas thiosulfate Str was detected exclusively in mitochondria and mainly in liver cells. (plantphysiol.org)
- The green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-NES2 fusion protein was localized in the cytoplasm and its nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling was blocked by the CRM1 specific export inhibitor leptomycin B. Mutation of a leucine residue to alanine (L135A) in the NES2 motif resulted in both cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of the EGFP-NES2 fusion protein and in the nuclear accumulation of ectopic full-length myc-Ngn3. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Eight filaments project from the NPC into the cytoplasm and are proposed to function in nuclear import. (mpg.de)
- Thus, the nuclear c-Abl functions as an "integrator" of adhesion, cell cycle and DNA damage signals to regulate the synthesis of mRNA and rRNA. (searlescholars.net)
- Using the polymerase processivity factor BMRF1 as an example, we found that in transfected cells, total BMRF1 mRNA levels were unaffected by Mta but that the amounts of cytoplasmic BMRF1 RNA and protein were greatly increased in the presence of Mta. (asm.org)
- The study also suggests that the RNA-binding zinc finger CCCH-type containing 11A (ZC3H11A) protein takes part in a mechanism that facilitates nuclear export of mRNA, particularly under cellular stress, a mechanism that has been "hijacked" by several nuclear-replicating viruses to promote their replication. (pnas.org)
- Similarly, messenger RNAs (mRNA) are synthesized, packaged, and subsequently transported to the cytoplasmic ribosomes, where they are translated into protein. (encyclopedia.com)
- We hypothesized that CD expression within tumor cells would be directly related to efficacy and that quantitation of markers of CD expression such as mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity would therefore facilitate prediction of 5-FC toxicity. (jove.com)
- A direct correlation was found between CD dose (AdCMVCD PFU/cell) and CD mRNA and protein expression (P (jove.com)
- Importantly, CD dose and mRNA and protein expression inversely correlated with 5-FC IC(50) (P (jove.com)
- The localization of beta-actin mRNA to the leading lamellae of chicken fibroblasts and neurite growth cones of developing neurons requires a 54-nt localization signal (the zipcode) within the 3' untranslated region. (umassmed.edu)
- We show that ZBP2 is a homologue of the human hnRNP protein, KSRP, that appears to mediate pre-mRNA splicing. (umassmed.edu)
- Expression of a truncated ZBP2 inhibits the localization of beta-actin mRNA in both fibroblast and neurons. (umassmed.edu)
- These data suggest that ZBP2, although predominantly a nuclear protein, has a role in the cytoplasmic localization of beta-actin mRNA. (umassmed.edu)
- and Singer, Robert H., "A predominantly nuclear protein affecting cytoplasmic localization of beta-actin mRNA in fibroblasts and neurons" (2002). (umassmed.edu)
- The best characterized of the intranuclear lipids are the inositol lipids that have critical roles in nuclear functions, such as pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA export, transcriptional regulation, and chromatin remodeling ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
- This method can be used to isolate RNA sequences as small as 75 nucleotides ( e.g . snoRNA, mRNA, and lncRNA). (activemotif.com)
- Processing bodies (PBs) are specialized cytoplasmic foci where mRNA turnover and translational repression can take place. (plantphysiol.org)
- For each protein that reproducibly bound measurable quantities of bulk RNA (90 % of the panel), we detect enrichment for hundreds to thousands of both noncoding and mRNA transcripts. (biomedcentral.com)
- Publications] Chi, S.W.: 'Chemical shift perturbation studies of the interactions of the second RNA-binding domain of the Drosophila Sex-lethal protein with the tra pre-mRNA polyuridinetract'Euro. (nii.ac.jp)
- One-hundred-fifty-three biliary cancers, including 70 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ICC), 57 extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ECC) and 26 gallbladder carcinomas (GBC) were assessed for mutations in 56 genes using multigene next-generation sequencing. (jove.com)
- Bisulfite amplicon deep sequencing and qRT-PCR expression analyses confirmed recurrent perturbation of axon guidance pathway genes SLIT2, SLIT3, ROBO1, ROBO3, ITGA2 and MET and suggests epigenetic suppression of SLIT-ROBO signaling and up-regulation of MET and ITGA2 expression. (jove.com)
- Thus, five of the six core replication genes require Mta for efficient accumulation of cytoplasmic RNA. (asm.org)
- In an initial evaluation of the requirements for oriLyt replication in a cotransfection replication assay, both Zta and Mta were required to obtain replication in transfected Vero cells in addition to the six core replication genes, BMRF1 (polymerase-associated factor), BALF2 (single-stranded DNA binding protein), BALF5 (DNA polymerase), BSLF1 (primase), BBLF4 (helicase), and BBLF2/3 (primase accessory protein) ( 19 ). (asm.org)
- Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells respond to the presence of extracellular amino acids by inducing the expression of several genes encoding amino acid permeases, a family of proteins that transport amino acids across the plasma membrane into cells ( F orsberg and L jungdahl 2001b ). (genetics.org)
- Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. (psu.edu)
- The NFAT3 binding site in the promoters of most genes contains a weak activator protein-1 (AP-1) binding site adjacent to the core consensus NFAT binding sequence. (physiology.org)
- Hominoid-specific SPANXA/D genes demonstrate differential expression inindividuals and protein localization to a distinct nuclear envelope domainduring spermatid morphogenesis. (embl-heidelberg.de)
- The FERTILIZATION-INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM ( FIE ) and MEDEA ( MEA ) genes encode WD and SET domain polycomb proteins, respectively. (plantcell.org)
- Although many research efforts have focused on the molecular evolution of specific genes of influenza viruses, comprehensive comparisons among the nucleotide sequences of all 8 genomic segments and among the 11 encoded protein sequences have not been extensively reported. (cdc.gov)
- Functional analysis of these alternatively spliced genes demonstrated significant enrichment of phosphoproteins, zinc finger proteins, and proteins undergoing acetylation. (biomedcentral.com)
- Acetylation of nuclear E-cadherin attenuated its interaction with β-catenin, which therefore released β-catenin from the complex, resulting in increased expression of its downstream genes and accelerated tumor growth and migration. (aacrjournals.org)
- A leader (Le) sequence of 58 nucleotides at the 3′‐terminus is followed by N, P, M, G and L genes, which code for the 5 structural proteins and a 70‐nucleotide trailer (Tr) sequence at the 5′‐terminus. (els.net)
- Four NFAT proteins, encoded on separate genes and expressed as several splice variants, have been described: NFAT1 (also known as NFATp or NFATc2), NFAT2 (NFATc or NFATc1), NFAT3, and NFAT4 (NFATx or NFATc3). (thermofisher.com)
- E1A Binding Protein P300 (EP300) is one of the mutations of genes involved in histone modifications in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). (jcancer.org)
- Genomic sequencing datas from 325 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cases were integrated and screened a series of frequently mutated histone modifier genes. (jcancer.org)
- RNA-sequencing showed EP300 knockdown led to a significant change of genes expression associated with angiogenesis, hypoxia and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). (jcancer.org)
- This cross-regulation between two different signaling pathways represents a novel mechanism that Rel/nuclear factor κB can repress the transcription of IFN-regulated genes in a cell type-specific manner. (rupress.org)
- These oncogenic proteins are at the center of a signaling network that involves multiple upstream signals and downstream YAP-regulated genes. (nature.com)
- In the presence of nucleoside triphosphates and the small GTP binding protein Ran, the complex moves into the nuclear pore complex and the importin subunits dissociate. (genecards.org)
- Docking of the importin/substrate complex to the nuclear pore complex (NPC) is mediated by KPNB1 through binding to nucleoporin FxFG repeats and the complex is subsequently translocated through the pore by an energy requiring, Ran-dependent mechanism. (genecards.org)
- Nuclear Pore Complex. (phys.org)
- Karyopherins, or importins, are cytoplasmic proteins that recognize NLSs and dock NLS-containing proteins to the nuclear pore complex. (acris-antibodies.com)
- A novel ubiquitin-like modification modulates the partitioning of the Ran-GTPase-activating protein RanGAP1 between the cytosol and the nuclear pore complex. (rupress.org)
- Ran is a nuclear Ras-like GTPase that is required for the bidirectional transport of proteins and ribnucleoproteins across the nuclear pore complex (NPC). (rupress.org)
- The cytoplasmic filaments of the nuclear pore complex are dispensable for selective nuclear protein import. (mpg.de)
- All RGS proteins share a conserved 120-amino acid sequence termed the RGS domain. (wikipedia.org)
- All RGS proteins share a conserved 120 amino acid helical RGS domain that is responsible for GAP activity. (springer.com)
- MDMX shares strong homology to MDM2 at the amino acid sequence level and can bind to p53 and inhibit its transcription function in transient transfection assays. (asm.org)
- The types of amino acid residues that define the Epc-N domainsuggest a role in mediating protein-protein interactions, possiblyspecifically in the context of chromatin binding, and the types ofproteins in which it is found (known components of histoneacetyltransferase complexes) strongly suggest a role in epigeneticstructure formation and/or recognition. (embl-heidelberg.de)
- Ten SNPs have been validated in the coding region of FABP5, 7 missense and 3 synonymous (not affecting the amino acid sequence). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
- Detailed molecular studies have shown that ZO proteins exhibit conserved functional nuclear localization and nuclear export motifs within their amino acid sequence. (hindawi.com)
- These affairs are all neatly enforced by an expansive array of adapters which recognize and bind canonical nucleic acid cytoplasmic localization sequences on the former, and amino acid nuclear localization sequences on the later. (phys.org)
- Predicting subcellular localization of proteins based on their N-terminal amino acid sequence. (brenda-enzymes.org)
- The amino acid sequence of A1 contains two RNP motif RNA-binding domains (RBDs) at the amino terminus and a glycine-rich domain at the carboxyl terminus. (rupress.org)
- The nuclear export receptor CRM1 binds to specific amino acid motifs termed NESs (nuclear export sequences). (biochemj.org)
- Ubiquitylation, the covalent attachment of one or more units of the 76-amino-acid peptide ubiquitin, is an important post-translational modification that regulates the levels, activity and localization of many cellular proteins [ 1 ]. (biochemj.org)
- Amino acid permeases require COPII components and the ER resident membrane protein Shr3p for packaging into transport vesicles in vitro. (duke.edu)
- However, ZBP2 has a 47-amino acid (aa) sequence not present in KSRP. (umassmed.edu)
- Amino acid sequences were translated from coding sequences and aligned by BioEdit ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
- The predicted amino acid sequence shows similarity to Xenopus importin, yeast SRP1, and human RCH1 (KPNA2), respectively. (genetex.com)
- Type V intermediate filaments differ from cytoplasmic intermediate filaments in the way that they have an extended rod domain (42 amino acid longer), that they all carry a nuclear localization signal (NLS) at their C-terminus and that they display typical tertiary structures . (academic.ru)
- Lamin polypeptides have an almost complete α-helical conformation with multiple α-helical domains separated by non-α-helical linkers that are highly conserved in length and amino acid sequence. (academic.ru)
- In the amino acid sequence of nuclear lamins, there are also two phosphoacceptor sites present, flanking the central rod domain. (academic.ru)
- Amino acid lengths of the proteins are N (450), P (297), M (202), G (524, 505 after processing) and L (2142). (els.net)
- Transcription repression by Mnt maps to a 13-amino-acid amino-terminal region related to the Sin3 interaction domain (SID) of Mad proteins. (sdbonline.org)
- While the proliferation of all eukaryotic cells involves three fundamental processes: cytoplasmic growth, DNA replication and mitosis, which are coordinated by the orderly activation of cyclin-dependent protein kinases, unique strategies have evolved to regulate the cell cycle machinery in complex organisms such as the mammals. (searlescholars.net)
- A strategy to achieve this in eukaryotic cells is to control the movement of transcription factors across the nuclear envelope. (genetics.org)
- The nuclear envelope divides eukaryotic cells into a nuclear and a cytoplasmic compartment. (asm.org)
- This new understanding of the determinants of nuclear retention and cytoplasmic export provides a deeper understanding of how information flow is regulated in eukaryotic cells. (frontiersin.org)
- The CRM1-mediated export is inhibited by the fungicide leptomycin B (LMB), providing a unique experimental tool for studying nuclear localization and trafficking in eukaryotic cells. (eu.org)
- In this series of projects of sequencing human cDNA clones which correspond to relatively long transcripts, we newly determined the entire sequences of 100 cDNA clones which were screened on the basis of the potentiality of coding for large proteins in vitro. (psu.edu)
- Using in vitro transport assays we showed that the pUL84 nuclear import required importin α, importin β, and Ran, thus following the classical importin-mediated import pathway. (asm.org)
- The regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins modulate the activity of G proteins in vitro, and evidence is beginning to emerge on their role in vivo as well. (aspetjournals.org)
- Furthermore, the ELF3 protein interacts with PHYB in the yeast two-hybrid assay and in vitro. (plantcell.org)
- Here, we investigated the activity and subcellular localization of c-Abl in vitro and in vivo and unraveled the contribution of c-Abl in CagA-dependent and -independent pathways to gastric Hp pathogenesis. (springer.com)
- Thus, the pattern of HBcAg localization in vitro depends on sequence and the serologic pattern of chronic infection, paralleling the situation in vivo. (gla.ac.uk)
- Therefore, RanBP2-deficient NPCs were generated by in vitro nuclear assembly in RanBP2-depleted Xenopus egg extracts. (mpg.de)
- Our goal was threefold: to identify the cellular compartment in which PKB phosphorylates AFX, to determine whether the nuclear localization of AFX plays a role in regulating its transcriptional activity, and to elucidate the mechanism by which phosphorylation alters the localization of AFX. (asm.org)
- These results suggest that export is unregulated and that phosphorylation by PKB is not required for the nuclear export of AFX. (asm.org)
- Phosphorylation of these residues by PKB leads to both inhibition of the transcriptional activity of AFX and cytoplasmic retention and/or nuclear exclusion of the protein. (asm.org)
- The state of Erk phosphorylation affects not only its activity, but also its subcellular localization, defining the repertoire of Erk target proteins, and consequently, the cellular response to Erk. (prolekare.cz)
- Presumably, this relocalization promotes the phosphorylation of nuclear targets critical for chromatin condensation and nuclear envelope breakdown. (duke.edu)
- thus, we propose that Cyclin B1 phosphorylation at the G2/M transition prevents its interaction with CRM1, thereby reducing nuclear export and facilitating nuclear accumulation. (duke.edu)
- The phosphorylation status of the Snf1 activation loop threonine is determined by changes in the rate of its dephosphorylation, catalyzed by the yeast PP1 phosphatase Glc7 in complex with the Reg1 protein. (asm.org)
- A phosphorylation event at the onset of mitosis leads to a conformational change which causes the disassembly of the nuclear lamina. (academic.ru)
- c-Abl phosphorylation and localization were analyzed by immunostaining and immunofluorescence. (springer.com)
- Activation of Akt was associated with downstream phosphorylation and deactivation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bad and phosphorylation of the Forkhead family transcription factor FOXO1. (biomedcentral.com)
- These nuclei efficiently imported nuclear localization sequence (NLS) or M9 substrates. (mpg.de)
- Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is a unique member of the HDAC family that not only participates in histone acetylation and deacetylation but also targets several nonhistone substrates, such as α-tubulin, cortactin, and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), to regulate cell proliferation, metastasis, invasion, and mitosis in tumors. (biomedcentral.com)
- While HDAC6 functions in deacetylating histones, recent reports have identified several critical nonhistone protein substrates for HDAC6, including α-tubulin, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), and cortactin. (biomedcentral.com)
- The majority of the export substrates of CRM1 contain a Leucine-rich Nuclear Export signal (NES) consisting of 4-5 hydrophobic residues in a region of ~ 10 amino acids. (eu.org)
- Mediates autonomously the nuclear import of ribosomal proteins RPL23A, RPS7 and RPL5. (genecards.org)
- In association with IPO7 mediates the nuclear import of H1 histone. (genecards.org)
- Our experiments indicate that Mta functions in RNA processing and transport and mediates cytoplasmic accumulation of a number of EBV early mRNAs. (asm.org)
- Mediates the nuclear import of EIF4E by a piggy-back mechanism. (uniprot.org)
- In this cell type, protein 4.1R stabilizes the spectrin-actin network and mediates the attachment of the underlying cytoskeleton to the overlaying lipid bilayer through interactions with lipids (phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate) [ 1 , 2 ] as well as with integral membrane proteins [ 3 ]. (portlandpress.com)
- This region of Mnt mediates interaction with mSin3 corepressor proteins and its deletion converts Mnt from a repressor to an activator. (sdbonline.org)
- To restrict their whereabouts, the authors attached nuclear localization and nuclear export sequences. (alzforum.org)
- Therefore, we chose to use a short peptide sequence consisting of alternating arginines and lysines. (aspetjournals.org)
- Hidden Markov models (HMMs) have been successfully applied to the tasks of transmembrane protein topology prediction and signal peptide prediction. (psu.edu)
- This large-scale study provides an overall picture of the relative numbers of proteins that include a signal-peptide and/or one or more transmembrane segments as well as a valuable resource for the scientific community. (psu.edu)
- Using peptide sequence analysis and specific mAbs, RanGAP1 was found to be modified by conjugation to a ubiquitin-like protein. (rupress.org)
- The sequence of this N-terminal peptide is ~70% homologous with human NFAT1. (thermofisher.com)
- Knowledge of the subcellular localization of a protein can provide useful insights about its function. (biomedcentral.com)
- Since, subcellular localization of a protein offers essential clues about its functioning, hence, availability of localization predictor would definitely aid and expedite the protein deciphering studies. (biomedcentral.com)
- Generally, RGS proteins are negative regulators of signal transduction pathways mediated by heterotrimeric G proteins. (springer.com)
- ZO proteins carry some domains required for structural organization of intercellular junctions and additional domains capable of functioning in signal transduction pathways. (hindawi.com)
- In recent years, intriguing evidence has accumulated suggesting that ZO proteins not only exert functions related to structural barrier mechanisms but are also involved in signal transduction and transcriptional modulation. (hindawi.com)
- Survivin, as the smallest member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, seems to intersect both processes and thus has aroused keen interest in disparate areas of basic and translational research (refs. (aacrjournals.org)
- Here we report on the development of a protein inhibitor that leverages the endogenous modulator of TACE. (weizmann.ac.il)
- In most cell types, the majority of Rel/NF-κB is sequestered as an inactive cytoplasmic complex with inhibitor or IκB proteins ( 5 )( 6 ). (rupress.org)
- The objective of the current investigation was to determine changes in expression and cellular localization of NFKB and associated factors during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy in the pig. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The lamins are type V intermediate filaments which can be categorized as either A-type (lamin A, C) or B-type(lamin B 1 , B 2 ) according to homology in sequence, biochemical properties and cellular localization during the cell cycle. (academic.ru)
- The HBx protein of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a transcriptional activator that is required for infection and may play an important role in HBV-associated hepatocarcinogenesis. (nih.gov)
- BACKGROUND: Post-translational modification by Small Ubiquitin-likeModifiers (SUMO) has been implicated in protein targeting, in themaintenance of genomic integrity and in transcriptional control. (embl-heidelberg.de)
- Given the fact that the uterine transcriptional profile during early conceptus development resembles a proinflammatory response, it is possible that the transcription factor, nuclear factor κB (NFKB), is involved in the establishment of pregnancy. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- They alter nuclear import and export steps, modify the DNA binding affinity, and alter the pattern of transcriptional activity for specific target. (hindawi.com)
- Transcription factors that bind to the lamina include the retinoblastoma transcriptional regulator (RB), germ cell-less (GCL), sterol response element binding protein (SREBP1), FOS and MOK2. (academic.ru)
- Junction-mediating and regulatory protein (JMY) was originally identified as a transcriptional co-factor in the p53-response to DNA damage. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Here, we review the role of Yes-associated protein (YAP) and WW-domain-containing Transcriptional co-Activator with a PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) in the development of PDAC. (nature.com)
- The hepatitis B virus HBx protein is a dual specificity cytoplasmic activator of Ras and nuclear activator of transcription factors. (nih.gov)
- We report a relative improvement of 13 % over Phobius in full-topology prediction accuracy on transmembrane proteins, and a sensitivity and specificity of 0.96 in detecting signal peptides. (psu.edu)
- Drugs targeting RGS proteins can be divided into five groups: 1) potentiators of endogenous agonist function, 2) potentiators/desensitization blockers of exogenous GPCR agonists, 3) specificity enhancers of exogenous agonists, 4) antagonists of effector signaling by an RGS protein, and 5) RGS agonists. (aspetjournals.org)
- Publications] Tanaka, Y.: 'Polycistronic expression and RNA-binding specificity f the C. elegans homologue of the spliceosome-associated protein SAP49'J. (nii.ac.jp)
- The yeast transcription factors Stp1 and Stp2 are synthesized as latent cytoplasmic precursors. (genetics.org)
- There are a growing number of transcription factors that have been shown to be maintained as latent cytoplasmic factors requiring proteolytic processing prior to nuclear targeting ( B rivanlou and D arnell 2002 ). (genetics.org)
- These modifications control the accessibility of DNA and the recruitment of transcription factors and other proteins through their specialized targeting domains. (frontiersin.org)
- These proteins show a low level of sequence similarity with the Dorsal/Rel/NFkB family of transcription factors. (thermofisher.com)
- The regulator of G protein signaling 10 (RGS10) protein is a regulatory molecule that belongs to a larger family of RGS proteins responsible for altering cellular signaling. (springer.com)
- The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) Zta and Mta regulatory proteins were previously found to be required for efficient replication of oriLyt in cotransfection-replication assays, but the contribution of Mta to the replication process was unknown. (asm.org)
- The open reading frame UL84 of human cytomegalovirus encodes a multifunctional regulatory protein which is required for viral DNA replication and binds with high affinity to the immediate-early transactivator IE2-p86. (asm.org)
- These studies raise questions of considerable interest and importance concerning the role of RGS proteins in cellular regulation by mechanisms both dependent on and independent of their regulatory actions on G proteins. (uiowa.edu)
- Dysregulated activity of A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17)/TNF alpha Converting Enzyme (TACE) is associated with inflammatory disorders and cancer progression by releasing regulatory membrane-tethered proteins like TNF alpha, IL6R and EGFR ligands. (weizmann.ac.il)
- In this study, we identified a novel regulatory mechanism in Hp -infected gastric epithelial cells by which Hp determines the subcellular localization of activated c-Abl to control Hp -mediated EMT-like processes while decreasing cell death. (springer.com)
- Deregulation of the pathway is associated with the presence of mutations in human cancer, the most common being , although structural rearrangements, which remove N-terminal regulatory sequences, have also been reported. (babraham.ac.uk)
- The RBDs and another RNA binding motif found in the glycine-rich domain, the RGG box, are not required for A1 nuclear localization. (rupress.org)
- Following purification, half of the nuclear RNA was treated with DNase I to remove genomic DNA contamination using the DNase I Treatment Kit (Active Motif Catalog No. 25502). (activemotif.com)
- Nucleocytoplasmic transport, a signal- and energy-dependent process, takes place through nuclear pore complexes embedded in the nuclear envelope. (genecards.org)
- TheSPANXa/d protein localized to the nuclear envelope of round, condensingand elongating spermatids, specifically to regions that do not underliethe developing acrosome. (embl-heidelberg.de)
- Their localizationto non-acrosomal domains of the nuclear envelope adjacent to regions ofeuchromatin and their redistribution to the redundant nuclear envelopeduring spermiogenesis provide a biomarker for the redundant nuclearenvelope of spermatids and spermatozoa. (embl-heidelberg.de)
- Most material passes in and out of the nuclear envelope through large openings called the nuclear pores. (encyclopedia.com)
- The inside surface of the nuclear envelope is lined with the nuclear lamina. (encyclopedia.com)
- Every time a cell divides, the nuclear envelope must break down to release the recently duplicated chromosomes. (encyclopedia.com)
- Each chromosome is specifically anchored through its telomeres to a discrete place on the nuclear envelope by the proteins of the nuclear lamina. (encyclopedia.com)
- The infective properties of a virus are determined by the viral proteins that make up its capsid, envelope (tegument), and spikes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Additionally, it participates in chromatin organization and it anchors the nuclear pore complexes embedded in the nuclear envelope. (academic.ru)
- The nuclear lamina is associated with the inner face of the bilayer nuclear envelope whereas the outer face stays continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum . (academic.ru)
- Due to their positioning within or their association with the inner membrane, they mediate the attachment of the nuclear lamina to the nuclear envelope. (academic.ru)
- Barrier to autointegration factor (BAF) is a chromatin-associated protein that also binds to the nuclear lamina and several of the aforementioned nuclear envelope proteins. (academic.ru)
- The linearly elongated polymer is extended laterally by a side-by-side association of polymers, resulting in a 2D structure underlying the nuclear envelope. (academic.ru)
- One of the fundamental and popular indirect strategies for assigning function is the identification of subcellular compartments of proteins as knowledge about localization can provide important indications about protein functions. (biomedcentral.com)
- Computer-based prediction methods revealed localization in different compartments of the cell for six putative AtStrs. (plantphysiol.org)
- However, in an investigation of BRAF localisation using fluorescence microscopy combined with subcellular fractionation of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)-tagged proteins expressed in NIH3T3 cells, surprisingly, we detected N-terminally truncated BRAF (ΔBRAF) in both nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments. (babraham.ac.uk)
- p>This subsection of the 'Function' section describes a region in the protein which binds nucleotide phosphates. (uniprot.org)
- The nucleotide sequence was determined with an automated DNA sequencer. (cdc.gov)
- These two RNAs share 3′ common nucleotide sequences and they are transcribed in the same orientation as the proposed unspliced Rep RNA or the recently described Rep' RNA. (deepdyve.com)
- Practically speaking, this meant starting with a few fluorescently-tagged versions of known core nuclear pore component proteins (called nucleoporins or Nups), and 'walking out' from there using affinity capture and mass spectrometry to identify other proteins that stick. (phys.org)
- The respective mature AtStr1 protein was identified by mass spectrometry sequencing. (plantphysiol.org)
- Our current prediction cannot distinguish between these three localizations. (brenda-enzymes.org)
- Please consult a specific prediction server for nuclear, cytoplasmic or peroxisomal localization. (brenda-enzymes.org)
- Hence, extraction of crucial protein attributes for the training of machine-learning technique is a key step to improve the prediction quality of protein subcellular localizations. (biomedcentral.com)
- http://www.softberry.com/ http://www.softberry.com/pss/pss.html ProtComp: Current, second release ProtComp includes basic scheme of localization prediction. (bio.net)
- The nuclear export of p37 protein is mediated by both the CRM1-dependent and CRM1-independent pathways. (nih.gov)
- Control of cyclin B1 localization through regulated binding of the nuclear export factor CRM1. (duke.edu)
- We propose that the observed cytoplasmic localization of Cyclin B1 during interphase reflects the equilibrium between ongoing nuclear import and rapid CRM1-mediated export. (duke.edu)
- A CRM1-mediated nuclear export signal is essential for cytoplasmic localization of neurogenin 3 in neurons. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The best-characterized export carrier is CRM1 (also known as exportin1/Xpo1), an evolutionarily well-conserved protein. (eu.org)
- Regulation of nuclear export may be more sophisticated than for import: one indication is that CRM1 is much more flexible and dynamic (and harder to crystallise without accessory proteins such as RAN) than importins, although being composed of similar HEAT repeat elements. (eu.org)
- The second NLS, that of the ALL-1 protein, was linked to the Gd complex to mimic the positively charged residues (lysine, arginine) of the large transmembrane transport peptides like penetratin. (aspetjournals.org)
- If you wish to submit a sequence for the identification of antigenic peptides for making antibodies, please provide the following information by email. (genemedsyn.com)
- With respect to NLSs the best-characterized transport sequences comprise one or two short stretches of basic amino acids. (asm.org)
- More recently, a variety of nonconforming NLSs that are not particularly rich in lysine residues have been identified in various viral and cellular proteins of diverse function. (asm.org)
- Examples include the NLSs of the influenza virus NP protein ( 55 ), the Borna disease virus p10 protein ( 62 ), the cellular transcription factor Stat1 ( 47 , 34 , 35 ), the histone deacetylase 4 ( 18 , 54 ), and the U1A spliceosome protein ( 22 ). (asm.org)
- This protein is found to interact with the NLSs of DNA helicase Q1 and SV40 T antigen. (acris-antibodies.com)
- Proteins with two SUMO-like domains in chromatin-associated complexes: theRENi (Rad60-Esc2-NIP45) family. (embl-heidelberg.de)
- ZO (zonula occludens) proteins are scaffolding proteins providing the structural basis for the assembly of multiprotein complexes at the cytoplasmic surface of intercellular junctions. (hindawi.com)
- Assuming they are good, they might find that for humans you start with a diameter of 5.2nm for their nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), while for frogs the parameter you use is 10.7nm. (phys.org)
- Hipp and co-senior author Ulrich Hartl wondered if amyloidogenic proteins affect nucleocytoplasmic transport in similar ways, and if the cellular location of those aggregates was important. (alzforum.org)
- Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling activity of the African swine fever virus p37 protein, a major structural protein of this highly complex virus, has been recently reported. (nih.gov)
- The mechanisms that regulate the nucleocytoplasmic localization of human deubiquitinases remain largely unknown. (biochemj.org)
- Further analyses suggested the importance of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HuD mediated by a novel nuclear export signal (NES) sequence in the linker region for the neurite-inducing activity. (nii.ac.jp)
- Our results suggest the presence of a novel NES in neuron-specific Hu proteins and the importance of their cytoplasmic localization, through nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, for the initiation of neuronal differentiation. (nii.ac.jp)