A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.
A glycoprotein that is important in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C4 is cleaved by the activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C4A and COMPLEMENT C4B.
The smaller fragment formed when complement C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. It is an anaphylatoxin that causes symptoms of immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE) but its activity is weaker than that of COMPLEMENT C3A or COMPLEMENT C5A.
The smaller fragment generated from the cleavage of complement C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. C3a, a 77-amino acid peptide, is a mediator of local inflammatory process. It induces smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION, and HISTAMINE RELEASE from MAST CELLS and LEUKOCYTES. C3a is considered an anaphylatoxin along with COMPLEMENT C4A; COMPLEMENT C5A; and COMPLEMENT C5A, DES-ARGININE.
A subcomponent of complement C1, composed of six copies of three polypeptide chains (A, B, and C), each encoded by a separate gene (C1QA; C1QB; C1QC). This complex is arranged in nine subunits (six disulfide-linked dimers of A and B, and three disulfide-linked homodimers of C). C1q has binding sites for antibodies (the heavy chain of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M). The interaction of C1q and immunoglobulin activates the two proenzymes COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S, thus initiating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION via the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.
The minor fragment formed when C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and COMPLEMENT C5B. C5a is a 74-amino-acid glycopeptide with a carboxy-terminal ARGININE that is crucial for its spasmogenic activity. Of all the complement-derived anaphylatoxins, C5a is the most potent in mediating immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE), smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; HISTAMINE RELEASE; and migration of LEUKOCYTES to site of INFLAMMATION.
The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.
The large fragment formed when COMPLEMENT C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. The membrane-bound C4b binds COMPLEMENT C2A, a SERINE PROTEASE, to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).
C5 plays a central role in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C5 is cleaved by C5 CONVERTASE into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. The smaller fragment C5a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of inflammatory process. The major fragment C5b binds to the membrane initiating the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
A 105-kDa serum glycoprotein with significant homology to the other late complement components, C7-C9. It is a polypeptide chain cross-linked by 32 disulfide bonds. C6 is the next complement component to bind to the membrane-bound COMPLEMENT C5B in the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. It is encoded by gene C6.
A 206-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c (749-954), and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H.
A 302-amino-acid fragment in the alpha chain (672-1663) of C3b. It is generated when C3b is inactivated (iC3b) and its alpha chain is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I into C3c, and C3dg (955-1303) in the presence COMPLEMENT FACTOR H. Serum proteases further degrade C3dg into C3d (1002-1303) and C3g (955-1001).
A component of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C2 is cleaved by activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C2B and COMPLEMENT C2A. C2a, the COOH-terminal fragment containing a SERINE PROTEASE, combines with COMPLEMENT C4B to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).
A 63-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by gene C9. Monomeric C9 (mC9) binds the C5b-8 complex to form C5b-9 which catalyzes the polymerization of C9 forming C5b-p9 (MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX) and transmembrane channels leading to lysis of the target cell. Patients with C9 deficiency suffer from recurrent bacterial infections.
Molecules on the surface of some B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that recognize and combine with the C3b, C3d, C1q, and C4b components of complement.
A 77-kDa subcomponent of complement C1, encoded by gene C1S, is a SERINE PROTEASE existing as a proenzyme (homodimer) in the intact complement C1 complex. Upon the binding of COMPLEMENT C1Q to antibodies, the activated COMPLEMENT C1R cleaves C1s into two chains, A (heavy) and B (light, the serine protease), linked by disulfide bonds yielding the active C1s. The activated C1s, in turn, cleaves COMPLEMENT C2 and COMPLEMENT C4 to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL C3 CONVERTASE).
A product of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION cascade, regardless of the pathways, that forms transmembrane channels causing disruption of the target CELL MEMBRANE and cell lysis. It is formed by the sequential assembly of terminal complement components (COMPLEMENT C5B; COMPLEMENT C6; COMPLEMENT C7; COMPLEMENT C8; and COMPLEMENT C9) into the target membrane. The resultant C5b-8-poly-C9 is the "membrane attack complex" or MAC.
A 80-kDa subcomponent of complement C1, existing as a SERINE PROTEASE proenzyme in the intact complement C1 complex. When COMPLEMENT C1Q is bound to antibodies, the changed tertiary structure causes autolytic activation of complement C1r which is cleaved into two chains, A (heavy) and B (light, the serine protease), connected by disulfide bonds. The activated C1r serine protease, in turn, activates COMPLEMENT C1S proenzyme by cleaving the Arg426-Ile427 bond. No fragment is released when either C1r or C1s is cleaved.
Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.
A 93-kDa serum glycoprotein encoded by C7 gene. It is a polypeptide chain with 28 disulfide bridges. In the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX; C7 is the next component to bind the C5b-6 complex forming a trimolecular complex C5b-7 which is lipophilic, resembles an integral membrane protein, and serves as an anchor for the late complement components, C8 and C9.
Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.
A glycine-rich, heat-labile serum glycoprotein that contains a component of the C3 CONVERTASE ALTERNATE PATHWAY (C3bBb). Bb, a serine protease, is generated when factor B is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR D into Ba and Bb.
Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
A 150-kDa serum glycoprotein composed of three subunits with each encoded by a different gene (C8A; C8B; and C8G). This heterotrimer contains a disulfide-linked C8alpha-C8gamma heterodimer and a noncovalently associated C8beta chain. C8 is the next component to bind the C5-7 complex forming C5b-8 that binds COMPLEMENT C9 and acts as a catalyst in the polymerization of C9.
The first complement component to act in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. It is a calcium-dependent trimolecular complex made up of three subcomponents: COMPLEMENT C1Q; COMPLEMENT C1R; and COMPLEMENT C1S at 1:2:2 ratios. When the intact C1 binds to at least two antibodies (involving C1q), C1r and C1s are sequentially activated, leading to subsequent steps in the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
Molecular sites on or in some B-lymphocytes and macrophages that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3B. The primary structure of these receptors reveal that they contain transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, with their extracellular portion composed entirely of thirty short consensus repeats each having 60 to 70 amino acids.
An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).
The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of C5 by C5 CONVERTASE that yields COMPLEMENT C5A and C5b (beta chain + alpha' chain, the residual alpha chain, bound by disulfide bond). C5b remains bound to the membrane and initiates the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components to form C5b-8-poly-C9, the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
The COOH-terminal fragment of COMPLEMENT 2, released by the action of activated COMPLEMENT C1S. It is a SERINE PROTEASE. C2a combines with COMPLEMENT C4B to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).
A G-protein-coupled receptor that signals an increase in intracellular calcium in response to the potent ANAPHYLATOXIN peptide COMPLEMENT C5A.
Enzymes that activate one or more COMPLEMENT PROTEINS in the complement system leading to the formation of the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX, an important response in host defense. They are enzymes in the various COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION pathways.
Compounds that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host.
A screening assay for circulating COMPLEMENT PROTEINS. Diluted SERUM samples are added to antibody-coated ERYTHROCYTES and the percentage of cell lysis is measured. The values are expressed by the so called CH50, in HEMOLYTIC COMPLEMENT units per milliliter, which is the dilution of serum required to lyse 50 percent of the erythrocytes in the assay.
Serum proteins that inhibit, antagonize, or inactivate COMPLEMENT C1 or its subunits.
Molecular sites on or in B-lymphocytes, follicular dendritic cells, lymphoid cells, and epithelial cells that recognize and combine with COMPLEMENT C3D. Human complement receptor 2 (CR2) serves as a receptor for both C3dg and the gp350/220 glycoprotein of HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN, and binds the monoclonal antibody OKB7, which blocks binding of both ligands to the receptor.
Serum peptides derived from certain cleaved COMPLEMENT PROTEINS during COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They induce smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; mast cell HISTAMINE RELEASE; PLATELET AGGREGATION; and act as mediators of the local inflammatory process. The order of anaphylatoxin activity from the strongest to the weakest is C5a, C3a, C4a, and C5a des-arginine.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A serum protein which is important in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. This enzyme cleaves the COMPLEMENT C3B-bound COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form C3bBb which is ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.
A plasma serine proteinase that cleaves the alpha-chains of C3b and C4b in the presence of the cofactors COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and C4-binding protein, respectively. It is a 66-kDa glycoprotein that converts C3b to inactivated C3b (iC3b) followed by the release of two fragments, C3c (150-kDa) and C3dg (41-kDa). It was formerly called KAF, C3bINF, or enzyme 3b inactivator.
A serum protein that regulates the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It binds as a cofactor to COMPLEMENT FACTOR I which then hydrolyzes the COMPLEMENT C4B in the CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C4bC2a).
Endogenous proteins that inhibit or inactivate COMPLEMENT C3B. They include COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and COMPLEMENT FACTOR I (C3b/C4b inactivator). They cleave or promote the cleavage of C3b into inactive fragments, and thus are important in the down-regulation of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and its cytolytic sequence.
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Important enzymes in the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. They cleave COMPLEMENT C3 and COMPLEMENT C5.
The N-terminal fragment of COMPLEMENT 2, released by the action of activated COMPLEMENT C1S.
Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)
Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).
Important enzymes in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. They cleave COMPLEMENT C3 and COMPLEMENT C5.
An endogenous 105-kDa plasma glycoprotein produced primarily by the LIVER and MONOCYTES. It inhibits a broad spectrum of proteases, including the COMPLEMENT C1R and the COMPLEMENT C1S proteases of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY, and the MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. C1-INH-deficient individuals suffer from HEREDITARY ANGIOEDEMA TYPES I AND II.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
A serine protease that is the complex of COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT FACTOR BB. It cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C3B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY.
A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT 5 into COMPLEMENT 5A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT 5B in the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is a complex of CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C4b2a) with an additional COMPLEMENT C3B, or C4b2a3b.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT 3 into COMPLEMENT 3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT 3B in the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is a complex of COMPLEMENT 4B and COMPLEMENT 2A (C4b2a).
A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C5B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is the complex of ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) with an additional COMPLEMENT C3B, or C3bBb3b.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Complement activation triggered by the interaction of microbial POLYSACCHARIDES with serum MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN resulting in the activation of MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. As in the classical pathway, MASPs cleave COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 to form C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
A 53-kDa protein that is a positive regulator of the alternate pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It stabilizes the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) and protects it from rapid inactivation, thus facilitating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Individuals with mutation in the PFC gene exhibit properdin deficiency and have a high susceptibility to infections.
A derivative of complement C5a, generated when the carboxy-terminal ARGININE is removed by CARBOXYPEPTIDASE B present in normal human serum. C5a des-Arg shows complete loss of spasmogenic activity though it retains some chemotactic ability (CHEMOATTRACTANTS).
An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.
Chronic glomerulonephritis characterized histologically by proliferation of MESANGIAL CELLS, increase in the MESANGIAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, and a thickening of the glomerular capillary walls. This may appear as a primary disorder or secondary to other diseases including infections and autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Various subtypes are classified by their abnormal ultrastructures and immune deposits. Hypocomplementemia is a characteristic feature of all types of MPGN.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A genus of trematode flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. There are over a dozen species. These parasites are found in man and other mammals. Snails are the intermediate hosts.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Thickening of the walls of small ARTERIES or ARTERIOLES due to cell proliferation or HYALINE deposition.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A specific mannose-binding member of the collectin family of lectins. It binds to carbohydrate groups on invading pathogens and plays a key role in the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An IgG autoantibody against the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE, found in serum of patients with MESANGIOCAPILLARY GLOMERULONEPHRITIS. The binding of this autoantibody to C3bBb stabilizes the enzyme thus reduces the actions of C3b inactivators (COMPLEMENT FACTOR H; COMPLEMENT FACTOR I). This abnormally stabilized enzyme induces a continuous COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and generation of C3b thereby promoting the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX and cytolysis.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Plasma glycoproteins that form a stable complex with hemoglobin to aid the recycling of heme iron. They are encoded in man by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 16.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Serum serine proteases which participate in COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. They are activated when complexed with the MANNOSE-BINDING LECTIN, therefore also known as Mannose-binding protein-Associated Serine Proteases (MASPs). They cleave COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 to form C4b2a, the CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.
A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
A class of C-type lectins that target the carbohydrate structures found on invading pathogens. Binding of collectins to microorganisms results in their agglutination and enhanced clearance. Collectins form trimers that may assemble into larger oligomers. Each collectin polypeptide chain consists of four regions: a relatively short N-terminal region, a collagen-like region, an alpha-helical coiled-coil region, and carbohydrate-binding region.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
A condition characterized by the recurrence of HEMOGLOBINURIA caused by intravascular HEMOLYSIS. In cases occurring upon cold exposure (paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria), usually after infections, there is a circulating antibody which is also a cold hemolysin. In cases occurring during or after sleep (paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria), the clonal hematopoietic stem cells exhibit a global deficiency of cell membrane proteins.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.
1991). "Complete cDNA sequence of human complement pro-C5. Evidence of truncated transcripts derived from a single copy gene". ... Complement component 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C5 gene. Complement component 5 is involved in the ... "C5 complement C5 (Homo sapiens (human)) Gene ID: 727,". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. 29 November 2020. Retrieved 9 December 2020. ... 1995). "Inherited human complement C5 deficiency. Nonsense mutations in exons 1 (Gln1 to Stop) and 36 (Arg1458 to Stop) and ...
... also binds to the nascent complement complex C5,6,7 and prevents this complex from inserting into a membrane. This ... 1986). "Isolation and sequence of the cDNA for human protein S, a regulator of blood coagulation". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A ... In the circulation, Protein S exists in two forms: a free form and a complex form bound to complement protein C4b-binding ... Lundwall A, Dackowski W, Cohen E, Shaffer M, Mahr A, Dahlbäck B, Stenflo J, Wydro R (September 1986). "Isolation and sequence ...
... that are produced as part of the activation of the complement system. Complement components C3, C4 and C5 are large ... Ogata RT, Rosa PA, Zepf NE (October 1989). "Sequence of the gene for murine complement component C4". The Journal of Biological ... This term is reserved only for fragments of the complement system. C3, C4A, C4B, C4B-1, C5, FBLN1, FBLN2 Allergy Anaphylatoxin ... Gennaro R, Simonic T, Negri A, Mottola C, Secchi C, Ronchi S, Romeo D (February 1986). "C5a fragment of bovine complement. ...
... two regulators of complement. The membrane attack complex is initiated when the complement protein C5 convertase cleaves C5 ... "Nucleotide sequence of cDNA and derived amino acid sequence of human complement component C9". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 81 ... Stanley KK, Luzio JP, Tschopp J, Kocher HP, Jackson P (1985). "The sequence and topology of human complement component C9". ... ISBN 978-0-323-54943-1. Media related to Complement membrane attack complex at Wikimedia Commons Complement+Membrane+Attack+ ...
C. Yu successfully determined the complete sequence of the human complement component C4A gene. In the findings, the whole ... C5 binding sites, 4) private allelic residues. Additionally, the same study identified the expression of human complement C4 ... Complement component 4A Complement component 4B HLA A1-B8-DR3-DQ2 haplotype Complement system Complement deficiency Sekar A, ... Yu CY (February 1991). "The complete exon-intron structure of a human complement component C4A gene. DNA sequences, ...
DNA sequences from bacteria in permafrost were amplified using PCR. One series of runs amplified the DNA sequences as-is (to ... The side chain of Tyr147 interferes sterically with the thymine C5 methyl group, while a specific hydrogen bond between the ... The active site shape complements the everted uracil structure, allowing for high substrate specificity. Purines are too large ... When these primers are incorporated into PCR amplified fragments the primer sequence becomes susceptible to digestion with ...
The binding of C5 is influenced by C6 and C7, components which are thought to act subsequent to it in the complement sequence. ... The target of C5 convertase is complement protein C5. C5 is a two-chain (α, β) plasma glycoprotein (Mr = 196,000). C5 and C3 ... The complement component C5 can be also activated by fluid phase C5 convertase. C5 is activated by CVFBb in the presence of ... In these respects, the mode of action of C5 is completely analogous to that of the other components of complement. The C5 step ...
Other studies have found that P. gingivalis can subvert the complement pathway through C5αR and C3αR, which modulates the ... The genome of P. gingivalis was described in 2003 revealing 1,990 open reading frames (i.e. protein-coding sequences), encoded ... August 2008). "Determination of the genome sequence of Porphyromonas gingivalis strain ATCC 33277 and genomic comparison with ... September 2003). "Complete genome sequence of the oral pathogenic Bacterium porphyromonas gingivalis strain W83". Journal of ...
Suppose its complement in the plane has countably many connected components C1, C2, C3, ... and suppose: the diameter of Ci ... List of fractals by Hausdorff dimension Menger sponge Allouche, Jean-Paul; Shallit, Jeffrey (2003). Automatic Sequences: Theory ... "Sequence A016754 (Odd squares: a(n) = (2n+1)^2. Also centered octagonal numbers.)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer ... Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Rummler, Hansklaus (1993). "Squaring the circle with holes". The American Mathematical Monthly. 100 ...
Christie DL, Gagnon J (January 1983). "Amino acid sequence of the Bb fragment from complement Factor B. Sequence of the major ... Rawal N, Pangburn MK (March 2001). "Structure/function of C5 convertases of complement". International Immunopharmacology. 1 (3 ... Complement factor B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CFB gene. This gene encodes complement factor B, a component ... "Entrez Gene: CFB complement factor B". Ambrus JL, Peters MG, Fauci AS, Brown EJ (March 1990). "The Ba fragment of complement ...
The sequence of colors is also reminiscent of the course of the day, from dusk to dawn. "The large open areas on the mural ... Trompe-l'œil complements the color of the colorful Vorstadt houses that are still standing (since the 1887 Vorstadtkatastrophe ...
Complement: Compute ones' complement of least significant byte = 0x61. S00F000068656C6C6F202020202000003C ... Data - a sequence of 2n hex digits, for n bytes of the data. For S1/S2/S3 records, a maximum of 32 bytes per record is typical ... C-1-C-5. ISBN 978-0-13723289-5. "srec_examples". sourceforge.net. CCS Compiler Reference Manual PCB/PCM/PCH (PDF), Custom ... The typical record order starts with a (sometimes optional) S0 header record, continues with a sequence of one or more S1/S2/S3 ...
Magge D, Guo ZS, O'Malley ME, Francis L, Ravindranathan R, Bartlett DL (June 2013). "Inhibitors of C5 complement enhance ... The SFV was genetically modified with microRNA target sequences so that it only replicated in brain tumour cells and not in ... It has been shown that immunosuppression by chemotherapy and inhibition of the complement system can enhance oncolytic virus ... sequence". The Journal of General Virology. 72 ( Pt 3) (3): 631-9. doi:10.1099/0022-1317-72-3-631. PMID 1848598. Brown SM, ...
These two arts were taught in the Kuroda-domain as a complement to the combat-arts of the bushi (warriors) which included the ... The techniques are normally trained in sequence. During the Edo period and well into the 20th century the attacker was always ...
However, these sequences have been restored with new technology. A Nikkatsu film retold the events to audiences in 1930. It ... Confucian classics and the Bakufu law may have seemed to complement each other to allow revenge. Hayashi Hōkō claims that the ...
Tosi M, Duponchel C, Meo T, Julier C (December 1987). "Complete cDNA sequence of human complement Cls and close physical ... Complement component 1s (EC 3.4.21.42, C1 esterase, activated complement C1s, complement C overbar 1r, C1s) is a protein ... complement activation, lectin pathway. • complement activation. • regulation of complement activation. Sources:Amigo / QuickGO ... Spycher SE, Nick H, Rickli EE (April 1986). "Human complement component C1s. Partial sequence determination of the heavy chain ...
... complement complex (C5-C6-C7), interleukin 5, and histamine (though this has a narrow range of concentration). Harm resulting ... no functional sequence genetic polylmophisms are found within the promoter, exons, or introns, of these genes or within the ...
Thymine and uracil are distinguished by merely the presence or absence of a methyl group on the fifth carbon (C5) of these ... Nitrogenous base Nucleoside Nucleotide Nucleic acid notation Nucleic acid sequence Soukup, Garrett A. (2003). "Nucleic Acids: ... which are called base complements, connect the two strands of the helix and are often compared to the rungs of a ladder. The ...
Plasma derived complement C3b and antibodies that exude into the inflamed tissue during the vascular phase bind to and coat the ... A variety of molecules behave as chemoattractants, for example, C3a or C5, and cause the leukocytes to move along a chemotactic ... which initiate the termination sequence. Neutrophil recruitment thus ceases and programmed death by apoptosis is engaged. These ... These include the complement system activated by bacteria and the coagulation and fibrinolysis systems activated by necrosis, e ...
In the classical and lectin pathways of complement activation, formation of the C3-convertase and C5-convertases requires ... Purification and N-terminal amino acid sequence of a peptide from C2a containing a free thiol group". The Biochemical Journal. ... Complement C2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is part of the classical ... "Entrez Gene: C2 complement component 2". Krishnan V, Xu Y, Macon K, Volanakis JE, Narayana SV (2009). "The structure of C2b, a ...
... soluble complement receptor type 1, anti-C5 antibodies, or C1 inhibitor (C1-INH). Disadvantages of this approach include the ... some may be able to produce infectious viruses so every proviral genome must be sequenced to identify which ones pose a threat ... The binding of XNAs initiate complement activation through the classical complement pathway. Complement activation causes a ... Interruption of the complement cascade *The recipient's complement cascade can be inhibited through the use of cobra venom ...
It is composed in the key of C major with Madonna's voice spanning from B3 to C5. The song follows a basic sequence of C-Am-D- ... Paul Rees from Q magazine complemented the track as a "conventional rock song, filled with drama, darkness and surprises". USA ... Nissim, Mayer (July 24, 2012). "Madonna explains 'MDNA' swastika sequence: 'It's about intolerance'". Digital Spy. Retrieved ... that the sequence was about "intolerance that we human beings have for one another. And how much we judge people before knowing ...
It is written in the key of A minor; Madonna's voice spans from the low-note of G3 to the high-note of C5. "Miles Away" has a ... Joey Guerra from Houston Chronicle complemented the galloping beats and melodic backing vocals of "Miles Away" and said that it ... basic sequence of Am-Em-G-F-Am-Em-G-F as its chord progression. Lyrically, "Miles Away" deals with a relationship in trouble. ...
It is composed in the key of F minor, with Madonna's vocals spanning the range from E♭3 to C5. "Living for Love" has a I-IV-V-I ... He also gave his approval of the gemstones applied on the singer's face for one sequence in the video. The music video was ... This scenario devastated me, but it just made me stronger". She complemented saying that "Living for Love" was "kind of like ... Cinquemani complemented the changes in the song from the demo version, calling it Madonna's "most rousing lead single in years ...
2003). "The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 6". Nature. 425 (6960): 805-11. Bibcode:2003Natur.425..805M. doi: ... 2002). "Cell surface antigen CD109 is a novel member of the alpha(2) macroglobulin/C3, C4, C5 family of thioester-containing ... 2004). "CD109 represents a novel branch of the alpha2-macroglobulin/complement gene family". Gene. 327 (2): 171-83. doi:10.1016 ... 2004). "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs". Nat. Genet. 36 (1): 40-5. doi:10.1038/ ...
4,0 4,1 Rosa PA, Ogata RT, Zepf NE (1989). "Sequence of the gene for murine complement component C4". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (28): ... Komponente komplementa: C3, C4 i C5, su masivni glikoproteini koji imaju važne funkcije u imunskom responsu i odbrani domaćina. ... "C5a fragment of bovine complement. Purification, bioassays, amino-acid sequence and other structural studies". Eur. J. Biochem. ... Hugli TE (1986). "Biochemistry and biology of anaphylatoxins". Complement 3 (3): 111-27. PMID 3542363. ...
By virtue of J1a, it is a complemented lattice whose upper bound is . By J0, is the corresponding lower bound and identity ... A demonstration consists of a sequence of steps, each step justified by an initial or a previously demonstrated consequence. ... C5). The consequence , C7' in LoF, enables an algorithm, sketched in LoFs proof of T14, that transforms an arbitrary primary ... His notation was isomorphic to that of LoF: concatenation read as conjunction, and "non-(X)" read as the complement of X. ...
C3b and C5) to avoid opsonisation. It can also recruit complement regulators such as Factor H, C4b-binding protein, factor H- ... Based on their genomic sequence, they are divided into two clades and four subclades: P1, P2, S1, and S2. The 19 members of the ... It also secretes proteases to degrade complement proteins such as C3. It can bind to thrombin that decreases the fibrin ... They also bind to several human proteins such as complement proteins, thrombin, fibrinogen, and plasminogen using surface ...
... "less than the cost of a C-5". They projected the large transport capability "could happen within the next five to 10 years." In ... Musk stated that future missions would light all three Raptors to perform the belly flop landing sequence, instead of only two ... but was subsequently clarified that it would make initial test flights with less than the full complement of engines, perhaps ... Raptor engine to its original complement of two engines with sea-level nozzles and four with vacuum nozzles. That additional ...
transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcription regulatory region DNA binding. • sequence- ... Corrocher R, Tedesco F, Rabusin P, De Sandre G (1975). "Effect of human erythrocyte stromata on complement activation". Br. J. ... RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. Cellular component. • nucleoplasm. • actin ... 2000). "The human HNF-3 genes: cloning, partial sequence and mutation screening in patients with impaired glucose homeostasis ...
There was an additional Ram Air IV option for the 400 cu in (6.6 L) V8 engines during 1969, complementing the Ram Air III; ... As before, the Formula and Trans Am again received a close derivative of the Corvette's 5.7 L V8, the LS1 of the C5 Corvette, ... Incidentally, the GTA chassis were selected at random, thus there is no correlation between the VIN and production sequence ... 73 Trans Am starred as John Wayne's personal transportation in McQ and featured in an extended chase sequence. ...
... which is then sequenced on a Next-generation sequencing platform. The sequences obtained are then re-aligned to the reference ... If the mismatch is not repaired and the cell enters the cell cycle the strand carrying the T will be complemented by an A in ... On the other hand, DNA cytosine methylase targets CCAGG and CCTGG sites to methylate cytosine at the C5 position (C meC(A/T) GG ... A methylase is the enzyme that recognizes a specific sequence and methylates one of the bases in or near that sequence. Foreign ...
Nabeshima K, Lane WS, Biswas C (1991). "Partial sequencing and characterization of the tumor cell-derived collagenase ... "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A ...
Complement[edit]. A test used to measure levels of a protein group of the immune system called complement within blood. If ... The specific DNA target sequence expressed is known as 1,25-(OH)2D3.[53] The expression of 1,25-(OH)2D3 can be induced by ... "A candidate gene approach identifies the TRAF1/C5 region as a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis". PLOS Medicine. 4 (9): ... complement is found in low levels, this may be an indication of disease.[37][28] ...
The core region has two zinc fingers that are responsible for recognizing the DNA sequences specific to this receptor. The N ... complement receptors, Fc receptors, B cell receptors and T cell receptors.[12] ...
After the sequence 33...Bxg3 34.h6 Be5 35.h7 Bg7 36.Rf8 b4 37.h8=Q Bxh8 38.Rxh8 an extremely unbalanced endgame would have ... By this point in the game, several chess clubs had begun posting daily analysis to complement what was available on the ... White: Garry Kasparov Black: The World Team Opening: Sicilian Defence, Canal-Sokolsky Attack (ECO B52) 1. e4 c5 2. Nf3 d6 3. ... On move 32 Kasparov initiates a sequence that after a pawn exchange will open the f file for his rook and leave a supporting g ...
It is composed in the key of G♯ minor, with Madonna's vocal range spanning from G3 to C5. The song has a basic sequence of D♯m- ... Chris Williams from Entertainment Weekly complemented the song, saying that with "tunes like 'Give It 2 Me' [Madonna's] ...
PSAP Complement component 4, partial deficiency of; 120790; C1NH Complement factor H deficiency; 609814; HF1 Complement factor ... CD96 C5 deficiency; 609536; C5 C6 deficiency; 612446; C6 C7 deficiency; 610102; C7 Caffey disease; 114000; COL1A1 Campomelic ... GNRHR Fetal akinesia deformation sequence; 208150; DOK7 Fetal akinesia deformation sequence; 208150; RAPSN Fetal hemoglobin ...
Turbojet ignition sequence completed approximately five seconds after launch, and the engine came up to speed as the prototype ... This brought the Squadron's strength to 17 officers and 114 airmen (out of the 550th's total complement of 201 officers and 816 ... the first time since 1969 that a C-5 had been contained completely inside the hangar and the first time in the history of the ... Seven Flying Fortresses were joined by another seven in November 1948, bringing the squadron complement up to 14 mother and ...
... because it conjugates complement of the Mandelbrot set M {\displaystyle \ M} and the complement (exterior) of the closed unit ... External rays for angles of form : n / ( 24 - 1) (1/15,2/15) (3/15, 4/15) (6/15, 9/15) landing on the root point c= -5/4 (7/15 ... kneading sequence as a binary expansion of external argument For transcendental maps ( for example exponential ) infinity is ... Let Ψ c {\displaystyle \Psi _{c}\,} be the conformal isomorphism from the complement (exterior) of the closed unit disk D ¯ {\ ...
A test used to measure levels of a protein group of the immune system called complement within blood. If complement is found in ... The specific DNA target sequence expressed is known as 1,25-(OH)2D3. The expression of 1,25-(OH)2D3 can be induced by ... September 2007). "A candidate gene approach identifies the TRAF1/C5 region as a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis". PLOS ...
Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These ... Complement component C2a, the catalytic fragment of C3- and C5-convertase of human complement. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb2ODP/pdb ... Sequence Length. Organism. Details. Image. Complement C2. A. 509. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 1 Gene Names: C2, hCG_43694. EC: ... The crystal structure of c2a, the catalytic fragment of classical pathway c3 and c5 convertase of human complement.. Krishnan, ...
qPCR / Sequencing. RNA & DNA Purification / Cloning. Transfection. Middle Name. I have read the privacy policy and accept to ... Anti- Factor B (FB, Complement Factor B, CFB, AHUS4, BF, BFD, C3/C5 Convertase, CFAB, FBI12, Glyc.... Catalog Number. Pack Size ... Anti- Factor B (FB, Complement Factor B, CFB, AHUS4, BF, BFD, C3/C5 Convertase, CFAB, FBI12, Glycine-rich beta Glycoprotein, ...
1991). "Complete cDNA sequence of human complement pro-C5. Evidence of truncated transcripts derived from a single copy gene". ... Complement component 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C5 gene. Complement component 5 is involved in the ... "C5 complement C5 (Homo sapiens (human)) Gene ID: 727,". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. 29 November 2020. Retrieved 9 December 2020. ... 1995). "Inherited human complement C5 deficiency. Nonsense mutations in exons 1 (Gln1 to Stop) and 36 (Arg1458 to Stop) and ...
A common genetic variant at the TRAF1-C5 locus on chromosome 9 is associated with an increased risk of anti-CCP-positive ... Sequence Analysis, DNA * TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 1 / genetics* Substances * Autoantibodies * Complement C5 ... encoding complement component 5). Conclusions: A common genetic variant at the TRAF1-C5 locus on chromosome 9 is associated ... TRAF1-C5 as a Risk Locus for Rheumatoid Arthritis--A Genomewide Study N Engl J Med. 2007 Sep 20;357(12):1199-209. doi: 10.1056/ ...
Sequences of primers and probes used for real-time reverse transcriptase-PCRa ... Complement C5 Mediates Experimental Tubulointerstitial Fibrosis. Peter Boor, Andrzej Konieczny, Luigi Villa, Anna-Lisa Schult, ... Complement C5 Mediates Experimental Tubulointerstitial Fibrosis. Peter Boor, Andrzej Konieczny, Luigi Villa, Anna-Lisa Schult, ... Complement C5 Mediates Experimental Tubulointerstitial Fibrosis. Peter Boor, Andrzej Konieczny, Luigi Villa, Anna-Lisa Schult, ...
Selecting Nb36 against complement component C5. To identify Nb36 targeting C5, we immunized a llama and performed two rounds of ... Nb DNA sequences were amplified by PCR and inserted into a phagemid vector designed to express Nbs as pIII fusions. The M13 ... Importantly, Hg labelling influenced neither the interaction of Nb36 with its antigen complement C5 nor its structure. The ... c) and PCMB-labelled Nb36-C85 binds C5 with a Kd of ∼37 nM (Fig. 4. d). Overall, our studies show that it is possible to ...
Complement C5 antibody LS-C684436 is a biotin-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to mouse Complement C5. Validated for IHC ... Complement C5 antibody LS-C684436 is a biotin-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to mouse Complement C5. Validated for IHC ... Complement C5 antibody LS-C684436 is a biotin-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to mouse Complement C5. Validated for IHC ... Complement C5 antibody was raised against recombinant C5a (Asn679~Arg755 (Accession # P06684)) expressed in E.coli ...
Complement C5 antibody LS-C14521 is an unconjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to human Complement C5. Validated for ELISA and ... About Complement C5. Activation of C5 by a C5 convertase initiates the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, ... Complement C5 antibody LS-C14521 is an unconjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to human Complement C5. Validated for ELISA and ... Complement C5 antibody LS-C14521 is an unconjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to human Complement C5. Validated for ELISA and ...
All positive C5D or C6Q0 results were confirmed by DNA sequencing.5,8,12 ... Terminal complement components comprise the final 5 components of the complement cascade (C5 to C9). All combine on antibody- ... C5 and C6 protein levels. C5 protein levels were detected with a specific C5 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) ... C5 protein levels. C5 levels were tested in 2 of the 3 homozygous C5D-A252T patients (the third died of MD and only DNA was ...
... specific for the C5 component of the activated complement and characterised by the ability to inhibit the conversion of the C5 ... Moreover the present invention refers to the nucleotide sequences coding for such antibodies and to the therapeutic use of both ... in particular for the therapy of diseases involving tissue damage deriving from uncontrolled activation of the complement ... Following Complement activation, a C5 convertase is produced which cleaves the alpha chain of factor C5 generating a fragment ...
Complete cDNA sequence of human complement pro-C5. J Immunol. 146 (1): 362-368. Full Text Accessed on 2006 March 14. ... C5 convertase cleaves C5 about 800 amino acids away from C345C. Other complement proteins such as C6 and C7 interact with C5 at ... C5 consists of two chains, but most of the funcional activity for C5 converase and other complement binding occurs on the α- ... The complex of complement proteins on the cell surface after C3b binds forms the C5 convertase. In the classical pathway C5 ...
complement C5 ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs. ... This is the full length, pre-pro-protein structure as represented in NCBI Reference Sequence: NP_001726. This peptide is ... cleaved into the complement C5 beta chain, complement C5 alpha chain and C5a anaphylatoxin (see the UniProt entry for the human ... C5 inhibition is a clinically validated mechanism that is utilised for the control and suppression of complement-induced ...
FUM9 is required for C-5 hydroxylation of fumonisins and complements the meitotically defined Fum3 locus in Gibberella ... loss of the wild-type 1.2-kb FUM9 fragment and the gain of the 3.6-kb fragment resulting from integration of vector sequences ... FUM9 Is Required for C-5 Hydroxylation of Fumonisins and Complements the Meitotically Defined Fum3 Locus in Gibberella ... C) ApaI-digested genomic DNA from Fum3-complemented mutants, GMT-9-5-4 and GMT-9-10-8, hybridized to a 2.0-kb fragment carrying ...
The serine proteinase C2a then combines with complement factor 4b to create the C3 or C5 convertase. Deficiency of C2 has been ... Additional transcript variants have been described in publications but their full-length sequence has not been determined ... Component C2 is a serum glycoprotein that functions as part of the classical pathway of the complement system. Activated C1 ...
Indeed, it now seems clear that complement first evolved as part of the innate immune system, where it still plays an important ... Although first discovered as an effector arm of the antibody response, complement can also be activated early in infection in ... This activity was said to complement the antibacterial activity of antibody, hence the name. ... Complement was discovered many years ago as a heat-labile component of normal plasma that augments the opsonization of bacteria ...
Complement Binding Aptamers and Anti-C5 Agents Useful in the Treatment of Ocular Disorders , TRANSFERRIN/TRANSFERRIN RECEPTOR- ... These IROs have unique sequences that... 2017/0145416. Complement Binding Aptamers and Anti-C5 Agents Useful in the Treatment ... Methods of treating complement-mediated ocular disorders by administering agents that inhibit a subjects complement component ... The expression plasmid vectors comprise a polynucleotide sequence encoding Ldc2 polypeptide, a fragment, and/or a mutant. A ...
Complement C2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene ... Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for C2 Gene. GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:. *Complement component 2 (A2BE05_ ... complement component 2,110kDa,activated by C1r to form C2a and C2b,combining with C4A and C4B to form C3/C5 convertase, ... The serine proteinase C2a then combines with complement factor 4b to create the C3 or C5 convertase. Deficiency of C2 has been ...
Buy our Synthetic Human C5 / C5a protein. Ab176089 is a protein fragment produced syntheticaly and has been validated in HPLC. ... Activation of C5 by a C5 convertase initiates the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the ... and a next-generation sequencing platform (NGS-RabMAb®) ... Derived from proteolytic degradation of complement C5, C5 ... Complement component 5 deficiency. An association study of C5 haplotypes and genotypes in individuals with chronic hepatitis C ...
ELISA for the measurement of Human Complement C2 in Human Cell culture supernatant, Saliva, Milk, Serum, Plasma, Cerebral ... Human Complement C2 ELISA Kit is a Sandwich (quantitative) ... Sequence similarities. Belongs to the peptidase S1 family. ... C2a, a serine protease, then combines with complement factor 4b to generate the C3 or C5 convertase. ... Defects in C2 are the cause of complement component 2 deficiency (C2D) [MIM:217000]. A deficiency of the complement classical ...
Once C5 convertases are formed, target organisms can be lysed following cleavage of C5 to C5b and assembly of complement ... We have undertaken a strategy using SCR sequence homologies to identify novel complement receptor and regulatory proteins. We ... Regulation of complement is achieved by dissociation of C3 and C5 convertases or by binding to and inactivating C3b through ... Full-insert sequencing of this clone revealed the 3′ end of the rat CSMD1 cDNA sequence from nucleotide positions 8778 to 10695 ...
Complement with its multifaceted functions is involved in the immune defense against this yeast, and recently several novel ... Activation of the complement system by Candida is facilitated by directly triggering the three dominant pathways, but also ... Activation of the complement system by Candida is facilitated by directly triggering the three dominant pathways, but also ... The interaction between complement and non-albicans species also deserve attention, especially Candida auris, a recently ...
Eculizumab prevents activation of the terminal sequence of the complement cascade and formation of the potentially lytic ... Therapeutic options include plasma therapy and terminal complement blockade using the anti-C5 monoclonal antibody eculizumab. ... Kavanagh D, Goodship T (2010) Genetics and complement in atypical HUS. Pediatr Nephrol 25:2431-2442 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed ... We report a 3-year-old boy with aHUS due to a novel heterozygous truncating complement Factor H mutation in combination with ...
The endogenous C3 and C5 convertases. In terms of sequence homology, CVF is 49% identical to human C3 compared with, for ... Rawal N, Rajagopalan R, Salvi VP (2008) Activation of complement component C5: comparison of C5 convertases of the lectin ... C5-CVF as a model for substrate-convertase complexes. Proteolysis of complement components C3 and C5 by the convertases leads ... Complement activation and the structure of the C5-CVF complex. (A) The three activation pathways of complement (left) induce ...
C2a, a serine protease, then combines with complement factor C4b to generate the C3 or C5 convertase. ... Component C2 which is part of the classical pathway of the complement system is cleaved by activated factor C1 into two ... Sequence databases. Select the link destinations:. EMBL nucleotide sequence database. More...EMBLi. GenBank nucleotide sequence ... R-MMU-166663 Initial triggering of complement. R-MMU-174577 Activation of C3 and C5. R-MMU-977606 Regulation of Complement ...
A deletion in the coding sequence of C5 leads to C5-deficiency and susceptibility. Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is able to prevent or ... we identified the gene encoding complement factor 5 (C5) as a susceptibility locus for allergen-induced airway ... Identification of complement factor 5 as a susceptibility locus for experimental allergic asthma NATURE IMMUNOLOGY Karp, C. L ... The deduced protein sequence is most homologous to the murine receptor Fc gamma RII alpha, with slightly less homology to the ...
What is complement cascade? Meaning of complement cascade medical term. What does complement cascade mean? ... Looking for online definition of complement cascade in the Medical Dictionary? complement cascade explanation free. ... alternate complement pathway, alternative complement pathway. the sequence in which complement components C3 and C5 to C9 are ... terminal complement pathway. the final stages of complement activation in which C5, C6, C7, C8 and C9 are activated; common to ...
... complement component 2) for ICC/IF, WB. Anti-Complement C2 pAb (GTX105404) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance. ... Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the center region of human Complement C2. The exact sequence is proprietary. ... CO2 antibody, DKFZp779M0311 antibody, C2 antibody, complement C2 antibody, complement component C2 antibody, C3/C5 convertase ... The serine proteinase C2a then combines with complement factor 4b to create the C3 or C5 convertase. Deficiency of C2 has been ...
... the vertebrate complement proteins (C3/C4/C5), (ii) the pan-protease inhibitors Alpha2 Macroglobulin (A2M) found in both ... Sequence databases Is the Subject Area "Sequence databases" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... BgBRA-FREP2 sequences were further analysed. As expected, these sequences display a high level of similarity (about 99%) at the ... One clone was sequenced. This sequence was called BgBRA-FREP2 and deposited in GenBank (Accession number: HM003905). The ...
... complement component peptide in animals which is cleaved from the amino terminus of complement component C5 when the complement ... DNA sequences having coding sequences (e.g., SEQ ID NOS:10, 11, 13, 17, 18, and 19) fused in frame to a marker sequence allow ... Thus, control sequences operably linked to a coding sequence are capable of effecting the expression of the coding sequence. ... is a complement component peptide which is cleaved from the amino terminus of component C5 when the complement system is ...
  • Most complement proteins are zymogens which are proteases that become activated when cleaved. (davidson.edu)
  • C3b is a membrane associated protein which binds covalently to other complement proteins already on the pathogen surface. (davidson.edu)
  • The complex of complement proteins on the cell surface after C3b binds forms the C5 convertase. (davidson.edu)
  • After cleavage C5b interacts nonenzymatically with other complement proteins to form the MAC. (davidson.edu)
  • The binding domain of C5b for other complement proteins such as C6 and C7 has been recently characterized and is homologous to a complement binding domain on C3 and C4. (davidson.edu)
  • Other complement proteins such as C6 and C7 interact with C5 at the active site C345C in forming the MAC. (davidson.edu)
  • The complement system is made up of a large number of distinct plasma proteins that react with one another to opsonize pathogens and induce a series of inflammatory responses that help to fight infection. (nih.gov)
  • A number of complement proteins are proteases that are themselves activated by proteolytic cleavage. (nih.gov)
  • In this way, the activation of a small number of complement proteins at the start of the pathway is hugely amplified by each successive enzymatic reaction, resulting in the rapid generation of a disproportionately large complement response. (nih.gov)
  • First, it generates large numbers of activated complement proteins that bind covalently to pathogens, opsonizing them for engulfment by phagocytes bearing receptors for complement. (nih.gov)
  • Second, the small fragments of some complement proteins act as chemoattractants to recruit more phagocytes to the site of complement activation, and also to activate these phagocytes. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we describe the identification and in vitro functional activity of a novel multiple domain complement regulatory protein discovered based on its homology to short consensus repeat (SCR)-containing proteins of the regulators of complement activation (RCA) gene family. (jimmunol.org)
  • The complement system consists of over 30 fluid phase and cell membrane proteins that act independently or in concert to defend against invading pathogens. (jimmunol.org)
  • The latter comes in many flavors, in particular the cleavage of complement proteins by yeast enzymes and the exploitation of regulatory proteins by recruiting them on the cell wall, such as factor H. The rationale behind that is that the fluid phase regulators on the fungal cell surface down-regulate complement locally. (frontiersin.org)
  • Complement acts as a danger‐sensing system in the innate immune system, and its activation initiates a strong inflammatory response and cleavage of the proteins C3 and C5 by proteolytic enzymes, the convertases. (embopress.org)
  • Activation of the proteolytic complement cascade triggers cleavage of the homologous 185-200 kDa proteins C3, C4, and C5 ( Supplementary Figure S1 ). (embopress.org)
  • a biochemical process involving the C1 to C9 complement proteins in which one protein interacts with another in a specific sequence called a complement pathway. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Complement comprises 25 to 30 discrete proteins, labeled numerically as C1 to C9, and by letters, i.e. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • So the complement regulator proteins are lost because they aren't anchored to the cell surface. (aamds.org)
  • In this study, we present the complete cDNA sequence of chicken C3, the cDNA sequences of the thioester region for two chicken alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M)-related proteins, a simplified method for purifying chicken C3, and an analysis of the C3 convertase and factor I-mediated cleavages in chicken C3. (jimmunol.org)
  • A phylogenetic tree for C3, C4, C5, and alpha 2M-related proteins was constructed based on the sequence data and is discussed. (jimmunol.org)
  • Mouse Complement C5 (C5a) is a glycoprotein that belongs to a family of structurally and functionally related proteins known as anaphylatoxins. (sinobio.net)
  • Complement is a system of 25 to 30 distinct cell membrane and plasma proteins, numbered C1 through C9. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Once activated, the proteins interact with each other in a specific sequence called the complement cascade. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The classical pathway is triggered by antigen-antibody complexes and includes participation of all complement proteins C1 through C9. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Complement proteins act as enzymes that aid in the immunological and inflammatory response. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • C3 and C4 are the most frequently assayed complement proteins, along with total complement. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An important component in the innate immune system is the complement system, formed by more than 50 soluble and membrane bound proteins. (au.dk)
  • The soluble proteins are present in extracellular fluids, while the membrane proteins are located in membranes surrounding many of our cells, where they transmit the extracellular danger signal into intracellular signaling, protect our own cells from complement, and contributes to clearance of pathogens and host cells targeted by complement opsonization. (au.dk)
  • We have determined structures of the key proteins C3, C4, and C5 in a variety of functional states, and hereby been able to propose how these proteins are proteolytically cleaved by enzymes assembled and activated in response to danger signals (see figure). (au.dk)
  • The NH2-terminal 408 residues, unique to fibulin-2, showed no sequence homology to other known proteins and presumably form two additional domains that differ in their cysteine content. (embl.de)
  • thus, PIGA mutations lead to a deficiency of GPI-anchored proteins, such as decay-accelerating factor (CD55) and CD59, both complement inhibitors. (jci.org)
  • GPI anchors attach dozens of proteins to hematopoietic cells, including the complement regulatory proteins CD55 and CD59. (jci.org)
  • It is composed of plasma and membrane proteins that complement antibody-mediated immunity through activation by three pathways. (lecturio.com)
  • Complement proteins C1-9 are named after C as complement and numbers in order of activation, except that C4 is activated before C2. (lecturio.com)
  • Serum sickness is an example of immune complex clearance by complement proteins. (lecturio.com)
  • The complement protein fragments with the lowest number attach to the target and act to activate other proteins. (lecturio.com)
  • Six Alu repeats and open reading frames (ORFs) coding for proteins very close to C5 and C3 components of the complement were detected in this fragment. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The membrane attack complex ( MAC ) or terminal complement complex ( TCC ) is a structure typically formed on the surface of pathogen cell membranes as a result of the activation of the host's complement system , and as such is one of the effector proteins of the immune system . (wikipedia.org)
  • MAC is composed of a complex of four complement proteins (C5b, C6, C7, and C8) that bind to the outer surface of the plasma membrane , and many copies of a fifth protein (C9) that hook up to one another, forming a ring in the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complements are essential proteins. (labpedia.net)
  • Complement makes 10% of the serum proteins. (labpedia.net)
  • HTML clipboard The great advances in DNA technology, e.g. sequencing and recombinant DNA techniques, have given us the genetic information and the tools needed to effectively produce recombinant proteins. (diva-portal.org)
  • Two highly homologous proteins with signal peptides and RxLR motifs ( CRX1 / CRX2 ) and a gene with no previously characterised domains ( C5 ) were also identified. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • It is not a member of the SERPIN family of inhibitors but belongs to a class of proteins that include pregnancy zone protein (PZP) and the complement proteins C3, C4 and C5. (affinitybiologicals.com)
  • These proteins contain regions of conserved sequence as well as one or more internal β-cysteinyl-γ-glutamyl thiolester bonds, which in the case of α2M are susceptible to cleavage by enzymes or by nucleophilic compounds such as methylamine or ammonium ions. (affinitybiologicals.com)
  • Subsequently, many additional members of the family were identified on the basis of sequence similarity between the C-terminal domains of netrins, complement proteins C3, C4, C5, secreted frizzled-related proteins, and type I pro-collagen C-proteinase enhancer proteins (PCOLCEs), which are homologous with the N-terminal domains of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). (umbc.edu)
  • Click "Protein Details" for further information about the protein such as half-life, abundance, domains, domains shared with other proteins, protein sequence retrieval for various strains, physico-chemical properties, protein modification sites, and external identifiers for the protein. (yeastgenome.org)
  • The platelet also exhibits physiological responses to activated proteins of another cascade pathway, complement. (springer.com)
  • Ando B, Wiedmer T, Hamilton KK, Sims PJ (1988) Complement proteins C5b-9 initiate secretion of platelet storage granules without increased binding of fibrinogen or von Willebrand factor to newly expressed cell surface GPIIb-llla. (springer.com)
  • Ando B, Wiedmer T, Sims PJ (1989) The secretory release reaction initiated by complement proteins C5b-9 occurs without platelet aggregation through GPIIb-llla. (springer.com)
  • Houle JJ, Leddy JP, Rosenfield SI (1989) Secretion of the terminal complement proteins, C5-C9, by human platelets. (springer.com)
  • Complement component 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C5 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • On day 10, fibronectin mRNA and protein expression were still reduced in the C5 −/− mice. (asnjournals.org)
  • Conversely, inhibition of the complement regulatory protein Crry aggravated tubular damage ( 13 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • The complement system consists of a series of plasma protein interactions which mediate direct attack on pathogens (opsonization) and induce inflammation. (davidson.edu)
  • This peptide is cleaved into the complement C5 beta chain, complement C5 alpha chain and C5a anaphylatoxin (see the UniProt entry for the human protein P01031 ). (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • The classical pathway can be initiated by the binding of C1q, the first protein in the complement cascade, directly to the pathogen surface. (nih.gov)
  • C2 (Complement C2) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • This protein blocked classical complement pathway activation in a comparable fashion with rat Crry but did not block alternative pathway activation. (jimmunol.org)
  • The enzymatic function of the C5-convertases (cleavage of complement protein C5 into C5a anaphylatoxin and the C5b fragment) initiates the sequence of the terminal pathway. (frontiersin.org)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the center region of human Complement C2. (genetex.com)
  • The target protein is fused with N-terminal His-Tag, its sequence is listed below. (mybiosource.com)
  • When the complement system becomes highly active from infections, surgery, or similar events, it creates increased cell death of those cells missing this protein shield. (aamds.org)
  • Using the reverse-transcriptase PCR, with degenerate oligonucleotide primers derived from two conserved C3 sequences (GCGEQN/TM, TWLTAY/FV) and liver mRNA as template, we isolated three distinct 220-bp PCR products, one with a high degree of sequence similarity to C3 and two to alpha 2M and pregnancy zone protein from other species. (jimmunol.org)
  • The obtained sequence is in complete agreement with the protein sequence of several tryptic peptides of purified chicken C3. (jimmunol.org)
  • Sequence analysis, in silico docking and reverse phase protein array were implemented to fully characterize the eculizumab epitope on human complement C5. (innopsys.com)
  • C3 is an essential activating protein in the classic and alternate complement cascades. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Here we identify and characterize a new protein family of tick-derived C5 inhibitors. (ox.ac.uk)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • In the circulation, Protein S exists in two forms: a free form and a complex form bound to complement protein C4b-binding protein (C4BP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein S also binds to the nascent complement complex C5,6,7 and prevents this complex from inserting into a membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • A truncated product of 216 amino acids is predicted as a result although contradictory reports exist that a larger pro-C5 protein may be synthesized. (jax.org)
  • C5a, a small activation fragment of the complement C5 protein induced by either classical or alternative pathway, is a potent proinflammatory mediator ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Et projekt starter ofte med, at den studerende kloner genet for et protein og indsætter det i en ekspressionsvektor. (au.dk)
  • C3a, C4a and C5a anaphylatoxins are protein fragments generated enzymatically in serum during activation of complement molecules C3, C4, and C5. (embl.de)
  • A-fragments form distinct structural domains of approximately 76 amino acids, coded for by a single exon within the complement protein gene. (embl.de)
  • A new protein, fibulin-2, was predicted from sequence analysis of cDNA clones obtained from a mouse fibroblast library. (embl.de)
  • In bony fish, although C5 has been identified at the DNA or the protein level in trout, carp and gilthead seabream, only partial C5 sequences are available. (elsevier.com)
  • The deduced amino acid sequences of C5-1 and C5-2 share 83% identity and predict a typical two-chain structure of the mature protein that lacks the thioester bond, as in C5 from other animals. (elsevier.com)
  • Eculizumab , a monoclonal antibody against the complement protein C5, stops the intravascular hemolysis in PNH. (aamds.org)
  • The predicted amino acid sequence of the B. subtilis HemA protein showed 34% identity with the Escherichia coli HemA protein, which is known to code for the NAD(P)H:glutamyl-tRNA reductase of the C5 pathway for 5-aminolevulinic acid synthesis. (lu.se)
  • The B. subtilis HemA protein also complements the defect of an E. coli hemA mutant. (lu.se)
  • Complete overview of protein-inactivating sequence variations in 36 sequenced mouse inbred strains. (jax.org)
  • The membrane attack complex is initiated when the complement protein C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and C5b. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another complement protein, C6 , binds to C5b. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eculizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets complement protein C5 and inhibits terminal complement-mediated hemolysis associated with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). (cdc.gov)
  • Sequence similarity between netrin UNC-6 and C345C complement protein family members, and hence the existence of the UNC-6 module, was first reported in. (umbc.edu)
  • Download DNA or protein sequence, view genomic context and coordinates. (yeastgenome.org)
  • Basic sequence-derived (length, molecular weight, isoelectric point) and experimentally-determined (median abundance, median absolute deviation) protein information. (yeastgenome.org)
  • In addition, for measuring protein-coding mRNAs of some molecules associated with osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), reverse transcription (RT) was performed followed by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and we performed the RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis of the chondrocytes transcriptome. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the classical pathway C5 convertase is composed of C4b2a3b and in the alternative pathway is C3bBbC3b. (davidson.edu)
  • Finally, the alternative pathway can be initiated when a spontaneously activated complement component binds to the surface of a pathogen. (nih.gov)
  • Substrate-bound C3b molecules also serve as focal points for the formation of additional C3 convertases in addition to the C5 convertases, C4bC2aC3b of the classical pathway and C3bBbC3b of the alternative pathway. (jimmunol.org)
  • To avoid or reduce inadvertent injury, host cells are protected by complement regulatory molecules present in the fluid phase and on cell membranes that inhibit both classical and alternative pathway activation pathways at several points in the cascade. (jimmunol.org)
  • The newly formed C3b either can amplify the alternative pathway by generating new C3-convertase molecules or can form a complex with the existing C3-convertases to generate a C5-convertase. (frontiersin.org)
  • Nucleotide sequence of a human autoantibody to the alternative pathway C3/C5 convertase (C3NeF). (harvard.edu)
  • Study of the idiotypic response to autoantibody to the alternative pathway C3/C5 convertase in normal individuals, patients with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, and experimental animals. (harvard.edu)
  • The results suggest that CRP bound to a surface provides secondary binding sites for H resulting in greater regulation of alternative pathway amplification and C5 convertases. (nih.gov)
  • Complement can be activated by two distinct routes, the classical and the alternative pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We found that the mRNA levels of C3, C5, C3aR, C5aR, and two activators of the complement alternative pathway, Cfb and Cfd, were all upregulated after light exposure. (molvis.org)
  • 95. Burge J. J., Fearon D. ., Austen K. F. Inhibition of the alternative pathway of complement by gold sodium thiomalate in vitro, J. Immunol. (bio-cat.ru)
  • 96. Kancko I., Fearon D. ., Austen K. F. Inhibition of the alternative pathway of human complement in vitro by a natural microbial product, complestatin, J. Immunol. (bio-cat.ru)
  • 113. Doha M. R., Fearon D. ., Austen K. F. C3 requirements for formation of alternative pathway C5 convertase, J. Immunol. (bio-cat.ru)
  • 114. Medicus R. G., Gbtze O., Muller-Eberhard H. J. Alternative pathway of complement: Recruitment of precursor properdin by the labile C3/C5 convertase and the potentiation of the pathway, J. Exp. (bio-cat.ru)
  • Complement C5 antibody LS-C684436 is a biotin-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to mouse Complement C5. (lsbio.com)
  • Complement C5 antibody LS-C14521 is an unconjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to human Complement C5. (lsbio.com)
  • Complement C5 antibody was raised against human C5. (lsbio.com)
  • 4. The antibody according to claim 1 , characterized in that it comprises at least one of the amino acid sequences selected from the group consisting of: SEQ ID NO:2, 4, and 6. (google.com)
  • 5. The antibody according to claim 4 having amino acid sequence SEQ ID NO: 6. (google.com)
  • 6. The antibody according to claim 4 characterized in that it comprises both the amino acid sequences identified as SEQ ID NO: 2 and SEQ ID NO: 4, or their conservative mutations. (google.com)
  • 7. The antibody according to claim 4 characterized in that it comprises at least one of the sequences selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 2, 4, and 6 in combination with a sequence derived from an immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region. (google.com)
  • 9. A chimeric antibody characterized in that it comprises at least one of the sequences corresponding to SEQ ID NO: 2, 4, 6, 8, or 12, wherein the antibody recognizes a region corresponding to sequence 727-744 (SEQ ID NO:15) of the C5 component of human complement or a region having at least 80% homology thereto. (google.com)
  • an antibody comprising an amino acid sequences selected from the group consisting of: SEQ ID NO: 2, 4, and 6, or each one of SEQ ID NO: 7, 8, and 9. (google.com)
  • Eculizumab is a clinically approved anti-C5 monoclonal antibody for PNH. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • This activity was said to ' complement ' the antibacterial activity of antibody , hence the name. (nih.gov)
  • Although first discovered as an effector arm of the antibody response, complement can also be activated early in infection in the absence of antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • A Complement C2 specific antibody has been precoated onto 96-well plates and blocked. (abcam.com)
  • Standards or test samples are added to the wells and subsequently a Complement C2 specific biotinylated detection antibody is added and then followed by washing with wash buffer. (abcam.com)
  • Therapeutic options include plasma therapy and terminal complement blockade using the anti-C5 monoclonal antibody eculizumab. (springermedizin.de)
  • Immunofluorescence analysis of methanol-fixed A431, using Complement C2(GTX105404) antibody at 1:200 dilution. (genetex.com)
  • The components also combine in various sequences to participate in other biological activities, including antibody-mediated immune lysis, phagocytosis, opsonization and anaphylaxis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • If the serum contains antibody, i.e. is positive, an antibody-antigen complex is formed which also binds (fixes) complement. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • If antibody was not present in stage 1, then the free complement lyses the sensitized sheep red blood cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Ravulizumab (ALXN1210) is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to human complement component C5. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Peptide sequence and secondary structural information for this antibody are available from its IMGT/mAb-DB record. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • The complement system initially got that name because it complemented the body's ability to defend itself against pathogens, in addition to antibody formation. (aamds.org)
  • Eculizumab is an anti-complement C5 monoclonal antibody which has greatly improved the prognosis and outcomes of nocturnal paroxysmal hemoglobinuria and atypical hemolytic and uremic syndromes. (innopsys.com)
  • The alternate pathway occurs when C3, C5, and C9 are activated without participation of C1, C2, and C4 or the presence of antigen-antibody complexes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Immune complexes can activate complement deposition on the antibody portion of the immune complexes leading to further activation of phagocytic and hematopoietic cells that clear the immune complexes from the circulation. (lecturio.com)
  • whereby the extent and nature of complement activation by the antibody in the sample may be determined. (google.es)
  • 1. A modified IgG3 antibody containing a human IgG3 constant region, wherein a hinge region of said modified IgG3 antibody contains a deletion of the 17 amino acid sequence of exon 1. (google.es)
  • The following product was used in this experiment: Complement C5a Polyclonal Antibody from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # PA5-78892, RRID AB_2746008. (thermofisher.com)
  • In vitro hemolysis due to nonmutant and mutant C5 was completely blocked with the use of N19-8, a monoclonal antibody that binds to a different site on C5 than does eculizumab. (cdc.gov)
  • 106. Green H., Barrow P., Goldberg B. Effect of antibody and complement on permeability control in ascites tumor cells and erythrocytes, J. Exp. (bio-cat.ru)
  • Thrombin-mediated platelet membrane-specific uptake of C3 and C5 was demonstrated by radiolabeled components and was visualized electron microscopically utilizing a ferritin marker conjugated to monospecific antibody to each component. (rupress.org)
  • An activation peptide, C5a, which is an anaphylatoxin that possesses potent spasmogenic and chemotactic activity, is derived from the alpha polypeptide via cleavage with a C5-convertase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In experimental immune-complex glomerulonephritis, lack of the C5a receptor (C5aR) reduced infiltrating interstitial cells and tubulointerstitial damage but had no influence on glomerular injury, thereby pointing to a role of the anaphylatoxin C5a, a small peptide that is released from C5, in tubulointerstitial injury ( 12 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • The C5b-C6 complex is the foundation upon which the lytic complex is assembled.Derived from proteolytic degradation of complement C5, C5 anaphylatoxin is a mediator of local inflammatory process. (lsbio.com)
  • Sequence refers to C5a anaphylatoxin chain. (abcam.com)
  • Derived from proteolytic degradation of complement C5, C5 anaphylatoxin is a mediator of local inflammatory process. (abcam.com)
  • The consequence of all three pathways is the covalent deposition of complement on the foreign surface and the generation of a C3-convertase that cleaves complement factor C3 into the larger C3b fragment and the smaller C3a anaphylatoxin. (frontiersin.org)
  • Pangburn and Rawal, 2002 ) to form a C5 convertase (C3bBb3b or C4b2a3b), which cleaves C5 to generate the large fragment C5b and the anaphylatoxin C5a ( Figure 1A ). (embopress.org)
  • Amino Acid Sequence of the Anaphylatoxin from the fifth Component of Porcine Complement," J. Biol. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Components C3 and C5 are involved in the generation of anaphylatoxin and in the promotion of leukocyte chemotaxis, the result of these two activities being the inflammatory response. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Activation of complement C5 generates the potent anaphylatoxin C5a and leads to pathogen lysis, inflammation and cell damage. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Because activated microglia are also associated with AMD, we studied the relationship between complement anaphylatoxin receptors and microglial recruitment. (molvis.org)
  • The structure of an AT module was determined for the complement-derived anaphylatoxin C3a, and was found to be a compact alpha-helical fold that is stabilised by three disulphide bridges in the pattern Cys1-4, Cys2-5 and Cys3-6 (where Cys is cysteine). (embl.de)
  • A growing body of evidence has implicated excessive activation of the complement system, especially formation of the potent proinflammatory anaphylatoxin C5a in mediating deleterious host responses to bacterial infections and contributing to the development of sepsis, adverse outcomes, and death ( 16 , 18 , 20 ). (rupress.org)
  • The multi-domain serine protease C2 provides the catalytic activity for the C3 and C5- convertases of the classical and lectin pathways of complement activation. (rcsb.org)
  • Both C5 convertases perform the same function, which is to cleave C5 into its two active components C5a and C5b. (davidson.edu)
  • Once C5 convertases are formed, target organisms can be lysed following cleavage of C5 to C5b and assembly of complement components C6, C7, C8, and C9 to generate the lytic membrane attack complex ( 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • A general model for substrate recognition by the convertases is presented based on the C5-CVF and C3b-Bb-SCIN structures. (embopress.org)
  • The beta-hairpin not only explains the fine species specificity of eculizumab but is also an important site at the C5/C5 convertase interface, revealing how eculizumab acts as a competitor of C5 convertases. (innopsys.com)
  • However, the mechanism of C5 activation by C5 convertases remains elusive, thus limiting development of therapeutics. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The complement convertases probably recognises their substrates C3 and C5 in a manner similar to this, see Laursen et al (2011) EMBO J. 30, 606-16. (au.dk)
  • Human polyclonal and monoclonal IgG and IgM complement 3 nephritic factors: evidence for idiotypic commonality. (harvard.edu)
  • Mutations in this gene cause complement component 5 deficiency, a disease where patients show a propensity for severe recurrent infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, we identified the gene that encoded complement factor C5 as a quantitative trait gene that modifies the course of hepatic fibrosis ( 16 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • To determine the frequency of specific disease-associated C5 and C6 gene mutations in patients presenting with MD in the Western Cape. (scielo.org.za)
  • In this study, we determined the potential linkage of severe PE to the most central complement gene, C3 . (frontiersin.org)
  • Following the primary screening, C3 was selected as the candidate gene and consequently Sanger sequenced. (frontiersin.org)
  • This is, as far as we are aware, the first candidate gene in the complement system with an association to a clinically relevant PE subphenotype, severe PE. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chemical synthesis of a gene encoding the human complement fragment C5a and its expression in Escherichia," PNAS U S A. Jun. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • What happens when the complement system identifies red blood cells with the defective PIG-A gene ? (aamds.org)
  • Recombinant Mouse Complement Component C5 is produced by our E.coli expression system and the target gene encoding Asn679-Arg755 is expressed. (sinobio.net)
  • Genome sequence analyses revealed that these fungi share orthologous gene clusters, designated " SWN ," which included a multifunctional swnK gene comprising predicted adenylylation and acyltransferase domains with their associated thiolation domains, a β-ketoacyl synthase domain, and two reductase domains. (g3journal.org)
  • The role of swnK was demonstrated by inactivating it in M. robertsii through homologous gene replacement to give a ∆ swnK mutant that produced no detectable swainsonine, then complementing the mutant with the wild-type gene to restore swainsonine biosynthesis. (g3journal.org)
  • SWN gene clusters were identified in six out of seven sequenced genomes of Metarhzium species, and in all 15 sequenced genomes of Arthrodermataceae, a family of fungi that cause athlete's foot and ringworm diseases in humans and other mammals. (g3journal.org)
  • Southern hybridization of genomic DNA suggested the presence of multiple genes encoding C5-type I and a single gene encoding C5-type II. (elsevier.com)
  • Nucleotide sequence of two exons of the human T-lymphocyte CD4 receptor gene]. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Genome DNA encoding the N-part of human CD4 gene located in the 15 kilobase (kb) Sau3a restriction fragment was cloned and nucleotide sequence of a part (3430 b.p.) of this fragment determined. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Exons 2 and 3, intron 2, and partially introns 2 and 3 of this gene were located in the sequenced fragment. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A 3.8-kilobase DNA fragment from Bacillus subtilis containing the hemA gene has been cloned and sequenced. (lu.se)
  • Different SIX gene complements were identified in other f. spp. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Fusarium oxysporum isolates collected from onions in the UK and other countries were characterized using sequences of the transfer elongation factor 1-α ( TEF ) gene and compared with published sequence data for 10 other isolates. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • We assessed the sequences of the gene encoding C5 in patients with PNH who had either a good or poor response to eculizumab. (cdc.gov)
  • The drug eculizumab (trade name Soliris) prevents cleavage of C5 into C5a and C5b. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eculizumab prevents activation of the terminal sequence of the complement cascade and formation of the potentially lytic terminal complement complex (C5b-9). (springermedizin.de)
  • Despite eculizumab treatment and maximal suppression of the classical and alternative complement pathways, C3d and sC5b-9 remained consistently elevated and the patient showed repeated relapses. (springermedizin.de)
  • Not every patient with aHUS and uncontrolled complement activation shows optimal therapeutic response to eculizumab with the recommended or even increased dosing regimen. (springermedizin.de)
  • In silico docking confirmed the implication of a beta-hairpin located between residues 913 and 922, outside the known epitope, in the binding of eculizumab to C5. (innopsys.com)
  • Two residues in particular, Arg885 and Trp917, were defined as major participants in the interaction of C5 and eculizumab. (innopsys.com)
  • Their important role was confirmed by the recent publication of a crystal structure of eculizumab Fab bound to C5. (innopsys.com)
  • The therapeutic potential of C5 inhibition has been demonstrated by eculizumab, one of the world's most expensive drugs. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Structures of C5 in complex with the new inhibitors, the phase I and phase II inhibitor OmCI, or an eculizumab Fab reveal three distinct binding sites on C5 that all prevent activation of C5. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Seven patients received the complement C5 inhibitor eculizumab. (cdc.gov)
  • Activity of classical (CH50) and alternative (APH50) complement pathways was normal or even elevated throughout the observation time, except for patients under eculizumab treatment. (cdc.gov)
  • Eculizumab decreases complement-induced he- but remained transfusion-independent. (cdc.gov)
  • Genetic variants in C5 and poor response to eculizumab. (cdc.gov)
  • Nonmutant and mutant C5 both caused hemolysis in vitro, but only nonmutant C5 bound to and was blocked by eculizumab. (cdc.gov)
  • The functional capacity of C5 variants with mutations at Arg885, together with their failure to undergo blockade by eculizumab, account for the poor response to this agent in patients who carry these mutations. (cdc.gov)
  • Anaemia: mutations in C5 explain eculizumab resistance. (cdc.gov)
  • C5 inhibition is a clinically validated mechanism that is utilised for the control and suppression of complement-induced hemolysis in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired disorder characterized by hemolysis, thrombosis, and bone marrow failure caused by defective expression of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored (GPI-anchored) complement inhibitors. (jci.org)
  • Blaas P, Berger B, Weber S, Peter HH, Hansch GM (1988) Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: enhanced stimulation of platelets by terminal complement components is related to the lack of C8bp in the membrane. (springer.com)
  • Devine DV, Siegel RS, Rosse WF (1987) Interactions of the platelets in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria with complement. (springer.com)
  • Neither genetic C5 deficiency nor C5aRA treatment caused any histologic changes in the nonobstructed kidneys. (asnjournals.org)
  • Human deficiency of the fifth complement component (C5D) or complete absence of the sixth component (C6Q0) leads to increased risk of MD, which is often recurrent. (scielo.org.za)
  • We strongly recommend diagnostic testing for complement C5 and C6 deficiency in the routine work-up of all MD cases in South Africa. (scielo.org.za)
  • 5-7 Molecular-level investigations of 2 SA families with C5 deficiency have been performed. (scielo.org.za)
  • Defects in C2 are the cause of complement component 2 deficiency (C2D) [MIM:217000]. (abcam.com)
  • A deficiency of the complement classical pathway associated with the development of autoimmune disorders, mainly systemic lupus erythematosus. (abcam.com)
  • Patients with complement component 2 deficiency are also reported to have recurrent or invasive infections. (abcam.com)
  • To assist in the diagnosis of immunological diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), in which complement is consumed at an increased rate, or to detect inborn deficiency. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Component C2 is a serum glycoprotein that functions as part of the classical pathway of the complement system. (abnova.com)
  • Abcam's Complement C2 Human in vitro ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is designed for the quantitative measurement of Complement C2 in CSF, plasma, serum, saliva, and cell culture supernatants. (abcam.com)
  • In the first, also referred to as the test system, antigen is mixed usually with serial dilutions of a test serum in the presence of complement. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Serum complement levels are used to detect autoimmune diseases. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This strain carries the Hc 0 allele from DBA/2J, making them serum C5 deficient. (jax.org)
  • 101. Nilsson U. R., Muller-Eberhard H. J. Isolation of beta IF globulin from human serum and its characterization as the fifth component of complement, J. Exp. (bio-cat.ru)
  • Note additional hybridizing bands in DNA from complemented strains. (nih.gov)
  • In 2011, we developed a next generation version of this computational method, which analyzes whole genome sequence data for 20 inbred strains. (stanford.edu)
  • Nevertheless, macrophages from mouse strains carrying this allele do not secrete complement 5. (jax.org)
  • The accumulation of bioenergy carriers was assessed in two starchless mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (the sta6 [ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase] and sta7 - 10 [isoamylase] mutants), a control strain (CC124), and two complemented strains of the sta7 - 10 mutant. (asm.org)
  • STA7 complemented strains exhibited significantly greater quantities of cellular starch and lipid than CC124 during acclimation to nitrogen deprivation. (asm.org)
  • Moreover, the complemented strains synthesized significant quantities of starch even when cultured in nutrient-replete medium. (asm.org)
  • Molecular finger printing techniques, such as random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR, have revealed marked sequence heterogeneity between strains from unrelated individuals ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Molecular fingerprinting studies using RAPD ( 57 ), amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) ( 40 ), and sequence analysis of virulence-associated or housekeeping genes ( 20 , 46 ) with multiple single-colony isolates or cultures obtained from separate biopsy samples from single patients revealed that strains isolated from single patients were closely related but that there were subtle differences in the majority of patients. (asm.org)
  • Click "Sequence Details" to view all sequence information for this locus, including that for other strains. (yeastgenome.org)
  • C) Apa I-digested genomic DNA from Fum3 -complemented mutants, GMT-9-5-4 and GMT-9-10-8, hybridized to a 2.0-kb fragment carrying the entire FUM9 coding region, including 453 bp upstream of the start site and 672 bp downstream of the stop site. (nih.gov)
  • The fourth open reading frame extends past the sequenced fragment and may be identical to hemD, coding for uroporphyrinogen III cosynthase. (lu.se)
  • 111. Shin H. S., Snyderman R., Friedman E., Mellors A., Mayer M. M. Chemotactic and ana-phylatoxic fragment cleaved from the fifth component of guinea pig complement, Science, 162, 361 363 (1968). (bio-cat.ru)
  • Terminal complement components comprise the final 5 components of the complement cascade (C5 to C9). (scielo.org.za)
  • The complement system activates through a triggered-enzyme cascade. (nih.gov)
  • In such a cascade, an active complement enzyme generated by cleavage of its zymogen precursor then cleaves its substrate, another complement zymogen, to its active enzymatic form. (nih.gov)
  • Schematic overview of the complement cascade. (nih.gov)
  • In the early phases of an infection, the complement cascade can be activated on the surface of a pathogen through any one, or more, of the three pathways shown in Fig. 2.8 . (nih.gov)
  • The complement cascade can be activated by four different pathways, three of which converge at the level of the C3 component, leading to the cleavage of C3 and C5 to their activated forms, C3a and C5a, as well as the formation of the terminal membrane attack complex ( 17 , 18 ). (rupress.org)
  • The complement component system is a biochemical cascade involved in both the innate immune system and the activation of the adaptive immune system. (justia.com)
  • C5 convertase cleaves C5 about 800 amino acids away from C345C. (davidson.edu)
  • This in turn cleaves and activates the next zymogen in the complement pathway. (nih.gov)
  • C5b forms the first part of the complement membrane attack complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The C5b macromolecular cleavage product can form a complex with the C6 complement component, and this complex is the basis for formation of the membrane attack complex, which includes additional complement components. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of C5 by a C5 convertase initiates the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the membrane attack complex. (lsbio.com)
  • The complement-mediated anti- Candida effects induced thereby clearly extend chemotaxis, opsonization, and phagocytosis, and even the membrane attack complex formed on the fungal surface plays a modulatory role, although lysis of the yeast per se cannot be induced due to the thick fungal cell wall. (frontiersin.org)
  • COMPLEMENT FACTOR I). This abnormally stabilized enzyme induces a continuous COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and generation of C3b thereby promoting the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX and cytolysis. (harvard.edu)
  • Once C5 is cleaved, a variety of events occur that propagate the formation of the membrane attack complex. (aamds.org)
  • The ultimate goal for the activation of the complement system is the formation of the membrane attack complex which is initiated by proteolytical cleavage of C5 and disrupts the phospholipid bilayer to lyse the target cell [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The ultimate goal for complement activation is C3b deposition on the target cell membrane followed by the membrane attack complex (MAC) responsible for opsonization . (lecturio.com)
  • Indeed, it now seems clear that complement first evolved as part of the innate immune system , where it still plays an important role. (nih.gov)
  • Among its related pathways are Complement and coagulation cascades and Immune response Lectin induced complement pathway . (genecards.org)
  • Complement with its multifaceted functions is involved in the immune defense against this yeast, and recently several novel aspects have emerged in this old battle. (frontiersin.org)
  • The pulmonary response of C5 sufficient and deficient mice to immune complexes," (1981) Am. Rev. Respir. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Based on sequence similarity to those homologs known to participate in immune responses in other insects, we identified immunity-related genes encoding pattern recognition receptors, signal modulators, immune effectors, and nearly all members of the Toll, IMD and JAK/STAT pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These barriers collectively eliminate or identify the potential threat i.e. the microbial or viral infection and consequently, the innate immune system cells and the complement system are activated for effective elimination of invading pathogens and its products. (lecturio.com)
  • The complement system is an essential component of the innate immune response to several infectious agents ( 16 ). (rupress.org)
  • The innate immune system is a type of immunity that has many functions in the body including the induction of cytokine production for the recruitment of immune cells to sites of infection, identification of foreign pathogens to induce an immune response, and the activation of the complement component system. (justia.com)
  • 116. Cooper N. R., Muller-Eberhard H. J. The reaction mechanism of human C5 in immune hemolysis, J. Exp. (bio-cat.ru)
  • The present invention refers to recombinant antibodies of human origin specific for the C5 component of the activated complement and characterised by the ability to inhibit the conversion of the C5 alpha chain to C5a and C5b. (google.com)
  • Moreover the present invention refers to the nucleotide sequences coding for such antibodies and to the therapeutic use of both polypeptide and nucleotide sequences, in particular for the therapy of diseases involving tissue damage deriving from uncontrolled activation of the complement system. (google.com)
  • Complement was discovered many years ago as a heat-labile component of normal plasma that augments the opsonization of bacteria by antibodies and allows antibodies to kill some bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • These are called complement because it complements the antibacterial activity of some of the antibodies. (labpedia.net)
  • The following example shows the role of Antibodies and complement in the process of Bacteriolysis and Agglutination. (labpedia.net)
  • Evidence for the role of complement activation products in cellular deactivation," Surgery 90:319-327, (1981). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The role of complement factors C1q, C3 and C5 for the pathogenesis of CM were investigated in this study. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The role of complement in thrombin-induced platelet function was determined. (rupress.org)
  • C4b2a is the widely used short‐hand nomenclature for the C4b-C2a complex in the complement field, and similar nomenclature is used for the remaining complexes in the following). (embopress.org)
  • 1991). "Complete cDNA sequence of human complement pro-C5. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complete cDNA sequence of chicken C3 was obtained by screening a chicken liver lambda gt10 library with the C3 PCR product and probes from the 5' end of the partial-length C3 clones. (jimmunol.org)
  • Reverse-transcribed polymerase chain reaction amplification from carp hepatopancreatic RNA resulted in isolation of six distinct C5-like cDNA segments, which were grouped into two divergent types (type I and type II). (elsevier.com)
  • Complement component 5 is the fifth component of complement, which plays an important role in inflammatory and cell killing processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to a protective role, activation of the complement pathway can also exacerbate inflammatory injury and cause extensive damage to self-tissues. (jimmunol.org)
  • Complement activation by CRP may help limit the inflammatory response by providing opsonization with minimal generation of C5a and C5b-9. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, the small complement fragments C3a, C4a and C5a, the so-called anaphylatoxins act on specific receptors to produce local inflammatory responses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The complement component C5 plays important roles in inflammatory responses and complement-mediated cytolysis. (elsevier.com)
  • Complement component 3 (C3) is central to the activation of all pathways, is critical to the cleavage and subsequent activation of the potent chemoattractant, complement component C5a (C5a), and is responsible for mediating the inflammatory response during infection (Carroll, 2008 , Vaccine 26S: 128-133). (justia.com)
  • Inflammatory diseases (inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease) of the intestine are associated with an increased risk of developing colon cancer in humans and studies have shown that complement component C3 is elevated in patients with these diseases (Lundgren et al. (justia.com)
  • Once complement is activated, its components participate in virtually every aspect of the inflammatory response. (labpedia.net)
  • 2004) and is located about 800 amino acid residues away from the C5 cleavage site toward the N terminus of the α chain (see figure 3). (davidson.edu)
  • C5a is a 77 amino acid peptide that is created by the C5a convertase proteolytic cleavage of C5 αchain in the classical and alternative complement pathway (C4b2a3b, C3bBb3b). (sinobio.net)
  • C5a is a 74 amino acid (aa) peptide that is created by the activity of C5a convertase on the C5 α-chain. (elabscience.com)
  • 2. Modified IgG3 as claimed in claim 1, being a truncated variant in which the number of repeats of the 15 amino acid sequence in the hinge region has been reduced whereby a shortened hinge region is provided. (google.es)
  • 3. Modified IgG3 as claimed in claim 2, wherein the hinge region comprises a single repeat of the native 15 amino acid sequence. (google.es)
  • Human IgG consists of four subclasses which show 5% homology in the amino acid sequence of the constant domains of their heavy chains. (google.es)
  • As might be expected, there are many regulatory mechanisms to prevent uncontrolled complement activation. (nih.gov)
  • to uncontrolled complement activation that accounts for hemolysis and other PNH manifestations. (aamds.org)
  • The SNP is in linkage disequilibrium with two genes relevant to chronic inflammation: TRAF1 (encoding tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1) and C5 (encoding complement component 5). (nih.gov)
  • We used a custom-made single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assay consisting of 98 SNPs in 18 genes that encode components of the complement system. (frontiersin.org)
  • The comprehensive sequence resource and expression profiles of the immunity-related genes in H. armigera are acquired. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast to atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS), only single case reports and limited data have been published on systemic activation of the complement system and mutations in complement genes in paediatric enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli-induced HUS (EHEC-HUS). (cdc.gov)
  • Targeted next generation sequencing for a total of 89 genes involved in complement regulation and coagulation and haemostasis was performed in all patients. (cdc.gov)
  • We characterised 31 F. oxysporum isolates collected from UK onions using pathogenicity tests, sequencing of housekeeping genes and identification of effectors. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • and different Fusarium species, was carried out by sequencing three housekeeping genes. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • there were clear differences in sequence which were unique to FOC while CRX1 and C5 genes appear to be largely FOC specific. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • The absence of CD55 and CD59 on blood cells leads to complement-mediated hemolysis and a propensity for thrombosis. (jci.org)
  • CD55 and CD59 on erythrocytes leads to intravascular hemolysis upon complement activation. (aamds.org)
  • Henkart P. Inhibition of marker influx into complement-treated resealed erythrocyte ghosts by anti-C5, J. Immunol. (bio-cat.ru)
  • Complement component 5 is involved in the complement system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complete primary structure and functional characterization of the sixth component of the human complement system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each of the three pathways of the complement system results in the formation of C3 convertase on the pathogen surface. (davidson.edu)
  • In the case of the complement system, the precursor zymogens are widely distributed throughout body fluids and tissues without adverse effect. (nih.gov)
  • There are three ways in which the complement system protects against infection. (nih.gov)
  • Component C2 which is part of the classical pathway of the complement system is cleaved by activated factor C1 into two fragments: C2b and C2a. (genecards.org)
  • Activation of the complement system by Candida is facilitated by directly triggering the three dominant pathways, but also indirectly via the coagulation and fibrinolysis systems. (frontiersin.org)
  • The complement system is known to be activated by the immunoglobulins IgM and IgG. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Dysregulation of the complement system has been implicated, but molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. (frontiersin.org)
  • The result highlights a potential role for the complement system in the pathogenesis of PE and may help in defining prognostic and therapeutic subgroups of preeclamptic women. (frontiersin.org)
  • Apart from the association it has with PNH, what is the function of the complement system ? (aamds.org)
  • When the complement system is activated, it triggers a variety of events leading to cleavage of one component known as C5. (aamds.org)
  • These regulators sit on the outer membrane of cells, so the complement system recognizes that these cells are of the self. (aamds.org)
  • One potent stimulator of inflammation is the complement system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The complement system is an important mechanism for the destruction and removal of foreign materials. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Circulating C3 is synthesized in the liver and comprises 70% of the complement system, but cells in other tissues can also produce C3. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The complement system is involved in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). (molvis.org)
  • This function prevents the inappropriate activation of the complement system, which would cause uncontrolled systemic inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • RIKEN integrated sequence analysis (RISA) system--384-format sequencing pipeline with 384 multicapillary sequencer. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The complement component system is important for the identification and clearance of foreign pathogens that involves both classical, alternative and mannose-binding lectin pathways. (justia.com)
  • All three pathways of the complement system ( classical , lectin and alternative pathways) initiate the formation of MAC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reid K. B. M., The complement system , in: B. D. Hames and D. M. Glover (eds. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the exception of the molecules defining the combinatorial or adaptive system, cyclostomes have molecules appropriate for their phylogenetic position with the percentage of sequence identity expected from the rates of divergence with the jawed vertebrates. (asmscience.org)
  • The human complement system in thrombin-mediated platelet function. (rupress.org)
  • The interaction of blood platelets with the complement system is the subject of this review. (springer.com)
  • Blajchman MA, Ozge-Anwar AH (1986) The role of the complement system in hemostasis. (springer.com)
  • B) Humoral defense pathways that rely on the activation of complement for the effector phase. (asmscience.org)
  • The activation of complement was induced by a mechanism which has not been previously described. (rupress.org)
  • These results suggest that CSMD1 may be an important regulator of complement activation and inflammation in the developing CNS, and that it may also play a role in the context of growth cone function. (jimmunol.org)
  • Identifying mechanisms through which complement anaphylatoxins modulate inflammation in the retina may provide a rationale for targeted drug design. (molvis.org)
  • Activation of complements leads to inflammation and localize the antigen or cause lysis. (labpedia.net)
  • The convertase cleavage site, predicted to be Arg-Ser, was confirmed by sequencing the zymosan-bound C3 fragments generated upon complement activation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Various cell types express surface membrane glycoproteins that react with one or more of the fragments of C3 produced during complement activation and degradation. (labpedia.net)
  • In: Lambris JD (Current topics in microbiology and immunology, Vol 153) (ed) The third component of complement. (springer.com)
  • Predicted cross-reactivity is based on sequence homology, with greater than 80% immunogen sequence identity considered positive. (genetex.com)
  • 5 They were identified through sequence and structural homology with superantigens, but they do not show superantigenic activity. (ashpublications.org)
  • They are both three-helical bundles and derived from bacterial surface domains, but share no sequence homology. (diva-portal.org)
  • Structural basis for therapeutic inhibition of complement C5. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The interactions between complement and non- albicans species also deserve attention, especially Candida auris , a recently identified drug-resistant species of medical importance. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is also known to be very species-specific for human C5, despite an important degree of conservation of the targeted macroglobulin domain, MG7, with that of other primates. (innopsys.com)
  • Several residues potentially involved in the species specificity were identified outside the known epitope by sequence analysis. (innopsys.com)
  • Binding of CRP to these substrates activates the classical complement pathway leading to their uptake by phagocytic cells. (nih.gov)
  • They are released in the fluid phase during complement activation after enzymatic cleavage of C3 and C5. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We report a 3-year-old boy with aHUS due to a novel heterozygous truncating complement Factor H mutation in combination with other changes known to be associated with an increased risk for aHUS. (springermedizin.de)
  • What is the sequence of events leading to PNH and why is a genetic mutation responsible? (aamds.org)
  • All 11 had a single missense C5 heterozygous mutation, c.2654G → A, which predicts the polymorphism p.Arg885His. (cdc.gov)
  • Yet C3b can activate C5 to induce the lytic sequence . (lecturio.com)
  • Data in lilac represent the genomic exon structure projected onto the UniProt sequence. (rcsb.org)
  • Secstruc: Secondary structure projected from representative PDB entries onto the UniProt sequence. (rcsb.org)
  • A common genetic variant at the TRAF1-C5 locus on chromosome 9 is associated with an increased risk of anti-CCP-positive rheumatoid arthritis. (nih.gov)
  • C5-C345C also interacts with C5 convertase although it is not the cleavage site. (davidson.edu)
  • This diagram of C5 convertase shows where C5 is cleaved (dotted arrows) to become activated and where the functional C5-C345C domain is relative to the cleavage site. (davidson.edu)
  • CVF functions as a relatively rigid binding scaffold inducing a conformational change in C5, which positions its cleavage site in proximity to the serine protease Bb. (embopress.org)
  • Interestingly, carp C5-type I contains novel subtypes like C5-1 that have a histidine instead of the well-conserved arginine at the cleavage site for the C5 convertase, both in the complete and truncated forms. (elsevier.com)
  • Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a form of thrombotic microangiopathy characterized by uncontrolled activation of the alternative complement pathway with consecutive generation of the terminal complement complex. (springermedizin.de)
  • In contrast, the mean concentration of the soluble terminal complement complex (sC5b-9) was significantly elevated at the first timepoint (mean 498 ng/mL), dropping to normal values after 2 weeks. (cdc.gov)
  • BBB dysfunction may allow the influx of cytokines, malaria antigens and complement into the brain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This results in inhibition of the classical and lectin pathway of complement activation, probably due to interference with binding of C2a to C4b such that C3 convertase cannot be formed. (genecards.org)
  • From studies of patients' leukocytes and of PIGT-KO THP-1 cells we show that, through increased IL-1β secretion, activation of the lectin pathway of complement and generation of C5b-9 complexes, free GPI is the agent of autoinflammation. (jci.org)
  • C5 was recently identified as a risk factor for liver fibrosis. (asnjournals.org)
  • Using a combined genetic and pharmacologic approach, C5, in particular C5a, is identified as a novel profibrotic factor in renal disease and as a potential new therapeutic target. (asnjournals.org)
  • The serine proteinase C2a then combines with complement factor 4b to create the C3 or C5 convertase. (abnova.com)
  • We determined the crystal structures of the C3b homologue cobra venom factor (CVF) in complex with C5, and in complex with C5 and the inhibitor SSL7 at 4.3 Å resolution. (embopress.org)
  • Factor H functions as a cofactor in the inactivation of C3b by factor I and also increases the rate of dissociation of the C3bBb complex (C3 convertase) and the (C3b)NBB complex (C5 convertase) in the alternative complement pathway. (rcsb.org)
  • Complement C3 Nephritic Factor" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Complement C3 Nephritic Factor" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Complement C3 Nephritic Factor" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Complement C3 Nephritic Factor" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • Zimura is the company's complement factor C5 inhibitor. (eyeworld.org)
  • Left, A model of C5 (blue) bound to the cobra venom factor (orange) and the catalytically active serine protase Bb (grey). (au.dk)
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1, interleukin-6 and TNF-alpha are all released by complement activation leading to angiogenesis with the formation of new blood vessels . (lecturio.com)
  • Kenny DM, Davis AE (1981) Association of alternative complement pathway components with human blood platelets: secretion and localization of factor D and beta-1H globulin. (springer.com)
  • Importantly, Hg labelling influenced neither the interaction of Nb36 with its antigen complement C5 nor its structure. (iucr.org)
  • The peptide sequence was identical to the region of CRP that showed the best alignment to H binding peptides from Streptococcus pyogenes (M6) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Por1A). (nih.gov)
  • Human C5 C13 and N15 (Arg and Lys) Stable Isotope Labeled Peptide standards for MS research. (creative-proteomics.com)
  • A synthetic peptide corresponding to a sequence at the C-terminus of rat C5a. (thermofisher.com)
  • C5b begins the assembly of complement components by binding C6 and C7 to its C5-C345C domain, creating a C5b-7 complex which remains loosely associated with C3b (Dalmasso, 1998). (davidson.edu)
  • Third, the terminal complement components damage certain bacteria by creating pores in the bacterial membrane. (nih.gov)
  • various complement components may be deficient without serious effects on the host. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Inoue K. Simple methods for preparing EAC/4b2a3b and EAC4b3b with human or guinea pig complement components using an anticomplementary agent, K-76 monocarboxylic acid, J. Immunol. (bio-cat.ru)
  • 100. Linscott W. D., Nishioka K. Components of guinea pig complement. (bio-cat.ru)
  • Thrombin associated with the platelet membrane presumably formed a C3 convertase that entered the known complement sequence at the C3 stage and proceeded to activate the terminal components through the known sequence to C9. (rupress.org)
  • Betz M, Seitz M, Hansch GM (1987) Thromboxane B2 synthesis in human platelets induced by the late complement components C5b-9. (springer.com)
  • Hansch GM, Gemsa D, Resch K (1985) Induction of prostanoid synthesis in human platelets by the late complement components C5b-9 and channel forming antibiotic nystatin: inhibition of the reacylation of liberated arachidonic acid. (springer.com)
  • This infers resistance to complement-mediated cell lysis, allowing parasite survival and infection. (genecards.org)
  • the sequence of reactions, each being the catalyst for the next, that leads to the terminal complement pathway and cell lysis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 117. Lachmann P. J., Thompson R. A. Reactive lysis: The complement-mediated lysis of un-sensitized cells. (bio-cat.ru)