Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Sequence Analysis, RNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Genomic Library: A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Multilocus Sequence Typing: Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Alphaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.RNA, Ribosomal, 23S: Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Protein PrecursorsPolymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.RNA, Ribosomal, 5.8S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5.8S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Korea: Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Mycological Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Quinones: Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational: Variation in a population's DNA sequence that is detected by determining alterations in the conformation of denatured DNA fragments. Denatured DNA fragments are allowed to renature under conditions that prevent the formation of double-stranded DNA and allow secondary structure to form in single stranded fragments. These fragments are then run through polyacrylamide gels to detect variations in the secondary structure that is manifested as an alteration in migration through the gels.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Prevotella: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods. Organisms of this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings in 1990 indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was established.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Reading Frames: The three possible sequences of CODONS by which GENETIC TRANSLATION may occur from one nucleotide sequence. A segment of mRNA 5'AUCCGA3' could be translated as 5'AUC.. or 5'UCC.. or 5'CCG.., depending on the location of the START CODON.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Frameshift Mutation: A type of mutation in which a number of NUCLEOTIDES deleted from or inserted into a protein coding sequence is not divisible by three, thereby causing an alteration in the READING FRAMES of the entire coding sequence downstream of the mutation. These mutations may be induced by certain types of MUTAGENS or may occur spontaneously.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Pseudogenes: Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.Corynebacterium: A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.DNA, Intergenic: Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Hot Springs: Habitat of hot water naturally heated by underlying geologic processes. Surface hot springs have been used for BALNEOLOGY. Underwater hot springs are called HYDROTHERMAL VENTS.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.DNA, Archaeal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Lactobacillus: A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.

Structural characterization of the N-linked oligosaccharides in bile salt-stimulated lipase originated from human breast milk. (1/3405)

The detailed structures of N- glycans derived from bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) found in human milk were determined by combining exoglycosidase digestion with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The N- glycan structures were conclusively determined in terms of complexity and degree of fucosylation. Ion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection, together with mass-spectral analysis of the esterified N- glycans, indicated the presence of monosialylated structures. The molecular mass profile of esterified N- glycans present in BSSL further permitted the more detailed studies through collision-induced dissociation (CID) and sequential exoglycosidase cleavages. The N- glycan structures were elucidated to be complex/dibranched, fucosylated/complex/dibranched, monosialylated/complex/dibranched, and monosialylated/fucosylated/dibranched entities.  (+info)

Alternative splicing of transcripts encoding the alpha- and beta-subunits of mouse glucosidase II in T lymphocytes. (2/3405)

Glucosidase II is a processing enzyme of the endoplasmic reticulum that functions to hydrolyze two glucose residues in immature N -linked oligosaccharides attached to newly synthesized polypeptides. We previously reported the cDNA cloning of the alpha- and beta-subunits of mouse glucosidase II from T cells following copurification of these proteins with the highly glycosylated transmembrane protein-tyrosine phosphatase CD45. Subsequent examination of additional cDNA clones, coupled with partial genomic DNA sequencing, has revealed that both subunits are encoded by gene products that undergo alternative splicing in T lymphocytes. The catalytic alpha-subunit possesses two variably expressed segments, box Alpha1, consisting of 22 amino acids located proximal to the amino-terminus, and box Alpha2, composed of 9 amino acids situated between the amino-terminus and the putative catalytic site in the central region of the molecule. Box Beta1, a variably expressed 7 amino acid segment in the beta-subunit of glucosidase II, is located immediately downstream of an acidic stretch near the carboxyl-terminus. Screening of reverse transcribed RNA by polymerase chain reaction confirms the variable inclusion of each of these segments in transcripts obtained from a panel of T-lymphocyte cell lines. Thus, distinct isoforms of glucosidase II exist that may perform specialized functions.  (+info)

A novel human SRB/MED-containing cofactor complex, SMCC, involved in transcription regulation. (3/3405)

A novel human complex that can either repress activator-dependent transcription mediated by PC4, or, at limiting TFIIH, act synergistically with PC4 to enhance activator-dependent transcription has been purified. This complex contains homologs of a subset of yeast mediator/holoenzyme components (including SRB7, SRB10, SRB11, MED6, and RGR1), homologs of other yeast transcriptional regulatory factors (SOH1 and NUT2), and, significantly, some components (TRAP220, TRAP170/hRGR1, and TRAP100) of a human thyroid hormone receptor-associated coactivator complex. The complex shows direct activator interactions but, unlike yeast mediator, can act independently of the RNA polymerase II CTD. These findings demonstrate both positive and negative functional capabilities for the human complex, emphasize novel (CTD-independent) regulatory mechanisms, and link the complex to other human coactivator complexes.  (+info)

Structure of cag pathogenicity island in Japanese Helicobacter pylori isolates. (4/3405)

BACKGROUND: cag pathogenicity island (PAI) is reported to be a major virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori. AIM: To characterise cagA and the cag PAI in Japanese H pylori strains. METHODS: H pylori isolates from Japanese patients were evaluated for CagA by immunoblot, for cagA transcription by northern blot, and for cagA and 13 other cag PAI genes by Southern blot. cagA negative strains from Western countries were also studied. Induction of interleukin-8 secretion from gastric epithelial cells was also investigated. RESULTS: All Japanese strains retained cagA. Fifty nine of 63 (94%) strains had all the cag PAI genes. In the remaining four, cag PAI was partially deleted, lacking cagA transcripts and not producing CagA protein. Details of the PAI of these strains were checked; three lacked cagB to cagQ (cagI) and continuously cagS to cag13 (cagII), and the remaining one lacked cagB to cag8. Western cagA negative strains completely lacked cag PAI including cagA. Nucleotide sequence analysis in one strain in which the cag PAI was partially deleted showed that the partial deletion contained 25 kb of cag PAI and the cagA promoter. Interleukin-8 induction was lower with the cag PAI partial deletion strains than with the intact ones. All Japanese cag PAI deleted strains were derived from patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia, whereas 41 of 59 (70%) CagA-producing strains were from patients with peptic ulcers or gastric cancer (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Most Japanese H pylori strains had the intact cag PAI. However, some lacked most of the cag PAI in spite of the presence of cagA. Thus the presence of the cagA gene is not an invariable marker of cag PAI related virulence in Japanese strains.  (+info)

Biased JH usage in plasma cell immunoglobulin gene sequences from colonic mucosa in ulcerative colitis but not in Crohn's disease. (5/3405)

BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory disease of the colonic and rectal mucosa. Autoantibodies have been observed in ulcerative colitis which may have a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Evidence also suggests that there is an hereditary predisposition towards the disease, although no individual genes have been identified. AIMS: This is a pilot study of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes (IgH) in ulcerative colitis to determine whether they have any particular genetic characteristics which may lead to a better understanding of the disease aetiology. SUBJECTS: Colonic or rectal tissue was obtained from five children with ulcerative colitis. Tissue was also obtained from five children with Crohn's disease and five children who did not have inflammatory bowel disease as controls. METHODS: B cells and IgD+ B cells were identified by immunohistochemistry on frozen sections. Areas of lamina propria containing plasma cells, and areas of IgD+ B cells were microdissected. The immunoglobulin genes were PCR amplified, cloned, and sequenced. Sequences were analysed for content of somatic mutations and composition of heavy chain. RESULTS: An increase in the use of JH6 and DXP'1, and a decrease in the use of JH4, gene segments in immunoglobulin genes from lamina propria plasma cells, and from virgin IgD+ B cells, was found in patients with ulcerative colitis. These biases were not present in the control groups. CONCLUSIONS: There is a fundamental difference in the immunoglobulin genes from patients with ulcerative colitis. Whether this is caused by a difference in content of immunoglobulin gene segments in the germline or a difference in the recombination mechanism is not known.  (+info)

The origin and evolution of green algal and plant actins. (6/3405)

The Viridiplantae are subdivided into two groups: the Chlorophyta, which includes the Chlorophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Ulvophyceae, and Prasinophyceae; and the Streptophyta, which includes the Charophyceae and all land plants. Within the Streptophyta, the actin genes of the angiosperms diverge nearly simultaneously from each other before the separation of monocots and dicots. Previous evolutionary analyses have provided limited insights into the gene duplications that have produced these complex gene families. We address the origin and diversification of land plant actin genes by studying the phylogeny of actins within the green algae, ferns, and fern allies. Partial genomic sequences or cDNAs encoding actin were characterized from Cosmarium botrytis (Zygnematales), Selaginella apoda (Selaginellales), Anemia phyllitidis (Polypodiales), and Psilotum triquetrum (Psilotales). Selaginella contains at least two actin genes. One sequence (Ac2) diverges within a group of fern sequences that also includes the Psilotum Ac1 actin gene and one gymnosperm sequence (Cycas revoluta Cyc3). This clade is positioned outside of the angiosperm actin gene radiation. The second Selaginella sequence (Ac1) is the sister to all remaining land plant actin sequences, although the internal branches in this portion of the tree are very short. Use of complete actin-coding regions in phylogenetic analyses provides support for the separation of angiosperm actins into two classes. N-terminal "signature" sequence analyses support these groupings. One class (VEG) includes actin genes that are often expressed in vegetative structures. The second class (REP) includes actin genes that trace their ancestry within the vegetative actins and contains members that are largely expressed in reproductive structures. Analysis of intron positions within actin genes shows that sequences from both Selaginella and Cosmarium contain the conserved 20-3, 152-1, and 356-3 introns found in many members of the Streptophyta. In addition, the Cosmarium actin gene contains a novel intron at position 76-1.  (+info)

Cell-specific peptide binding by human neutrophils. (7/3405)

Analysis of peptide binding to human neutrophils (PMN) using phage display techniques has revealed cell-specific motifs reactive with the PMN surface. Phage libraries displaying either linear 9-mer or cyclic 10-mer and 6-mer peptides were incubated with normal human neutrophils followed by elution of bound phage with low pH (pH 2.2) and non-ionic detergent. Three rounds of selection generated several related peptide sequences that bound with high avidity to PMN. Using the linear 9-mer library, PMN-binding phage expressed peptides with the motif (G/A)PNLTGRW. The binding of phage bearing this motif was highly specific since no binding was observed on lymphocytes, fibroblasts, epithelial, or endothelial cells. Functional assays revealed that phage bearing the sequence FGPNLTGRW induced a pertussis toxin-sensitive increase in PMN cytosolic calcium analogous to that observed with Galphai coupled receptors. Other prominent motifs identified included phage bearing the consensus DLXTSK(M/L)X(V/I/L), where X represents a non-conserved position. Phage with this motif bound exclusively to a sub population of human PMN that comprised approximately 50% of the total and did not elicit a calcium response. The binding of such phage to PMN was prevented by co-incubation with competing peptides displaying identical or similar sequences (IC50 range from 0.6 micromol/L to 50 micromol/L for DLXTSK and GPNLTG, respectively). We speculate that these techniques will be useful in identifying functional cell-specific binding motifs and contribute to the development of new therapeutic and diagnostic strategies in human disease.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of a human homologue of the latrophilin gene from a region of 1p31.1 implicated in breast cancer. (8/3405)

We have identified a region of chromosome 1p31.1 that shows high frequency loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in human breast cancer. This region forms part of a 7 Mb YAC/BAC contig. In order to identify candidate sequences, mutation of which might contribute to the development of disease, we have carried out mapping studies of ESTs localized to 1p31.1. This analysis, coupled with library screening and a modified 5' RACE-PCR strategy, resulted in the identification and characterization of a novel gene (LPHH1) which is located adjacent to the smallest region of overlapping loss (SRO) seen in tumours. The 4209 bp open reading frame of the 7 kb LPHH1 transcript encodes a peptide which shows approximately 65% identity to rat latrophilin, a G-coupled, seven span transmembrane protein, which binds alpha-latrotoxin. In the human sequence, whilst conservation of the transmembrane domain is high, the intra- and extracellular domains show two regions of variable structure, which are presumably generated by alternative splicing. Surprisingly, while expression of the rat gene is tightly restricted to neurological and perhaps some endocrine cells, the human sequence appears to be expressed very widely in all normal tissues tested. Northern and RT-PCR analysis of a panel of tumour cell lines showed that LPHH1 expression was variable, apparently elevated in some lines and absent or markedly reduced in others. Furthermore, characterization of the range of transcripts encoded in a breast tumour cell line, compared to normal breast, suggested that gene product variability was higher in the tumour.  (+info)

  • Over this time, developments in obtaining nucleotide sequence greatly improved, leading to the publication of the first complete genome of a bacteriophage in 1977. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleotide sequence analysis, which control investigation. (cdc.gov)
  • In this investigation of an acute HIV infection in a patient with chronic kidney disease who received care in a hospital and other health care settings, epidemiologic and nucleotide sequence data support likely health care-associated transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • Investigators of acute HIV infection in persons with recent health care exposure and no known risk factors for HIV might consider the possibility of health care-associated transmission and conduct nucleotide sequence analysis. (cdc.gov)
  • Among persons with known HIV infection who had hospitalization dates overlapping those of patient A, one person (patient B) had an HIV strain highly similar to patient A's strain by nucleotide sequence analysis. (cdc.gov)
  • Nucleotide sequence analysis, which is increasingly used for detecting HIV clusters (i.e., persons with closely related HIV strains) and to inform public health response ( 2 , 3 ), might also be used to identify possible health care-associated transmission of HIV to someone with health care exposure and no known HIV risk factors ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The nhmmer program searches a single nucleotide sequence against a nucleotide sequence. (ubuntu.com)
  • The nhmmscan program can similarly search nucleotide sequence(s) against a pressed database of nucleotide profiles, such as from Dfam ( http://dfam.janelia.org ). (ubuntu.com)
  • The nucleotide sequence of the ftf gene from Streptococcus mutants GS-5 was determined. (asm.org)
  • This webinar focuses on how to use tools like BLAST and PSI-Search to find homologous sequences in EMBL-EBI databases, including tips on which tool and database to use, input formats, how to change parameters and how to interpret the results. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The hmmemit program generates (simulates) "homologous" sequences by sampling from a profile. (ubuntu.com)
  • In this lecture I will focus on the basic models and how to formulate a dynamical programming algorithm that can calculate the probability of 2 homologous sequences and define a distribution on all possible alignments. (edu.au)
  • Previous phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, recA , gyrB , rpoB , and acdS gene sequences as well as genome sequence comparisons of different Burkholderia species have revealed two major species clusters. (springer.com)
  • The housekeeping gene sequences were provided from the ongoing sequencing project of B. unamae MTl-641 T , B. tuberum STM678 T , B. silvatlantica SRMrh-20 T , and B. silvatlantica PVA5 from a project, funded in part by the U.S. National Science Foundation (Grant IOB-0537497) to George Weinstock (Washington University, St. Louis, MO) and AMH. (springer.com)
  • Ait-Tayeb L, Lefevre M, Passet V, Diancourt L, Brisse S, Grimont PAD (2008) Comparative phylogenies of Burkholderia , Ralstonia , Comamonas , Brevundimonas and related organism derived from rpoB , gyrB and rrs gene sequences. (springer.com)
  • Phylogenetic tree of 16S rRNA gene sequences from Iron Mountain community genome sequencing (red) and selected sequences from cultivated organisms. (nih.gov)
  • 9 ). GenBank accession numbers for the FCoV M gene sequences determined in this study are HQ738691-HQ738733. (cdc.gov)
  • For instance, gene sequences already present in the databases can be extremely useful in the design of cloning and genetic manipulation experiments. (springer.com)
  • However, most such phylogenetic orthology methods infer the gene tree without considering the constraints implied by the species tree and, perhaps even more importantly, only allow the gene sequences to influence the orthology analysis through the a priori reconstructed gene tree. (diva-portal.org)
  • By applying emotif to all of these alignments, we have generated a database called identify , which contains more than 50,000 sequence motifs with specificities varying from one expected false positive prediction in 10 5 tests to as low as one expected false positive prediction in 10 10 tests. (pnas.org)
  • and to automatically construct large multiple alignments (i.e. with an effectively unlimited number of sequences) using a profile representative of a sequence family. (ubuntu.com)
  • Whether performing reference-guided alignments, de novo assembly, variant calling, or SNP analyses, Sequencher has the tools you need to get results. (genecodes.com)
  • Easily use consensus sequences from the Project Window as a reference sequence for NGS alignments for hybrid sequencing projects. (genecodes.com)
  • The topics covered range from the foundations of biological sequence analysis (alignments and hidden Markov models), to classical index structures (k-mer indexes, suffix arrays and suffix trees), Burrows-Wheeler indexes, graph algorithms and a number of advanced omics applications. (cambridge.org)
  • Because the analysis of the W. succinogenes genome also revealed genes related to soil- and plant-associated bacteria such as the nif genes, W. succinogenes may represent a member of the epsilon proteobacteria with a life cycle outside its host. (pnas.org)
  • For example, analysis of DNA binding sites in the mouse brain has led to the identification of new tissue-specific regulatpry areas (enhancers) of genes. (news-medical.net)
  • Toucan - A Java tool for regulatory sequence analysis: detecting over-represented motifs and modules in sets of co-regulated genes. (bioinformatics.org)
  • tRNAscan-SE - tRNA detection in genome sequences, detects ~99% of eukaryotic nuclear or prokaryotic tRNA genes, with a false positive rate of less than one per 15 gigabases, and with a search speed of about 30 kb/second. (bioinformatics.org)
  • In this study, we undertook a multilocus sequence analysis of 77 type and reference strains of Burkholderia using atpD , gltB , lepA , and recA genes in combination with the 16S rRNA gene sequence and employed maximum likelihood and neighbor-joining criteria to test this further. (springer.com)
  • Several of the discussants emphasized that coding sequences or genes are by no means the only sequence features that will be studied. (mit.edu)
  • The carbapenemase genes bla IMP-4 , bla IMP-38 and bla VIM-1 were identified within various class 1 integrons from ARI-A or ARI-B of the seven plasmids sequenced in this study. (frontiersin.org)
  • To gain more insight into penicillin synthesis, we sequenced the 32.19 Mb genome of P. chrysogenum Wisconsin54-1255 and identified numerous genes responsible for key steps in penicillin production. (jcvi.org)
  • Orthology analysis, that is, finding out whether a pair of homologous genes are orthologs - stemming from a speciation - or paralogs - stemming from a gene duplication - is of central importance in computational biology, genome annotation, and phylogenetic inference. (diva-portal.org)
  • TargetP and SignalP analyses showed that among the 1,213 genes with secreted products, 986 had motifs for signal peptides and 227 had motifs for signal anchors. (usda.gov)
  • Blast2GO analysis provided functional annotation for 5,407 genes. (usda.gov)
  • High-throughput sequencing assays such as RNA-Seq, ChIP-Seq or barcode counting provide quantitative readouts in the form of count data. (nih.gov)
  • These included techniques for compressing of data generated, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq), and various approaches for the identification of sequence variants. (springer.com)
  • The new service will be offered on the Illumina GA II and will include the following applications: Shotgun Sequencing, ChIP Seq, mRNA Seq and small RNA Seq. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • A total of 1918 loci, detected by the hybridization of 938 expressed sequence tag unigenes (ESTs) from 26 Triticeae cDNA libraries, were mapped to wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) homoeologous group 4 chromosomes using a set of deletion, ditelosomic, and nulli-tetrasomic lines. (genetics.org)
  • The complete sequence of pMRC01 provides important information about these industrially relevant phenotypes and gives insight into the structure, function and evolution of large Gram-positive conjugative plasmids in general. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The completely sequenced pMRC01 plasmid should also provide a useful framework for the design of novel plasmids to be incorporated into starter strain improvement programmes for the dairy industry. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • In this study, the complete nucleotide sequences of seven bla IMP - or bla VIM -carrying IncHI5 plasmids from Klebsiella pneumoniae , K. quasipneumoniae , and K. variicola were determined and compared in detail with all the other four available sequenced IncHI5 plasmids. (frontiersin.org)
  • http://verdurin.fedorapeople.org/reviews/SeqAn/SeqAn-1.3-4.fc15.src.rpm Description: SeqAn is an open source C++ library of efficient algorithms and data structures for the analysis of sequences with the focus on biological data. (redhat.com)
  • Algorithms and Data Structures for Sequence Analysis In this subgroup of the CWI Life Sciences and Health group, led by Dr. Solon Pissis, we are working on algorithms and data structures for sequence analysis. (cwi.nl)
  • This book provides an integrated presentation of the fundamental algorithms and data structures that power modern sequence analysis workflows. (cambridge.org)
  • The report offers a quantitative analysis from 2017 to 2023, which is expected to enable the stakeholders to capitalize on prevailing market opportunities. (openpr.com)
  • The Research Report on " Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) Data Analysis Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Trends, Analysis, Growth, and Forecast 2017 - 2025", issued by TMR Research, includes a detailed qualitative and quantitative analysis of the market, with the help of information collected from market participants operating across key sectors of the market value chain. (openpr.com)
  • Other fully sequenced organisms include: roundworm, fruitfly, pufferfish (first vertebrate to be sequenced after humans), and Arabidopsis thaliana . (wikibooks.org)
  • We also completely sequenced versions of the large chromosome-5-specific internal duplications. (uniprot.org)
  • Oxford Nanopore also provides a complete 16S analysis workflow, enabling users to classify mixed samples and obtain accurate results for single reads at the genus level. (nanoporetech.com)
  • Its simple workflow can quickly deliver forensic mtDNA analysis results, potentially speeding up investigations. (illumina.com)
  • Exhaustive analysis of the RNA sequencing market by type helps to understand the types of sequencing technologies that are currently being used along with the variants that are expected to gain prominence in the future. (openpr.com)
  • Pharmogenetic variants detected by DNA sequence analysis are gaining in importance and are particularly relevant to personalized and precision medicine. (frontiersin.org)
  • One strategy for mapping blood pressure (BP) variants is by linkage analysis using inbred rat strains. (ahajournals.org)
  • On the other extreme, there are low effect sized common variants that can be detected by association studies and then in the middle are the low effect and relatively uncommon which can be detected by sequencing of enriched families that include multiple relatives. (hstalks.com)
  • The aim of the workshop is to teach you to perform basic steps of NGS data analysis including but not limited to raw data manipulations, quality control, removal of low-quality sequences, sequencing adapters, artifacts, or other contaminations, and especially preparation of a high-quality data set that can be used for downstream analysis. (bioinformatics.org)
  • Several lines of evidence indicate that the 65,250 base pairs of hominid sequence so far identified in the library are of Neanderthal origin, the strongest being the ascertainment of sequence identities between Neanderthal and chimpanzee at sites where the human genomic sequence is different. (sciencemag.org)
  • During the past summer, the NHGRI-supported sequencing centers assessed strategies to generate a shotgun product that would constitute a working draft' of the human genome. (mit.edu)
  • Sequencing centers produced several versions of possible working drafts, using a sample of four BAC clones containing inserts whose finished sequence is already known and annotated. (mit.edu)
  • Sequences for which only partial coverage of the 16S rRNA gene was obtained are not shown, including ARMAN-5, a gammaproteobacterium, additional Actinobacteria, and Sulfobacillus -like sequences. (nih.gov)
  • This text is a reference for biomedical professionals interested in expanding their knowledge of computational techniques for NGS data analysis. (wiley.com)
  • and data analysis, storage, and management. (openpr.com)
  • Using industry-centric tools, such as SWOT analysis and Porter's Five Forces analysis, readers are given a 360-degree overview of where the NGS data analysis market will stand in the near future. (openpr.com)
  • To reflect this progression, the chapters in our Sequence Data Analysis Guidebook are arranged, not by software package, but by fimction. (springer.com)
  • QIAGEN's NGS software platform serves all stages of NGS data analysis, including tertiary analysis. (scienceboard.net)
  • This presents a serious issue even for experienced researchers who have never studied this field of science simply because it has emerged just recently and suddenly there is a need to adapt to completely new tools, workflows and scientific terminology not to perform this sequencing data analysis process - after all, this is why we employ bioinformaticians, but to understand it properly. (bioinformatics.org)
  • No prior knowledge of sequence data analysis or specific programming skills are required. (bioinformatics.org)
  • The following chap- ters describe the process of aligning multiple sequences in order to assemble overlapping fragments into sequence contigs to compare similar sequences from different sources. (springer.com)
  • It was clear that the utility of draft sequence will depend on the uses to which it is put, in particular on the size of the sequence feature (e.g., exons vs. long-range duplications) one is interested in studying. (mit.edu)
Streaming Support for Data Intensive Cloud-Based Sequence Analysis : Figure 1
Streaming Support for Data Intensive Cloud-Based Sequence Analysis : Figure 1 (hindawi.com)
Predictive Sequence Analysis of the Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Proteome
Predictive Sequence Analysis of the Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Proteome (journals.plos.org)
Molecular systematics of Craterellus: cladistic analysis of 
  nuclear LSU rDNA sequence data | Mycological Research |...
Molecular systematics of Craterellus: cladistic analysis of nuclear LSU rDNA sequence data | Mycological Research |... (cambridge.org)
Functional and Immunological Relevance of Anaplasma marginale Major Surface Protein 1a Sequence and Structural Analysis
Functional and Immunological Relevance of Anaplasma marginale Major Surface Protein 1a Sequence and Structural Analysis (journals.plos.org)
Sequence and Ionomic Analysis of Divergent Strains of Maize Inbred Line B73 with an Altered Growth Phenotype
Sequence and Ionomic Analysis of Divergent Strains of Maize Inbred Line B73 with an Altered Growth Phenotype (journals.plos.org)
PLOS ONE: Genome Sequence of Bacillus endophyticus and Analysis of Its Companion Mechanism in the Ketogulonigenium vulgare...
PLOS ONE: Genome Sequence of Bacillus endophyticus and Analysis of Its Companion Mechanism in the Ketogulonigenium vulgare... (journals.plos.org)
Huanglongbing alters the structure and functional diversity of microbial communities associated with citrus rhizosphere | The...
Huanglongbing alters the structure and functional diversity of microbial communities associated with citrus rhizosphere | The... (nature.com)
C14ORF39/SIX6OS1 is a constituent of the synaptonemal complex and is essential for mouse fertility | Nature Communications
C14ORF39/SIX6OS1 is a constituent of the synaptonemal complex and is essential for mouse fertility | Nature Communications (nature.com)
Occurrence of randomly recombined functional 16S rRNA genes in Thermus thermophilus suggests genetic interoperability and...
Occurrence of randomly recombined functional 16S rRNA genes in Thermus thermophilus suggests genetic interoperability and... (nature.com)
An effector protein of the wheat stripe rust fungus targets chloroplasts and suppresses chloroplast function | Nature...
An effector protein of the wheat stripe rust fungus targets chloroplasts and suppresses chloroplast function | Nature... (nature.com)
Genetic characterization of cysteine-rich type-b avenin-like protein coding genes in common wheat | Scientific Reports
Genetic characterization of cysteine-rich type-b avenin-like protein coding genes in common wheat | Scientific Reports (nature.com)
Mechanism of resilin elasticity | Nature Communications
Mechanism of resilin elasticity | Nature Communications (nature.com)
Molecular Mechanisms of Natural Carotenoid-based Pigmentation of Queen Loach, Botia dario (Hamilton, 1822) Under Captive...
Molecular Mechanisms of Natural Carotenoid-based Pigmentation of Queen Loach, Botia dario (Hamilton, 1822) Under Captive... (nature.com)
Stalking influenza by vaccination with pre-fusion headless HA mini-stem | Scientific Reports
Stalking influenza by vaccination with pre-fusion headless HA mini-stem | Scientific Reports (nature.com)
Digital multiplex ligation assay for highly multiplexed screening of β-lactamase-encoding genes in bacterial isolates |...
Digital multiplex ligation assay for highly multiplexed screening of β-lactamase-encoding genes in bacterial isolates |... (nature.com)
Recombination rates between adjacent genic and retrotransposon regions in maize vary by 2 orders of magnitude | PNAS
Recombination rates between adjacent genic and retrotransposon regions in maize vary by 2 orders of magnitude | PNAS (pnas.org)
Human oral, gut, and plaque microbiota in patients with atherosclerosis | PNAS
Human oral, gut, and plaque microbiota in patients with atherosclerosis | PNAS (pnas.org)
Cystic echinococcosis in Poland: genetic variability and the first record of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1 genotype...
Cystic echinococcosis in Poland: genetic variability and the first record of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1 genotype... (link.springer.com)
Evolution of sodium channels predates the origin of nervous systems in animals | PNAS
Evolution of sodium channels predates the origin of nervous systems in animals | PNAS (pnas.org)
Bioinformatics Toolbox - MATLAB
Bioinformatics Toolbox - MATLAB (mathworks.com)
Delivery mode shapes the acquisition and structure of the initial microbiota across multiple body habitats in newborns | PNAS
Delivery mode shapes the acquisition and structure of the initial microbiota across multiple body habitats in newborns | PNAS (pnas.org)
Environmental DNA survey captures patterns of fish and invertebrate diversity across a tropical seascape | Scientific Reports
Environmental DNA survey captures patterns of fish and invertebrate diversity across a tropical seascape | Scientific Reports (nature.com)
Hypermethylation-mediated reduction of WWOX expression in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas | British...
Hypermethylation-mediated reduction of WWOX expression in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas | British... (nature.com)
Social status shapes the bacterial and fungal gut communities of the honey bee | Scientific Reports
Social status shapes the bacterial and fungal gut communities of the honey bee | Scientific Reports (nature.com)
Society for Political Methodology PolMeth 2016 | Cambridge University Press
Society for Political Methodology PolMeth 2016 | Cambridge University Press (cambridge.org)
SNAI1, an endothelial-mesenchymal transition transcription factor, promotes the early phase of ocular neovascularization |...
SNAI1, an endothelial-mesenchymal transition transcription factor, promotes the early phase of ocular neovascularization |... (link.springer.com)
Major faecal microbiota shifts in composition and diversity with age in a geographically restricted cohort of mothers and their...
Major faecal microbiota shifts in composition and diversity with age in a geographically restricted cohort of mothers and their... (onlinelibrary.wiley.com)
Development of a Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Detection of Epidemic Human Noroviruses | Scientific Reports
Development of a Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Detection of Epidemic Human Noroviruses | Scientific Reports (nature.com)
Development of a real-time PCR assay for the identification and quantification of bovine ingredient in processed meat products ...
Development of a real-time PCR assay for the identification and quantification of bovine ingredient in processed meat products ... (nature.com)
Occupancy maps of 208 chromatin-associated proteins in one human cell type | Nature
Occupancy maps of 208 chromatin-associated proteins in one human cell type | Nature (nature.com)
Distribution of local ancestry and evidence of adaptation in admixed populations | Scientific Reports
Distribution of local ancestry and evidence of adaptation in admixed populations | Scientific Reports (nature.com)
Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled crossover trial of sustained release morphine for the management of refractory...
Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled crossover trial of sustained release morphine for the management of refractory... (bmj.com)