Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Amino Acids, SulfurKinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Amino Acids, Basic: Amino acids with side chains that are positively charged at physiological pH.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 220.127.116.11.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Amino Acids, DiaminoGlutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Excitatory Amino Acids: Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Amino Acid Transport System A: A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.Amino Acids, Neutral: Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Receptors, Amino Acid: Cell surface proteins that bind amino acids and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors are the most common receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, and GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and glycine receptors are the most common receptors for fast inhibition.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Protein PrecursorsCOS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Chymotrypsin: A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Repetitive Sequences, Amino Acid: A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Aminoisobutyric Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases: A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1: A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Cystine: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.Amino Acids, Acidic: Amino acids with side chains that are negatively charged at physiological pH.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 1: A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter found ubiquitously. It has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE. It may also act as an ecotropic leukemia retroviral receptor.Amino Acid Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze either the racemization or epimerization of chiral centers within amino acids or derivatives. EC 5.1.1.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Dipeptides: Peptides composed of two amino acid units.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Carboxypeptidases: Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Complement component 1s
The complete amino acid sequence". European Journal of Biochemistry. 169 (3): 547-53. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1987.tb13644.x. ... The complete amino acid sequence". European Journal of Biochemistry. 169 (3): 547-53. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1987.tb13644.x. ... Cyanogen bromide cleavage and N-terminal sequences of the fragments". The Biochemical Journal. 215 (3): 565-71. doi:10.1042/ ... Partial sequence determination of the heavy chain and identification of the peptide bond cleaved during activation". European ...
The individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues. The sequence of amino ... Proteins are assembled from amino acids using information encoded in genes. Each protein has its own unique amino acid sequence ... amino acids. All proteinogenic amino acids possess common structural features, including an α-carbon to which an amino group, a ... Sequence motif. Short amino acid sequences within proteins often act as recognition sites for other proteins. For instance ...
Although SUMO has very little sequence identity with ubiquitin at the amino acid level, it has a nearly identical structural ... direct amino acid match to the SUMO-CS observed and shown to bind Ubc9, and 2) substitution of the consensus amino acid ... Teng S, Luo H, Wang L (July 2012). "Predicting protein SUMOylation sites from sequence features". Amino Acids. 43 (1): 447-55. ... It shows SUMO1 as a globular protein with both ends of the amino acid chain (shown in red and blue) sticking out of the ...
Amino acid or cDNA sequencing Determination of amino acid sequence. See also. *Ero1 ... Glycoproteins are proteins which contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains. The ... but also on tyrosine or non-canonical amino acids such as hydroxylysine & hydroxyproline. ... Compositional analysis following acid hydrolysis Identifies sugars that the glycoprotein contains and their stoichiometry. ...
Myelin basic protein
The complete amino acid sequence". J. Biol. Chem. 246 (18): 5770-84. PMID 5096093. Saxe DF, Takahashi N, Hood L, Simon MI (1985 ... Carnegie PR (1972). "Amino acid sequence of the encephalitogenic basic protein from human myelin". Biochem. J. 123 (1): 57-67. ... Gibson BW, Gilliom RD, Whitaker JN, Biemann K (1984). "Amino acid sequence of human myelin basic protein peptide 45-89 as ... "Complete amino acid sequence of PO protein in bovine peripheral nerve myelin". J. Biol. Chem. 262 (9): 4208-14. PMID 2435734. ...
Purification, properties, and amino acid sequence". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 254 (22): 11475-84. PMID 500653.. ... thymidylic acid, and certain amino acids. While the functional dihydrofolate reductase gene has been mapped to chromosome 5, ... Masters JN, Attardi G (1983). "The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA coding for the human dihydrofolic acid reductase". Gene. 21 ... translation repressor activity, nucleic acid binding. • sequence-specific mRNA binding. • NADP binding. ...
SPINK1 - Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
Comparison of their deduced amino acid sequences". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 263 (35): 18920-8. PMID 3198605.. ... which varies in the last 11 amino acids of its C-terminal sequence: in the luminal domain, the transmembrane domain, and the ... Some of this is done via acid hydrolases that degrade foreign materials and have specialized autolytic functions. These ... Konecki DS, Foetisch K, Schlotter M, Lichter-Konecki U (November 1994). "Complete cDNA sequence of human lysosome-associated ...
Yamada J (2006). "Long-chain acyl-CoA hydrolase in the brain". Amino Acids. 28 (3): 273-8. doi:10.1007/s00726-005-0181-1. PMID ... 2004). "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs". Nat. Genet. 36 (1): 40-5. doi:10.1038/ ... Amino Acids. 27 (3-4): 269-75. doi:10.1007/s00726-004-0138-9. PMID 15592755. Gregory SG, Barlow KF, McLay KE, et al. (2006). " ... The encoded protein hydrolyzes the CoA thioester of palmitoyl-CoA and other long-chain fatty acids. Decreased expression of ...
CgNa comprises 47 amino acids residues with the following sequence; Gly-Val-Hyp-Cys-Arg-Cys-Asp-Ser-Asp-Gly-Pro-Ser-Val-His-Gly ... It has six cysteine amino acids. They are linked by three disulfide bonds between residues at positions 4- 44, 6 -34 and 27- 45 ... CgNa shares structural similarities and sequence homology with other anemone type 1 toxins such as ApA, ApB and ATX, but, ...
N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D
The NAPEPLD cDNA sequence predicts 396 amino acid sequences in both mice and rats, which are 89% and 90% identical to that of ... "Amino Acid Sequencing". W.M. Keck Facility at Yale. 2006-10-23. Retrieved 2009-01-12. The Procise 494 cLC is described from the ... Regulation of Fatty Acid Ethanolamide Biosynthesis by Bile Acids". Structure. 23 (3): 598-604. doi:10.1016/j.str.2014.12.018. ... Bile acids bind with high affinity to selective pockets in this cavity, enhancing dimer assembly and enabling catalysis. NAPE- ...
"The complete amino acid sequence of human skeletal-muscle fructose-bisphosphate aldolase". Biochem. J. 249 (3): 779-88. PMC ... Two histidine residues in the first half of the sequence of these homologs have been shown to be involved in binding zinc. ... The two classes share little sequence identity. With few exceptions only class I proteins have been found in animals, plants, ... such as Sialic acid aldolase, which forms sialic acid. ... 4.1.3: Oxo-acid-lyases. *Isocitrate lyase. *3-hydroxy-3- ...
Protein subcellular localization prediction
The translated protein contains 573 amino acids. The 573 amino acid protein has a molecular weight of 66,280.05. The ... Its genomic sequence contains 5,612 bp. The predominant transcript contains two exons and is 2,507 bp in length. ... The primary sequence of the mRNA secondary structures displayed high levels of conservation in orthologs, suggesting structural ... MFOLD program available at Rensselaer BioInformatics Server was used to predict secondary structure of the mature mRNA sequence ...
Thus far in the study of neonatal diabetes mellitus, only amino acid change mutations found in the B domain lead to the disease ... The C-peptide is abstracted from the center of the proinsulin sequence; the two other ends (the B chain and A chain) remain ... Mature insulin has 35 fewer amino acids; 4 are removed altogether, and the remaining 31 form the C-peptide. ... 1995). "Sequence requirements for proinsulin processing at the B-chain/C-peptide junction" (PDF). Biochemistry. 310: 869-874. ...
This process involves the formation of new protein molecules from amino acid building blocks based on information encoded in ... The ribosome mediates the formation of a polypeptide sequence based on the mRNA sequence. The mRNA sequence directly relates to ... It is also common to describe small molecules such as amino acids as "molecular building blocks". ... Two different kinds of genetic material exist: deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). Cells use DNA for their ...
Альфа-лактальбумин - Википедия
Findlay JB, Brew K (1972). «The complete amino-acid sequence of human -lactalbumin.». Eur. J. Biochem. 27 (1): 65-86. DOI: ... Prager EM, Wilson AC (1988). «Ancient origin of lactalbumin from lysozyme: analysis of DNA and amino acid sequences». J. Mol. ... Giuffrida MG, Cavaletto M, Giunta C, et al. (1998). «The unusual amino acid triplet Asn-Ile-Cys is a glycosylation consensus ... identification and characterisation of plasmids containing human alpha-lactalbumin cDNA sequences». Nucleic Acids Res. 9 (1): ...
... compared amino acid compositions in the same histone from different organisms, and compared amino acid sequences of the same ... The single-letter amino acid abbreviation (e.g., K for Lysine) and the amino acid position in the protein ... 3. Complete amino acid sequence of pea seedling histone IV; comparison with the homologous calf thymus histone". The Journal of ... They share amino acid sequence homology and core structural similarity to a specific class of major histones but also have ...
"The primary structure of proteins is the amino acid sequence". The Microbial World. University of Wisconsin-Madison ... "Hydrophobic amino acids". Amino Acid Properties and Consequences of Substitutions, In: Bioinformatics for Geneticists. Wiley. ... and glutamic acid. While glutamic acid is usually sufficient because amino acid nitrogen is recycled through glutamate as an ... Cysteine (symbol Cys or C; /ˈsɪstiiːn/) is a semiessential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH ...
"The primary structure of proteins is the amino acid sequence". The Microbial World. University of Wisconsin-Madison ... "Hydrophobic amino acids". Amino Acid Properties and Consequences of Substitutions, In: Bioinformatics for Geneticists. Wiley. ... so it must be biosynthesized from its constituent amino acids, cysteine, glycine and glutamic acid. Glutamic acid and glycine ... Cysteine (symbol Cys or C; /ˈsɪstiiːn/) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH ...
Growth hormone-releasing hormone
"Molecular cloning and amino acid sequence of human 5-lipoxygenase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85 (1): 26-30. doi:10.1073/ ... Arachidonic acid. ALOX5 metabolizes the omega-6 fatty acid, Arachidonic acid (AA, i.e. 5Z,8Z,11Z,15Z-eicosatrienoic acid ... Eicosapentaenoic acid. ALOX5 metabolizes the omega-3 fatty acid, Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, i.e. 4Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z- ... Mead acid. Mead acid (i.e. 5Z,8Z,11Z-eicosatrienoic acid) is identical to AA except that has a single rather than double ...
The protein contains a putative 30- amino-acid signal peptide; removal of the signal sequence gives a predicted molecular ... The speA gene was cloned and sequenced in 1986. It is 753 base pairs in length and encodes a 29.244 kiloDalton (kDa) ... The first toxin which causes this disease was cloned and sequenced in 1986 by Weeks and Ferretti. The discovery of ... Both a promoter and a ribosome binding site (Shine-Dalgarno sequence) are present upstream of the gene. A transcriptional ...
... mouse and human PAX6 have identical amino acid sequences. Genomic organisation of the PAX6 locus varies considerably among ... This can be seen in mice that contain homozygous mutations of the 422 amino acid long transcription factor encoded by PAX6 in ... RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding. • RNA polymerase II core promoter sequence- ... "Nucleic Acids Research. 43 (14): 6827-6846. doi:10.1093/nar/gkv589. ISSN 0305-1048.. ...
The primary sequence for FAM227A is isoform 1 with accession number: NP_001013669.1. It is 570 amino acids long. There are 9 ... FAM227A has less abundant glycine and more abundant hydrophobic amino acids and positively charges amino acids. The protein is ... runs from amino acids 135-296 in Homo sapiens. Most eukaryotic proteins contain this sequence. The function of this region is ... "FAM227A family with sequence similarity 227 member A [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved ...
The sequence length is about 966 amino acids. See figure 1 for a PyMOL generated structure of the enzyme's single subunit from ... It includes a conserved aspartic acid (D564) and a glutamic acid (E566) residue that non-covalently bind a divalent metal ... such as for example amino acids. PEP carboxylase is mainly subject to two levels of regulation: phosphorylation and allostery. ... crassulacean acid metabolism) and C4 organisms, as well as to regulate flux through the citric acid cycle (also known as Krebs ...
Liu J, Sessa WC (1994). "Identification of covalently bound amino-terminal myristic acid in endothelial nitric oxide synthase ... 1997). "Large-scale concatenation cDNA sequencing". Genome Res. 7 (4): 353-8. doi:10.1101/gr.7.4.353. PMC 139146 . PMID 9110174 ... Zhou W, Parent LJ, Wills JW, Resh MD (1994). "Identification of a membrane-binding domain within the amino-terminal region of ... 1985). "Amino terminal myristylation of the protein kinase p60src, a retroviral transforming protein". Science. 227 (4685): 427 ...
... fatty acids, and amino acids in most vertebrates, including humans. Ketone bodies are elevated in the blood (ketosis) after ... Ozonolysis, and related dihydroxylation/oxidative sequences, cleave alkenes to give aldehydes or ketones, depending on alkene ... Acid/base properties of ketonesEdit. Ketones are far more acidic (pKa ≈ 20) than a regular alkane (pKa ≈ 50). This difference ... Acids as weak as pyridinium cation (as found in pyridinium tosylate) with a pKa of 5.2 are able to serve as catalysts in this ...
LMNA - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
... a 50-amino acid deletion in prelamin A (amino acids 607-656) removes the site for the second endoproteolytic cleavage. ... Lamin A/C gene and a related sequence map to human chromosomes 1q12.1-q23 and 10. Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. March 1993, 19 (2): ... Nucleic Acids Res. November 2002, 30 (21): 4634-42. PMC 135794. PMID 12409453. doi:10.1093/nar/gkf587.. ...
Lewis Joel Greene
الوحدة الفرعية بيتا للفولليتروبين - ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة
Shome B، Parlow AF، Liu WK، Nahm HS، Wen T، Ward DN (سبتمبر 1989). "A reevaluation of the amino acid sequence of human ... Saxena BB، Rathnam P (1976). "Amino acid sequence of the beta subunit of follicle-stimulating hormone from human pituitary ... Shome B، Parlow AF (1974). "Human follicle stimulating hormone: first proposal for the amino acid sequence of the hormone- ... "Shotgun sequencing of the human transcriptome with ORF expressed sequence tags". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 (7): 3491-6. ...
Chloroplast transit peptides exhibit huge variation in length and amino acid sequence. They can be from 20-150 amino acids ... and poor in acidic amino acids like aspartic acid and glutamic acid. In an aqueous solution, the transit sequence forms a ... Tic100 is a nuclear encoded protein that's 871 amino acids long. The 871 amino acids collectively weigh slightly less than 100 ... both very common in chloroplast transit sequences-making up 20-30% of the sequence) are often the amino acids that accept ...
... the enzyme responsible for converting the amino acid tyrosine to the skin pigment melanin, and is used to treat acne-associated ... scientists reported the first genome sequencing of a C. acnes bacteriophage (PA6). The authors proposed applying this research ... Salicylic acid. Salicylic acid is a topically applied beta-hydroxy acid that stops bacteria from reproducing and has ... "Topical azelaic acid, salicylic acid, nicotinamide, sulphur, zinc and fruit acid (alpha-hydroxy acid) for acne". Cochrane ...
The deduced amino acid sequence of substance P is as follows: ... Amino acid residues that are responsible for the binding of SP ... Substance P (SP) is an undecapeptide (a peptide composed of a chain of 11 amino acid residues) member of the tachykinin ... Ebner K, Singewald N (Oct 2006). "The role of substance P in stress and anxiety responses". Amino Acids. 31 (3): 251-72. doi: ... The eleven-amino-acid structure of the peptide was determined by Susan Leeman in 1971. ...
... es and other coleoid cephalopods are capable of greater RNA editing (which involves changes to the nucleic acid sequence ... Japanese erotic art, shunga, includes ukiyo-e woodblock prints such as Katsushika Hokusai's 1814 print Tako to ama (The Dream ... The California two-spot octopus has had its genome sequenced, allowing exploration of its molecular adaptations. Having ... The arms can be described based on side and sequence position (such as L1, R1, L2, R2) and divided into four pairs. The ...
... a gain of function after protein expansion from around 400 amino acids in Caulobacter crescentus to more than 800 amino acids ... In 2010, the Caulobacter NA1000 strain was sequenced and all differences with the CB15 "wild type" strain were identified. ... "Complete genome sequence of Caulobacter crescentus". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ...
"Complete amino acid sequence of the human progesterone receptor deduced from cloned cDNA". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • ATPase binding. • zinc ion ... which are identical except for an additional 165 amino acids present only in the N terminus of hPR-B. Although hPR-B shares ... at the amino acid terminal. This segment is not present in the receptor-A. ...
This excess sulfur is concentrated in spore coats as an amino acid, cysteine. It is believed that the macromolecule accountable ... 1967). "The complete genome sequence of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis". Nature. 390 (6657): 249-56. doi:10.1038 ... The endospore consists of the bacterium's DNA, ribosomes and large amounts of dipicolinic acid. Dipicolinic acid is a spore- ... The dipicolinic acid helps stabilize the proteins and DNA in the endospore.:141 Next the peptidoglycan cortex forms between ...
Bioinformática, a enciclopedia libre
Needleman, S. y Wunsch, C. (1970). "A general method applicable to the search for similarities in the amino acid sequence of ... "Similar amino acid sequences: chance or common ancestry?". Science 214 (4517).. *↑ Bartlett, J. M. S., Stirling, D. (2003). "A ... "Nucleic Acids Research 4 (11). Páxs. 4037-4051.. *↑ 33,0 33,1 Sanger, F.; et al. (1978). "The nucleotide sequence of ... C. elegans Sequencing Consortium (1998). "Genome sequence of the nematode C. elegans: a platform for investigating biology". ...
They each share about 25% amino acid sequence identity with RAD51 and with each other. ... In humans, RAD51 is a 339-amino acid protein that plays a major role in homologous recombination of DNA during double strand ... "Nucleic Acids Research. 25 (19): 3868-74. doi:10.1093/nar/25.19.3868. PMC 146972 . PMID 9380510.. ... "Nucleic Acids Res. 32 (1): 169-78. doi:10.1093/nar/gkg925. PMC 373258 . PMID 14704354.. ...
Integral membrane protein
... integral protein from its amino acid sequence and an experimental three-dimensional structure of a related homologous protein. ... "Nucleic Acids Res. 37 (Database issue): D274-8. doi:10.1093/nar/gkn862. PMC 2686586. PMID 19022853.. ... is embedded in the hydrophobic regions of the bilayer are alpha helical and composed of predominantly hydrophobic amino acids. ... which have their amino-terminus towards the cytosol. Type III proteins have multiple transmembrane domains in a single ...
... primer-dependent RNA synthesis utilizes a small 22-25 amino acid long viral protein linked to the genome (VPg) to initiate ... The CRE loop has a defined consensus sequence to which the initiation components bind, however; there is no consensus sequence ... Binding causes a conformational change in the viral capsid proteins, and myristic acid are released. These acids form a pore in ... Enteroviruses are stable under acid conditions and thus they are able to survive exposure to gastric acid. In contrast, ...
... such as the polyphenols and amino acids, but is a suspension when all of the insoluble components are considered, such as the ... in China and India based on nuclear microsatellites and cpDNA sequence data". Frontiers in Plant Science. 8: 2270. doi:10.3389/ ... Williamson, G; Dionisi, F; Renouf, M (2011). "Flavanols from green tea and phenolic acids from coffee: critical quantitative ... in China and India based on nuclear microsatellites and cpDNA sequence data. Frontiers in Plant Science, 25. ...
Ensembl - Wicipedia
Gall y porwr hefyd ddangos data ar gydraniadau gwahanol, o ddangos caryoteipiau cyfan i ddangos dilyniannau DNA ac asidau amino ... January 2017). "Ensembl core software resources: storage and programmatic access for DNA sequence and genome annotation". ... "Nucleic Acids Res. 38 (Database issue): D557-62. January 2010. doi:10.1093/nar/gkp972. PMC 2808936. PMID 19906699. http://www. ... "Nucleic Acids Res 39 (Database issue): D800-D806. November 2010. doi:10.1093/nar/gkq1064. PMC 3013672. PMID 21045057. http:// ...
... it lacks D-amino acids and N-acetylmuramic acid.. Archaea flagella operate like bacterial flagella-their long stalks are ... In 1977, Carl Woese, a microbiologist studying the genetic sequencing of organisms, developed a new sequencing method that ... Deppenmeier, U. (2002). "The unique biochemistry of methanogenesis". Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. Progress in Nucleic Acid ... acetic acid or formic acid are used as alternative electron acceptors by methanogens. These reactions are common in gut- ...
Michael W. Young
... while long-period and short-period mutants of per changed the amino acid sequence of a still functional protein. ... A new gene located on chromosome 2 was named timeless (tim) and was successfully cloned and sequenced. They found strong ... by determining the sequence of the gene on the X chromosome, they found that the arrhythmic mutation produced a functionless ...
Four hydrogen bonds form between polar side chains on TBP amino acid (Asn27, Asn117, Thr82, Thr173)( and bases in the minor ... This sequence was originally called Box A, which is now known to be the sequence that interacts with the homologue of the ... In the 1980s, while investigating nucleotide sequences in mouse genome loci, the Hogness box sequence was found and "boxed in" ... For example, one study used the adenovirus TATA promoter sequence (5'-CGCTATAAAAGGGC-3') as a model binding sequence and found ...
Escherichia coli strains have also been successfully engineered to produce butanol by modifying their amino acid metabolism.[36 ... The fuel is created from general urban waste which is treated by bacteria to produce fatty acids, which can be used to make ... Chemically, it consists mostly of fatty acid methyl (or ethyl) esters (FAMEs). Feedstocks for biodiesel include animal fats, ...
Stuart-Prower-faktor - Wikipédia
... encodes a 51.2 kDa protein that is composed of 474 amino acids; 124 peptides have been observed through mass spectrometry ... 2004). "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs". Nat. Genet. 36 (1): 40-5. doi:10.1038/ ... fatty acid metabolic process. • metabolism. • cardiolipin acyl-chain remodeling. • fatty acid beta-oxidation. ... transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups. • enoyl-CoA hydratase activity. • long-chain-3- ...
... coding for a 10 amino acid truncated peptide, which is believed to mediate CPN tropism. Additionally, analysis of the sub- ... It is thought that these differences in promoter sequence contribute to the fitness of the virus in the CNS and thus to the ... JCV found in the central nervous system of PML patients almost invariably have differences in promoter sequence to the JCV ... "JC virus DNA sequences are frequently present in the human upper and lower gastrointestinal tract". Gastroenterology. 119 (5): ...
... is a small 69 nucleotide RNA (human mitochondrial map position 4263-4331) that transfers the amino acid isoleucine to a ... April 1981). "Sequence and organization of the human mitochondrial genome". Nature. 290 (5806): 457-65. Bibcode:1981Natur.290.. ... May 2003). "A homoplasmic mitochondrial transfer ribonucleic acid mutation as a cause of maternally inherited hypertrophic ...
فهرست یهودیان برنده جایزه نوبل - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
"for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active ... "for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids" ... "for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA" ... his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid- ...
Amino Acids and Protein Sequences
The structure of a protein may be directly sequenced or inferred from the sequence of DNA. ... The protein primary structure conventionally begins at the amino-terminal (N) end and continues until the carboxyl-terminal (C ... Each protein or peptide consists of a linear sequence of amino acids. ... Amino Acids and Protein Sequences. News-Medical. https://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/Amino-Acids-and-Protein-Sequences. ...
Amino acid sequence | Define Amino acid sequence at Dictionary.com
The amino acid sequence of dog (Canis familiaris) hemoglobin. - PubMed - NCBI
The amino acid sequence of dog (Canis familiaris) hemoglobin.. Brimhall B, Duerst M, Jones RT. ... The manual sequencing of the tryptic peptic from the alpha and beta chains of dog hemoglobin is described, including evidence ... Although the actual sequence was published in 1970, the evidence on which it was based has not previously appeared. ...
2422-Nucleotide and/or Amino Acid Sequence Disclosures in Patent Applications
Any amino acid sequence that contains post-translationally modified amino acids may be described as the amino acid sequence ... 2) Amino acids: Amino acids are those L-amino acids commonly found in naturally occurring proteins and are listed in WIPO ... V. SEQUENCE IDENTIFIER. 37 CFR 1.821(c) requires that each disclosed nucleic acid or amino acid sequence in the application ... 37 CFR 1.821 Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications.. *(a) Nucleotide and/or amino acid ...
A conserved amino acid sequence directing intracellular type III secretion by Salmonella typhimurium | PNAS
This specificity may not be conferred at the amino acid level, as sequences encoding the amino-terminal 15 amino acid residues ... Secretion signals have been mapped in several Yop proteins to sequences encoding the amino-terminal 15 amino acid residues (11 ... A conserved amino acid sequence directing intracellular type III secretion by Salmonella typhimurium. Edward A. Miao and Samuel ... The amino acid sequence of SspH1 and SlrP also sets them apart from other family members. Although they do contain the ...
Hydrophobic cluster analysis: an efficient new way to compare and analyse amino acid sequences. - PubMed - NCBI
Hydrophobic cluster analysis: an efficient new way to compare and analyse amino acid sequences.. Gaboriaud C1, Bissery V, ... Hydrophobic clusters are determined in this 2D pattern and then used for the sequence comparisons. The method does not require ... A new method for comparing and aligning protein sequences is described. This method, hydrophobic cluster analysis (HCA), relies ... upon a two-dimensional (2D) representation of the sequences. ... Sequence Analysis*BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool). * ...
KDEL (amino acid sequence) - Wikipedia
KDEL is a target peptide sequence in the amino acid structure of a protein which prevents the protein from being secreted from ... ER retention KKXX (amino acid sequence) Endoplasmic reticulum protein retention receptors KDELR1 KDELR2 KDELR3 Mariano ... K-Lysine D-Aspartic acid E-Glutamic acid L-Leucine Therefore, the sequence in three letter code is: Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu. The ... The abbreviation KDEL is formed by the corresponding letters to each amino acid. This letter system was defined by the IUPAC ...
KKXX (amino acid sequence) - Wikipedia
... any amino acid X- any amino acid ER retention KDEL (amino acid sequence) Martin J. Vincent; Annelet S. Martin; Richard W. ... KKXX and for some proteins XKXX is a target peptide motif located in the C terminus in the amino acid structure of a protein ... The abbreviation KKXX is formed by the corresponding standard abbreviations for lysine (K) and any amino acid (X). This letter ...
Amino acid sequence | definition of amino acid sequence by Medical dictionary
... amino acid sequence explanation free. What is amino acid sequence? Meaning of amino acid sequence medical term. What does amino ... Looking for online definition of amino acid sequence in the Medical Dictionary? ... amino acid sequence. Also found in: Dictionary. amino acid sequence. the order in which AMINO ACIDS are placed along a protein ... uncharacterized amino acid sequences predicted from genome DNA sequences, and amino acid sequences of known function.. A "game ...
Draft Genome Sequences of Three Amino Acid-Secreting Lactococcus lactis Strains - Research database - University of Groningen
... glutamic acid, and histidine) were sequenced in order to identify the mechanisms involved in the secretion. Amino acids ... glutamic acid, and histidine) were sequenced in order to identify the mechanisms involved in the secretion. Amino acids ... glutamic acid, and histidine) were sequenced in order to identify the mechanisms involved in the secretion. Amino acids ... Draft Genome Sequences of Three Amino Acid-Secreting Lactococcus lactis Strains. Hernandez-Valdes, J. A., de Jong, A., Kok, J. ...
Determining mutated, mRNA, Amino Acid sequence | Physics Forums - The Fusion of Science and Community
Mutated Sequence: TAC TGG CG TTA GRR GAT ATA ACT. mRNA Sequence: AUG ACC GC AAU CAA CUA UAU UGA. Amino Acid Sequence: met thr ... Similar Discussions: Determining mutated, mRNA, Amino Acid sequence * Acidity/basicity of amino acids (Replies: 1) ... The filled in answers are in bold And Im completely lost with the Amino Acid sequence, my TA did this in class and I still ... What mechanism is responsible for the sequencing of amino acids? (Replies: 1) ...
Sequence Similarity - 1ONY: Oxalyl-Aryl-Amino Benzoic Acid inhibitors of PTP1B, compound 17 Sequence Similarity...
Acids as Inhibitors of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B ... Oxalyl-Aryl-Amino Benzoic Acid inhibitors of PTP1B, compound 17 ... Structures of protein chains with identical sequences (sequence identity > 95%) are aligned, superimposed and clustered. ... Sequence Similarity Clusters for the Entities in PDB 1ONY Legend Entity #1 , Chains: A Protein-tyrosine phosphatase, non- ... Blast this sequence against all of PDB Archive.. Rank. In each cluster, the chains are sorted (i.e. ranked) according to the ...
Nucleic and amino acid sequences relating to a novel transketolase, and methods for the expression thereof (Patent) | DOepatents
... dna sequences; dna sequence; isolated dna; significant amounts; acid sequence; amino acid; acid sequences; host cells; sequence ... nucleic; amino; acid; sequences; relating; novel; transketolase; methods; expression; cdnas; encoding; 1-deoxyxylulose-5- ... and the corresponding amino acid sequences have been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID NO:3, SEQ ID NO:5 ... Nucleic and amino acid sequences relating to a novel transketolase, and methods for the expression thereof ...
Find Amino Acids | DNA Sequencing Software - Sequencher from Gene Codes Corporation
The Find Amino Acids command within Sequencher allows for the quick identification of an individual or sequence of amino acids ... Find Amino Acids. You are here. Home » Products » Sequencher » Sequencher Features » General Analysis » Find Amino Acids ... amino acids you wish to locate and Sequencher will find and highlight the bases within the sequence that code for those amino ... For more information, check out the Find Amino Acids command in the Sequencher User Manual. ...
Experts and Doctors on amino acid sequence in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
Research Topics about Experts and Doctors on amino acid sequence in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States ... The predicted amino acid sequence of the pgm gene is highly conserved in E. coli, Acetobacter xylinum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ... Lane W, Galat A, Harding M, Schreiber S. Complete amino acid sequence of the FK506 and rapamycin binding protein, FKBP, ... You are here: Locale , United States , Massachusetts , Experts and Doctors on amino acid sequence in Cambridge, Massachusetts, ...
Relevant and Non-Redundant Amino Acid Sequence Selection for Protein Functional Site Identification: Computer Science & IT Book...
... amino acids cannot be used directly as inputs since they ... Relevant and Non-Redundant Amino Acid Sequence Selection for ... "Relevant and Non-Redundant Amino Acid Sequence Selection for Protein Functional Site Identification." Breakthroughs in Software ... "Relevant and Non-Redundant Amino Acid Sequence Selection for Protein Functional Site Identification." In Breakthroughs in ... Relevant and Non-Redundant Amino Acid Sequence Selection for Protein Functional Site Identification. Chandra Das (West Bengal ...
168h) The Binary Effect on Drug-Resistant Bacteria of Polymeric Vesicles Appended By Proline-Rich Amino Acid Sequences and...
Sequence Similarity - 1P2N: Structural consequences of accommodation of four non-cognate amino-acid residues in the...
Structural consequences of accommodation of four non-cognate amino acid residues in the S1 pocket of bovine trypsin and ... non-canonical amino acid was incoporated UNP residues 36-93 9913 15 4Y10 2 I Pancreatic trypsin inhibitor non-canonical amino ... Structural consequences of accommodation of four non-cognate amino-acid residues in the S1 pocket of bovine trypsin and ... Structures of protein chains with identical sequences (sequence identity > 95%) are aligned, superimposed and clustered. ...
Experts and Doctors on amino acid sequence in San Diego, California, United States
Publications about Experts and Doctors on amino acid sequence in San Diego, California, United States ... Experts and Doctors on amino acid sequence in San Diego, California, United States. Summary. Locale: San Diego, California, ... You are here: Locale , United States , California , Experts and Doctors on amino acid sequence in San Diego, California, United ... The nucleotide sequence predicts an open reading frame for a protein monomer of 19,400, confirmed by amino-terminal sequencing ...
N-terminal Amino Acid Sequencing of Mouse Monoclonal Antibodies Using the Edman Method : SHIMADZU (Shimadzu Corporation)
... and data analysis to determine the amino acid sequence from the N-terminal.. The N-terminal amino acid sequencing of mouse ... sequential cleaving of amino acids from the N-terminal of the protein to determine the amino acid sequence), which is the most ... The PTH amino acid derivative peak is not expressed, indicating that the N-terminal amino group (α amino group) of the heavy ... N-terminal Amino Acid Sequencing of Mouse Monoclonal Antibodies Using the Edman Method. ...
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"Swine Flu Hemagglutinin": amino acid sequence as ambient music | Stephan Zielinski: Dwa ...
... amino acid sequence as ambient music « Amy G. Dala. Says: May 8th, 2009 at 12:18 PM […] "Swine Flu Hemagglutinin": amino acid ... "Swine Flu Hemagglutinin": amino acid sequence as ambient music. Swine flu has been sequenced. More out of curiosity than ... amino acid sequence as ambient music , Stephan Zielinski: Dwa Swine flu has been sequenced. More out of curiosity than anything ... its considered as a string of amino acids. Each beat corresponds to one amino acid, and the piece is in 3/4 time, so each six ...
Studies on the structure of rabbit muscle aldolase. Ordering of the tryptic peptides; sequence of 164 amino acid residues in...
Carboxyl-Terminal 15-Amino Acid Sequence of NFATx1 Is Possibly Created by Tissue-Specific Splicing and Is Essential for...
46-amino acid residues from the very end of the carboxyl terminus of NFATx1 (amino acids 1030-1075) and 15-amino acid residues ... The arrow at amino acid 1035 (nucleotide position 3131) indicates the common insertion site. B, Amino acid sequences of the ... Notably, the 15-amino acid transactivation sequence in NFATx1 does not contain typical amino acid residues for transactivation ... We further investigated this 15-amino acid transactivation sequence using a series of mutants that have one amino acid ...
WebLogo of Amino Acid Sequence of Circumsporozoite Prot | Open-i
WebLogo of Amino Acid Sequence of Circumsporozoite Protein from Malawi and the Gambia.Panel A and Panel B are the Weblogos for ... corresponding to amino acids 291 to 363 (Figure 1). Consistent with the literature, TH2 was defined as amino acids 311-327 ( ... corresponding to amino acids 291 to 363 (Figure 1). Consistent with the literature, TH2 was defined as amino acids 311-327 ( ... pone-0062427-g001: WebLogo of Amino Acid Sequence of Circumsporozoite Protein from Malawi and the Gambia.Panel A and Panel B ...
Role of Transmembrane Domain and Cytoplasmic Tail Amino Acid Sequences of Influenza A Virus Neuraminidase in Raft Association...
amino acids from NA sequences. Amino acids shown in boldface type are from TR sequences. Amino acids in lowercase type are due ... Numbers above amino acid sequences represent amino acid positions (indicated by ↓) of the WT NA peptide. ... The amino acid sequences of the CT and TMD of NA are highly and moderately conserved, respectively, among the influenza A ... To investigate the role of amino acid sequences of the CT and TMD on the virus life cycle, we systematically mutagenized the ...
Get PDF - The amino acid sequences of some enz tryptic peptides from porcine pepsinogen inst electrophoresis inst chromatography
The amino acid sequences of some enz tryptic peptides from porcine pepsinogen inst electrophoresis inst chromatography ... The amino acid sequence of the fc fragment of rabbit immuno globulin g i the isolation and amino acid composition of enz ... The structure of the bovine pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor kazals inhibitor i the isolation and amino acid sequences of ... The amino acid sequences of some tryptic peptides from porcine pepsinogen. Journal of Biological Chemistry 243(23): 6099-6103, ...
The primary structure of actin from rabbit skeletal muscle. Completion and analysis of the amino acid sequence - Request PDF
Completion and analysis of the amino acid sequence ... Elzinga M.; Collins J.H., 1973: The amino acid sequence of ... Complete amino-acid sequence of actin of rabbit skeletal muscle. The complete amino-acid sequence of actin of rabbit skeletal ... Elzinga, M., 1970: Amino acid sequence studies on rabbit skeletal muscle actin. Cyanogen bromide cleavage of the protein and ... Vandekerckhove, J.; Weber, K., 1979: The complete amino acid sequence of actins from bovine aorta, bovine heart, bovine fast ...
US Patent # 6,380,370. Nucleic acid and amino acid sequences relating to Staphylococcus epidermidis for diagnostics and...
The invention provides isolated polypeptide and nucleic acid sequences derived from Staphylococcus epidermidis that are useful ... by amino acid substitution, addition or deletion of at least one amino acid residue) in amino acid sequence at 1, 2, 3, 5, 10 ... the amino acid sequence which differs in sequence identity by about 7% to about 8% from the S. epidermidis amino acid sequences ... The sequences of the present invention include the specific nucleic acid and amino acid sequences set forth in the Sequence ...
US Patent # 4,839,293. DNA encoding streptavidin, streptavidin produced therefrom, fused polypeptides which include amino...
Amino Acid.sup.a composition deduced from Amino acid.sup.b Amino acid.sup.c Amino nucleotide analysis analysis acid sequence ( ... The complete nucleotide sequence of the streptavidin gene along with the amino acid sequence is shown in FIG. 3. The amino acid ... Above the nucleotide sequence is the amino acid sequence of the streptavidin protein. The amino acids of the signal peptide are ... Amino acid sequence of streptavidin. Amino-terminal amino acid analysis of a commercial preparation of streptavidin indicated ...
ProteinsPOLYPEPTIDE CHAINCyanogen bromideCompositionNucleotide sequencesSpecific amino acidChain of aminoHighly conserved aminoLinear sequence of amino acidsBiochemistryAlignmentPurificationChainsRecombinantValineDetermine the amino acid seqNucleic acidsComplete amino acid seqVarious amino acidsAlanineAntibodiesCodonsMRNAHydrolysisExcept glycineDifferent amino acidIsolationFragmentsAsparticMass spectrometryPrimary structureCommonlyThin-layer chromatoSecretionRabbit muscle aldolaseSingle amino acidAbstractStructure of a proteinComprising the nucleic acidBase SequenceDeterminationIntended to be embracedGlycoproteinCarboxyl-terminal1.821Alpha aminoMotifsTranslocationBases
- There are two main methods used to find the amino acid sequences of proteins. (news-medical.net)
- The hydrolysis is typically carried out by heating a sample of the protein to over 100 ° C in hydrochloric acid for an extended period of time (at least 24 hours), allowing more time for proteins with bulky hydrophobic groups. (news-medical.net)
- Many comparisons between biological sequences (nucleic acids and proteins) involve the construction of multiple alignments. (nih.gov)
- Amino acids are those L-amino acids commonly found in naturally occurring proteins and are listed in WIPO Standard ST.25 (1998), Appendix 2, Table 3. (uspto.gov)
- Previously, no consensus signal sequence for translocation has been identified among TTSS effector proteins. (pnas.org)
- In this work, seven proteins, termed Salmonella -translocated effectors (STE), are described that contain conserved amino acid sequences that direct translocation by TTSS in Salmonella typhimurium . (pnas.org)
- Unlike proteins exported by the general secretory pathway, TTSS effector proteins are not proteolytically cleaved and have not previously been identified by conserved amino acid sequence motifs within their secretion/translocation signals ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
- Data largely accumulated from the study of the TTSS-translocated Yop proteins of Yersinia indicate that the TTSS machinery recognizes effector proteins by two signals in their amino termini: a secretion signal and a translocation signal ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
- Proteins can only leave the ER after this sequence has been cleaved off. (wikipedia.org)
- KKXX and for some proteins XKXX is a target peptide motif located in the C terminus in the amino acid structure of a protein responsible for retrieval of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane proteins from the Golgi apparatus. (wikipedia.org)
- The simple fact that proteins are built from 20 amino acids while DNA only contains four different bases, means that the 'signal-to-noise ratio' in protein sequence alignments is much better than in alignments of DNA. (nih.gov)
- Taken together with the generally higher rate of synonymous mutations over non-synonymous ones, this means that the phylogenetic signal disappears much more rapidly from DNA sequences than from the encoded proteins. (nih.gov)
- Nonidentities among amino acid sequences of glycoprotein precursors and amino acid sequences of nucleocapsid proteins of Ocozocoautla de Espinosa virus strain AV B1030026, Mexico, and 8 arenaviruses from South America * % Amino acid sequence nonidentity Virus OCEV AMAV CHPV CPXV GTOV JUNV MACV SABV TCRV OCEV -- 43. (thefreedictionary.com)
- If such preservation is far more frequent than paleontologists have expected, discerning the amino acid sequences in ancient proteins "has enormous potential" for revealing evolutionary relationships among ancient creatures, he adds. (thefreedictionary.com)
- In another aspect the present invention provides for isolated, recombinant DXPS proteins, such as the proteins having the sequences set forth in SEQ ID NO:4, SEQ ID NO:6 and SEQ ID NO:8. (osti.gov)
- This phenomenon appears contradictory in that the information in the two overlaid amino acid sequences is strongly interdependent, yet each of the two proteins has evolved to its own well-defined function. (springer.com)
- Such a degeneracy is familiar from homologous proteins where a given biological function is implemented by many different amino acid sequences. (springer.com)
- In order to apply a powerful pattern recognition algorithm to predict functional sites in proteins, amino acids cannot be used directly as inputs since they are non-numerical variables. (igi-global.com)
- Amino acid sequences are further limited to those listed in 37 CFR 1.822(b) , which incorporates by reference WIPO Standard ST.25 (1998), Appendix 2, Table 3 (see MPEP § 2422 ), and those L-amino acids that are commonly found in naturally occurring proteins. (bitlaw.com)
- Pillars Article: Evidence for Amino Acid Sequence Differences among Proteins Resembling the L-chain Subunits of Immunoglobulins. (jimmunol.org)
- Interestingly, this 15-amino acid transactivation sequence is well conserved in NFAT family proteins, although the sequences contiguous to the carboxyl-terminal regions of the NFAT family are much less conserved. (jimmunol.org)
- The search for genes encoding cytoplasmic components of NFAT, collectively termed NFAT family proteins, led to the isolation of four distinct cDNAs that shared sequence similarities. (jimmunol.org)
- The existence of this characteristic Rel similarity domain allowed us to divide NFAT family proteins into three distinct regions: an amino-terminal region, a carboxyl-terminal region, and a middle region containing the Rel similarity domain. (jimmunol.org)
- The amino-terminal region shows significant, albeit weak, sequence similarity among NFAT family proteins and is characterized by the presence of three perfect repeats for NFAT1(NFATp), NFATc, and NFATx and one for NFAT3, containing the sequence SPXXSPXXSPXXXXX(D,E)(D,E), referred to as SP boxes ( 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
- The validity of the scoring method was confirmed by its comparison with real collagen fibrils and, in principle, it could be extended to all proteins that can be represented as a simple linear sequence of amino acids. (bl.uk)
- Proteins are made up of a sequence of 20 amino acids. (gleekguide.com)
- Proteins are computationally designed from the level of amino acids to the level of a functional protein complex. (gleekguide.com)
- How is the elaborate three-dimensional structure of proteins attained, and how is the three-dimensional structure related to the one-dimensional amino acid sequence information? (gleekguide.com)
- NA, a type II transmembrane glycoprotein, possesses an enzyme activity that removes sialic acid from host cell glycocongugates as well as newly synthesized viral proteins. (asm.org)
- Methods are provided for using the fused gene to produce labeled, chemically modified proteins in vivo and to isolate a protein knowing only the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the protein. (patents.com)
- With the exception of a few small proteins (peptides) that occur in bacteria , the amino acids that occur in proteins are l- amino acids. (britannica.com)
- Sequences of amino acids come into the picture, when you study the structure of peptide chains and proteins. (biologywise.com)
- Just as 26 letters of the alphabet combine together to form various words, the more than hundred known amino acids combine to form proteins. (biologywise.com)
- Among them, there are 20 essential amino acids that form all the proteins in the human body. (biologywise.com)
- Branched chain amino acids form all the proteins of the human body. (biologywise.com)
- Proteins and peptide chains are created through the formation of peptide bonds between different amino acids. (biologywise.com)
- One approach to understanding the folding code is to design a pair of proteins with maximal sequence identity but retaining different folds. (pnas.org)
- To our knowledge, the 3D-structure determination of two monomeric proteins with such high sequence identity but different fold topology is unprecedented. (pnas.org)
- Further mutation of a subset of these nonidentities, guided by the G A 88 and G B 88 structures, leads to proteins with even higher levels of sequence identity (95%) and different folds. (pnas.org)
- The basic idea was to design a pair of proteins with maximal sequence identity but retaining their different wild-type folds. (pnas.org)
- We recently described the design and preliminary characterization of two small proteins, G A 88 and G B 88, with 88% sequence identity but different monomeric folds and functions ( 15 ). (pnas.org)
- We show that, despite a large number of mutations taking the sequence identity level from 16% to 88% ( Fig. 1 ), the two proteins maintain their distinct wild-type folds. (pnas.org)
- Imported proteins require a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) which generally consists of a short region of basic amino acids or 2 such regions spaced about 10 amino acids apart. (antibody-antibodies.com)
- Particularly, the approach of using the wavelets to express protein/peptide sequences might be the key in grasping the problem's essence, fully consistent with the findings that many important biological functions of proteins can be elucidated with their low-frequency internal motions. (mdpi.com)
- Sequence specific resonance assignment constitutes an important step towards high-resolution structure determination of proteins by NMR and is aided by selective identification and assignment of amino acid types. (iisc.ernet.in)
- Resultantly, increased proteins of the bZIP1 and bZIP53 forming heterodimers with other bZIP members initiate the transcriptional activation of amino acid metabolism-related genes by binding to ACGT- or ACTCAT-like cis-elements within the promoters of the target genes [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes , and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. (wikipedia.org)
- Like other biological macromolecules such as polysaccharides and nucleic acids , proteins are essential parts of organisms and participate in virtually every process within cells . (wikipedia.org)
- In animals, proteins are needed in the diet to provide the essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized . (wikipedia.org)
- Most proteins consist of linear polymers built from series of up to 20 different L -α- amino acids . (wikipedia.org)
- One particularly important function is as the building blocks of proteins, which are linear chains of amino acids. (phys.org)
- Strings of amino acids make up proteins, of which there are countless varieties. (encyclopedia.com)
- Of the 20 amino acids required for manufacturing the proteins the human body needs, the body itself produces only 12, meaning that we have to meet our requirements for the other eight through nutrition. (encyclopedia.com)
- Kuyama H, Sonomura K, Nishimura O, tsunasawa S. A method for N-terminal de novo sequence analysis of proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Protein abundance data, domains, shared domains with other proteins, protein sequence retrieval for various strains, sequence-based physico-chemical properties, protein modification sites, and external identifiers for the protein. (yeastgenome.org)
- Secondary and tertiary protein structure is highly dependent upon amino-acid sequence in the POLYPEPTIDE CHAIN , which affects the bonding together of the molecule. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The corresponding amino acid which is brought by the tRNA reacts chemically in the ribosome to form the peptide bond in the forming polypeptide chain of protein. (biology-online.org)
- These amino acids link together to form a polypeptide chain, and then folds into a three dimensional structure. (gleekguide.com)
- Sera from recipients of fragments from the amino-terminal half of the polypeptide chain bound gp340 in Western blot assays and ELISA but were not virus-neutralizing. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Human Aldolase-A protein ALDOA Human Recombinant fused to 20 amino acid His Tag at N-terminal produced in E.coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 384 amino acids (1-364 a.a. (antibody-antibodies.com)
- Thus, polypeptide, or polypeptide chain, is a term that describes the multiple connected peptide bonds between numerous amino acids. (wikibooks.org)
- Each amino acid in a polypeptide chain is a unit, commonly known as a residue . (wikibooks.org)
- monomer = amino acidpolymer = polypeptide (= polypeptide chain)A monomer is one unit in a chain of repeating units. (answers.com)
- AFAP1 Human Recombinant produced in E. coli is a single polypeptide chain containing 360 amino acids (250-588) and having a molecular mass of 39.2 kDa. (prospecbio.com)
- TNNT2 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 305 amino acids (1-285 a.a.) and having a molecular mass of 36.4 kDa. (prospecbio.com)
- CLCF1 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 219 amino acids (28-225 a.a) and having a molecular mass of 24.6kDa. (prospecbio.com)
- The complete amino acid sequence of this protein was determined by automated solid phase Edman degradation of the whole protein and of fragments obtained after cleavage with cyanogen bromide. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
- As a part of the overall strategy for determining the complete covalent structure of the papain-solubilized portion of the heavy chain of the human histocompatibility antigen H.LA-B7, the protein was dissected into various fragments by a combination of partial acid hydrolysis and cyanogen bromide cleavage. (umn.edu)
- They provide the basis for the formal alignment of the acid cleavage and cyanogen bromide fragments of the molecule as well as the source material for the elucidation of the primary structure of the HLA-B7 heavy chain. (umn.edu)
- Determine the composition and terminal amino acids of each chain. (news-medical.net)
- The unordered composition of an amino acid is often useful information when attempting to determine the ordered sequence of the protein. (news-medical.net)
- Hi, A request was made a week or two ago for software which will take the amino aci d composition of a peptide fragment and find the location of the peptide in a larger amino acid sequence. (bio.net)
- Sequence logos are a graphical representation of the information content stored in a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) and provide a compact and highly intuitive representation of the position-specific amino acid composition of binding motifs, active sites, etc. in biological sequences. (dtu.dk)
- Including additional information about sequence weight and amino acid composition further improves prediction accuracies significantly with the correlation coefficient reaching 0.73. (biomedcentral.com)
- The mixture is separated and its composition recorded by amino acid analyzer. (wikibooks.org)
- The amino acid analyzer establishes the composition of a polypeptide by giving a chromatogram, which records the peaks of each amino acid presents in the sequence. (wikibooks.org)
- However, the amino acid analyzer can only give the composition of a polypeptide, not the order in which the amino acids are bound to one another. (wikibooks.org)
- TranslatorX: multiple alignment of nucleotide sequences guided by amino acid translations. (nih.gov)
- We present TranslatorX, a web server designed to align protein-coding nucleotide sequences based on their corresponding amino acid translations. (nih.gov)
- Nucleotide sequences are further limited to those that can be represented by the symbols set forth in 37 CFR 1.822(b), which incorporates by reference WIPO Standard ST.25 (1998), Appendix 2, Table 1 (see MPEP § 2422 ). (bitlaw.com)
Specific amino acid2
- These results show that although the sequences of NA CT and TMD per se are not absolutely essential for the virus life cycle, specific amino acid sequences play a critical role in providing structural stability, enzyme activity, and lipid raft association of NA. (asm.org)
- An alternative approach is the method of amino acid selective `unlabeling' or reverse labeling, which involves selective unlabeling of specific amino acid types against a uniformly C-13/N-15 labeled background. (iisc.ernet.in)
Chain of amino1
Highly conserved amino1
Linear sequence of amino acids1
- The nucleotide back-translated alignment and the corresponding amino acid alignment are shown with Jalview. (nih.gov)
- and (iii) building a multiple DNA alignment by 'reverse translation' of the aligned protein sequences. (nih.gov)
- Amino acid sequence alignment of porcine SLITRK1 (wt) and a splice variant, SLITRK1-Sp1, hereof. (nih.gov)
- Using amino acid alignment, we identified single amino acid variations at position 16 or 170 of p24, unique to those VLPs that failed to be detected in certain diagnostic tests. (biomedcentral.com)
- B) Structure-based sequence alignment of family 3a CBDs. (asm.org)
- A structure-based alignment of selected CBD sequences is shown in Fig. 1B . (asm.org)
- The purification and the amino acid sequence of a proteolipid translated on ribosomes in yeast mitochondria is reported. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
- The complete amino acid sequence of this protein was determined by automated solid phase Edman degradation of the whole protein and of fragments The purification and the amino acid sequence of a proteolipid translated on ribosomes in yeast mitochondria is reported. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
- Isolation, purification, and amino acid sequence of lactobin A, one of the two bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus amylovorus LMG p-13139. (ugent.be)
- Isolation, purification, and amino ac. (ugent.be)
- Purification, characterization and sequence analyses of the extracellular giant hemoglobin from Oligobrachia mashikoi. (semanticscholar.org)
- Amino acids with side chains that are neither aromatic not aliphatic control the piano and organ: the nine non-hydrophobics the piano, and the four hydrophobics the organ. (stephan-zielinski.com)
- The three amino acids with aliphatic side chains control the low synthesizer, while the four with aromatics control the percussion. (stephan-zielinski.com)
- Comparison of the two sequences shows that the heavy-chain variable regions are similar in length to those of the light chains. (biochemj.org)
- The existence of heavy chain variable region subgroups is also deduced, from a comparison of these two sequences with those of another γ 1 chain, Eu, a μ chain, Ou, and the partial sequence of a fourth γ 1 chain, Ste. Carbohydrate has been found to be linked to an aspartic acid residue in the variable region of one of the γ 1 chains, Cor. (biochemj.org)
- This double-bond character can be explained structurally, in that the R groups in amino acid chains avoid steric clash. (wikibooks.org)
- Covalent interaction between amino acid side chains such as disulfide bonds are also lost. (wikibooks.org)
- Chains of amino acids are referred to as polypeptides. (answers.com)
- In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for plant 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthases, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. (osti.gov)
- In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding a plant 1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase. (osti.gov)
- 2. A recombinant expression vector comprising the nucleic acid of claim 1 operably linked to a transcription regulatory element. (patents.com)
- Manufacturers of diagnostic tests evaluate sequence-associated test sensitivity by testing HIV strains from different subtypes and frequent circulating recombinant forms (CRFs), thus hoping to cover a range of sequence variants. (biomedcentral.com)
- abstract = "Three Lactococcus lactis strains with the ability to secrete various amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, methionine, valine, glutamic acid, and histidine) were sequenced in order to identify the mechanisms involved in the secretion. (rug.nl)
- The Cycle 2 results indicate that the second amino acid group from the N-terminal is V (valine). (shimadzu.com)
- Notably, genome-wide comparison among P. salmonis genomes and different fish pathogens genomes revealed a lack of the biosynthetic pathway for several amino acids such as valine, leucine, and isoleucine. (frontiersin.org)
Determine the amino acid seq3
- This analysis employs the Edman method (sequential cleaving of amino acids from the N-terminal of the protein to determine the amino acid sequence), which is the most reliable method for determining amino acid sequences. (shimadzu.com)
- The PPSQ-31A/33A Protein Sequencer System automates the Edman reaction, HPLC separation and detection, and data analysis to determine the amino acid sequence from the N-terminal. (shimadzu.com)
- To determine the amino acid sequence, it usually starts from the determination of the amino terminal of the polypeptide. (wikibooks.org)
Complete amino acid seq3
- Lane W, Galat A, Harding M, Schreiber S. Complete amino acid sequence of the FK506 and rapamycin binding protein, FKBP, isolated from calf thymus. (labome.org)
- Complete Amino Acid Sequence of a Papain-Solubilized Human Histocompatibility Antigen, HLA-B7. (umn.edu)
- cDNA cloning was used to deduce the complete amino acid sequence of canine cardiac calsequestrin, the principal Ca 2+ -binding protein of cardiac junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum. (elsevier.com)
Various amino acids1
- To investigate the role of amino acid sequences of the CT and TMD on the virus life cycle, we systematically mutagenized the entire CT and TMD of NA by converting two to five contiguous amino acids to alanine. (asm.org)
- In bacteria, d -alanine and some other d -amino acids have been found as components of gramicidin and bacitracin. (britannica.com)
- The algorithm I used is a bit complicated, but just in case you're curious: since the gene is expressed as a surface protein antibodies can sense, it's considered as a string of amino acids. (stephan-zielinski.com)
- The HA protein, a type I transmembrane protein, is responsible for binding to the cell surface sialic acid (the receptor), eliciting neutralizing antibodies, and mediating virus entry into the cell by fusion of the viral membrane with the endosomal membrane ( 46 ). (asm.org)
- Changing positions 16 or 170 to consensus amino acids restored the detection of p24 by the investigated diagnostic tests as well as by epitope-specific antibodies in Western Blot and ELISA. (biomedcentral.com)
- These antibodies should bind to highly conserved regions of the target protein, thus minimizing the risk of reduced antigen sensitivity due to subtype-dependent sequence variability or evolutionary escape, both potentially leading to false-negative results. (biomedcentral.com)
- In this study, we sought to identify amino acid variations that abrogated the detection of p24 in diagnostic HIV-1 p24 antigen-only or 4th-generation HIV screening assays, or by epitope-specific antibodies used in home-made tests. (biomedcentral.com)
- Riley M. Nucleotide sequence of the Xdh region in Drosophila pseudoobscura and an analysis of the evolution of synonymous codons. (labome.org)
- The RNA chain has only the codons, not the amino acids. (biology-online.org)
- 3/05/2018 · The 3 d the nucleotide sequence of a gene, through medium mrna, is translated into amino acid protein by rules that are known as codons in an mrna molecule do not directly recognize acids they. (gleekguide.com)
- These signals are insensitive to frameshift mutations ( 12 ), suggesting that the recognized signal lies within the mRNA sequence. (pnas.org)
- From the strand of mRNA, that is transported in the cytoplasm, tRNA (transfer RNA) carry the information about the sequence, to a ribosome site for protein assembly. (biologywise.com)
- Second, its mRNA contains a second open reading frame with the capacity to code for a 111-amino acid protein. (elsevier.com)
- As a result, each of the amino acids, except glycine, can exist in two different spatial, or geometric, arrangements (i.e., isomers ), which are mirror images akin to right and left hands. (britannica.com)
- All of the amino acids in the human body, except glycine, are either right-hand or left-hand versions of the same molecule, meaning that in some amino acids the positions of the carboxyl group and the R -group are switched. (encyclopedia.com)
Different amino acid2
- two different amino acid sequences are read in different frames from the same stretch of DNA. (springer.com)
- A detailed survey involving unlabeling of different amino acid types individually or in pairs reveals that the proposed approach is also robust to misincorporation of N-14 at undesired sites. (iisc.ernet.in)
- It is helpful to know which amino acid is at the N-terminus of the protein both for ordering of the peptide fragments into the whole chain and to reduce the impact of impurities that commonly occur in the first round of Edman degradation. (news-medical.net)
- Use the fragments to determine amino acid sequence. (news-medical.net)
- The amino acid sequences of the Fd fragments of two human pathological immunoglobulins of the immunoglobulin G1 class are reported. (biochemj.org)
- If a nucleotide sequence contains both DNA and RNA fragments, the type shall be "DNA. (bitlaw.com)
- Analysis of all these fragments provided data that allowed determination of the continuous sequence corresponding to approximately half of the α-chain polypeptide. (elsevier.com)
- This letter system was defined by the IUPAC and IUBMB in 1983, and is as follows: K-Lysine D-Aspartic acid E-Glutamic acid L-Leucine Therefore, the sequence in three letter code is: Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu. (wikipedia.org)
- The Cycle 1 results indicate that the N-terminal amino acid residue is D (aspartic acid). (shimadzu.com)
- When subjected to sequence analysis using tandem mass spectrometry, pyroglutamate was found at the amino-terminal end, even though earlier attempts to de-block with pyroglutamate aminopeptidase were unsuccessful. (scripps.edu)
- The N-terminal sequence and mass spectrometry fingerprint of the most abundant isoform (Zea m 1d) matched that predicted for AY197353 , whereas N-terminal sequences of the other isoforms matched or nearly matched AY104999 and AY104125. (plantphysiol.org)
- The protein primary structure conventionally begins at the amino-terminal (N) end and continues until the carboxyl-terminal (C) end. (news-medical.net)
- the order in which AMINO ACIDS are placed along a protein molecule (see PRIMARY STRUCTURE ). (thefreedictionary.com)
- The sequence of amino acids in a protein, known as the primary structure, determine the secondary and tertiary structure. (gleekguide.com)
- The primary structure of this protein is in full agreement with the predicted amino acid sequence of the putative polypeptide encoded by the mitochondrial aap1 gene recently discovered in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
- The primary structure of a protein is a linear polymer with a series of amino acids . (wikibooks.org)
Rabbit muscle aldolase1
Single amino acid3
- This means that a change of a single amino acid has the potential to change the overall 3D shape of the entire protein, which could limit or remove its function(s). (gleekguide.com)
- Here we aimed to investigate the reason for this failure, hypothesising that it might be due to single amino acid variations in conserved epitopes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Hence, single amino acid changes in conserved epitopes can lead to the failure of p24 detection and thus to false-negative results. (biomedcentral.com)
Structure of a protein2
Comprising the nucleic acid1
Intended to be embraced2
- In addition, we also made two chimeric NA by replacing the CT proximal one-third amino acids of the NA TMD [NA(1T2N)NA] and the entire NA TMD (NATRNA) with that of human transferrin receptor (TR) (a type II transmembrane glycoprotein). (asm.org)
- We report the amino acid sequence of a 299-residue segment from the α chain of the human platelet membrane glycoprotein Ib. (elsevier.com)
- The sequence of a protein is usually notated as a string of letters, according to the order of the amino acids from the amino-terminal to the carboxyl-terminal of the protein. (news-medical.net)
- Here we provide evidence showing that 15 amino acids in the carboxyl-terminal end of NFATx1 are required for its maximum transactivation activity in Jurkat T cells. (jimmunol.org)
- Finally, in contrast to the middle and the amino-terminal regions, little is known about the carboxyl-terminal region, which shows no significant sequence similarities. (jimmunol.org)
- 37 CFR 1.821 Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications. (uspto.gov)
- b) Patent applications which contain disclosures of nucleotide and/or amino acid sequences, in accordance with the definition in paragraph (a) of this section, shall, with regard to the manner in which the nucleotide and/or amino acid sequences are presented and described, conform exclusively to the requirements of §§ 1.821 through 1.825 . (uspto.gov)
- 37 CFR 1.821(a) presents a definition for "nucleotide and/or amino acid sequences. (bitlaw.com)
- The sequence rules embrace "[a]ny peptide or protein that can be expressed as a sequence using the symbols in WIPO Standard ST.25 (1998), Appendix 2, Table 3 in conjunction with a description in the Feature section to describe, for example, modified linkages, cross links and end caps, non-peptidyl bonds, etc." 37 CFR 1.821(a)(2) . (bitlaw.com)
- The requirement for compliance in 37 CFR 1.821(c) is directed to "disclosures of nucleotide and/or amino acid sequences. (bitlaw.com)
- All sequence information, whether claimed or not, that meets the length thresholds in 37 CFR 1.821(a) is subject to the rules. (bitlaw.com)
- 1) If the "Sequence Listing" required by § 1.821(c) is submitted on paper: The "Sequence Listing," setting forth the nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence and associated information in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section, must begin on a new page and must be titled "Sequence Listing. (bitlaw.com)
- 2) If the "Sequence Listing" required by § 1.821(c) is submitted on compact disc: The "Sequence Listing" must be submitted on a compact disc in compliance with § 1.52(e) . (bitlaw.com)
- The presentation of the "Sequence Listing" and other materials on compact disc under § 1.821(c) does not substitute for the Computer Readable Form that must be submitted on disk, compact disc, or tape in accordance with § 1.824 . (bitlaw.com)
- The 5'-most c-abl promoter contains several sequence motifs that are highly conserved between mouse and man. (labome.org)
- There is, however, no amino acid sequence in the C-terminal region of the H + -ATPase with obvious similarity to any of the two optimal binding motifs, suggesting that 14-3-3 binding to this region involves a somewhat different motif. (plantphysiol.org)
- On the other hand, the amino-terminal region of NFAT1(NFATp) and NFATx/NFAT4 is important and sufficient for binding to calcineurin and seems to regulate nuclear translocation ( 16 , 17 , 18 ). (jimmunol.org)
- In higher plants, sugar deprivation and/or low energy stress by decreased photosynthesis have appeared to induce protein degradation via autophagy and amino acid metabolism, leading to translocation of nutrients and senescence [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Recently accumulated studies on bZIP type transcription factors of Arabidopsis concerning nutrient signal and amino acid metabolism have unveiled that a set of bZIP transcription factors, bZIP1 and bZIP53, classified to S-type subgroup among the bZIP superfamily, are master regulatory components in transcriptional induction of amino acid catabolism-related enzymes involved in low energy stress, sucrose starvation, and senescence-induced nutrient translocation [ 5 - 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Specifically defined" means those amino acids other than "Xaa" and those nucleotide bases other than "n" defined in accordance with the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Handbook on Industrial Property Information and Documentation, Standard ST.25: Standard for the Presentation of Nucleotide and Amino Acid Sequence Listings in Patent Applications (1998), including Tables 1 through 6 in Appendix 2, herein incorporated by reference. (uspto.gov)
- Modifications, e.g. , methylated bases, may be described as set forth in WIPO Standard ST.25 (1998), Appendix 2, Table 2, but shall not be shown explicitly in the nucleotide sequence. (uspto.gov)
- three bases provide the code for each amino acid. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Using the single-letter code, plug in the amino acids you wish to locate and Sequencher will find and highlight the bases within the sequence that code for those amino acids. (genecodes.com)
- Sequencher can easily go to the next set of bases that comply with the search by selecting the Find Next button in the Find Amino Acids window. (genecodes.com)
- In aqueous solutions they are dipolar ions (zwitterions, or hybrid ions) that react with strong acids or bases in a way that leads to the neutralization of the negatively or positively charged ends, respectively. (britannica.com)
- Because of their reactions with strong acids and strong bases, the amino acids act as buffers-stabilizers of hydrogen ion (H + ) or hydroxide ion (OH − ) concentrations. (britannica.com)
- Novel sPLA 2 were identified in the 90th by screening nucleic acid data bases. (springer.com)