Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Heart Septum: This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.Atrial Function, Right: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the RIGHT ATRIUM.Atrial Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.Septum of Brain: GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.Atrial Septum: The thin membrane-like muscular structure separating the right and the left upper chambers (HEART ATRIA) of a heart.Ventricular Septum: The muscular structure separating the right and the left lower chambers (HEART VENTRICLES) of the heart. The ventricular septum consists of a very small membranous portion just beneath the AORTIC VALVE, and a large thick muscular portion consisting of three sections including the inlet septum, the trabecular septum, and the outlet septum.Septum Pellucidum: A triangular double membrane separating the anterior horns of the LATERAL VENTRICLES of the brain. It is situated in the median plane and bounded by the CORPUS CALLOSUM and the body and columns of the FORNIX (BRAIN).Heart Neoplasms: Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.Nasal Septum: The partition separating the two NASAL CAVITIES in the midplane. It is formed by the SEPTAL NASAL CARTILAGE, parts of skull bones (ETHMOID BONE; VOMER), and membranous parts.Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Vena Cava, Superior: The venous trunk which returns blood from the head, neck, upper extremities and chest.Atrial Flutter: Rapid, irregular atrial contractions caused by a block of electrical impulse conduction in the right atrium and a reentrant wave front traveling up the inter-atrial septum and down the right atrial free wall or vice versa. Unlike ATRIAL FIBRILLATION which is caused by abnormal impulse generation, typical atrial flutter is caused by abnormal impulse conduction. As in atrial fibrillation, patients with atrial flutter cannot effectively pump blood into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES).Atrial Fibrillation: Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.Electrophysiologic Techniques, Cardiac: Methods to induce and measure electrical activities at specific sites in the heart to diagnose and treat problems with the heart's electrical system.Sinoatrial Node: The small mass of modified cardiac muscle fibers located at the junction of the superior vena cava (VENA CAVA, SUPERIOR) and right atrium. Contraction impulses probably start in this node, spread over the atrium (HEART ATRIUM) and are then transmitted by the atrioventricular bundle (BUNDLE OF HIS) to the ventricle (HEART VENTRICLE).Catheter Ablation: Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.Vena Cava, Inferior: The venous trunk which receives blood from the lower extremities and from the pelvic and abdominal organs.Cardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Ventricular Function, Right: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the right HEART VENTRICLE.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Myxoma: A benign neoplasm derived from connective tissue, consisting chiefly of polyhedral and stellate cells that are loosely embedded in a soft mucoid matrix, thereby resembling primitive mesenchymal tissue. It occurs frequently intramuscularly where it may be mistaken for a sarcoma. It appears also in the jaws and the skin. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Echocardiography, Transesophageal: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.Fistula: Abnormal communication most commonly seen between two internal organs, or between an internal organ and the surface of the body.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Pulmonary Veins: The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Heart Septal Defects, Atrial: Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the ATRIAL SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. Classification of atrial septal defects is based on location of the communication and types of incomplete fusion of atrial septa with the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS in the fetal heart. They include ostium primum, ostium secundum, sinus venosus, and coronary sinus defects.Atrioventricular Node: A small nodular mass of specialized muscle fibers located in the interatrial septum near the opening of the coronary sinus. It gives rise to the atrioventricular bundle of the conduction system of the heart.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Body Surface Potential Mapping: Recording of regional electrophysiological information by analysis of surface potentials to give a complete picture of the effects of the currents from the heart on the body surface. It has been applied to the diagnosis of old inferior myocardial infarction, localization of the bypass pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, recognition of ventricular hypertrophy, estimation of the size of a myocardial infarct, and the effects of different interventions designed to reduce infarct size. The limiting factor at present is the complexity of the recording and analysis, which requires 100 or more electrodes, sophisticated instrumentation, and dedicated personnel. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed)Tricuspid Valve: The valve consisting of three cusps situated between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart.Ventricular Dysfunction, Right: A condition in which the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION, and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the right ventricular wall.Sinus of Valsalva: The dilatation of the aortic wall behind each of the cusps of the aortic valve.Bundle of His: Small band of specialized CARDIAC MUSCLE fibers that originates in the ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE and extends into the membranous part of the interventricular septum. The bundle of His, consisting of the left and the right bundle branches, conducts the electrical impulses to the HEART VENTRICLES in generation of MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION.Refractory Period, Electrophysiological: The period of time following the triggering of an ACTION POTENTIAL when the CELL MEMBRANE has changed to an unexcitable state and is gradually restored to the resting (excitable) state. During the absolute refractory period no other stimulus can trigger a response. This is followed by the relative refractory period during which the cell gradually becomes more excitable and the stronger impulse that is required to illicit a response gradually lessens to that required during the resting state.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Coronary Sinus: A short vein that collects about two thirds of the venous blood from the MYOCARDIUM and drains into the RIGHT ATRIUM. Coronary sinus, normally located between the LEFT ATRIUM and LEFT VENTRICLE on the posterior surface of the heart, can serve as an anatomical reference for cardiac procedures.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Tachycardia: Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a HEART RATE above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia.Endocardium: The innermost layer of the heart, comprised of endothelial cells.Heart Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the heart.Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Heart Block: Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.Pacemaker, Artificial: A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Atrial Premature Complexes: A type of cardiac arrhythmia with premature atrial contractions or beats caused by signals originating from ectopic atrial sites. The ectopic signals may or may not conduct to the HEART VENTRICLES. Atrial premature complexes are characterized by premature P waves on ECG which are different in configuration from the P waves generated by the normal pacemaker complex in the SINOATRIAL NODE.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Hemangiosarcoma: A rare malignant neoplasm characterized by rapidly proliferating, extensively infiltrating, anaplastic cells derived from blood vessels and lining irregular blood-filled or lumpy spaces. (Stedman, 25th ed)Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Atrial Appendage: Ear-shaped appendage of either atrium of the heart. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tachycardia, Ectopic Atrial: Abnormally rapid heartbeats originating from one or more automatic foci (nonsinus pacemakers) in the HEART ATRIUM but away from the SINOATRIAL NODE. Unlike the reentry mechanism, automatic tachycardia speeds up and slows down gradually. The episode is characterized by a HEART RATE between 135 to less than 200 beats per minute and lasting 30 seconds or longer.Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular: Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two lower chambers of the heart. Classification of ventricular septal defects is based on location of the communication, such as perimembranous, inlet, outlet (infundibular), central muscular, marginal muscular, or apical muscular defect.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Tricuspid Valve Stenosis: The pathologic narrowing of the orifice of the TRICUSPID VALVE. This hinders the emptying of RIGHT ATRIUM leading to elevated right atrial pressure and systemic venous congestion. Tricuspid valve stenosis is almost always due to RHEUMATIC FEVER.Tachycardia, Atrioventricular Nodal Reentry: Abnormally rapid heartbeats caused by reentry of atrial impulse into the dual (fast and slow) pathways of ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE. The common type involves a blocked atrial impulse in the slow pathway which reenters the fast pathway in a retrograde direction and simultaneously conducts to the atria and the ventricles leading to rapid HEART RATE of 150-250 beats per minute.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Vascular Fistula: An abnormal passage between two or more BLOOD VESSELS, between ARTERIES; VEINS; or between an artery and a vein.Heart Aneurysm: A localized bulging or dilatation in the muscle wall of a heart (MYOCARDIUM), usually in the LEFT VENTRICLE. Blood-filled aneurysms are dangerous because they may burst. Fibrous aneurysms interfere with the heart function through the loss of contractility. True aneurysm is bound by the vessel wall or cardiac wall. False aneurysms are HEMATOMA caused by myocardial rupture.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Tachycardia, Supraventricular: A generic expression for any tachycardia that originates above the BUNDLE OF HIS.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular: Enlargement of the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is often attributed to PULMONARY HYPERTENSION and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Venae Cavae: The inferior and superior venae cavae.Tricuspid Atresia: Absence of the orifice between the RIGHT ATRIUM and RIGHT VENTRICLE, with the presence of an atrial defect through which all the systemic venous return reaches the left heart. As a result, there is left ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR) because the right ventricle is absent or not functional.Cardiac Tamponade: Compression of the heart by accumulated fluid (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION) or blood (HEMOPERICARDIUM) in the PERICARDIUM surrounding the heart. The affected cardiac functions and CARDIAC OUTPUT can range from minimal to total hemodynamic collapse.Superior Vena Cava Syndrome: A condition that occurs when the obstruction of the thin-walled SUPERIOR VENA CAVA interrupts blood flow from the head, upper extremities, and thorax to the RIGHT ATRIUM. Obstruction can be caused by NEOPLASMS; THROMBOSIS; ANEURYSM; or external compression. The syndrome is characterized by swelling and/or CYANOSIS of the face, neck, and upper arms.Fetal Heart: The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.Pericardial Effusion: Fluid accumulation within the PERICARDIUM. Serous effusions are associated with pericardial diseases. Hemopericardium is associated with trauma. Lipid-containing effusion (chylopericardium) results from leakage of THORACIC DUCT. Severe cases can lead to CARDIAC TAMPONADE.Azygos Vein: A vein which arises from the right ascending lumbar vein or the vena cava, enters the thorax through the aortic orifice in the diaphragm, and terminates in the superior vena cava.Ebstein Anomaly: A congenital heart defect characterized by downward or apical displacement of the TRICUSPID VALVE, usually with the septal and posterior leaflets being attached to the wall of the RIGHT VENTRICLE. It is characterized by a huge RIGHT ATRIUM and a small and less effective right ventricle.Tachycardia, Paroxysmal: Abnormally rapid heartbeats with sudden onset and cessation.Electric Countershock: An electrical current applied to the HEART to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm, ARRHYTHMIAS, CARDIAC. (Stedman, 25th ed)Coronary Vessel Anomalies: Malformations of CORONARY VESSELS, either arteries or veins. Included are anomalous origins of coronary arteries; ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA; CORONARY ANEURYSM; MYOCARDIAL BRIDGING; and others.Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency: Backflow of blood from the RIGHT VENTRICLE into the RIGHT ATRIUM due to imperfect closure of the TRICUSPID VALVE.Atrial Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the LEFT ATRIUM.Fluoroscopy: Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.Vascular Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the vasculature system, such as ARTERIES and VEINS. They are differentiated from neoplasms of vascular tissue (NEOPLASMS, VASCULAR TISSUE), such as ANGIOFIBROMA or HEMANGIOMA.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Pulmonary Embolism: Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sick Sinus Syndrome: A condition caused by dysfunctions related to the SINOATRIAL NODE including impulse generation (CARDIAC SINUS ARREST) and impulse conduction (SINOATRIAL EXIT BLOCK). It is characterized by persistent BRADYCARDIA, chronic ATRIAL FIBRILLATION, and failure to resume sinus rhythm following CARDIOVERSION. This syndrome can be congenital or acquired, particularly after surgical correction for heart defects.Anti-Arrhythmia Agents: Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Pericarditis: Inflammation of the PERICARDIUM from various origins, such as infection, neoplasm, autoimmune process, injuries, or drug-induced. Pericarditis usually leads to PERICARDIAL EFFUSION, or CONSTRICTIVE PERICARDITIS.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Echocardiography, Doppler, Color: Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image.Cor Triatriatum: A malformation of the heart in which the embryonic common PULMONARY VEIN was not incorporated into the LEFT ATRIUM leaving behind a perforated fibromuscular membrane bisecting the left atrium, a three-atrium heart. The opening between the two left atrium sections determines the degree of obstruction to pulmonary venous return, pulmonary venous and pulmonary arterial hypertension.Foreign-Body Migration: Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.Ventricular Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Alprenolol: One of the ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS used as an antihypertensive, anti-anginal, and anti-arrhythmic agent.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Heart Septal Defects: Abnormalities in any part of the HEART SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communication between the left and the right chambers of the heart. The abnormal blood flow inside the heart may be caused by defects in the ATRIAL SEPTUM, the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM, or both.Mitral Valve: The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.Angiocardiography: Radiography of the heart and great vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Pulmonary Atresia: A congenital heart defect characterized by the narrowing or complete absence of the opening between the RIGHT VENTRICLE and the PULMONARY ARTERY. Lacking a normal PULMONARY VALVE, unoxygenated blood in the right ventricle can not be effectively pumped into the lung for oxygenation. Clinical features include rapid breathing, CYANOSIS, right ventricle atrophy, and abnormal heart sounds (HEART MURMURS).Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Patient Rights: Fundamental claims of patients, as expressed in statutes, declarations, or generally accepted moral principles. (Bioethics Thesaurus) The term is used for discussions of patient rights as a group of many rights, as in a hospital's posting of a list of patient rights.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome: A form of ventricular pre-excitation characterized by a short PR interval and a long QRS interval with a delta wave. In this syndrome, atrial impulses are abnormally conducted to the HEART VENTRICLES via an ACCESSORY CONDUCTING PATHWAY that is located between the wall of the right or left atria and the ventricles, also known as a BUNDLE OF KENT. The inherited form can be caused by mutation of PRKAG2 gene encoding a gamma-2 regulatory subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase.Pindolol: A moderately lipophilic beta blocker (ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS). It is non-cardioselective and has intrinsic sympathomimetic actions, but little membrane-stabilizing activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmocopoeia, 30th ed, p638)Catheterization, Central Venous: Placement of an intravenous CATHETER in the subclavian, jugular, or other central vein.Oxprenolol: A beta-adrenergic antagonist used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, arrhythmias, and anxiety.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Lipoma: A benign tumor composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It can be surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue (encapsulated), or diffuse without the capsule.Fontan Procedure: A procedure in which total right atrial or total caval blood flow is channeled directly into the pulmonary artery or into a small right ventricle that serves only as a conduit. The principal congenital malformations for which this operation is useful are TRICUSPID ATRESIA and single ventricle with pulmonary stenosis.Tachycardia, Sinoatrial Nodal Reentry: Abnormally rapid heartbeats caused by reentry circuit in or around the SINOATRIAL NODE. It is characterized by sudden onset and offset episodes of tachycardia with a HEART RATE of 100-150 beats per minute. The P wave is identical to the sinus P wave but with a longer PR interval.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Tachycardia, Sinus: Simple rapid heartbeats caused by rapid discharge of impulses from the SINOATRIAL NODE, usually between 100 and 180 beats/min in adults. It is characterized by a gradual onset and termination. Sinus tachycardia is common in infants, young children, and adults during strenuous physical activities.Heart Valve Diseases: Pathological conditions involving any of the various HEART VALVES and the associated structures (PAPILLARY MUSCLES and CHORDAE TENDINEAE).Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Procaterol: A long-acting beta-2-adrenergic receptor agonist.Septal Nuclei: Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Dilatation, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Embolism, Air: Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Heart Murmurs: Heart sounds caused by vibrations resulting from the flow of blood through the heart. Heart murmurs can be examined by HEART AUSCULTATION, and analyzed by their intensity (6 grades), duration, timing (systolic, diastolic, or continuous), location, transmission, and quality (musical, vibratory, blowing, etc).Budd-Chiari Syndrome: A condition in which the hepatic venous outflow is obstructed anywhere from the small HEPATIC VEINS to the junction of the INFERIOR VENA CAVA and the RIGHT ATRIUM. Usually the blockage is extrahepatic and caused by blood clots (THROMBUS) or fibrous webs. Parenchymal FIBROSIS is uncommon.Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Incidental Findings: Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.Propanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Jugular Veins: Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.Atrioventricular Block: Impaired impulse conduction from HEART ATRIA to HEART VENTRICLES. AV block can mean delayed or completely blocked impulse conduction.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional: Echocardiography amplified by the addition of depth to the conventional two-dimensional ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY visualizing only the length and width of the heart. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging was first described in 1961 but its application to echocardiography did not take place until 1974. (Mayo Clin Proc 1993;68:221-40)Leiomyomatosis: The state of having multiple leiomyomas throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed)Central Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia: A congenital cardiomyopathy that is characterized by infiltration of adipose and fibrous tissue into the RIGHT VENTRICLE wall and loss of myocardial cells. Primary injuries usually are at the free wall of right ventricular and right atria resulting in ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Embolectomy: Surgical removal of an obstructing clot or foreign material which has been transported from a distant vessel by the bloodstream. Removal of a clot at its original site is called THROMBECTOMY.Ventricular Pressure: The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Leiomyosarcoma: A sarcoma containing large spindle cells of smooth muscle. Although it rarely occurs in soft tissue, it is common in the viscera. It is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract and uterus. The median age of patients is 60 years. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1865)Aortic Aneurysm: An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of AORTA.Bradycardia: Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Aortic Rupture: The tearing or bursting of the wall along any portion of the AORTA, such as thoracic or abdominal. It may result from the rupture of an aneurysm or it may be due to TRAUMA.Sternotomy: Making an incision in the STERNUM.Arrhythmia, Sinus: Irregular HEART RATE caused by abnormal function of the SINOATRIAL NODE. It is characterized by a greater than 10% change between the maximum and the minimum sinus cycle length or 120 milliseconds.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.Impromidine: A highly potent and specific histamine H2 receptor agonist. It has been used diagnostically as a gastric secretion indicator.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Verapamil: A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.Catheterization, Swan-Ganz: Placement of a balloon-tipped catheter into the pulmonary artery through the antecubital, subclavian, and sometimes the femoral vein. It is used to measure pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure which reflects left atrial pressure and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. The catheter is threaded into the right atrium, the balloon is inflated and the catheter follows the blood flow through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle and out into the pulmonary artery.Thoracotomy: Surgical incision into the chest wall.Practolol: A beta-1 adrenergic antagonist that has been used in the emergency treatment of CARDIAC ARRYTHMIAS.BiguanidesAnalysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Foramen Ovale, Patent: A condition in which the FORAMEN OVALE in the ATRIAL SEPTUM fails to close shortly after birth. This results in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. An isolated patent ovale foramen without other structural heart defects is usually of no hemodynamic significance.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Hepatic Veins: Veins which drain the liver.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Device Removal: Removal of an implanted therapeutic or prosthetic device.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Phlebography: Radiographic visualization or recording of a vein after the injection of contrast medium.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Diagonal Band of Broca: Cholinergic bundle of nerve fibers posterior to the anterior perforated substance. It interconnects the paraterminal gyrus in the septal area with the hippocampus and lateral olfactory area.Circulatory Arrest, Deep Hypothermia Induced: A technique to arrest the flow of blood by lowering BODY TEMPERATURE to about 20 degrees Centigrade, usually achieved by infusing chilled perfusate. The technique provides a bloodless surgical field for complex surgeries.Pericardiectomy: Surgical excision (total or partial) of a portion of the pericardium. Pericardiotomy refers to incision of the pericardium.Chitin Synthase: An enzyme that converts UDP glucosamine into chitin and UDP. EC 2.4.1.16.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
... (1912). "Aneurysm of the membraneous septum projecting into the right atrium". Anat. Record. 6, 7, 291-298. ... Mall demonstrated that the nascent atrium of the heart could be identified based on the close proximity of endothelium to the ...
Divided right atrium (prominence of the eustachian and thebesian valves). J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. Sep 1988;96(3):457-63. [ ... Congenital malformation of heart: abnormal septum in left auricle. Trans Path Soz. 1868;19:188-190. Griffith TW. Note on a ... The membrane that separates the atrium into two parts varies significantly in size and shape. It may appear similar to a ... The membrane divides the right atrium into a proximal (upper) and a distal (lower) chamber. The upper chamber receives the ...
This septum divides the primitive atrium into a right and a left atrium. Firstly it starts as a crescent-shaped piece of tissue ... A second septum (the septum secundum) begins to form to the right of the septum primum. This also leaves a small opening, the ... The crescent shape prevents the complete closure of the atria allowing blood to be shunted from the right to the left atrium ... Between the ventricles the septum inferius also forms which develops into the muscular interventricular septum. The digestive ...
The septum is made of a special self-sealing silicone; it can be punctured hundreds of times before it weakens significantly. ... the catheter terminates in the superior vena cava or the right atrium. This position allows infused agents to be spread ... To reduce damage or coring of the septum during use, low or non coring needles are to be used. After each use, a heparin lock ... Under the skin, the port has a septum through which drugs can be injected and blood samples can be drawn many times, usually ...
The surgeon removes the myxoma, along with at least 5 surrounding millimeters of atrial septum. The septum is then repaired, ... Atrial myxoma Cutaneous myxoma Odontogenic myxoma Myxomas are usually located in either the left or right atrium of the heart; ... The most common location for attachment of the stalk is the fossa ovalis region of the interatrial septum. An atrial myxoma may ... Myxomas are typically pedunculated, with a stalk that is attached to the interatrial septum. ...
Atypical atrial flutter originating from the right atrium and heart's septum have also been described. Play media While atrial ... Because there is little if any effective contraction of the atria there is stasis (pooling) of blood in the atria. Stasis of ... Impulses from the atria are conducted to the ventricles through the atrio-ventricular node (AV node). In a person with atrial ... Because both rhythms can lead to the formation of a blood clot in the atrium, individuals with atrial flutter usually require ...
The atria, ventricles, and septum are supplied of blood by this modality. The deep branches of the coronary arteries found ... Pulmonary veins attach to the left atrium separately, and also the opening to the pulmonary veins are separated by a septum. ... It functions to carry the electrical impulse from the atria to the ventricle. Upon view, the myocardial cells are observed to ... Moreover, similarities also include a larger right atrium volume, and a thicker left ventricle to fulfil the systemic circuit. ...
In addition, the atrial septum which distinguishes the 2 atria is absent. These impairments, in addition to congestion in the ... as opposed to the normal right atrium and left atrium. In right atrial isomerism, the pulmonary blood oxygen tract is damaged ... Individuals with right atrial isomerism develop 2 sinoatrial nodes, as they have 2 mirrored right atria, whereas those with ... is a cardiac development defect in which the heart has 2 bilateral left atria and atrial appendages in the muscle wall. Left ...
Heart section showing ventricles and ventricular septum. Ventricles have thicker walls than atria and generate higher blood ... pulmonary veins) → left atrium (atrial appendage) → mitral valve → left ventricle → aortic valve (aortic sinus) → (aorta and ... venae cavae, coronary sinus) → right atrium (atrial appendage, fossa ovalis, limbus of fossa ovalis, crista terminalis, valve ... A ventricle is one of two large chambers toward the bottom of the heart that collect and expel blood received from an atrium ...
For orientation, the left atrium is identified by the presence of the septum primum and the pulmonary veins. Cardiac situs can ... be determined by identifying the systemic veins and the position of the atria relative to the liver and spleen. Next, the ...
Initially the atria are separated from one another by the septum primum except for a small opening below the septum, the ostium ... This forces the septum primum against the septum secundum, functionally closing the foramen ovale. In time the septa eventually ... Blood then only passes from the right to left atrium by way of a small passageway in the septum secundum and then through the ... Subsequently, a second wall of tissue, the septum secundum, grows over the ostium secundum in the right atrium. ...
However, a hole in the septum called the foramen ovale, allows blood from the right atrium to enter the left atrium during ... the atria are separated by a dividing wall, the interatrial septum. If this septum is defective or absent, then oxygen-rich ... blood shunts from the left atrium to the right atrium. This extra blood from the left atrium may cause a volume overload of ... If a net flow of blood exists from the left atrium to the right atrium, called a left-to-right shunt, then an increase in the ...
This is found at the bottom of the right atrium in the atrioventricular septum-the boundary between the right atrium and the ... The interatrial septum separates the atria and the interventricular septum separates the ventricles. The interventricular ... Like the right atrium, the left atrium is lined by pectinate muscles. The left atrium is connected to the left ventricle by the ... the atria refill as blood flows into the right atrium through the superior and inferior vena cavae, and into the left atrium ...
... Base of ventricles exposed by removal of the atria. The arch of the aorta, and its branches. Plan of the ... The PDA supplies the inferior wall, ventricular septum, and the posteromedial papillary muscle. The RCA also supplies the SA ...
The primitive ventricle becomes divided by the septum inferius which develops into the interventricular septum. The septum ... Heart showing expansion of the atria. This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's ... but this foramen is ultimately closed by the fusion of the aortic septum with the ventricular septum. ... Its dorsal part increases more rapidly than its ventral portion, and fuses with the dorsal part of the septum intermedium. For ...
Septa form within the atria and ventricles to separate the left and right sides of the heart. The heart derives from embryonic ... When the right of the atrium expands due to the incorporation of the pole of the sinus, a new fold appears, called the septum ... The embryonic left atrium remains as the trabecular left atrial appendage, and the embryonic right atrium remains as the right ... The right pole joins the right atrium to form the wall portion of the right atrium. The right and left venous valves fuse and ...
The AV node is quite compact (~1 x 3 x 5 mm). The AV node lies at the lower back section of the interatrial septum near the ... It electrically connects the right atrium and right ventricle. The AV node lies at the lower back section of the interatrial ... septum near the opening of the coronary sinus, which conducts the normal electrical impulse from the atria to the ventricles. ... The AV node receives two inputs from the right atrium: posteriorly, via the crista terminalis, and anteriorly, via the ...
The atrium (an adjacent/upper heart chamber that is smaller than a ventricle) primes the pump. Interventricular means between ... Its posterior wall is formed by the ventricular septum, which bulges into the right ventricle, so that a transverse section of ... The right ventricle is triangular in shape and extends from the tricuspid valve in the right atrium to near the apex of the ... A ventricle is one of two large chambers in the heart that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the ...
To the right of the septum primum and also coming down from the roof of the primitive atrium, descends a semilunar-shaped ... From the roof of the primitive atrium descends the septum primum, which grows towards the endocardial cushions within the ... The free edges of the septum secundum produce an orifice called foramen ovale, which closes after birth when the septum primum ... Right before the septum primum fuses with the endocardial cushions there's a temporary space called the foramen primum. Once ...
Streaming this blood across the atrial septum via the foramen ovale increases the oxygen content of blood in the left atrium. ... When the pressure in the left atrium exceeds the pressure in the right atrium, the foramen ovale begins to close and limits the ... In fetal life, the eustachian valve helps direct the flow of oxygen-rich blood through the right atrium into the left atrium ... Int J Card Imaging 2000;16(4):305-7. Atlas image: ht_rt_atrium at the University of Michigan Health System - "Right atrium, ...
The septum primum, a septum which grows down to separate the primitive atrium into the left atrium and right atrium, grows in ... Typically this defect will cause a shunt to occur from the left atrium to the right atrium. Children born with this defect may ... It progressively decreases in size as the septum grows downwards, and disappears with the formation of the atrial septum. The ... It progressively decreases in size as the septum grows downwards, and disappears with the formation of the atrial septum. ...
This may occur in the free walls of the ventricles, the septum between them, the papillary muscles, or less commonly the atria ... Rupture of the intraventricular septum (the muscle separating the left and right ventricles) causes a ventricular septal defect ...
This causes some of the blood to travel "in reverse", from the left ventricle to the left atrium, instead of forward to the ... There is also an anastomosis between the septal branches of the two coronary arteries in the interventricular septum. The ... Cardiac veins carry blood with a poor level of oxygen, from the myocardium to the right atrium. Most of the blood of the ... This leaking of blood to the left atrium is known as mitral regurgitation. Similarly, the leaking of blood from the right ...
The foramen ovale is a hole in the atrial septum which allows blood from the right atrium to flow into the left atrium; after ... Differences in the shape of the atrial septum and/or ventricular outflow tracts affect the relative positions of the aorta and ... An atrial septectomy is the surgical removal of the atrial septum; this is performed when a patent foramen ovale ( PFO ), or ... and inflated to enlarge the opening in the atrial septum; this creates a shunt which allows a larger amount of oxygenated ("red ...
primitive atrium *septum primum. *ostium primum of Born. *foramen ovale (ostium secundum of Born) ... Ventricular septum (septum ventriculorum; interventricular septum) *muscular ventricular septum. *membranous ventricular septum ... Right atrium[редактиране , редактиране на кода]. Страница 528[редактиране , редактиране на кода]. *Right atrium (atrium dextrum ... Left atrium[редактиране , редактиране на кода]. Страница 533[редактиране , редактиране на кода]. *Left atrium (atrium sinistum ...
The atrial septum is removed, the aortic arch is reconstructed to remove any hypoplasia, and then the main pulmonary artery is ... This ensures that there is enough of a connection between the two atria of the heart to provide open blood flow and mixing of ...
Divided right atrium (prominence of the eustachian and thebesian valves). J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. Sep 1988;96(3):457-63. [ ... Congenital malformation of heart: abnormal septum in left auricle. Trans Path Soz. 1868;19:188-190. Griffith TW. Note on a ... The membrane that separates the atrium into two parts varies significantly in size and shape. It may appear similar to a ... The membrane divides the right atrium into a proximal (upper) and a distal (lower) chamber. The upper chamber receives the ...
The heart is enlarged with a markedly dilated right atrium and leftward bowing of the atrial septum. The tricuspid valve is ... The left atrium and left ventricle are within normal size. These findings are compatible with Ebstein anomaly. ... The atrialized portion of the right ventricle is dilated with associated leftward bowing of the ventricular septum. The right ... The right-sided superior and inferior vena cavae drain into the right atrium. ...
About 75% of myxomas occur in the left atrium of the heart, usually beginning in the wall that divides the two upper chambers ... It grows on the wall (atrial septum) that separates the two sides of the heart. ... The rest are in the right atrium. Right atrial myxomas are sometimes associated with tricuspid stenosis and atrial fibrillation ...
Left Atrium, Left Atrial Appendage, Pulmonary Veins, and Atrial Septum. Given its anatomic location immediately anterior to the ... The interatrial septum (IAS) is examined next at the mid esophageal level by turning the probe slightly to the right of midline ... Right Atrium. The examination of the RA is initiated from the mid esophageal four-chamber view which allows direct comparison ... The cusp adjacent to the atrial septum is the noncoronary cusp, the most anterior cusp is the right coronary cusp, and the ...
Pacing the apical area of the heart by pacing electrodes 14 allows the septum, and free walls of the left atrium and left ... The apex of the heart is where the free walls of left and right ventricles meet the intraventricular septum. This left ... In an alternative embodiment, stimulation may be arranged such that the septum is stimulated slightly before the free walls of ... The area around the intraventricular septum may be stimulated slightly before polarizing the three walls of the ventricles, ...
The left atrium is almost entirely on the back of the heart. The interventricular and interatrial septa are at approximately a ... left atrium; L.5., left subclavian artery; L.V., left ventricle; M., mitral valve; R.A., right atrium; R.V., right ventricle; T ... Heart J., 28:435-447, 1966). B.T., brachiocephalic trunk; C.C., left common carotid artery; I.V.S., interventricular septum; L. ... right and left portions of the heart would appear approximately equally separated along the line of the interventricular septum ...
... interventricular septum; LA = left atrium; LV = left ventricle. ...
LA, left atrium. IVS, interventricular septum.. Loop 5. Deep transgastric long axis view. Left ventricular (LV) contractility ... LA, left atrium. RV, right ventricle. LV, left ventricle. VSD, ventricular septal defect. ...
AML, anterior mitral leaflet; Ao, aorta; IVS, interventricular septum; LA, left atrium; PML, posterior mitral leaflet; PV, ... The aortic valve thickness, the thickness of the interventricular septum and LV posterior wall, and the end-diastolic and end- ... pulmonary valve; RA, right atrium; TV, tricuspid valve. Scale bars: 200 μm (D); 50 μm (D, higher magnification); 500 μm (E); 20 ...
... interventricular septum; LA = left atrium; LV = left ventricle. ...
LA, left atrium; LVDd, left ventricular internal end-diastole dimension; IVS, interventricular septum; LVPW, left ventricular ... LA, left atrium; LVDd, left ventricular internal end-diastole dimension; IVS, interventricular septum; LVPW, left ventricular ... LA, left atrium; LVDd, left ventricular internal end-diastole dimension; IVS: interventricular septum; LVPW, left ventricular ... left atrium; LVDd, left ventricular internal end-diastole dimension; IVS, interventricular septum; LVPW, left ventricular ...
At, atrium; LV, left ventricle; RV, right ventricle; S, septum; Cr, cranial; CD, caudal; L, left; R, right; A, anterior; P, ...
... interatrial septum; RA, right atrium; SVC, superior vena cava. ... A) OAPs and SAN electrogram show exit block from SAN to atria. ... This and previous intramural mapping studies (2, 7, 29) revealed that the SAN is functionally insulated from the atria except ... 6. Heterogeneous A1R and GIRK1/4 protein expression in human SAN and atria revealed by ex vivo molecular mapping.. (A) SAN ... 1B) (2, 19). The SAN was almost entirely structurally insulated from the surrounding atria by a border composed of fibrosis, ...
... atrium; V, ventricle; Ao, aorta; PA, pulmonary artery; VS, ventricle septum;OFT, outflow tract; dAo, dorsal aorta. Each ... At, atrium; RV, right ventricle; LV, left ventricle; A, ...
Septum. A partition separating the two chambers of the heart. Right Atrium Receives unoxygenated blood from the veins. ... Left Atrium Receives oxygenated blood from lungs and pumps it to the lungs through pulmonary artery. ... Receives blood from the right Atrium and pumped it to the lungs through pulmonary artery. ...
... right atrium; RV, right ventricle; SAM, systolic anterior motion; and VS, ventricular septum. ... These potentially echo-blind areas can be in the anterolateral free wall, apex, or posterior (inferior) septum (Figure 2).1,3,5 ... B, Contrast-CMR: extensive transmural LGE of septum (arrows), comprising 20% of overall LV mass. C, A 48-year-old man with ... CMR indicates cardiac magnetic resonance; D, distal portion of LV camber; HCM, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; LA, left atrium; ...
Over the atria to the AVN. - Delayed here for about 120 ms. - Down the muscular septum (via the bundle of His) between the ... Right atrium. - SA and AV nodes. - Posterior part of inter ventricular septum. Veins that drain region = small and middle ... Left atrium. - Left ventricle. - Interventricular septum. - AV bundles. Vein that drains region = great cardiac vein ... Right atrium develops from:. - Most of the primitive atrium. - Sinus venosus (right horn). - Receives venous drainage from the ...
... able to identify the tenting of the interatrial septum and further advancement of the transseptal needle into the left atrium. ... visualizing right atrium lead thrombus from the right atrium)], then we have to adjust the focus. ... Left atrium and pulmonary veins.. From the home position, with the mild clockwise rotation, we can direct imaging plane ... For the purpose of transseptal access and imaging of the right-sided pulmonary veins from the right atrium, and the setting of ...
Ant, anterior; Ao, aorta; IAS, interatrial septum; L, left coronary cusp; LA, left atrium; LCA, left coronary artery; LV, left ... In fact, the right ventricular muscle in the interventricular septum is separated from the RCC and aorta by a loose connective ... The PVCs were successfully ablated in the RVOT septum (A and B), RVOT free wall (C), left coronary cusp (D), right coronary ... When atrial tachycardias arise from that region of the atria, those atrial tachycardias can be ablated from within the NCC. It ...
Cardiomyocytes Atrioventricular Septum * Cardiomyocytes Left Atrium * Cardiomyocytes Inner Curvature mRNA differential ...
... interventricular septum; IVC, inferior vena cava; RA, right atrium: TAPSE, tricuspid annular plane systolic; PSP, pulmonary ... LA, left atrium; LV, left ventricle; LVED, left ventricle end-diastolic: RVED, right ventricle end-diastolic; IVS, ... left atrium enlarges in response to an increased preload (volume overload, arteriovenous fistula, mitral valve regurgitation, ...
Located in the interventricular septum. *Only path of electrical connection between atria and ventricles ... Depolarization results in the simultaneous contraction of the two atria. *Depolarizations travel through atria to the ... Receives action potential from AV node and the propogates it down through the interventricular septum to the left and right ... Action potentials from the cells of the SA node result in a wave of depolarization across the atria ...
... the primary difference between the left and right atria is that the left atrium receives oxygenated blood while the right ... The atria are connected by the interatrial septum.. The left atrium receives oxygenated blood through a smooth-walled portion ... Is the Left Atrium Larger Than the Right Atrium?. * What Is the Path the Blood Follows Through the Human Body Starting at the ... What Is the Function of the Left Atrium?. A: The left atrium serves as a vessel for blood coming from the lungs and a pump to ...
septum *chambers *atrium *ventricle *valves (atrioventricular, semilunar, mitral, bicuspid, tricuspid) *Papillary muscles * ... One pumping action of the heart is called the cardiac cycle-diastole is the filling of the atria and ventricles and systole is ...
atria. largest artery of the body. septum. Separates the blood. Valves. a device that opens or closes to let things through or ...
  • delivering the defibrillation shock to the atria after the preparatory shock during contraction of the atria, wherein the preparatory shock has a strength less than the defibrillation shock. (google.de)
  • Its wall is thickest at the apex and thins towards its base at the atrium. (wikipedia.org)
  • In canines and humans, there is evidence that the left bundle branch (LBB), in contrast to the RBB, gives off several branches as it inserts into the septum and the ventricular free wall. (ahajournals.org)
  • B , Contrast-CMR: extensive transmural LGE of septum (arrows), comprising 20% of overall LV mass. (ahajournals.org)
  • Connexin 40 (FITC) was observed in NTG atrium (arrows) localized in cell-cell junctions, whereas connexin 40 expression in TG atrium was occasionally detectable ( j and l ). (jci.org)
  • It grows from the roof of the atrium but never reaches the AV cushion forming the fossa ovalis. (edu.mt)