Septins: A family of GTP-binding proteins that were initially identified in YEASTS where they were shown to initiate the process of septation and bud formation. Septins form into hetero-oligomeric complexes that are comprised of several distinct septin subunits. These complexes can act as cytoskeletal elements that play important roles in CYTOKINESIS, cytoskeletal reorganization, BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, and membrane dynamics.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Actin Depolymerizing Factors: A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. They remodel the actin CYTOSKELETON by severing ACTIN FILAMENTS and increasing the rate of monomer dissociation.Actin Capping Proteins: Actin capping proteins are cytoskeletal proteins that bind to the ends of ACTIN FILAMENTS to regulate actin polymerization.Profilins: A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Eremothecium: A genus of ascomycetous yeast in the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES. Species in the genus are plant pathogens.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Thiazolidines: Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.Phalloidine: Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Hyphae: Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.Contractile Proteins: Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Gelsolin: A 90-kDa protein produced by macrophages that severs ACTIN filaments and forms a cap on the newly exposed filament end. Gelsolin is activated by CALCIUM ions and participates in the assembly and disassembly of actin, thereby increasing the motility of some CELLS.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS from SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. It is involved in morphological events related to the cell cycle. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Cytochalasin D: A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.Asthenozoospermia: A condition in which the percentage of progressively motile sperm is abnormally low. In men, it is defined as Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Pseudopodia: A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.Actomyosin: A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic: A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex: A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 PROTEIN and ARP3 PROTEIN that plays an essential role in maintenance and assembly of the CYTOSKELETON. Arp2-3 complex binds WASP PROTEIN and existing ACTIN FILAMENTS, and it nucleates the formation of new branch point filaments.GTP Phosphohydrolase Activators: Agents and factors that activate GTP phosphohydrolase activity.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Cellular Structures: Components of a cell.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Tropomyosin: A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching: A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Actin-Related Protein 2: A PROFILIN binding domain protein that is part of the Arp2-3 complex. It is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and binds ATP.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Actin-Related Protein 3: A component of the Arp2-3 complex that is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and that binds ATP. It is expressed at higher levels than ARP2 PROTEIN and does not contain a PROFILIN binding domain.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.rho GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Actinin: A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Depsipeptides: Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.GTP-Binding Protein Regulators: Proteins that regulate the signaling activity of GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They are divided into three categories depending upon whether they stimulate GTPase activity (GTPASE-ACTIVATING PROTEINS), inhibit release of GDP; (GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE DISSOCIATION INHIBITORS); or exchange GTP for GDP; (GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS).Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Sertoli Cell-Only Syndrome: A type of male infertility in which no germ cells are visible in any of the biopsied SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES (type I) or in which germ cells are present in a minority of tubules (type II). Clinical features include AZOOSPERMIA, normal VIRILIZATION, and normal chromosomal complement.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein, Neuronal: A member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family that is found at high levels in NERVE CELLS. It interacts with GRB2 ADAPTOR PROTEIN and with CDC42 PROTEIN.Biopolymers: Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein: WASP protein is mutated in WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME and is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells. It is the founding member of the WASP protein family and interacts with CDC42 PROTEIN to help regulate ACTIN polymerization.Cell Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Saccharomycetales: An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Cytochalasins: 11- to 14-membered macrocyclic lactones with a fused isoindolone. Members with INDOLES attached at the C10 position are called chaetoglobosins. They are produced by various fungi. Some members interact with ACTIN and inhibit CYTOKINESIS.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases: A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Myosin Type II: The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Brachial Plexus Neuritis: A syndrome associated with inflammation of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Clinical features include severe pain in the shoulder region which may be accompanied by MUSCLE WEAKNESS and loss of sensation in the upper extremity. This condition may be associated with VIRUS DISEASES; IMMUNIZATION; SURGERY; heroin use (see HEROIN DEPENDENCE); and other conditions. The term brachial neuralgia generally refers to pain associated with brachial plexus injury. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1355-6)Protein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Nucleosome Assembly Protein 1: A histone chaperone that facilitates nucleosome assembly by mediating the formation of the histone octamer and its transfer to DNA.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Filamins: A family of crosslinking filament proteins encoded by distinct FLN genes. Filamins are involved in cell adhesion, spreading, and migration, acting as scaffolds for over 90 binding partners including channels, receptors, intracellular signaling molecules and transcription factors. Due to the range of molecular interactions, mutations in FLN genes result in anomalies with moderate to lethal consequences.Artificial Gene Fusion: The in vitro fusion of GENES by RECOMBINANT DNA techniques to analyze protein behavior or GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, or to merge protein functions for specific medical or industrial uses.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Vinculin: A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein Family: A family of microfilament proteins whose name derives from the fact that mutations in members of this protein family have been associated with WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME. They are involved in ACTIN polymerization and contain a polyproline-rich region that binds to PROFILIN, and a verprolin homology domain that binds G-ACTIN.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.GTPase-Activating Proteins: Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.CDC28 Protein Kinase, S cerevisiae: A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Dictyostelium: A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.Cell Surface Extensions: Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Calmodulin-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.rac1 GTP-Binding Protein: A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.rac GTP-Binding Proteins: A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Nerve Tissue ProteinsProtein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Cytochalasin B: A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.Myosin Type I: A subclass of myosins found generally associated with actin-rich membrane structures such as filopodia. Members of the myosin type I family are ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotes. The heavy chains of myosin type I lack coiled-coil forming sequences in their tails and therefore do not dimerize.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates: Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Myosin Type V: A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Chitin Synthase: An enzyme that converts UDP glucosamine into chitin and UDP. EC 2.4.1.16.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.Vesicle-Associated Membrane Protein 2: A synaptic membrane protein involved in MEMBRANE FUSION of SYNAPTIC VESICLES with the presynaptic membranes. It is the prototype member of the R-SNARE PROTEINS.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Tropomodulin: An actin capping protein that binds to the pointed-end of ACTIN. It functions in the presence of TROPOMYOSIN to inhibit microfilament elongation.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Focal Adhesions: An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Chitin: A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Phenylurea Compounds: Compounds that include the amino-N-phenylamide structure.Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Diphosphate: A phosphoinositide present in all eukaryotic cells, particularly in the plasma membrane. It is the major substrate for receptor-stimulated phosphoinositidase C, with the consequent formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and probably also for receptor-stimulated inositol phospholipid 3-kinase. (Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Protein-Arginine N-Methyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the methylation of arginine residues of proteins to yield N-mono- and N,N-dimethylarginine. This enzyme is found in many organs, primarily brain and spleen.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Genes, Essential: Those genes found in an organism which are necessary for its viability and normal function.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.ThiazolesAspergillus nidulans: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Molecular Motor Proteins: Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Amoeba: A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.Ca(2+) Mg(2+)-ATPaseImmunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Small Ubiquitin-Related Modifier Proteins: A class of structurally related proteins of 12-20 kDa in size. They covalently modify specific proteins in a manner analogous to UBIQUITIN.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Azoospermia: A condition of having no sperm present in the ejaculate (SEMEN).Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).PhosphoproteinsElectrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.GizzardRhodamines: A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein: Myeloid-lymphoid leukemia protein is a transcription factor that maintains high levels of HOMEOTIC GENE expression during development. The GENE for myeloid-lymphoid leukemia protein is commonly disrupted in LEUKEMIA and combines with over 40 partner genes to form FUSION ONCOGENE PROTEINS.SUMO-1 Protein: A 1.5-kDa small ubiquitin-related modifier protein that can covalently bind via an isopeptide link to a number of cellular proteins. It may play a role in intracellular protein transport and a number of other cellular processes.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .Zyxin: A zinc-binding phosphoprotein that concentrates at focal adhesions and along the actin cytoskeleton. Zyxin has an N-terminal proline-rich domain and three LIM domains in its C-terminal half.Cytoplasmic Streaming: The movement of CYTOPLASM within a CELL. It serves as an internal transport system for moving essential substances throughout the cell, and in single-celled organisms, such as the AMOEBA, it is responsible for the movement (CELL MOVEMENT) of the entire cell.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
2003). "Self- and actin-templated assembly of Mammalian septins". Dev. Cell. 3 (6): 791-802. doi:10.1016/S1534-5807(02)00366-0 ... Anillin specifically binds F-actin, rather than G-actin. Binding of F-actin by anillin only occurs during cell division. ... Anillins are required for the faithfulness of cytokinesis and its F-actin-, myosin-, and septin-binding domains implicate ... Anillin is also bundles actin filaments together. Amino acids 258-340 are sufficient and necessary for F-actin binding in ...
Knockdown of SEPT2, SEPT6, and SEPT7 in causes actin stress fibers to disintegrate and cells to lose polarity. Septins, SOCS7, ... Kremer BE, Adang LA, Macara IG (September 2007). "Septins regulate actin organization and cell-cycle arrest through nuclear ... "Borg/septin interactions and the assembly of mammalian septin heterodimers, trimers, and filaments". The Journal of Biological ... Septin 2, also known as SEPT2, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the SEPT2 gene. SEPT2 can hetero-oligomerize with ...
Kremer BE, Adang LA, Macara IG (Sep 2007). "Septins regulate actin organization and cell-cycle arrest through nuclear ... 7 interacts with the actin cytoskeleton through vinexin". Experimental Cell Research. 298 (1): 239-48. doi:10.1016/j.yexcr. ...
Kremer BE, Adang LA, Macara IG (September 2007). "Septins regulate actin organization and cell-cycle arrest through nuclear ... Septin-6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SEPT6 gene. This gene is a member of the septin family of GTPases. ... "Phosphorylation of a new brain-specific septin, G-septin, by cGMP-dependent protein kinase". The Journal of Biological ... "Borg/septin interactions and the assembly of mammalian septin heterodimers, trimers, and filaments". The Journal of Biological ...
Kremer BE, Adang LA, Macara IG (September 2007). "Septins regulate actin organization and cell-cycle arrest through nuclear ... Septin-7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SEPT7 gene. This gene encodes a protein that is highly similar to the ... "Entrez Gene: SEPT7 septin 7". Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, O'Connor ... Oegema K, Savoian MS, Mitchison TJ, Field CM (August 2000). "Functional analysis of a human homologue of the Drosophila actin ...
F-actin) via direct binding to F-actin regulatory proteins. PIP2 recruits cytosolic septin monomers/oligomers to membrane ... Sun, Hui; Yamamoto, Masaya; Mejillano, Marisan; Yin, Helen (November 19, 1999). "Gelsolin, a Multifunctional Actin Regulatory ... surfaces via direct binding to the polybasic motif present in septin monomers (citation). The specificity of septins for PIP2 ... PIP2 regulates the organization, polymerization, and branching of filamentous actin ( ...
"Entrez Gene: SEPT9 septin 9". Surka MC, Tsang CW, Trimble WS (Oct 2002). "The mammalian septin MSF localizes with microtubules ... Shankar J, Messenberg A, Chan J, Underhill TM, Foster LJ, Nabi IR (May 2010). "Pseudopodial actin dynamics control epithelial- ... Septin-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SEPT9 gene. SEPT9 has been shown to interact with SEPT2 and SEPT7. Along ... Taki T, Ohnishi H, Shinohara K, Sako M, Bessho F, Yanagisawa M, Hayashi Y (Sep 1999). "AF17q25, a putative septin family gene, ...
Septin is heavily involved in the formation of the fungal AMR. In most bacteria and many archea a homologous structure called ... During the process actin filaments are degraded, preserving the thickness of the ring. After cytokinesis is complete, one of ... Cytokinesis:Actin-myosin ring assembly and contraction Cheffings TH, Burroughs NJ, Balasubramanian MK. (2016). Actomyosin Ring ... It is composed of actin and myosin II bundles, thus the term actomyosin, that operates in contractile motion although the ...
... septins, F-actin, myosin II, and mDia2 and it has been shown that its depletion results in cleavage furrow instability. Citron- ... In molecular terms, citron-K depletion impaired the accumulation of 3 key proteins: Rho, Anillin and septins (specifically ... actin, myosin light chain, and anillin. The N- terminal of the coiled- coil domain of Citron-K directly interacts with the 2nd ... localizes to the cleavage furrow via association of a predicted coiled-coil region with actin and myosin. However, Sti ...
F-actin, myosin motors, and associated binding, nucleating, capping, stabilizing, and crosslinking proteins), 2) microtubules ... other assemblies such as spectrins and septins. The active and dynamic nature of cellular assemblies makes them particularly ...
It also contributes to the linkage of the actin-myosin ring to the plasma membrane. Another protein, septin, has also been ... This actin filament formation process also requires a protein called profilin, which binds to actin monomers and helps load ... Besides actin and myosin II, the contractile ring contains the scaffolding protein anillin. Anillin binds to actin, myosin, ... Actin filament disassembly during late cytokinesis depends on the PKCε-14-3-3 complex, which inactivates RhoA after furrow ...
For example, the actin bundling protein anillin is required for correct spatial control of septin organization. In the sperm ... The septin localized in the mitochondria is called mitochondrial septin (M-septin). It was identified as a CRMP/CRAM- ... and septin complexes contain the two different septins in a tetrameric UNC59-UNC61-UNC61-UNC59 complex. Septins in C.elegans ... In contrast to septins in yeast, and in contrast to other cytoskeletal components of metazoa, septins do not form a continuous ...
septin complex. • صبغي. • photoreceptor connecting cilium. • قشرة الخلية. • exocyst. • midbody. • نوية. • ciliary membrane. • ... actin cytoskeleton. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • خيط محوري. • الانشقاق الثلم. • chromosome, centromeric region. • هيكل ... "Entrez Gene: SEPT2 septin 2". مؤرشف من الأصل في 05 ديسمبر 2010. الوسيط ,مسار أرشيف=. تم تجاهله (مساعدة); الوسيط ,تاريخ أرشيف=. ... "Borg/septin interactions and the assembly of mammalian septin heterodimers, trimers, and filaments". The Journal of Biological ...
... septins, F-actin, myosin II, and mDia2 and it has been shown that its depletion results in cleavage furrow instability.[18] ... actin cytoskeleton. • intracellular. Biological process. • cell differentiation. • intracellular signal transduction. • ... regulation of actin polymerization or depolymerization. • Golgi organization. • mitotic cytokinesis. • neuron apoptotic process ... In molecular terms, citron-K depletion impaired the accumulation of 3 key proteins: Rho, Anillin and septins (specifically ...
Actin cables are bundles of actin filaments and are involved in the transport of vesicles towards the cap (which contains a ... Therefore, septins can be considered part of the cytoskeleton. The function of septins in cells include serving as a localized ... Actin-like proteins are actin in eukaryotes and MreB, FtsA in prokaryotes. An example of a WACA-proteins, which are mostly ... The G-actin monomer combines to form a polymer which continues to form the microfilament (actin filament). These subunits then ...
Joberty G, Perlungher RR, Sheffield PJ, Kinoshita M, Noda M, Haystead T, Macara IG (Oct 2001). "Borg proteins control septin ... CDC42, a small Rho GTPase, regulates the formation of F-actin-containing structures through its interaction with the downstream ... which suggested a role of this protein in actin filament assembly and cell shape control. CDC42EP2 has been shown to interact ...
2004). "Mammalian TOR complex 2 controls the actin cytoskeleton and is rapamycin insensitive". Nat. Cell Biol. 6 (11): 1122-8. ... 2005). "Possible role of Rho/Rhotekin signaling in mammalian septin organization". Oncogene. 24 (47): 7064-72. doi:10.1038/sj. ...
At least eight components of the exocyst complex, including this protein, are found to interact with the actin cytoskeletal ... 1998). "Subunit composition, protein interactions, and structures of the mammalian brain sec6/8 complex and septin filaments". ...
At least eight components of the exocyst complex, including this protein, are found to interact with the actin cytoskeletal ... and structures of the mammalian brain sec6/8 complex and septin filaments". Neuron. 20 (6): 1111-22. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(00) ...
CDC42, a small Rho GTPase, regulates the formation of F-actin-containing structures through its interaction with the downstream ... 2001). "Borg proteins control septin organization and are negatively regulated by Cdc42". Nat. Cell Biol. 3 (10): 861-6. doi: ...
Vega IE, Hsu SC (2003). "The septin protein Nedd5 associates with both the exocyst complex and microtubules and disruption of ... At least eight components of the exocyst complex, including this protein, are found to interact with the actin cytoskeletal ... and structures of the mammalian brain sec6/8 complex and septin filaments". Neuron. 20 (6): 1111-22. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(00) ...
2012-03). «Septins: the fourth component of the cytoskeleton» Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology (3): 183-194 doi:10.1038/ ... 2018-05-23). «The Actin/Spectrin Membrane-Associated Periodic Skeleton in Neurons» Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience (10) doi: ... 2012-03). «Septins: the fourth component of the cytoskeleton» Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology (3): 183-194 doi:10.1038/ ... Septin proteins take bacterial prisoners» Nature News doi:10.1038/nature.2011.9540 . Noiz kontsultatua: 2020-02-07. ...
At least eight components of the exocyst complex, including this protein, are found to interact with the actin cytoskeletal ... and structures of the mammalian brain sec6/8 complex and septin filaments". Neuron. 20 (6): 1111-22. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(00) ...
... that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae exocyst components are transported to the cell surface on secretory vesicles along actin ... experiments and cytochalasin A to disrupt actin cables, we showed that Spitzenkörper-located proteins are highly dynamic. In ... Candida albicans hyphal morphogenesis occurs in Sec3p-independent and Sec3p-dependent phases separated by septin ring formation ... Polarized Exocytosis Induces Compensatory Endocytosis by Sec4p-Regulated Cortical Actin Polymerization. *Jesper Johansen. , ...
The gene product is a protein that forms a multiprotein complex that links receptor kinases and actin. Binding to actin occurs ... Human SEPT3(Septin 3) ELISA Kit. *Human SGPP1(Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Phosphatase 1) ELISA Kit ... The gene product is a protein that forms a multiprotein complex that links receptor kinases and actin. Binding to actin occurs ... The gene product is a protein that forms a multiprotein complex that links receptor kinases and actin. Binding to actin occurs ...
1998) Role of the yeast Gin4p protein kinase in septin assembly and the relationship between septin assembly and septin ... Septin Localization. Septins (CDC3, CDC10, CDC11, and CDC12 gene products) are assembled in G1 into a filament network that ... Regulation of Actin Polarization and Bud Emergence in G1. We have found that Ste20 or Cla4 is required to polarize the actin ... Late in G1, actin cables orient along the mother-bud axis, usually terminating at actin patches clustered at a site marked for ...
For example, the actin bundling protein anillin is required for correct spatial control of septin organization. In the sperm ... The septin localized in the mitochondria is called mitochondrial septin (M-septin). It was identified as a CRMP/CRAM- ... and septin complexes contain the two different septins in a tetrameric UNC59-UNC61-UNC61-UNC59 complex. Septins in C.elegans ... In contrast to septins in yeast, and in contrast to other cytoskeletal components of metazoa, septins do not form a continuous ...
2003). "Self- and actin-templated assembly of Mammalian septins". Dev. Cell. 3 (6): 791-802. doi:10.1016/S1534-5807(02)00366-0 ... Anillin specifically binds F-actin, rather than G-actin. Binding of F-actin by anillin only occurs during cell division. ... Anillins are required for the faithfulness of cytokinesis and its F-actin-, myosin-, and septin-binding domains implicate ... Anillin is also bundles actin filaments together. Amino acids 258-340 are sufficient and necessary for F-actin binding in ...
In particular, septin-associated protein kinases couple cell cycle progression with cellular morphogenesis. Thus, septin- ... In particular, septin-associated protein kinases couple cell cycle progression with cellular morphogenesis. Thus, septin- ... the activities of certain septin-associated protein kinases also regulate the state of organization of the septins themselves, ... the activities of certain septin-associated protein kinases also regulate the state of organization of the septins themselves, ...
... tubulin and other septins in the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. ... Filamentous fungal-specific septin AspE is phosphorylated in vivo and interacts with actin, ... Filamentous fungal-specific septin AspE is phosphorylated in vivo and interacts with actin, tubulin and other septins in the ... fumigatus septins. This study also describes the previously unknown interaction of AspE with the actin-microtubule network. ...
Demonstrate connection between septins/SOCS7/NCK signaling and the DNA damage response. Title: Septins regulate actin ... CDC_Septin; CDC/Septin GTPase family. COG5019. Location:21 → 373. CDC3; Septin family protein [Cell cycle control, cell ... CDC_Septin; CDC/Septin GTPase family. COG5019. Location:21 → 373. CDC3; Septin family protein [Cell cycle control, cell ... SUMOylation of human septins is critical for septin filament bundling and cytokinesis. Title: SUMOylation of human septins is ...
Self- and actin-templated assembly of mammalian septins. Dev. Cell3:791-802. ... Role of nucleotide binding in septin-septin interactions and septin localization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol. Cell. Biol. ... which in other septins appears to be critical for septin-septin interaction [47, 52, 69]) and a C-terminal coiled-coil domain. ... Yeast septins: a cortical organizer, p. 101-123. In P. A. Hall, S. E. H. Russell, and J. R. Pringle (ed.), The septins. Wiley ...
2006) Structural insights into yeast septin organization from polarized fluorescence microscopy. Nature 443:466-469. ... S4E). SiR-655-actin, a far-red F-actin binding probe that has its dipole oriented differently with respect to the actin ... For actin polymerization, the G-actin was mixed with G buffer and 10% vol of 10× ME buffer (100 mM MgCl2, 20 mM EGTA, pH 7.2) ... local F-actin flow orientation showed that F-actin flows along the FA long axis (Fig. 3G). Together with results above, this ...
Do septins have a role in cancer? Br J Cancer.. PubMed: 16136025 DOI: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6602753 Selve N et al, 1986. Rate of ... Actin filaments: 230. *Focal adhesion sites: 134. Basic structure Filamentous actin (F-actin) consists of long polar ... Actin filament formation Molecules of globular actin (G-actin) in the cytoplasm are activated through binding with ATP which is ... Once activated with ATP, G-actin can join with other G-actin molecules to form a new actin filament through a process called ...
Building the ring to divide them all: Septin proteins bundle actin filaments into a ring. March 19, 2014 Researchers of the FOM ... Actins job in the cell is to assemble into long filaments and meshworks, like Lego blocks fitting together. ... AMOLF and from Marseille and Paris have demonstrated that cells require a protein called septin to build a ring of actin ... So Field reasoned that, despite the difficulty of using actin, it would be important to include it in a system intended to ...
actin filament organization Source: EnsemblFungi. *autophagy of peroxisome Source: EnsemblFungi. *cellular bud neck septin ring ...
Anillin and Septins Localize to the Cortex in the Absence of Actin. The localization of anillin and the septin Hcdc10 along ... To test if actin filaments are required for anillin and septin localization during cytokinesis, we treated cells with the actin ... that the colocalization of anillin/septin foci along actin cables is mediated by interactions between actin and the septins ... thought to regulate actin dynamics), and the septin family of small GTPases (for review see Field et al. 1999). The septins are ...
Self- and actin-templated assembly of Mammalian septins. Dev. Cell 3, 791 (2002). doi:10.1016/S1534-5807(02)00366-0 pmid: ... Septin 2 (SEPT2), a member of the septin family of guanosine triphosphatases that form a diffusion barrier in budding yeast, ... To identify molecular components of this ciliary membrane diffusion barrier, we focused on septins. Septins are oligomeric ... Septin-mediated uniform bracing of phospholipid membranes. Curr. Biol. 19, 140 (2009). doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.12.030 pmid: ...
2014 Septins promote F-actin ring formation by crosslinking actin filaments into curved bundles. Nat. Cell Biol. 16: 322-334. ... In Drosophila, septin proteins Pnut, Sep1, and Sep2 form a hexameric septin complex. Here, we found that septin protein Pnut is ... 2011 Submembranous septins as relatively stable components of actin-based membrane skeleton. Cytoskeleton (Hoboken) 68: 512-525 ... The FLAG-tagged septin complexes were pulled down from extracts. As shown in Figure 6C, all septin subunits were found in ...
... a domain in this family of actin interacting proteins; 4_1_CTD, an actin-binding domain. ... such as the septin, stathmin, tubulin, and vinculin domains (Fig. 3D and table S4). DUF3498 was particularly prevalent in the ... septin, a domain present in a family of GTPases; stathmin, a domain in a protein family that regulates microtubules; tubulin, ...
The septin ring is necessary for re-modelling F-actin to the appressorium pore []. Bar = 10 μm. (b) Septin localization to the ... Development of appressoria is linked to re-modelling of the actin cytoskeleton, mediated by septin GTPases, and rapid cell wall ... c) Nox2-dependent localization of the actin-binding protein gelsolin. Gelsolin-GFP localization in a Δnox1, Δnox2 and ΔnoxR ... a) Bright field, epifluorescence and merged images to show localization of the Sep5-GFP septin gene fusion in a hetero- ...
Generating intravital super-resolution movies with conventional microscopy reveals actin dynamics that construct pioneer axons ... The contractile ring, localized between the septin double rings, immediately undergoes contraction. Septin ring splitting is ... The Tem1 small GTPase controls actomyosin and septin dynamics during cytokinesis. J. Lippincott, K.B. Shannon, W. Shou, R.J. ... The Tem1 small GTPase controls actomyosin and septin dynamics during cytokinesis. J. Lippincott, K.B. Shannon, W. Shou, R.J. ...
Myo1p ring formation depends on the septins but not on F-actin, and preexisting Myo1p rings are stable when F-actin is ... Here, we show that in cells lacking the septin Cdc10 or the septin-associated protein Bud4, the septins form a ring-like ... Role of the yeast Gin4p protein kinase in septin assembly and the relationship between septin assembly and septin function ... Evidence That an Unconventional Actin Can Provide Essential F-Actin Function and That a Surveillance System Monitors F-Actin ...
The myosin responsible for actin ring contraction, Myo1p, is found only in the middle of the septin ring at the neck (Biet al. ... All septins are from ascomycetes except where indicated by footnote. 1Septin from basidiomycete. 2Septin from zygomycete. ... A mutation in any one of these septins results in loss of neck localization of the other three septins. A fifth septin, Sep7p, ... Late in G1, growth shifts to a spot on the surface previously defined by a ring of septins, actin, and chitin. The polar growth ...
SMO1 is necessary for organisation of microtubules and for septin-dependent remodelling of the F-actin cytoskeleton at the ... Conidial Morphogenesis and Septin-Mediated Plant Infection Require Smo1, a Ras GTPase-Activating Protein in Magnaporthe oryzae ... Conidial Morphogenesis and Septin-Mediated Plant Infection Require Smo1, a Ras GTPase-Activating Protein in Magnaporthe oryzae ... Conidial Morphogenesis and Septin-Mediated Plant Infection Require Smo1, a Ras GTPase-Activating Protein in Magnaporthe oryzae ...
Beta-actin will be used as the internal control to evaluate the plasma DNA quality and the validity of PCR amplification. ... CRC Screening Using mSEPT9 (Methylated Septin 9) in Chinese Population (RESEPT). The safety and scientific validity of this ... septin 9. SEPT9. colorectal cancer. CRC. screening. adenoma. polyps. FIT. FOBT. colonoscopy. ... Screening of Colorectal Cancer Using Improved SEPT9 (Septin 9) Gene Methylation Assay in Chinese Population. ...
... actin filaments and microtubules. GTPase activity is required for filament formation (By similarity). ... "Human septin-septin interactions as a prerequisite for targeting septin complexes in the cytosol.". Martinez C., Sanjuan M.A., ... "Human septin-septin interactions as a prerequisite for targeting septin complexes in the cytosol.". Martinez C., Sanjuan M.A., ... septin complex Source: UniProtKB. *septin ring Source: GO_CentralInferred from biological aspect of ancestori*. "Phylogenetic- ...
"Septin-driven coordination of actin and microtubule remodeling regulates the collateral branching of axons". Hu J, Bai X, Bowen ...
  • The sporulating septins (Spr3, Spr28) localize together with Cdc3 and Cdc11 to the edges of prospore membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nervous system function requires morphological and functional plasticity of neurons and glial cells, which is largely determined by the dynamic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in response to intrinsic and extracellular signals. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore although many additional elements have been been shown to be involved in creating normal septin corporation (discover above) many of these elements may actually function in the initial formation of the septin ring in its reorganization into a stable collar or both and not (except. (immune-source.com)
  • They are composed of a variable-length proline rich N-terminus with a basic phosphoinositide binding motif important for membrane association, a GTP-binding domain, a highly conserved Septin Unique Element domain, and a C-terminal extension including a coiled coil domain of varying length. (wikipedia.org)
  • So Field reasoned that, despite the difficulty of using actin, it would be important to include it in a system intended to recapitulate the signals involved in membrane furrowing. (phys.org)
  • One major goal of our research is to determine how Cdc42 controls polarized assembly of actin cables and septin ring, which play an essential role in establishing and maintaining a distinct membrane domain, respectively. (upenn.edu)
  • Oligodendrocytes are specialized glia that extend multiple actin-based protrusions to form the multilayered myelin membrane that spirally wraps around axons, increasing conduction speed and promoting long-term axonal integrity. (springer.com)
  • Septins thereby provide the cortical rigidity and membrane curvature necessary for protrusion of a rigid penetration peg to breach the leaf surface. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • In sporulating cells, the septin ring disassembles and septins relocalize to the prospore membrane. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Proper organization of the septins on the membrane requires the sporulation-specific septins Spr3 and Spr28. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we report that a toroidal F-actin network assembles in the appressorium by means of four septin guanosine triphosphatases, which polymerize into a dynamic, hetero-oligomeric ring. (exeter.ac.uk)
  • The scientists saw this signal in part because Field chose to include actin in their system, a cellular component that is often discarded because it makes it so difficult to do experiments with the egg extract. (phys.org)
  • Actin filaments determine the shape of the cell surface and are involved in cellular locomotion. (asbmb.org)
  • Filopodia, which are thin cellular processes, contain a tight bundle of parallel actin filaments elongating at the tip and depolymerizing from the rear (Fig. 4). (upenn.edu)
  • The four sporulation septins form a complex in vitro and colocalize interdependently to a ring-shaped structure along each FSM, and septin mutations result in disoriented FSM extension. (asm.org)
  • Spn2 and Spn7 bind to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PtdIns(4)P] in vitro , and PtdIns(4)P is enriched in the FSMs, suggesting that septins bind to the FSMs via this lipid. (asm.org)
  • Amino acids 258-340 are sufficient and necessary for F-actin binding in Drosophila, but amino acids 246-371 are necessary to bundle actin filaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular order imaging in actin in the cytokinesic ring of cells during cellularization in the drosophila melanogaster embryo. (fresnel.fr)
  • Afin d'adresser ces questions, nous avons effectué une analyse de structure/fonction de l'Anilline par microscopie en temps réel de cellules S2 de Drosophila. (umontreal.ca)
  • By interacting end-to-end, septin complexes form nonpolar filaments that can further assemble into higher order structures, such as rings. (g3journal.org)
  • The results shown in study support the hypothesis that single Septin 2, when present in excess or with unbalanced stoichiometries, may be unstable and assemble into amyloid-like structures. (nih.gov)
  • Inside the cell body, actin cables are composed of short parallel actin filaments, mostly of identical orientations . (psu.edu)
  • At the division site, a cytokinetic ring is composed of short parallel actin filaments, with identical orientations or mixed polarities depending on the stage of cell division . (psu.edu)
  • This study also describes the previously unknown interaction of AspE with the actin-microtubule network. (duke.edu)
  • The more specific topics discussed in these minireviews include actin mechanics and fragmentation, vimentin intermediate filament networks and the microtubule cytoskeleton. (asbmb.org)
  • Loss of PAK function in G1 depolarized the cortical actin cytoskeleton and blocked bud emergence, but allowed isotropic growth and led to defects in septin assembly, indicating that PAKs are effectors of the Rho-guanosine triphosphatase Cdc42. (rupress.org)
  • The septin cortex undergoes several changes throughout the cell cycle: The first visible septin structure is a distinct ring which appears ~15 min before bud emergence. (wikipedia.org)
  • FRAP analysis has revealed that the turnover of septins at the neck undergoes multiple changes during the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural changes require a destabilization of the septin cortex (fluid state) induced by dephosphorylation prior to bud emergence, ring splitting and cell separation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The composition of the septin cortex does not only vary throughout the cell cycle but also along the mother-bud axis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding of F-actin by anillin only occurs during cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is hypothesized that by regulating actin bundling, anillin increases the efficiency of actomyosin contractility during cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, septin-containing structures serve as signaling platforms that integrate a multitude of signals and coordinate key downstream networks required for cell cycle passage. (frontiersin.org)
  • Integrins are transmembrane receptors that, upon activation, bind extracellular ligands and link them to the actin filament (F-actin) cytoskeleton to mediate cell adhesion and migration. (pnas.org)
  • Cytoskeletal forces in migrating cells generated by polymerization- or contractility-driven "retrograde flow" of F-actin from the cell leading edge have been hypothesized to mediate integrin activation for ligand binding. (pnas.org)
  • The septins, which form an hour-glass like structure during early stages of the cell cycle, undergo dynamic rearrangements prior to cell division: the hourglass structure splits into two separate rings. (biologists.org)
  • Daughter cell identity emerges from the interplay of Cdc42, septins, and exocytosis. (upenn.edu)
  • Architecture and dynamic remodelling of the septin cytoskeleton during the cell cycle. (upenn.edu)
  • Septins have previously been found to be involved in the interaction of the cell with bacteria in the cytosol. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Pascale Cossart, Ph.D., and Serge Mostowy, Ph.D., reported that the septin cages not only targeted the pathogens for degradation by autophagy, the cell's internal garbage disposal system, but also prevented the Shigella bacteria from spreading to other cells by impeding the pathogens' access to actin, a different component of the cell skeleton. (phys.org)
  • Shigella requires actin to rocket around the host cell before punching into an adjacent cell, said the Pasteur researchers, who made their discovery in human cells grown in culture in the laboratory. (phys.org)
  • in the latter case, at least, they participate in communication between the actin cytoskeleton and the cell surface. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Actin cell cortex: Structure and molecular organization. (upenn.edu)
  • About 10 min before bud emergence the septins Telcagepant form a ring in the cell cortex. (immune-source.com)
  • This is the first report analyzing the phosphorylation of AspE and localizing the sites of phosphorylation, and opens opportunities for further analysis on the role of post-translational modifications in the assembly and organization of A. fumigatus septins. (duke.edu)
  • Overall, our findings indicate that the controlled phosphorylation of Pnut plays an important role in regulating septin complex functions during organism development. (g3journal.org)
  • Multiple post-translational modifications, including SUMOylation, acetylation, and phosphorylation, have been reported for septins ( Hernandez-Rodriguez and Momany 2012 ). (g3journal.org)
  • The antibodies were raised in rabbit using synthetic peptides and can be used for Western blot (WB) detection or immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of human septin 4 or septin 7. (clontech.com)