Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Anxiety, Separation: Anxiety experienced by an individual upon separation from a person or object of particular significance to the individual.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Immunomagnetic Separation: A cell-separation technique where magnetizable microspheres or beads are first coated with monoclonal antibody, allowed to search and bind to target cells, and are then selectively removed when passed through a magnetic field. Among other applications, the technique is commonly used to remove tumor cells from the marrow (BONE MARROW PURGING) of patients who are to undergo autologous bone marrow transplantation.Cell SeparationElectrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Capillary Electrochromatography: A separation technique which combines LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY and CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Countercurrent Distribution: A method of separation of two or more substances by repeated distribution between two immiscible liquid phases that move past each other in opposite directions. It is a form of liquid-liquid chromatography. (Stedman, 25th ed)Electrophoresis, Capillary: A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)SepharoseReproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Electrophoresis, Microchip: A highly miniaturized version of ELECTROPHORESIS performed in a microfluidic device.Maternal Deprivation: Prolonged separation of the offspring from the mother.Chromatography, Reverse-Phase: A chromatography technique in which the stationary phase is composed of a non-polar substance with a polar mobile phase, in contrast to normal-phase chromatography in which the stationary phase is a polar substance with a non-polar mobile phase.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose: A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Acetonitriles: Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.Limit of Detection: Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Silica Gel: A non-crystalline form of silicon oxide that has absorptive properties. It is commonly used as a desiccating agent and as a stationary phase for CHROMATOGRAPHY. The fully hydrated form of silica gel has distinct properties and is referred to as SILICIC ACID.Chromatography, Agarose: A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Solid Phase Extraction: An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Chemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Chromatography, Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary: A hybrid separation technique combining both chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles. While the method was invented to separate neutral species, it can also be applied to charged molecules such as small peptides.Ion Exchange Resins: High molecular weight, insoluble polymers which contain functional groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions (ION EXCHANGE) with either cations or anions.Isomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Centrifugation: Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Microchemistry: The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Isoelectric Point: The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Hydroxyapatites: A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Immunosorbents: An insoluble support for an ANTIGEN or ANTIBODIES that is used in AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY to adsorb the homologous antibody or antigen from a mixture. Many different substances are used, among them SEPHAROSE; GLUTARALDEHYDE; copolymers of ANHYDRIDES; polyacrylamides, etc.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.LacquerBinding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Liquid-Liquid Extraction: The removal of a soluble component from a liquid mixture by contact with a second liquid, immiscible with the carrier liquid, in which the component is preferentially soluble. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Deficiency Diseases: A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Cation Exchange Resins: High molecular weight insoluble polymers which contain functional anionic groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions with cations.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Ammonium Sulfate: Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Resins, Synthetic: Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Microfluidic Analytical Techniques: Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Anion Exchange Resins: High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Polystyrenes: Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Magnetics: The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.Drug Contamination: The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Electroosmosis: The motion of a liquid through a membrane (or plug or capillary) consequent upon the application of an electric field across the membrane. (Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Povidone: A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Immunosorbents: An insoluble support for an ANTIGEN or ANTIBODIES that is used in AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY to adsorb the homologous antibody or antigen from a mixture. Many different substances are used, among them SEPHAROSE; GLUTARALDEHYDE; copolymers of ANHYDRIDES; polyacrylamides, etc.Hemoperfusion: Removal of toxins or metabolites from the circulation by the passing of blood, within a suitable extracorporeal circuit, over semipermeable microcapsules containing adsorbents (e.g., activated charcoal) or enzymes, other enzyme preparations (e.g., gel-entrapped microsomes, membrane-free enzymes bound to artificial carriers), or other adsorbents (e.g., various resins, albumin-conjugated agarose).Enzymes, Immobilized: Enzymes which are immobilized on or in a variety of water-soluble or water-insoluble matrices with little or no loss of their catalytic activity. Since they can be reused continuously, immobilized enzymes have found wide application in the industrial, medical and research fields.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Vibrissae: Stiff hairs projecting from the face around the nose of most mammals, acting as touch receptors.PolysaccharidesRecombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Glycoside HydrolasesBiological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Acrylamides: Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Autoanalysis: Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Trifluoroacetic Acid: A very strong halogenated derivative of acetic acid. It is used in acid catalyzed reactions, especially those where an ester is cleaved in peptide synthesis.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Ionic Liquids: Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Fractional Precipitation: A method which uses specific precipitation reactions to separate or collect substances from a solution.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Complex Mixtures: Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Analytic Sample Preparation Methods: Use of various chemical separation and extraction methods, such as SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION; CHROMATOGRAPHY; and SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION; to prepare samples for analytical measurement of components.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Digitalis Glycosides: Glycosides from plants of the genus DIGITALIS. Some of these are useful as cardiotonic and anti-arrhythmia agents. Included also are semi-synthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring glycosides. The term has sometimes been used more broadly to include all CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES, but here is restricted to those related to Digitalis.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Radionuclide Generators: Separation systems containing a relatively long-lived parent radionuclide which produces a short-lived daughter in its decay scheme. The daughter can be periodically extracted (milked) by means of an appropriate eluting agent.Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Charcoal: An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Thoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Centrifugation, Isopycnic: A technique used to separate particles according to their densities in a continuous density gradient. The sample is usually mixed with a solution of known gradient materials and subjected to centrifugation. Each particle sediments to the position at which the gradient density is equal to its own. The range of the density gradient is usually greater than that of the sample particles. It is used in purifying biological materials such as proteins, nucleic acids, organelles, and cell types.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Anaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Electrophoresis, Disc: Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
This separation induces considerable fluid mixing near the surface, substantially increasing the convective heat transfer ... In this region the vapor escapes as jets or columns which subsequently merge into slugs of vapor. ... for various surface fluid combinations[3] Surface fluid combinations. C. s. f. {\displaystyle C_{sf}}. ... If the bulk fluid temperature is too low or the pressure of the fluid is too high, nucleate boiling is however not possible. ...
Supercritical fluid chromatography is a separation technique in which the mobile phase is a fluid above and relatively close to ... Gas chromatographic separation is always carried out in a column, which is typically "packed" or "capillary". Packed columns ... The first column is washed and eluted, while the other column(s) are still being loaded. Once the (initially) first column is ... The expanded bed chromatographic separation column has advantages of increasing the separation efficiency of the expanded bed. ...
Dynamics of thermodiffusive separation of ferrofluids in vertical columns: the effect of solute buoyancy. Magnetohydrodynamics ... Separation Processes in Polydisperse Magnetic Fluids. J. Magn. and Magn. Materials, 1993, vol.122, pp.110-114. ... Thermal Diffusion of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Ferrocolloids: Experiments on Particle Separation in Vertical Columns. J. Magn. ... Some Problems of Sub-Micron Particle Transfer near the Filter Element at High-Gradient Magnetic Separation. Int. J. Heat and ...
... and optionally four distillation columns. The three main types of chemicals in the fluid at this stage of the separation are ... Both columns operate under low pressure (55 mm Hg in the first column; 20 mm Hg in the second column) to lower the boiling ... so it is removed as distillate in the first column. The bottoms of the first column is then sent to a second column, where ... Four ion exchange columns in series are used to remove these impurities, and they are arranged in the following order: Strong ...
The ocean can add several thousand meters or more to the fluid column. The addition increases the equivalent circulating ... as well as the energy needed to lift produced fluids for separation on the platform. The trend today is to conduct more of the ... Blue Water Drilling Company owned and operated the four-column submersible Blue Water Rig No.1 in the Gulf of Mexico for Shell ...
... such as standard column, simulated moving-bed (SMB) or supercritical fluid (SCF) techniques. For peptides three main types of ... Microreactors and the SMB separation technology are expected to grow at a rate of even 50-100% per year. However, the total ... In the latter, reagents are incorporated in a resin that is contained in a reactor or column. The synthesis sequence starts by ... Two types of processes are used, namely the physical separation of the enantiomers and the stereo specific synthesis, using ...
AC columns which can be packed on site and used for local or clinical analytical separations of complex biological fluids. ... When the IBD column compared to recently established PNIPAAm columns, electrostatic forces show remarkably higher retention ... altering the power of separation without changing the column or solvent composition. Thermally related benefits of gas ... Since the separation of biological molecules such as proteins would be better served by isocratic elution with an aqueous ...
SFC is used in industry primarily for separation of chiral molecules, and uses the same columns as standard HPLC systems. SFC ... Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is a form of normal phase chromatography that uses a supercritical fluid such as ... Cyclone separators have lessened difficulties in gas/liquid separations. Taylor, Larry T. (2010). "Supercritical Fluid ... Taylor, Larry T. (2009). "Supercritical fluid chromatography for the 21st century". The Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 47 (3 ...
Since the separation is based on size, vesicles flow through the column unretained and elute in the void volume. Proteins and ... The minimum volume of sample fluid required is 40μL. Direct access points to the fluid in the upper and lower fluid cell ... Each fluid cell is divided into two sections, the top and bottom sections of the fluid cell being connected together after the ... Silver chloride electrodes are fitted into the fluid cell. The fluid cell is designed with shielding to minimize electrical ...
Dispensing fluids by manual or robotic pipetting can be replaced with micropumps and microvalves, where fluid metering is ... Microfluidic sample separation can be achieved by capillary electrophoresis or continuous-flow separation. In capillary ... Sieves can be microfabricated with high-aspect-ratio columns or posts, but are only suitable for low loading to avoid clogging ... For continuous-flow separation, the general idea is to apply a field at an angle to the flow direction to deflect the sample ...
... in the distillation column and a small distance between the evaporator and the condenser around 2 cm, where fluids are in the ... Martins, P. F.; Ito, V. M.; Batistella, C. B.; Maciel, M. R. W. (2006-02-01). "Free fatty acid separation from vegetable oil ... It is a process of separation, purification and concentration of natural products, complex and thermally sensitive molecules ... "Separation of bio-oil by molecular distillation". Fuel Processing Technology. 90 (5): 738-745. doi:10.1016/j.fuproc.2009.02.005 ...
Packed columns can also be advantageous for corrosive fluids, high foaming fluids, when fluid velocity is high, and when ... Stripping is a physical separation process where one or more components are removed from a liquid stream by a vapor stream. In ... Packed columns are similar to trayed columns in that the liquid and vapor flows enter and exit in the same manner. The ... The vapor phase enters in the bottom of the column and exits out of the top. Inside of the column are trays or plates. These ...
A self-sealing membrane allows a stepwise release and separation of DNA from mixed specimens. Implemented in a spin-column ... can be optional isolated and immunologically analyzed to quick-check for the presence of human seminal fluid. If this test ... Separation of Sperm and Epithelial Cells in a Microfabricated Device: Potential Application to Forensic Analysis of Sexual ... Upon centrifugation, the solution passes the column into the collection tube. The DNA lysate is further purified and used to ...
This is useful if the reboiler must be located far from the column, or if the bottoms product is extremely viscous. Some fluids ... In a typical classical distillation column, all the vapor driving the separation comes from the reboiler. The reboiler receives ... The heat supplied to the column by the reboiler at the bottom of the column is removed by the condenser at the top of the ... They boil the liquid from the bottom of a distillation column to generate vapors which are returned to the column to drive the ...
Thus, it is well-suited for separation of a binary mixture. With multiple cuts, analogous to a series of distillation columns, ... consumption High product concentration High productivity Continuous process This system is useful in the supercritical fluid ... It cannot provide any separation or purification that cannot be done by a simple column purification. The process is rather ... where the separation process is driven by entropy, it is not possible to increase the resolution attained by a column via ...
"Micro-separation of fluid systems: A state-of-the-art review". Separation and Purification Technology. 120: 245-64. doi:10.1016 ... Design and optimisation of micro-separation units and micro-reactors Investigation, optimisation and development of column ... reactive separation methods, Computational Fluid Dynamics, micro-separation processes and process-related energy efficiency ... "Modelling of Multicomponent Mass Transfer in Separation of Fluid Mixtures" and attained the licence to teach "Fluid Process ...
... s (SP) are usually caused by charge separation in clay or other minerals, due to presence of semi- ... The magnitude of the deflection depends mainly on the salinity contrast between borehole and formation fluid, and the clay ... streaming potential appears when mud filtrate is forced into the formation under the differential pressure between mud column ... permeable interface impeding the diffusion of ions through the pore space of rocks, or by natural flow of a conducting fluid ...
... which reduces the solute dispersion in the column, increasing column efficiency. Chromatography Electrophoresis High- ... Separation of components in CEC is based on interactions between the stationary phase and differential electrophoretic ... and F is the Faraday constant When an electric field is applied to the fluid (usually via electrodes placed at inlets and ... This restricts the length of the column and size of the particle, particle size is seldom less than 3 micrometer and the length ...
In many cases, baseline separation of the peaks can be achieved only with gradient elution and low column loadings. Thus, two ... The practical disadvantages stem from the excessive pressure drop needed to force mobile fluid through the column and the ... Analytical scale columns (4.6 mm) have been the most common type of columns, though smaller columns are rapidly gaining in ... Reversed phase columns are quite difficult to damage compared with normal silica columns; however, many reversed phase columns ...
The problem is not the packing itself but the mal-distribution of the fluids entering the packed bed. These columns can contain ... In industry, a packed column is a type of packed bed used to perform separation processes, such as absorption, stripping, and ... Packing material can be used instead of trays to improve separation in distillation columns. Packing offers the advantage of a ... However, when modeling packed columns it is useful to compute a number of theoretical plates to denote the separation ...
4. Column: The column is a glass or plastic cylinder packed with beads of resin and filled with buffer solution. It is normally ... The quality of the end product varies depending the type and amount of starting material, efficiency of separation, and ... a moving fluid (the "mobile phase") and a porous solid (the stationary phase). In FPLC the mobile phase is an aqueous solution ... In large FPLC columns the sample may be loaded into the column directly using a small peristaltic pump rather than an injection ...
As early as 1850 BC on Crete in Minoan Knossos there were large column bases made of porphyry. All the porphyry columns in Rome ... This process, which occurs primarily when fluids are driven off the cooling magma, is one of the main reasons for the existence ... stages of cooling that create porphyritic textures in intrusive and hypabyssal porphyritic rocks also lead to a separation of ... Porphyry deposits are formed when a column of rising magma is cooled in two stages. In the first, the magma is cooled slowly ...
Injected gas aerates the fluid to reduce its density; the formation pressure is then able to lift the oil column and forces the ... Although the gas is recovered from the oil at a later separation stage, the process requires energy to drive a compressor to ... thus allowing gas to be injected into the fluid in the tubing to cause the fluid to rise to the surface. In the lexicon of the ... Gas lift or Bubble pumps use the artificial lift technique of raising a fluid such as water or oil by introducing bubbles of ...
... which led to the development of magnetic separation technology. Other processes such as centrifugation, filtration, columns or ... Colored polyethylene microspheres are used for fluid flow visualization to enable observation and characterization of flow of ... Microbeads and magnetic separation technology have enabled a range of innovative methods to benefit research on disease ... Microbeads serve as the main tool for bio-magnetic separations. A range of patented processes and applications have been ...
Supercritical fluid extraction: A relatively new technique for extracting fragrant compounds from a raw material, which often ... This allows for the easy separation of the fragrant oils from the water. The water collected from the condensate, which retains ... Fractionation: Through the use of a fractionation column, different fractions distilled from a material can be selectively ...
Native Americans used the plant to treat many ailments, including wounds, burns, insect bites, toothaches, throat infections, pain, cough, stomach cramps, and snake bites.[20] The plant is important economically to the pharmaceutical trade.[citation needed] It is purported[weasel words] that all parts of the purple coneflower stimulate the immune system.[10] With the increase style of a sedentary lifestyle, herbal drugs have increased in popularity to treat immunodeficient issues.[19] In more recent years, research into immune benefits of Echinacea has been linked to investigating immune benefits with upper respiratory tract infections.[21] Research on immune benefits mostly focus on the roots of Echinacea and extraction through high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis.[22] Well-controlled trials studying these uses are limited and low in quality.[23][24][25][26] Study results are mixed on whether preparations including Echinacea can be useful for upper respiratory tract infections ...
In analytical and organic chemistry, elution is the process of extracting one material from another by washing with a solvent; as in washing of loaded ion-exchange resins to remove captured ions. In a liquid chromatography experiment, for example, an analyte is generally adsorbed, or "bound to", an adsorbent in a liquid chromatography column. The adsorbent, a solid phase (stationary phase), is a powder which is coated onto a solid support. Based on an adsorbent's composition, it can have varying affinities to "hold" onto other molecules-forming a thin film on the surface of its particles. Elution then is the process of removing analytes from the adsorbent by running a solvent, called an "eluent", past the adsorbent/analyte complex. As the solvent molecules "elute", or travel down through the chromatography column, they can either pass by the adsorbent/analyte complex or they can displace the analyte by binding to the adsorbent in its place. ...
... refers to the process of determining the nutritional content of foods and food products. The process can be performed through a variety of certified methods. Traditionally, food companies would send food samples to laboratories for physical testing. Typical analysis includes: Moisture (water) by loss of mass at 102C, Protein by analysis of total nitrogen, either by Dumas or Kjeldahl methods, Total fat, traditionally by an solvent extraction, but often now by secondary methods such as NMR, Crude ash (total inorganic matter) by combustion at 550C, Estimated dietary fibre by various AOAC methods such as 985.29, Sodium (and thereby Salt) either by flame photometry, AA or ICP-OES, Total sugars, normally by a liquid chromatography technique, such as IC-HPAED or HPLC-RI, Fatty acids by GC-FID, Carbohydrates and energy values are normally calculated from these analytical values. Software is available as an alternative to laboratory nutrition analysis. This software typically utilizes ...
The Charged Aerosol Detector (CAD) is a universal detector used in conjunction with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) to measure the amount of chemicals in a sample by creating charged aerosol particles which are detected using an electrometer. It is commonly used for the analysis of compounds that cannot be detected using traditional UV/Vis approaches due to their lack of a chromophore. The CAD can measure all non-volatile and many semi-volatile analytes including, but not limited to, antibiotics, excipients, ions, lipids, natural products, biofuels, sugars and surfactants. The CAD, like other aerosol detectors (e.g., evaporative light scattering detectors (ELSD) and condensation nucleation light scattering detectors (CNLSD)), falls under the category of destructive general-purpose detectors (see Chromatography Detectors). The predecessor to the CAD, termed an evaporative electrical detector, was first described by Kaufman at ...
The stationary phase comes in the form of a packed syringe-shaped cartridge, a 96 well plate, a 47- or 90-mm flat disk, or a microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) device, a SPE method that uses a packed sorbent material in a liquid handling syringe.[4][5] These can be mounted on its specific type of extraction manifold. The manifold allows multiple samples to be processed by holding several SPE media in place and allowing for an equal number of samples to pass through them simultaneously. In a standard cartridge SPE manifold up to 24 cartridges can be mounted in parallel, while a typical disk SPE manifold can accommodate 6 disks. Most SPE manifolds are equipped with a vacuum port, where vacuum can be applied to speed up the extraction process by pulling the liquid sample through the stationary phase. The analytes are collected in sample tubes inside or below the manifold after they pass through the stationary phase. Solid phase extraction cartridges and disks are available with a variety of ...
Column chromatography separates compounds using many chemical actions between the chemical being tested and the chromatography column (a rod with a blending of special chemicals). The column is run using either gravity or a pump. The mixed substance to be tested is added in a small amount and is slowed by certain chemical or physical activity with the chemicals in the chromatography column. The amount of slowing depends on the type of chemicals in the substance being tested and the different phases. The time at which a certain chemical elutes (comes out of the end of the column) is called the "retention time" and there is thought to be only one for one chemical. ...
In summary, affinity chromatography exploits the differences in interactions' strengths between the different biomolecules within a mobile phase, and the stationary phase. The stationary phase is first loaded into a column with mobile phase containing a variety of biomolecules from DNA to proteins (depending on the purification experiment). Then, the two phases are allowed time to bind. A wash buffer is then poured through a column containing both bound phases. The wash buffer removes non-target biomolecules by disrupting their weaker interactions with the stationary phase. Target biomolecules have a much higher affinity for the stationary phase, and remain bound to the stationary phase, not being washed away by wash buffer. An elution buffer is then poured through the column containing the remaining target biomolecules. The elution buffer disrupts interactions between the bound target biomolecules with the ...
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism. The term metabolite is usually restricted to small molecules. Metabolites have various functions, including fuel, structure, signaling, stimulatory and inhibitory effects on enzymes, catalytic activity of their own (usually as a cofactor to an enzyme), defense, and interactions with other organisms (e.g. pigments, odorants, and pheromones). A primary metabolite is directly involved in normal "growth", development, and reproduction. Ethylene is an example of a primary metabolite produced in large-scale by industrial microbiology. A secondary metabolite is not directly involved in those processes, but usually has an important ecological function. Examples include antibiotics and pigments such as resins and terpenes etc. Some antibiotics use primary metabolites as precursors, such as actinomycin which is created from the primary metabolite, tryptophan. Some sugars are metabolites, such as fructose or glucose, which are both present in the ...
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism. The term metabolite is usually restricted to small molecules. Metabolites have various functions, including fuel, structure, signaling, stimulatory and inhibitory effects on enzymes, catalytic activity of their own (usually as a cofactor to an enzyme), defense, and interactions with other organisms (e.g. pigments, odorants, and pheromones). A primary metabolite is directly involved in normal "growth", development, and reproduction. Ethylene is an example of a primary metabolite produced in large-scale by industrial microbiology. A secondary metabolite is not directly involved in those processes, but usually has an important ecological function. Examples include antibiotics and pigments such as resins and terpenes etc. Some antibiotics use primary metabolites as precursors, such as actinomycin which is created from the primary metabolite, tryptophan. Some sugars are metabolites, such as fructose or glucose, which are both present in the ...
... is the intermediate and product of metabolism. The term metabolite is usually restricted to small molecules. Metabolites have various functions, including fuel, structure, signaling, stimulatory and inhibitory effects on enzymes, catalytic activity of their own (usually as a cofactor to an enzyme), defense, and interactions with other organisms (e.g. pigments, odorants, and pheromones). A primary metabolite is directly involved in normal "growth", development, and reproduction. Ethylene is an example of a primary metabolite produced in large-scale by industrial microbiology. A secondary metabolite is not directly involved in those processes, but usually has an important ecological function. Examples include antibiotics and pigments such as resins and terpenes etc. Some antibiotics use primary metabolites as precursors, such as actinomycin which is created from the primary metabolite, tryptophan. Some sugars are metabolites, such as fructose or glucose, which are both present in the ...
Santagati NA, Ferrara G, Marrazzo A, Ronsisvalle G (септембар 2002). „Simultaneous determination of amphetamine and one of its metabolites by HPLC with electrochemical detection". J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 30 (2): 247-55. PMID 12191709. doi:10.1016/S0731-7085(02)00330-8 ...
ಈ ಪುಟವನ್ನು ೧೫ ಸೆಪ್ಟೆಂಬರ್ ೨೦೧೩, ೨೦:೧೯ ರಂದು ಕೊನೆಯಾಗಿ ಸಂಪಾದಿಸಲಾಯಿತು ...
口內炎的確切致病原因尚不清楚。已知的致病因素包括柑桔類水果(比如橘子和檸檬)、口腔物理創傷、急速減肥、食物過敏、免疫反應等等[1]。維生素B1、維生素B2、維生素B6、維生素B12、鋅、鐵以及葉酸(維生素B9)缺乏也可能造成復發性口內炎[2][3]。硝煙酯和某些化療也被發現同口內炎相關[4],也有研究顯示口內炎同對牛奶過敏有關聯[5]。口內炎是貝歇氏症(Behçet's disease)的典型表觀症狀[6],也常見於克羅恩病(Crohn's ...
S04-20-001 - STS-004 - CFES fluid systems module and separation column on middeck. Get full image from National Archives at ... separation column, and thermoelectric cooler located on middeck in galley position (port side wall). Control panel ML86B, water ... separation column, and thermoelectric cooler located on middeck in galley position (port side wall). Control panel ML86B, water ... The original finding aid described this as: Description: Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System (CFES) including fluid systems ...
Produced Fluids Separation Using a Coalescer Column Renouf, G., Saskatchewan Research Council ... An Effective Method for Modeling Non-Moving Stagnant Liquid Columns in Gas Gathering Systems ...
Waters Corp.: Supercritical Fluid Chromatography Columns. *. Waters Corp.: ACQUITY UPLC H-Class System; HPLC Simplicity with ... Waters Corp.: Separation Science with UltraPerformance Convergence Chromatography. *. Waters: Highest Performing UPLC Ever ...
Waters Corp.: Supercritical Fluid Chromatography Columns. *. Waters Corp.: ACQUITY UPLC H-Class System; HPLC Simplicity with ... Waters Corp.: Separation Science with UltraPerformance Convergence Chromatography. *. Waters: Highest Performing UPLC Ever ... a rich portfolio of column chemistries, process control communication interfaces, and a powerful chromatography data software ...
Viridis Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) columns bring a new level of reproducibility to the world of laboratory scale ... Viridis SFC columns are available for analytical and preparative chromatography as Viridis SFC 2-Ethylpyridine columns and ... Larger preparative column formats are manufactured using Waters patented Optimum Bed Density (OBD) Technology. 2-Ethylpyridine ... Based on Waters long history of chromatographic silica production, the Viridis SFC Silica columns are designed to be highly ...
Torus column chemistries (Torus 2-PIC, Torus DIOL, Torus DEA and Torus 1-AA) offer a wide range of selectivity and are offered ... in 1.7 µm and 5 µm analytical and 5 µm preparative column formats. ... Scale SFC from analytical to preparative with Torus Columns. ... Separation Mode. SuperCritical Fluid (SFC). * Particle Shape. ... Scale SFC from analytical to preparative with Torus Columns. Torus column chemistries (Torus 2-PIC, Torus DIOL, Torus DEA and ...
Amine SFC 1.8 Micron HPLC Column 1.8 μm particle size, L × I.D. 5 cm × 3.0 mm; find null-ES5001 MSDS, related peer-reviewed ... GreenSep Amine SFC HPLC Columns, HPLC/UHPLC, SFC (Supercritical Fluid Chromatography) Columns ... separation technique supercritical fluid (SFC) Show More (9) Description. General description A high density NH2 bonded ... GreenSep™ Amine SFC 1.8 Micron HPLC Column 1.8 μm particle size, L × I.D. 5 cm × 3.0 mm * NACRES SB.52 ...
M-I Drilling Fluids Company. Water wash/oil wash cyclonic column tank separation system. ... International Fluid Separation Pty Ltd. Separation apparatus and method. US5879541. Aug 31, 1994. Mar 9, 1999. Merpro Tortek ... Accordingly, the Hydrocarbon column is the sum of both the Bitumen and Solvent columns. The Mineral column is the sum of the ... Fluid separation method and system. US7141162 *. Nov 29, 2002. Nov 28, 2006. Suncor Energy, Inc.. Bituminous froth inclined ...
... wherein at least the interior surface of the column is comprised of fluoropolymer. ... The present invention relates to columns for carrying out separation processes involving protein solutions, ... Fluid chromatography injectors and injector inserts. US20110211993 *. 26 feb 2011. 1 sep 2011. Rosario Mannino. Jet assembly ... Separation column and liquid chromatography apparatus using the same. US20110211992 *. 25 feb 2011. 1 sep 2011. Rosario Mannino ...
Clarification of mammalian cell culture process fluids (cell separation). *Protection of downstream processes including ... membrane filters and chromatography columns. *Clarification of bacteria and yeast cell lysates ... Operating conditions and the fluid being filtered impact retention performance. 3M Purification recommends small-scale pilot ... formerly CUNO Incorporated) provides filtration and separation solutions for residential, foodservice, science labs, industrial ...
2.7 micron HPLC Column 2.7 μm particle size, L × I.D. 15 cm × 500 μm; find Supelco-54275-U MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, ... Keywords: High performance liquid chromatography, Separation, Supercritical fluid chromatography. Supelco HPLC Calculator for ... Analytical/Chromatography, Ascentis Express C8 Columns, Ascentis Express C8, 2.7μm HPLC Columns, Ascentis Express Columns for ... Ascentis Express HPLC columns are capable of use on standard HPLC systems as well as UHPLC systems.Columns are packed in high ...
The use of supercritical fluids in analytical chemistry is still grow- ing. More and more analysts are discovering the ... Stationary Phases for Packed Column Supercritical Fluid Chromatography Colin F. Poole, John W. Oudsema, Thomas A. Dean, Salwa K ... Enantiomer Separation by Capillary Supercritical Fluid Chromatography Michael Schleimer, Volker Schurig. Pages 134-150 ... Many stationary phases both for packed micro columns and capillary columns have been designed for SFC purposes extending this ...
The separation device includes a lipid having lipophilic and hydrophilic groups, and a support immobilizing the lipid. The ... Only body fluid components having a strong adherent property adhere to the hydrophilic groups of the lipid. ... lipid is immobilized on the support such that only its hydrophilic groups contact the body fluid introduced in the separation ... A body fluid is separated into respective components by passing the body fluid through a separation device. ...
The fluid separation membranes may go through a separation selectivity maximum as a function of operating conditions (e.g., ... A polymeric composite may be used for forming fluid separation membranes. ... Currently, the separation of olefin and paraffin components is done using low temperature distillation. Distillation columns ... a fluid separation apparatus 100 includes a body 110 in which a fluid separation membrane 120 is disposed. The fluid separation ...
... column-based reversed-phase liquid chromatography separation for amino acid assay in microdialysates and cerebral spinal fluid. ...
Purchase Supercritical Fluids as Solvents and Reaction Media - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780444515742, ... Separation efficiency and axial mixing in packed high pressure extraction columns (O. Becker, G. Heydrich). 4.2. Separation of ... Supercritical fluids behave either like a gas or a liquid, depending on the values of thermodynamic properties. This tuning of ... P,T-dependence of molecular mobility in supercritical fluids studied by high pressure NMR (T. Gro&bgr; et al.).. 2.2. Phenomena ...
Extraction with supercritical fluids (SFs) was welcome from the very beginning. In the present paper, the application to ... A very small spectrum of columns is manufactured specially for SFC. SFC is not accepted by Pharmacopeia committees for the ... Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) received an uneasy welcome, mainly because of the lack of commercially available ... chromatography of the critical phenomena of compressed gases or overheated liquids as supercritical fluids will be discussed. ...
2.3.2.3 Liquid Column Chromatography. *2.3.2.4 Supercritical Fluid Chromatography. *2.3.2.5 Countercurrent Chromatography ... 2.3.4 Identification of Multicomponent Samples without Previous Separation. *2.3.4.1 UV Spectroscopy ...
Microfluidic separation process by the Soret effect in biological fluids ARTICULO , Comptes Rendus Mecanique. Vol. 539. Nº. 5. ... Thermogravitational column for measuring the properties of gaseous fluids comprising nanoparticles Patentes y otros titulos de ... Enhanced molecular separation in inclined thermogravitational columns ARTICULO , Journal of Physical Chemistry B. Vol. 107. N° ... Validity limits of the thermogravitational column theory by numerical simulation of the separation process ...
The invention provides a method for performing off-line multi-dimensional separation and analysis of a heterogeneous ... G01N30/02-Column chromatography * G01N30/26-Conditioning of the fluid carrier; Flow patterns ... It should be noted that head-column stacking may be performed on either the separation column or a pre-column typically ... G01N30/463-Flow patterns using more than one column with serial coupling of separation columns for multidimensional ...
the pressure of a fluid expressed in terms of the height of a column of liquid yielding an equivalent pressure. ... the pressure differential resulting from this separation, expressed in terms of the vertical distance between the points. ... loosely) the pressure exerted by confined fluid: a head of steam.. *Also called pressure head. Hydraulics. *the vertical ... pressure of water, caused by height or velocity, measured in terms of a vertical column of water ...
the pressure of a fluid expressed in terms of the height of a column of liquid yielding an equivalent pressure. ... the pressure differential resulting from this separation, expressed in terms of the vertical distance between the points. ... pressure of water, caused by height or velocity, measured in terms of a vertical column of water ... the vertical distance between two points in a liquid, as water, or some other fluid. ...
the pressure of a fluid expressed in terms of the height of a column of liquid yielding an equivalent pressure. ... the pressure differential resulting from this separation, expressed in terms of the vertical distance between the points. ... the vertical distance between two points in a liquid, as water, or some other fluid ...
THE USE OF VANCOMYCIN AS A MULTI-CHIRAL SELECTOR FOR THE SEPARATION OF ENANTIOMERS IN PACKED COLUMN SUPERCRITICAL FLUID ... DESIGN, SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF HIGHLY STEREOSELECTIVE CHIRAL SELECTORS TO BE USED FOR ENANTIOMER SEPARATIONS BY MEMBRANE ... SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION AND THERMODYNAMIC STUDY: APPLICATION TO FRACTIONATION OF AROMATIC SYSTEMS ... SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION AND THERMODYNAMIC STUDY APPLICATION TO FRACTIONATION OF AROMATIC SYSTEMS ...
  • The super critical fluid chromatography reagents market in Europe was valued at $46.0 million in 2013, and is estimated to grow to $75.4 million by 2018, at a CAGR of 10.4% from 2013 to 2018. (prweb.com)
  • Identification confidence is a challenge currently facing non-targeted studies, and the use of prediction mechanisms of analyte IMS gas-phase separations was explored. (diva-portal.org)
  • The separation module models analyte transport and physico-chemical interaction with the coated surface in the GC column. (unt.edu)
  • In addition to the analytical tool, we have also developed a time-dependent adsorption/desorption model and incorporated this model into a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to simulate analyte transport and separation process in GC columns. (unt.edu)
  • Extraction with supercritical fluids (SFs) was welcome from the very beginning. (scirp.org)
  • In some methods, successively solvents of increasing polarity are applied and/or an extraction column is used which provided with a packed sta. (sumobrain.com)
  • This column focuses on the province of Alberta in Canada as an emerging and important global center for nanotechnology research and commercialization and some current and upcoming applications of nanotechnology to the oil & gas extraction, petrochemicals, and fuels & lubricants industries. (nanotech-now.com)
  • The objective of this research project is to evaluate the potential of SCF extraction for separating the catalyst slurry of a Fischer- Tropsch (F-T) slurry bubble column (SBC) reactor into two fractions: (1) a catalyst-free wax containing less than 10 ppm particulate matter and (2) a concentrated catalyst slurry that is ready for recycle or regeneration. (unt.edu)
  • The substrate of the affinity matrix can be in a variety of different forms, e.g. as packing in a vessel such as a separation column, or porous membrane bridging the interior of the vessel in which the separation is carried out. (google.se)
  • Designed for analytical-scale samples, each qEVsingle column efficiently removes background proteins, lipids, solutes and other contaminants to improve the sensitivity and accuracy of downstream assays (e.g. (izon.com)
  • This valuable addition to its core expertise in chiral chromatography provides a fast and effective advantage that can tackle projects for the scale clients need-from milligram to kilogram scale projects for non-GMP and GMP separations. (prweb.com)