Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Quinones: Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Korea: Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Ovule: The element in plants that contains the female GAMETOPHYTES.Germ Cells, Plant: The reproductive cells of plants.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Gametogenesis, Plant: The process of germ cell development in plants, from the primordial PLANT GERM CELLS to the mature haploid PLANT GAMETES.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Dreissena: A genus of mussels in the family Dreissenidae, class BIVALVIA. They are found in both fresh and brackish water and are not native to North America. Accidentally introduced into the Great Lakes in 1986, they now proliferate widely throughout the United States.Nephrons: The functional units of the kidney, consisting of the glomerulus and the attached tubule.Chemical Processes: The reactions and interactions of atoms and molecules, the changes in their structure and composition, and associated energy changes.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Peptide Synthases: Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
  • Dreissenid species, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas 1771, common name: zebra mussel) and Dreissena rostriformis bugensis (Andrusov, 1897, quagga mussel) originated from the Ponto-Caspian region, but have now become widely distributed. (elementascience.org)
  • The Pleistocene closure of Isthmus of Panama, separating the basins of the Eastern Pacific and the Caribbean Sea, created a unique natural experiment that reveals how marine faunas respond to environmental change. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A prime example of neighboring marine environments separated relatively recently into disparate ecotopes is the division of the Eastern Pacific from the Caribbean Sea by the closure of the Isthmus of Panama. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Isthmus of Panama is one of the most familiar and well-studied examples of a land barrier separating marine environments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Forests are highly variable across the geologically and climatically diverse Isthmus of Panama, providing an ideal setting for studying species responses to environmental variation. (pnas.org)
  • In particular, the number of "cryptic" species-those species differing principally in mating signals and with often only a very limited degree of postzygotic isolation ( 31 - 33 )-have suggested to some authors the possibility of sexual selection driving speciation even in the absence of any pronounced hybrid inferiority (see, e.g., refs. (pnas.org)
  • But the specific cues that trigger prey defenses vary depending on the species of prey and their history in the ecosystem, a new University of Washington study finds. (eurekalert.org)
  • But it's a newly discovered species, only 5½-inches long, and it shoots glow-in-the-dark fluid from pouches near its gills to attract prey and hide itself. (floridatoday.com)
  • Fiber can be introduced by allowing the prey species to eat a high fiber diet before feeding it to the predator. (hubpages.com)
  • Adults of the species are carnivorous and captures prey with its eversible, papillated proboscis. (marlin.ac.uk)
  • Computer analysis of paired species illustrated the segregation very well, especially in Nagarahole, but Badipur did not show this trend for segregation, even though prey was at high densities in both reserves. (earthtimes.org)
  • We explored means to accommodate unequal sampling intensity across strata as well as the unbalanced species prevalence in Random Forest models for tree and shrub species distributions in the state of Nevada. (fed.us)
  • We explored unbalanced species prevalence by investigating the effects of down-sampling the more prevalent response (presence or absence), and by optimizing the cutoff thresholds for declaring a species present. (fed.us)
  • The possible contribution of other wild species present along the Silk Route running from Asia to Western Europe remains a matter of debate, particularly with respect to the contribution of the European wild apple. (plos.org)
  • We show that the evolution of domesticated apples occurred over a long time period and involved more than one wild species. (plos.org)
  • Does the dog in your living room have any similarity to those wild species that we are losing from our savanna and forests? (earthtimes.org)
  • The 20 wild species of strawberries have differt numbers of chromosome pairs. (usda.gov)
  • Another wild species from Iturup Island has 10 sets of chromosomes The chromosomes can be photographed through a microscope producing a "karyotype. (usda.gov)
  • In Eleotridae, several independent shallow instances of transisthmian divergences occur, with one or a few species on either side of the Isthmus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Intersectional hybridization does not occur beyond the F 1 generation in most cases, but this type of introgression probably occurred in the past where the ranges of eastern and western species overlap [ 42 ]. (fed.us)
  • Diverse echinoderm faunas consisting of many individuals and many species are found in all marine waters of the world except the Arctic, where few species occur. (britannica.com)
  • Using affinity purification, we demonstrate that this PSII fraction consists of PSII-LHCII mega- and supercomplexes, PSII dimers, and PSII monomers, which were separated by gel filtration and functionally characterized. (frontiersin.org)
  • The research, published online Jan. 12 in the journal American Naturalist , analyzed the behavior of seven species of marine snails found in Washington waters -- three native and four invasive -- and discovered that native and invasive snails use different cues to assess risk. (eurekalert.org)
  • Nephtys assimilis and Nephtys kersivalensis are now recognized as separate species as described in Rainer (1989) and Rainer (1991). (marlin.ac.uk)
  • The total reproductive isolation that was observed in females of each species was stronger in F. heteroclitus than in F. grandis , and was nearly complete in F. heteroclitus females under choice conditions and was of moderate strength in F. grandis females. (springer.com)
  • A new species develops if a population which has become geographically isolated from its parental species acquires during this period of isolation characters which promote or guarantee reproductive isolation when the external barriers break down. (todayinsci.com)
  • Bidirectional gene flow between the domesticated apple and the European crabapple resulted in the current M. domestica being genetically more closely related to this species than to its Central Asian progenitor, M. sieversii . (plos.org)
  • 1998) and two of the progenitor species have been developed (Gill, K.S. et al . (fao.org)
  • Scientists have divided elephants into two distinct species: the African and Asian elephant. (planetsave.com)
  • The work resulted in maps showing foraging range, which can be used by scientists to help develop conservation measures for this species. (massey.ac.nz)
  • Scientists have determined that the second pocket shark ever to be captured does, in fact, represent a new species. (floridatoday.com)
  • Wood deployments in a broad geographic range provided a powerful tool for research on Xylophagaidae allowing for conclusions on ecological requirements of xylophagaid species. (frontiersin.org)
  • On of the more immediate and practical consequences of the discovery is rethinking conservation plans for the savannah and forest elephant as two separate species. (planetsave.com)
  • The recognition of the existence of two separate species could help guide conservation efforts for a mammal adored by many people even as its numbers dwindle in the wild, they added. (reuters.com)
  • Donegan & Salaman (2012: link below) published various data on these pigeon species' natural history, voice and conservation, and included a rare photograph of purpurata in life by Juan Carlos Luna. (lsu.edu)
  • Conservation efforts, beginning in the 20th century, have resulted in thousands of captive-bred juveniles being released onto their ancestral home islands, and the total number of the species is estimated to have exceeded 19,000 at the start of the 21st century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite this rebound, the species as a whole is classified as "vulnerable" by the International Union for Conservation of Nature . (wikipedia.org)
  • The conservation status of the vast majority of hydrozoan species is unknown. (eol.org)
  • Random Forests is frequently used to model species distributions over large geographic areas. (fed.us)
  • To study species over an entire community, we surveyed trees and measured soil chemistry across climatic and geological gradients in central Panama and then used a unique hierarchical model of species occurrence as a function of rainfall and soil chemistry to circumvent analytical difficulties posed by rare species. (pnas.org)
  • This suggested a basic 1x chromosome number of 7 and the occurrence of diploid (2n=2x=14), tetraploid (2n=4x=28) and hexaploid (2n=6x=42) wheat species. (fao.org)
  • As a result, despite long recognition of the importance of rainfall and soil nutrients in regulating tropical forest structure and productivity ( 6 ⇓ ⇓ - 9 ), studies of the responses of individual species to individual environmental resources remain scarce. (pnas.org)
  • These results reveal an asymmetry in the potential gene flow between these two species, with F. grandis being more likely to hybridize than F. heteroclitus in the absence of environmental influences. (springer.com)
  • The science of ecotoxicology is challenged by two large numbers: thousands of man-made chemicals are released into the environment and millions of biological species are exposed. (rsc.org)
  • We can see that high-throughput testing will likely go a long way to screening large numbers of chemicals, i.e. we have scalability in the many chemicals dimension, and quantitative AOPs will aid interpretation and extrapolation, but the results will initially tell us something only about a limited number of biological species. (rsc.org)
  • Simply put, we think these approaches, as they currently are put together, do not have scalability in the biological species dimension. (rsc.org)
  • Extrapolating quantitative AOPs across species requires the assumption that molecular pathways and functions are conserved across biological species. (rsc.org)
  • Moreover, it requires that they are conserved not only qualitatively, but also that the quantitative response is the same across biological species. (rsc.org)
  • How is a biological species defined? (actionbioscience.org)
  • The biological species concept is a classical concept. (actionbioscience.org)
  • It's also difficult to apply the biological species concept to ancestral species. (actionbioscience.org)
  • Even though Homo erectus evolved through stages into Homo sapiens , we can't apply the biological species concept to this obviously. (actionbioscience.org)
  • We also found that balancing the number of presences and absences in a training data set by down-sampling did not improve predictive models of species distributions, and did not eliminate the need to optimize thresholds. (fed.us)
  • Also the IUCN has evaluated many species of Millepora and rated several of them Endangered. (eol.org)
  • In a vote, the IUCN passed an almost unanimous motion urging New Zealand and Mexico to urgently protect these species, and specified that protection out to 100 meters depth throughout Maui's dolphin range as needed. (greenpeace.org)
  • Thank you for taking the time to provide feedback on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species website, we are grateful for your input. (iucnredlist.org)
  • The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T41076A10396927. (iucnredlist.org)
  • Ever since, researchers have been debating the origins of the Hobbit and whether it represents a new human species. (phys.org)
  • Anthropology is the study of the origin and development of the human species. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Although we anticipated clear-cut responses to dry-season intensity, the finding that many species have pronounced associations with either high or low phosphorus reveals a previously unquantified role for this nutrient in limiting tropical tree distributions. (pnas.org)
  • Many tropical species of sea cucumbers are active at night, staying in crevices or under the sand during the day. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Many tropical species are dark brown to black, but lighter colours, particularly yellows, are common among species not normally exposed to strong sunlight. (britannica.com)
  • In addition to verifying the diagnosis, it's vital to research the particular species of fish you intend to treat to ensure it can tolerate the particular medication you intend to use. (reefbuilders.com)
  • The second part gives the particular species. (factmonster.com)
  • Most existing work is based on summary axes of species composition and broad classifications of soil type ( 10 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 15 ), demonstrating that communities vary with soil but offering little insight into responses of individual species. (pnas.org)
  • If the new area is left undisturbed, then typically there is an episode of rapid evolution - an adaptation of new species to the environment. (actionbioscience.org)
  • This module discusses the definition of the word 'evolution' in a biological context, evidence for the truth of evolution and common ancestry of species, and public thoughts and misconceptions about biological evolution. (coursera.org)