A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Diseases of BONES.
Diphosphoric acid esters of fructose. The fructose-1,6- diphosphate isomer is most prevalent. It is an important intermediate in the glycolysis process.
Damage to tissues as the result of low environmental temperatures.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
Breaks in bones.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).
One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.
Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.
Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.
Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.
Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.
The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.
The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.
Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.
Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.
The TARSAL BONES; METATARSAL BONES; and PHALANGES OF TOES. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid; navicular; internal; middle; and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.
The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.
The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.
Fibrous blood-filled cyst in the bone. Although benign it can be destructive causing deformity and fractures.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)
The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).
Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.
The bones of the free part of the upper extremity including the HUMERUS; RADIUS; and ULNA.
Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)
A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A bone tumor composed of cellular spindle-cell stroma containing scattered multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts. The tumors range from benign to frankly malignant lesions. The tumor occurs most frequently in an end of a long tubular bone in young adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.
Dissolution of bone that particularly involves the removal or loss of calcium.
Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.
The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.
VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
The shaft of long bones.
Techniques for the removal of subpopulations of cells (usually residual tumor cells) from the bone marrow ex vivo before it is infused. The purging is achieved by a variety of agents including pharmacologic agents, biophysical agents (laser photoirradiation or radioisotopes) and immunologic agents. Bone marrow purging is used in both autologous and allogeneic BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION.
A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.
The constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The CARPAL BONES; METACARPAL BONES; and FINGER PHALANGES. In each hand there are eight carpal bones, five metacarpal bones, and 14 phalanges.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
The spinal or vertebral column.
Bone diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.
Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.
The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive attempts at repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass. The resultant architecture of the bone assumes a mosaic pattern in which the fibers take on a haphazard pattern instead of the normal parallel symmetry.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A highly glycosylated and sulfated phosphoprotein that is found almost exclusively in mineralized connective tissues. It is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to hydroxyapatite through polyglutamic acid sequences and mediates cell attachment through an RGD sequence.
The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.
Decrease, loss, or removal of the mineral constituents of bones. Temporary loss of bone mineral content is especially associated with space flight, weightlessness, and extended immobilization. OSTEOPOROSIS is permanent, includes reduction of total bone mass, and is associated with increased rate of fractures. CALCIFICATION, PHYSIOLOGIC is the process of bone remineralizing. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; Nicogossian, Space Physiology and Medicine, 2d ed, pp327-33)
An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
A nonhormonal medication for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. This drug builds healthy bone, restoring some of the bone loss as a result of osteoporosis.
Centers for acquiring, characterizing, and storing bones or bone tissue for future use.
A circular structural unit of bone tissue. It consists of a central hole, the Haversian canal through which blood vessels run, surrounded by concentric rings, called lamellae.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is found at high concentrations in a purified osteoinductive protein fraction from BONE. Bone morphogenetic protein 3 is referred to as osteogenin, however it may play a role in variety of developmental processes.
Nodular bones which lie within a tendon and slide over another bony surface. The PATELLA (kneecap) is a sesamoid bone.
A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.
A bone that forms the lower and anterior part of each side of the hip bone.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.
The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.
Rods of bone, metal, or other material used for fixation of the fragments or ends of fractured bones.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.
Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
An abnormal hardening or increased density of bone tissue.
The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.
A family of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS that bind BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that mediate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS through SMAD PROTEINS.
Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.
The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.
The bone which is located most lateral in the proximal row of CARPAL BONES.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The study of life and ECOLOGIC SYSTEMS in bodies of FRESHWATER.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.
The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.
A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
The bones of the upper and lower ARM. They include the CLAVICLE and SCAPULA.
The bones of the upper and lower LEG. They include the PELVIC BONES.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Excessive formation of dense trabecular bone leading to pathological fractures; OSTEITIS; SPLENOMEGALY with infarct; ANEMIA; and extramedullary hemopoiesis (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
A bone morphogenetic protein that may play a role in CARTILAGE formation. It is a potent regulator of the growth of CHONDROCYTES and the synthesis of cartilage matrix proteins. Evidence for its role in cartilage formation can be seen in MICE, where genetic mutations that cause loss of bone morphogenetic protein 5 function result in the formation of small malformed ears.
Fractures of the femur.
Bone lengthening by gradual mechanical distraction. An external fixation device produces the distraction across the bone plate. The technique was originally applied to long bones but in recent years the method has been adapted for use with mandibular implants in maxillofacial surgery.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.
The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.
An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.
A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with low affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are constitutively active PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that can interact with and phosphorylate TYPE I BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A hollow part of the alveolar process of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE where each tooth fits and is attached via the periodontal ligament.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A bone morphogenetic protein family member that includes an active tolloid-like metalloproteinase domain. The metalloproteinase activity of bone morphogenetic protein 1 is specific for the removal of the C-propeptide of PROCOLLAGEN and may act as a regulator of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX deposition. Alternative splicing of MRNA for bone morphogenetic protein 1 results in the production of several PROTEIN ISOFORMS.
Inflammation of the bone.
The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
A scraping, usually of the interior of a cavity or tract, for removal of new growth or other abnormal tissue, or to obtain material for tissue diagnosis. It is performed with a curet (curette), a spoon-shaped instrument designed for that purpose. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Dorland, 27th ed)
Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).
A fracture in which union fails to occur, the ends of the bone becoming rounded and eburnated, and a false joint occurs. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Removal of minerals from bones during bone examination.
A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
Death of a bone or part of a bone, either atraumatic or posttraumatic.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Increase in the mass of bone per unit volume.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Production of a radiographic image of a small or very thin object on fine-grained photographic film under conditions which permit subsequent microscopic examination or enlargement of the radiograph at linear magnifications of up to several hundred and with a resolution approaching the resolving power of the photographic emulsion (about 1000 lines per millimeter).
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
... both bones are separated by the nasal bone. The parietal approaches the frontal bone in length. At the fourth and fifth neck ... The thigh bone is longer than the ilium. According to the authors, the hindlimb proportions of oviraptorids do not essentially ...
The sauropod bones, not the iguanodont bones, would then have retained the name C. brevis. Therefore, Cetiosaurus conybeari is ... Mantell acquired the bone for £8. The humerus, clearly shaped to vertically support the weight of the body and presumed to ... This was a main motive in naming a separate genus; shortly afterwards, however, by studying the sacral vertebrae of Cetiosaurus ... On a subsequent page, apparently separate from this issue, Owen in covert terms implied that his 1842 publication was not ...
Derived species have a foramen internasale, a midline opening separating the rear of the nasal bones. The nasal bone usually ... The three pelvic bones: the ilium, the ischium, and the pubic bone, are not fused and often do not even touch each other. Also ... The upper rim of the eye socket consists of a bone bar formed by the prefrontal and the postfrontal bones. The postorbital in ... Postparietal and tabular bones are lacking. Often, the bones of the back of the skull and the palate are incompletely ossified ...
Many items of personal adornment have been recovered such as stone, bone and copper ornaments or pendants; bone plume holders ... Sometimes the bones of certain totem animals such as heron, bald eagle, crane, otter, or beaver were included in the grave, ... Hide-working required its own set of tools; knives to separate the skin from the body; beamers to de-hair the hide; scrapers to ... The bone and/or antler cylinders which are thought to be game pieces. At the Fisher site, these game pieces are found in ...
... which means they each comprise two separate pieces. The sesamoids are roughly the size of jelly beans. The sesamoid bones act ... Sometimes a sesamoid bone is fractured. This can be difficult to pick up on X-ray, so a bone scan or MRI is a better ... The sesamoid bones lie behind the bones of the fetlock, at the back of the joint, and help to keep the tendons and ligaments ... Once the sesamoid bone is injured it can be very difficult to cure, because additional pressure is put on the sesamoid bone ...
Bone ash was the major source of phosphorus until the 1840s. The method started by roasting bones, then employed the use of ... Every living cell is encased in a membrane that separates it from its surroundings. Cellular membranes are composed of a ... This used bone ash for a phosphate source, as described above. The bone-ash process became obsolete when the submerged-arc ... is found in bones, and they obtained elemental phosphorus from bone ash. Antoine Lavoisier recognised phosphorus as an element ...
Dual-energy radiography is where images are acquired using two separate tube voltages. This is the standard method for bone ... like calcium-rich bones). The discipline involving the study of anatomy through the use of radiographic images is known as ... Usually the hip (head of the femur), lower back (lumbar spine), or heel (calcaneum) are imaged, and the bone density (amount of ... Resolution is the ability an image to show closely spaced structure in the object as separate entities in the image while ...
Two separate studies have found Animantarx to be the sister taxon of Edmontonia within Nodosauridae. Timeline of ankylosaur ... Subsequent excavation at this site turned up the fossil skeleton of Animantarx; no bones had been exposed on the surface. ... Radiological surveying as a method for mapping dinosaur bone sites. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 15: 38A. Vickaryous, M.K ... small horns on the postorbital and quadratojugal bones of the skull, and a mandible which is only armoured on half of its ...
The jugal bones pointed to below at the rear sides of the skull and were capped by separate epijugals. With Triceratops these ... The cavity between the layers invaded the bone cores of the brow horns. At the rear of the skull, the outer squamosal bones and ... The core of the top beak was formed by a special rostral bone. Behind it, the premaxillae bones were located, embayed from ... While several other genera of horned dinosaurs are known from bone beds preserving bones from two to hundreds or thousands of ...
... the first metatarsal bone was slightly shorter than the second to fourth metatarsal bones. Unusually, the fifth metatarsal bone ... the postfrontal and postorbital bones were separate unlike Ardeosaurus, and the rearward projection of the latter bones were ... the ectopterygoid bones overlapped the pterygoid bones at their rear. Unlike A. brevipes, E. schroederi lacked bone ... The squamosal bones were slender and projected downwards to meet the quadrate bones, as in most lizards; unlike the Iguania and ...
Seeing the bones on 6 March he agreed that these were of some giant saurian-though still denying it was a herbivore. Emboldened ... Evidence of a fractured hip bone was found in a specimen of Iguanodon, which had an injury to its ischium. Two other ... Paul, Gregory S. (2007). "Turning the old into the new: a separate genus for the gracile iguanodont from the Wealden of England ... The skull was structured in such a way that as it closed, the bones holding the teeth in the upper jaw would bow out. This ...
... along with the upper portion of the occipital bone and the wings of the sphenoid. These bones are separated by membranous ... The most important sutures are the frontal, between the two frontal bones; the sagittal, between the two parietal bones; the ... between the posterior margins of the parietal bones and upper margin of the occipital bone. Where several sutures meet, an ... The bones of the cranium are normally connected only by a thin layer of fibrous tissue that allows considerable shifting or ...
Three gulfs separate these peninsulas: the Gulf of Tomini between the northern Minahasa and East peninsulas; the Tolo Gulf ... The kingdom of Luwu in the Gulf of Bone was the first to accept Islam in February 1605; the Makassar kingdom of Goa-Talloq, ... One of the most recent publications is "When the bones are left," a study of the material culture of central Sulawesi, offering ... These separate the Minahassa or Northern Peninsula, the East Peninsula, the Southeast Peninsula and the South Peninsula. The ...
The nasal cavity is separated into two halves along the midline by a bone wall. This septum is continued to below by the vomers ... Isolated bones and shed teeth from E. longiceps are also known from the upper Judith River Formation in Montana. E. rugosidens ... bone plates. These halfrings did not have a continuous underlying bone band. The first and second halfrings each had three ... The snout carried a horny upper beak and the front snout bones, the premaxillae, were toothless. The cutting edge of the upper ...
Dual-energy radiography is where images are acquired using two separate tube voltages. This is the standard method for bone ... like calcium-rich bones). The discipline involving the study of anatomy through the use of radiographic images is known as ... Cancer, bone fractures. Significant tests. screening tests, X-ray, CT, MRI, PET, bone scan, ultrasonography, mammography, ... DEXA, or bone densitometry, is used primarily for osteoporosis tests. It is not projection radiography, as the X-rays are ...
Each hip bone consists of 3 sections, ilium, ischium, and pubis. During childhood, these sections are separate bones, joined by ... During puberty, they fuse together to form a single bone. The pelvic cavity is a body cavity that is bounded by the bones of ... The pelvic girdle consists of the two hip bones. The hip bones are connected to each other anteriorly at the pubic symphysis, ... which ossifies as three main bones which stay separate through childhood: ilium, ischium, pubis. At birth the whole of the hip ...
Each hip bone consists of 3 sections, ilium, ischium, and pubis. During childhood, these sections are separate bones, joined by ... 2-4. Hip bone (os coxae) 1. Sacrum (os sacrum), 2. Ilium (os ilium), 3. Ischium (os ischii) 4. Pubic bone (os pubis) (4a. ... Each side of the pelvis is formed as cartilage, which ossifies as three main bones which stay separate through childhood: ilium ... The pelvic girdle consists of the two hip bones. The hip bones are connected to each other anteriorly at the pubic symphysis, ...
Steam can also be used to soften glue and separate joints. Specific types include hide glue, bone glue, fish glue, rabbit skin ... These protein colloid glues are formed through hydrolysis of the collagen from skins, bones, tendons, and other tissues, ... Most animal glues are soluble in water, useful for joints which may at some time need to be separated.[20] Alcohol is sometimes ... derived primarily from collagenous material present in animal hide or from the extraction of collagen present in animal bones, ...
... bones compose the orbit. (1) the frontal bone (yellow) (2) the lacrimal bone (green) (3) the ethmoid bone (brown) (4) the ... it is the ethmoid bone that separates the brain from the nose. ... 5) the upper jaw maxillary bone (purple) (6) the palatine bone ... the paired nasal bones attach to the frontal bone. Above and to the side (superolaterally), the paired nasal bones connect to ... Illustration 1: The surgeon cuts the excessively wide bones of the upper nasal dorsum (violet) with an osteotome (bone chisel ...
... the paired nasal bones attach to the frontal bone. Above and to the side (superolaterally), the paired nasal bones connect to ... A nasobuccal membrane separates the mouth from the nose; respectively, the inferior oral cavity (the mouth) and the superior ... The nasal root is the top of the nose, forming an indentation at the suture where the nasal bones meet the frontal bone. The ... The nasal septum is composed of the quadrangular cartilage, the vomer bone (the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone), ...
It is bordered below by a number of splenial bones, while the angle of the jaw is formed by a lower angular bone and a ... to which the incisors are attached in mammals consists of a separate pair of bones, the premaxillae. In bony fish, both maxilla ... Finally a set of three narrow coronoid bones lie above the prearticular bone. As the name implies, the majority of the teeth ... The inner surface of the jaw is lined by a prearticular bone, while the articular bone forms the articulation with the skull ...
In temnospondyls, bones such as the spinous process, the pleurocentrum and the intercentrum are separate ossifications. Fused ... In living amphibians, there is simply a cylindrical piece of bone below the vertebral arch, with no trace of the separate ... found in all chordates has been replaced by a segmented series of bone: vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs.[1] The ... These latter bones are probably homologous with the ventral ribs of fish. The number of vertebrae in the spines of reptiles is ...
The prefrontal bone is a bone separating the lacrimal and frontal bones in many tetrapod skulls. ... two palatine bones, two zygomatic bones, and two lacrimal bones. Some sources count a paired bone as one, or the maxilla as ... The various separate bones that compose the temporal bone of humans are also part of the skull roof series. A further plate ... Sometimes there can be extra bone pieces within the suture known as wormian bones or sutural bones. Most commonly these are ...
The eight cranial bones are separated by sutures : one frontal bone, two parietal bones, two temporal bones, one occipital bone ... one sphenoid bone, and one ethmoid bone.[24]. The bones of the skull are in three layers: the hard compact layer of the ... A skull fracture is a break in one or more of the eight bones that form the cranial portion of the skull, usually occurring as ... If the force of the impact is excessive, the bone may fracture at or near the site of the impact and cause damage to the ...
... s are not used for cutting through solid, thick and hard bones[2] - instead a bone saw, either manual or powered, is ... With a chicken, for example, it can be used to chop through the bird's thin bones or to separate ribs. Cleavers can also be ... When asked how he did so, he replied that he did not cut through the bones, but rather in the space between the bones.[3] ... It is largely used as a kitchen or butcher knife intended for hacking through bone. The knife's broad side can also be used for ...
Lepidotrichia are usually composed of bone, but in early osteichthyans such as Cheirolepis, there was also dentine and enamel[ ... The bones that support the dorsal fin are called Pterygiophore. There are two to three of them: "proximal", "middle", and " ... They also possess two dorsal fins with separate bases, as opposed to the single dorsal fin of ray-finned fish. ... They have fleshy, lobed, paired fins, which are joined to the body by a single bone.[11] The fins of lobe-finned fish differ ...
Lakes wrote that the bones were "apparently a vertebra and a humerus bone of some gigantic saurian."[64] While Lakes sent Marsh ... In private correspondence, however, Osborn wrote that the two had essentially separated,[29]:355 though they remained on ... Port Kennedy Bone Cave. Footnotes[edit]. *^ Davidson found no evidence in any of the surviving Cope correspondence and papers ... Davidson, Jane (1997). The Bone Sharp: The Life of Edward Drinker Cope. Academy of Natural Sciences. ISBN 978-0-910006-53-8.. ...
Bone Marrow:[7] Marrow is found in the hollow cavities of the body's large bones. Donation involves withdrawing 2-3 percent of ... A cell separating machine filters out the stem cells, which can then be infused into the recipient. Today, PBSC is requested ... "Bone Marrow Transplantation. 42 (1): S3-S5. doi:10.1038/bmt.2008.102. ISSN 1476-5365. PMID 18724295.. ... Today, bone marrow is requested approximately 20 percent of the time. Peripheral Blood Stem Cells (PBSC):[8] It is possible to ...
The fill contained flints, artifacts of ground stone and bone, and animal bones in two separate layers. The upper layer ... Bone fish-hooks and piles of fish bones ready for trade or storage point to the importance of marine resources.[6] The men are ... Animal bones and plant remains have also been preserved. Animal bones come mainly from wild species. The plant remains include ... contained partly articulated animal bones, which were presumably thrown in after the well went out of use. Other round ...
The fibula or calf bone is a leg bone located on the lateral side of the tibia, with which it is connected above and below. It ... It serves for the attachment of the interosseous membrane, which separates the extensor muscles in front from the flexor ... is the smaller of the two bones, and, in proportion to its length, the slenderest of all the long bones. Its upper extremity is ... The antero-lateral border begins above in front of the head, runs vertically downward to a little below the middle of the bone ...
... which are united and at the same time separated by fibrous sutures.[3] This allows movement of the separate bones in relation ... The bone is still more malleable and can be remodelled relatively 'simply' by greenstick fractures of the bone.[42] At ... Replacement of the bones provides a possibility for the correction of the hypotelorism at the same time.[42] A bone graft is ... Most of the bones that collectively form the cranial vault - i.e. the frontal, the parietal and the occipital bones - are ...
Nearby were discovered the bones of her dead puppies.. *The University of Notre Dame used an Irish Terrier as its mascot until ... The Dublin dog show in 1873 was the first to provide a separate class for Irish Terriers. By the 1880s, Irish Terriers were the ... when an Irish Terrier is very small and light-boned, it loses the correct racy type. ... They were shown now and then, sometimes in one class, sometimes in separate classes for dogs under and over 9 pounds. ...
Nelson, D.E., Radiocarbon dating of bone and charcoal from Divje babe I cave, cited by Morley, p. 47 ... Early examples of artistic expression, such as the Venus of Tan-Tan and the patterns found on elephant bones from Bilzingsleben ... A major event is a general glacial excursion, termed a "glacial". Glacials are separated by "interglacials". During a glacial, ... Upper Paleolithic (and possibly Middle Paleolithic)[83] humans used flute-like bone pipes as musical instruments,[38][84] and ...
In a 2001 study conducted by Bruce Rothschild and other paleontologists, 12 hand bones and 20 foot bones referred to ... The ilium, the main hip bone, is supported by only two sacrals, a basal trait.[9] However, the pubis points backwards, a ... internal tuberosity is proximally projected and separated from the humeral head by a deep groove (also present in coelophysoids ... PVSJ 407, a Herrerasaurus ischigualastensis, had a pit in a skull bone attributed by Paul Sereno and Novas to a bite. Two ...
They also appear to enjoy biting the vortex-rings, so that they burst into many separate bubbles and then rise quickly to the ... These vibrations are received through fatty tissues in the jaw, which is then rerouted into the ear-bone and into the brain ... This is followed by the colonization of bones and surrounding sediments (which contain organic matter) by enrichment ... Whales split into two separate parvorders around 34 mya - the baleen whales (Mysticetes) and the toothed whales (Odontocetes).[ ...
The detached tails of leopard geckos can wiggle for up to 20 minutes.[130] In many species the tails are of a separate and ... The new section will however contain cartilage rather than bone, and will never grow to the same length as the original tail. ... a jaw joint formed by the quadrate and articular bones, and certain characteristics of the vertebrae.[17] The animals singled ... Blood is then extracted; the serum is separated, purified and freeze-dried.[146] The cytotoxic effect of snake venom is being ...
With the loss of the gill-covering bones, the shoulder girdle is separated from the skull, connected to the torso by muscle and ... The tongue is anchored to the hyoid bone, which was once the lower half of a pair of gill bars (the second pair after the ones ... Both sets of bones connect the shoulder girdle to the skull. With the loss of these bones, tetrapods acquired a neck, allowing ... Bones and groups of bones were also consolidated and strengthened.[71]. In Carboniferous tetrapods, the neck joint (occiput) ...
For at least 40,000 years, the healing tool was believed to assist in healing "broken bones, muscle tears and illnesses of ... According to Evan Andrews, reporting on the History Channel, ancient flutes, carved from ivory and bone, were found by ... In a separate study that explored the effects of music therapy on pain in children and families, it was found that music ...
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 83(8): 1119-1124. *^ Warby, Sarah A.; Pizzari, Tania; Ford, Jon J.; Hahne, Andrew J.; ... A joint dislocation, also called luxation, occurs when there is an abnormal separation in the joint, where two or more bones ... The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 52 (8): 1534-1551. *^ Ganz, R., Gill, T., Gautier, E., Ganz, K., Krugel, N., Berlemann, ... Treatment for joint dislocation is usually by closed reduction, that is, skilled manipulation to return the bones to their ...
The animal bones typically that the people of Kibiro relied on fish for a source of food as well as on domesticated cows, goats ... The site of Kibero consisted of four discrete cuttings, which sampled three separated parts of the most extensive area of ... pieces of freshwater shell and scraps of bone, both mammal and fish". In the two excavations that were done over 2 metric ... The majority of the animal remains were bones that appeared to be well preserved but were too shattered to be able to diagnosed ...
... bones found on each of the legs, on either side of the cannon bone (8 total); partially vestigial, these bones support the ... which separates the uterus from the vagina. Usually 3.5 to 4 cm (1.4 to 1.6 in) in diameter with longitudinal folds on the ... 20 bones per limb. Bones are connected to muscles via tendons and other bones via ligaments. Bones are also used to store ... Ligaments attach bone to bone or bone to tendon, and are vital in stabilizing joints as well as supporting structures. They are ...
The maxillary processes of the palatine bones in the beaks of Eurotrochilus are widely separated, indicating the presence of ... These morphological specializations of the humeri allow the bone to rotate during hovering flight. Additional adaptions present ... In addition, Eurotrochilus appear to have long nasal openings and large hyoid bones. The large hyoid bones are thought to ... The specimen had all of the same characteristics of E. inexpectatus but also had unique proportions of bones, a coracoid that ...
The long plantar ligament separates the two heads of the quadratus plantae muscle. Plantar calcaneonavicular ligament Short ... and fourth metatarsal bones. This ligament converts the groove on the plantar surface of the cuboid into a canal for the tendon ... is a long ligament on the underside of the foot that connects the calcaneus with the cuboid bone. The long plantar ligament is ... and in front to the tuberosity on the plantar surface of the cuboid bone, the more superficial fibers being continued forward ...
Rat skull with separated bones 3D Model available on Turbo Squid, the worlds leading provider of digital 3D models for ... skull rat mouse anatomy bone skeleton face animal maxilla medicine temporal tooth dental leo3dmodels science sphenoid ... 3D model of Rat skull with separated bones.. This 3d rat skull model is a great tool for teaching and learning the complex ...
Also the sediments within the bones contain high amounts of pyrite, Stein says. Bacteria or algae in the swamp could have ... But its bone structure is of an adult animal, an analysis by Koen Stein (Vrije Universiteit Brussel) concludes. That means the ... Stein drilled a cylinder-shaped sample out of the fossil bones of the little iguanodon. The analysis of the internal ... Adult dinosaurs have a different, less porous bone structure than young specimens. They also have a lot less blood vessels. ...
... these YKK Separating Zippers with a one way opening are perfect for 24 openings. ... Pre-cut Spring Steel and Spiral Steel Bones * Coil of Corset Boning ... MR-SepZip24-bone Whether you are creating your own outerwear jacket, replacing the zipper on your favorite jacket or sewing a ... savvy designer look, these YKK Separating Zippers with a one way opening are perfect for 24" openings. These plastic zippers ...
One exemplary application of the stabilizing procedure concerns the two tibial bone portions (5.1, 5.2) separated by tibial ... by providing an opening having a mouth on a bone surface and reaching across the cut or fracture and walls in both bone ... portions separated by a cut or fracture are stabilized in a desired position relative to each other by bringing the two bone ... In a human or animal patient, two bone ... of cut or fractured bones with the aid of plates and bone ...
... living tissue cells and granulated flakes of bone material, or multi compound, to form a bone reconstruction compound and ... Delivery assembly for a liquid solution and granulated flakes of bone material. The device is capable of delivering multi ... Systems and methods for injecting flowable materials into bones US6083229A (en) * 1996-12-13. 2000-07-04. Norian Corporation. ... By a non-limiting example, in a femur bone open major surgery, required to remove bone parts, or bone marrow, the healing ...
... research in osteoporosis is revealing that only a minority of cases of this bone-wasting disorder result from diets deficient ... New bone is formed when bones are subjected to compression stresses during exercise. ... Op-Ed: Elite, Separate, Unequal. New York Citys top public schools must become more diverse. ... It is osteoclasts that play a role in normal bone breakdown; osteoblasts are involved in the rebuilding of bone. ...
... especially since everyone always wants to look at it-a bone hinge covered in smooth skin, our spines locked together at the ... We were not two; we were one, the joints of our backs fused right near our sit bones. The midwives heaved us out together, for ... I wondered whether we burst into existence already joined, or were two separate entities who chose to cling to each other, ... forcing our backs to grow bone tangling with bone. Sometimes I think we were meant to be one person who got split by mistake, ...
Frontal border of parietal bone 3. Mandibular fossa of temporal bone 4. Mastoid process of temporal bone 5. ... Squamosal Suture Separated. Last Updated on Sat, 07 Dec 2019 , Temporal Bone ... Which bones are separated by the sutures?. 8 years ago. *Reply. * matilda. Which bone separated by the sutures?. 8 years ago ...
It looks like the new openldap installation has its default configuration so bare-bone that is COMPLETELY UNUSABLE out-of-the- ... karmic openldap cut-to-bone-and-beyond install, why ????. + openldap install bare bones need default DIT separate package ... openldap install bare bones need default DIT separate package Bug #442498 reported by yannickm on 2009-10-04 ... Re: [Bug 442498] Re: openldap install bare bones need default DIT separate package #16 ...
Especially the fact that pneumosteum is not restricted to pneumatized bones but was also found on bone surfaces opens up access ... Im Focus: Shape separates substance. Japanese researchers show the phase separation of two substances depends on the topology ... Other soft tissues, such as muscles, can leave traces in bone as well. "There are several types of fibers within bone tissue, ... Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität »bone tissue »dinosaurs »evolutionary history »fibers »future research »gigantic sauropods » ...
... postmenopausal women who took 25 mg of a type of aromatase inhibitor called exemestane daily for two years experienced bone ... "Brisk walking several times a day or hopping on a treadmill is an effective way to keep bones strong," said Shockney. "Bone ... Formerly Conjoined Twins Get Send-Off at Hospital Where They Were Separated ... While low bone mass offers clues to a womans risk of bone fracture or even osteoporosis, this study was too small and did not ...
HSC, which produce red and white blood cells, reside in the bone marrow in the core of bones. The complex system of multiple ... Separating look-alike cells. IU Simon Cancer Center researchers are also investigating another cell type formed in the ... Working inside the bones are specialized macrophages called osteomacs.. "We found that osteomacs play an important role in ... "The major struggle we have with these cells is they look like and function like bone marrow macrophages, so there is no easy ...
... to bone includes a fixation device including a through hole; a bushing having a sidewall with a bore and a slot; a fastening ... screw is inserted through the bore of the bushing such that its head fits in the bushing and its shaft is threaded into bone. ... A bone fixation assembly for securing a fixation device such as a bone plate, ... Spinal fusion system and method for fusing spinal bones. US20050080421 *. Dec 17, 2004. Apr 14, 2005. Synthes (Usa). Bone ...
The dinosaurs bone fragments displayed cyclical and seasonal growth, with a different kind of tissue to other sauropods, which ... Using waste carbon dioxide to separate metals from ores. Jan 17, 2020 ... Giant dinosaur bones get paleontologists rethinking Triassic period. Reconstruction of the sauropodomorph dinosaur Ingentia ... Excavators found several vertebrae from the neck and tail as well as fore and hind leg bones. ...
Tell your Halloween party guests to beware of these bone-shape nibbles on the buffet table. Theyre cheesy-but theyve got a ... Separate breadsticks; cut each crosswise in half. Working with one piece at a time, stretch each to 5-inch length; tie knot at ... Tell your Halloween party guests to beware of these bone-shape nibbles on the buffet table. Theyre cheesy-but theyve got a ... These breadstick bones can be made ahead of time. Reheat in microwave just before serving. ...
... week announced the creation of what they think is the worlds first 3D printed replica of a 3,000-year-old Chinese oracle bone. ... The Cambridge University Library said it hopes to create images of more oracle bones from its collection of more than 600 as ... Now, the 3D printed version of Oracle Bone CUL.52, as this one is called, makes the bones engravings and markings even more ... See the worlds first 3D print of a 3000-year-old Chinese oracle bone. The high-res image combines 1.3 million aspects for a ...
Widely separated skull bones Widely separated skull bones. Separated sutures are abnormally wide spaces in the bony joints of ... Long bones. Long bones are hard, dense bones that provide strength, structure, and mobility. The thigh bone (femur) is a long ... X-ray of the long bones X-ray. X-rays are a type of electromagnetic radiation, just like visible light. An x-ray machine sends ...
Separate thighs from drumsticks at the joint. Save the bones and. ALWAYS BOLD. ... 1 Myth: Fall-off-the-bone is good. Barbecued ribs should have a bit of pull. Fall-off-the-bone means one of two things: either ... and each stage of the next generation is kept separate: larvae in one area, pupae in another. For all the Friends fans out ...
It shows you just the kind of bare bones of the shapes on also an X in the center of a regular shaped like a circle, and you ... We cant do this yet because we need to know how toe separate paths as theyre called out from each other. So we need to learn ... Peter Bone has worked in graphic design for 25 years. During that time he has taught thousands of people to use Quark Xpress, ... Now they will act as one shape, even though theyre four separate shapes. Notice at the top here it says group. So now I will ...
... holds 614 Chinese inscribed oracle bones in its collection. They are the oldest extant documents written in the Chinese ... To hold a 3D print of an oracle bone is a very special experience, as it provides the same sensory impression as that obtained ... "To hold a 3D print of an oracle bone is a very special experience, as it provides the same sensory impression as that obtained ... "In what is believed to be a world first, one of the bones (which features in the 600th anniversary exhibition Lines of Thought ...
They have since separated.[citation needed] Graham endorsed Labour Party leader Jeremy Corbyn in the 2017 UK general election. ... With no solo releases to his name to distribute on the night, he worked with Rum Committee producers Gi3mo and Sherlock Bones ... Bone Man , Biography & History". AllMusic. Beaumont, Mark (15 February 2017). "RagnBone Man review - retro-soul spirituals ... "Rag N Bone Man: The MC building a refuge for his past loves". Huckmagazine.com. 9 June 2016. Retrieved 23 December 2016. ...
When it falls off the bone or separates easily, it is done. ... Rinse bones and place in a large stockpot, cover bones with ... Step 4 - Cool and remove bones, ligaments, etc. (if you are including meat). Cool the meat and remove any bones or inedible ... Remove bones and cool broth; skim off excess fat and discard. If desired, remove any tiny amount of meat tidbits still clinging ... Saw or crack fresh trimmed beef bones (with meat removed) to enhance extraction of flavor. ...
Steam can also be used to soften glue and separate joints. Specific types include hide glue, bone glue, fish glue, rabbit-skin ... These protein colloid glues are formed through hydrolysis of the collagen from skins, bones, tendons, and other tissues, ... Most animal glues are soluble in water, useful for joints which may at some time need to be separated.[21] Alcohol is sometimes ... derived primarily from collagenous material present in animal hide or from the extraction of collagen present in animal bones, ...
Peripheral sensory nerves expressing TrkA innervate long bones and stimulate bone formation through the Wnt/β-catenin pathway ... Enter multiple addresses on separate lines or separate them with commas. You are going to email the following. "TrkA"cking why ... Peripheral sensory nerves expressing TrkA innervate long bones and stimulate bone formation through the Wnt/β-catenin pathway ... Peripheral sensory nerves expressing TrkA innervate long bones and stimulate bone formation through the Wnt/β-catenin pathway ...
Separate meat from bones, discard bones. Chop cooked meat into small cubes. ... boned, and then ground. After the mincemeat was done, it was canned into wide-mouth pint jars, which were just perfect for ...
To successfully remove the bones from the fish, you must cut around these main bones with a sharp knife. ... Cod fish have a long, vertical spine and a horizontal bone in the middle of the fish. ... Use a clean back and forth motion to separate the flesh.. Inspect the fillet for the presence of any rib or pin bones. If any ... Cod fish have a long, vertical spine and a horizontal bone in the middle of the fish. To successfully remove the bones from the ...
BONING KNIFE. Ideal for separating meat from bones and removing fat.. COLD CUTS KNIFE. Recommended for cutting thin slices of ... Cutting, chopping, slicing, or boning: whatever the recipe, the truth remains that the right knife makes all the difference in ...
BONING KNIFE. Ideal for separating meat from bones and removing fat.. COLD CUTS KNIFE. Recommended for cutting thin slices of ... Cutting, chopping, slicing, or boning: whatever the recipe, the truth remains that the right knife makes all the difference in ...
BONING KNIFE. Ideal for separating meat from bones and removing fat.. COLD CUTS KNIFE. Recommended for cutting thin slices of ... Cutting, chopping, slicing, or boning: whatever the recipe, the truth remains that the right knife makes all the difference in ...
BONING KNIFE. Ideal for separating meat from bones and removing fat.. COLD CUTS KNIFE. Recommended for cutting thin slices of ... Cutting, chopping, slicing, or boning: whatever the recipe, the truth remains that the right knife makes all the difference in ...
BONING KNIFE. Ideal for separating meat from bones and removing fat.. COLD CUTS KNIFE. Recommended for cutting thin slices of ... Cutting, chopping, slicing, or boning: whatever the recipe, the truth remains that the right knife makes all the difference in ...
BONING KNIFE. Ideal for separating meat from bones and removing fat.. COLD CUTS KNIFE. Recommended for cutting thin slices of ... Cutting, chopping, slicing, or boning: whatever the recipe, the truth remains that the right knife makes all the difference in ...
BONING KNIFE. Ideal for separating meat from bones and removing fat.. COLD CUTS KNIFE. Recommended for cutting thin slices of ... Cutting, chopping, slicing, or boning: whatever the recipe, the truth remains that the right knife makes all the difference in ...
BONING KNIFE. Ideal for separating meat from bones and removing fat.. COLD CUTS KNIFE. Recommended for cutting thin slices of ... Cutting, chopping, slicing, or boning: whatever the recipe, the truth remains that the right knife makes all the difference in ...
BONING KNIFE. Ideal for separating meat from bones and removing fat.. COLD CUTS KNIFE. Recommended for cutting thin slices of ... Cutting, chopping, slicing, or boning: whatever the recipe, the truth remains that the right knife makes all the difference in ...
BONING KNIFE. Ideal for separating meat from bones and removing fat.. COLD CUTS KNIFE. Recommended for cutting thin slices of ... Cutting, chopping, slicing, or boning: whatever the recipe, the truth remains that the right knife makes all the difference in ...
BONING KNIFE. Ideal for separating meat from bones and removing fat.. COLD CUTS KNIFE. Recommended for cutting thin slices of ... Cutting, chopping, slicing, or boning: whatever the recipe, the truth remains that the right knife makes all the difference in ...
BONING KNIFE. Ideal for separating meat from bones and removing fat.. COLD CUTS KNIFE. Recommended for cutting thin slices of ... Cutting, chopping, slicing, or boning: whatever the recipe, the truth remains that the right knife makes all the difference in ...
BONING KNIFE. Ideal for separating meat from bones and removing fat.. COLD CUTS KNIFE. Recommended for cutting thin slices of ... Cutting, chopping, slicing, or boning: whatever the recipe, the truth remains that the right knife makes all the difference in ...
BONING KNIFE. Ideal for separating meat from bones and removing fat.. COLD CUTS KNIFE. Recommended for cutting thin slices of ... Cutting, chopping, slicing, or boning: whatever the recipe, the truth remains that the right knife makes all the difference in ...
BONING KNIFE. Ideal for separating meat from bones and removing fat.. COLD CUTS KNIFE. Recommended for cutting thin slices of ... Cutting, chopping, slicing, or boning: whatever the recipe, the truth remains that the right knife makes all the difference in ...
BONING KNIFE. Ideal for separating meat from bones and removing fat.. COLD CUTS KNIFE. Recommended for cutting thin slices of ... Cutting, chopping, slicing, or boning: whatever the recipe, the truth remains that the right knife makes all the difference in ...
BONING KNIFE. Ideal for separating meat from bones and removing fat.. COLD CUTS KNIFE. Recommended for cutting thin slices of ... Cutting, chopping, slicing, or boning: whatever the recipe, the truth remains that the right knife makes all the difference in ...
Slice to separate the thigh and the drumstick. Then cut along both sides of the bones to remove them. Then cut into fillets. ... You shave thin slices off the breast until you reach the bone. Cut against the "grain", in other words, across and down. ... It simply calls for cutting the entire breast off the bone at once. ...
Step 6: Separate the chicken meat from the bones, discarding skin and cartilage. Add the chicken, greens, tarragon and chives ... 1 kg bone-in, skin-on chicken thighs or breasts. • Flaky sea salt and freshly ground black pepper ...
In some amphibians, the bone still separates the lower end of the two specialized bones above it. Sauranodon marks an earlier ... crowded out of its original position between the marginal bones of the second or epipodial series into the third or mesopodial ...
Specifically, they have shorter radius and metacarpal bones compared to giraffes that are the same age. ... Skeletal dysplasia means having cartilage-related or skeletal disorders that may result in bone development abnormalities. ... But researchers recently spotted two separate dwarf giraffes in Namibia and Uganda. ...
... splenial and angular bones separate; haemapophyses separate distally.. The highland isolation of Mixcoatlus results in its ... In M. barbouri and M. browni lateral edge of nasal bone expanded into roughly triangular shape; frontal bones mostly flat, ... In M. melanurus, middle preocular separate from supralacunal, lower forming posterior border of pit and excluded from orbit; ... In M. melanurus frontal bones with concave dorsal surface, strongly elevated margins, moderately longer than wide; postfrontals ...
Theyre a separate lineage in their own right. Second, they around four times older than anyone had thought, arising around 600 ... Polar bears live in a world of shifting ice and freezing water, so many of their bones have been lost. But why did the ... Fossils supported this story: the oldest polar bear bone is between 110 and 130 thousand years old. But according to Frank ... We have two separate origin stories for polar bears because, like all animals, they have two genomes. Theres the nuclear ...
A boning knife is for the delicate task of separating raw meat, poultry and fish from bone. Its blade, six or so inches long, ... Its heavy, rectangular blade is designed to hack through the sorts of bones other knives have a hard time with.. ... narrow for reduced drag and flexible enough to easily separate flesh from bone.. In skilled hands, a cleaver can do everything ...
You should be able to find where the end of bones connects. Use the tip of a sharp knife to cut between these bones carefully. ... The enemy of crispy chicken is moisture, so make sure your chicken wings are bone dry before coating them in the dry spice ... You can see three separate sections: the winglet (the part sticking up), the drumette (the middle portion), and the wingtip (at ...
  • While low bone mass offers clues to a woman's risk of bone fracture or even osteoporosis, this study was too small and did not follow the women long enough to see whether either condition developed. (go.com)
  • The fracture pattern is often distinctive with rib fractures and fractures at the endsof long bones (metaphyseal fractures) being frequent. (slideshare.net)
  • It means that the bones are less dense, have lost some of their strength and there is a greater risk of a fracture (a broken bone). (aidsmap.com)
  • Some of this is caused by decreased bone density, but even when adjusted for bone density (as shown in the dark blue line) there is an increased fracture risk with low weight. (washington.edu)
  • The bone resorption markers are better during weight loss when a high protein-high calcium-low calorie diet is used to lose weight ( Bowen ), so this might help reduce the fracture risk. (washington.edu)
  • For hip fractures the relative risk was greater when adjusting for the bone density (shown in the dashed line), because alcohol increases bone density as well as fracture risk. (washington.edu)
  • those who consume 1 unit a day (2 or 3 drinks a week) had higher bone density and a lower fracture rate than teetotallers. (washington.edu)
  • A placebo controlled trial of protein supplement (dairy-based) in patients with recent hip fracture showed attenuated bone loss in the femur ( Schurch ). (washington.edu)
  • One showed decreased bone density with both vitamin A excess and deficiency ( Promislow, J. H. ). The other three show increases in hip fracture rates, as shown in the graph. (washington.edu)
  • Tanita, a manufacturer of body composition analyzers, emphasizes that measured or estimated bone mass is not a viable indicator of bone strength and suggests consulting a specialist in case of frequent bone fractures or increased bone fracture risks. (reference.com)
  • Stupp anticipates a day when the bone cells of a patient who has suffered a fracture could be taken to a lab. (sciencentral.com)
  • The thigh bone (femur) is a long bone. (stlukes-stl.com)
  • Place your thumb over the joint and move the thigh bone back and forth with your other hand to find the articulation point. (seriouseats.com)
  • Cancellous bone is found at both sides of long bones at the articulating ends, such as the femoral head on top of the thigh bone. (reference.com)
  • Slip knife under thigh bone and separate from meat. (foodandwine.com)
  • It separates parietal bone and squama portion of temporal bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fused with the squamous and mastoid parts and between the sphenoid and occipital bones lies the petrous part , which is shaped like a pyramid. (wikipedia.org)
  • It separates occipital bone and mastoid portion of temporal bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of fractures in older women are due to cortical bone loss, according to Jane Cauley, a professor in the Department of Epidemiology at the University of Pittsburgh, who wrote an accompanying editorial published in the Lancet Oncology. (go.com)
  • However, unexplained fractures in childhood are also the hallmark ofall forms of brittle bone disease and immense harm can be done to families by the inaccuratediagnosis of non-accidental injury.Much of our research over the last 25 years has related to the clinical aspects of the brittle bonediseases and we hold a database with details of over 1,300 patients. (slideshare.net)
  • Since collagen is abnormal in tissues other than bone,patients with osteogenesis imperfecta now have detectable features in addition fractures. (slideshare.net)
  • As people age and their bones grow thinner, fractures can cripple permanently. (sciencentral.com)
  • The bones of the foot are organized into the tarsal bones, metatarsal bones, and phalanges. (healthline.com)
  • It occurs when 2 or more of the tarsal bones, found in the middle and back of the foot, join together. (seattlechildrens.org)
  • Each of the tarsal bones has a name. (seattlechildrens.org)
  • The endosteum (plural endostea) is a thin layer of connective tissue which lines the surface of the bony tissue that forms the medullary cavity of long bones. (physicsforums.com)
  • These are primarily the long bones and vertebra. (physicsforums.com)
  • These breadstick bones can be made ahead of time. (kraftrecipes.com)
  • These Breadstick Bones should do the trick. (pillsbury.com)
  • Your Breadstick Bones will expand as they bake. (pillsbury.com)
  • Serve warm Breadstick Bones with a variety of dipping sauces, such as ranch dressing, pesto and honey mustard. (pillsbury.com)
  • long posterior processes of the premaxillae extend lateral to the nasal bones, which abut each other. (tolweb.org)
  • the paired nasal bones abut each other, partially bisected by short posterior processes of the premaxillae. (tolweb.org)
  • Scientists at the University of Bonn analyzed the structure of bones that are in contact with air sacs and found both in extinct and extant species a hitherto unknown type of bony tissue. (innovations-report.com)
  • There are several types of fibers within bone tissue, but the pneumosteum is markedly different from them," explains Prof. Dr. Martin Sander from the Steinmann-Institute in Bonn. (innovations-report.com)
  • According to scientists, Ingenia prima was the first dinosaur species to reach gigantism and even though it was a long way from the 70 tonnes that the biggest sauropods weighed from the end of the Cretaceous period (145-66 million years ago), the speed of bone tissue accumulation was greater than that of species from its era and the biggest giants that lived in Patagonia, in the south of Argentina. (phys.org)
  • The dinosaur's bone fragments displayed cyclical and seasonal growth, with a different kind of tissue to other sauropods, which allowed it to grow very quickly. (phys.org)
  • Premium Quality Affordable Pricing Superior Service Dentistry Periodontology Implantology Oral Surgery Pedodontic Soft Tissue Bone Grafting Sinus Lift APRF LPRF Rich Fibrin Membrane Atraumatic Tooth Extractions Centrifuge Veterinary Surgeons Laboratory Research & Educationl Products. (ebay.com)
  • Bone is living tissue with new bone constantly replacing old bone throughout your life. (aidsmap.com)
  • Cortical bone is a dense and rigid layer of calcium-rich osseous tissue that makes up the outer layer of a bone, explains InnerBody. (reference.com)
  • Fluid collection and the thickening of soft tissue are common in the pisiform bone. (healthline.com)
  • If you want to grow bone or tissue, you need cells to proliferate. (sciencentral.com)
  • Pneumatized bones are very light, because they are filled with air instead of the more heavy marrow, which was not only important for active flight, but also for the evolution of gigantism in sauropod dinosaurs. (innovations-report.com)
  • INDIANAPOLIS - More than $3 million from the National Institutes of Health will allow Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center researchers to improve understanding of the complex system of how hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) survive and sustain their function in the bone marrow. (iu.edu)
  • HSC, which produce red and white blood cells, reside in the bone marrow in the core of bones. (iu.edu)
  • We found that osteomacs play an important role in sustaining the stem cell function within the niche of the bone marrow," Srour said. (iu.edu)
  • The major struggle we have with these cells is they look like and function like bone marrow macrophages, so there is no easy way for us to separate one from the other. (iu.edu)
  • Now Srour wants to know why and form a better understanding of osteomacs' role within the complex bone marrow environment. (iu.edu)
  • Multiple myeloma is a blood cancer of plasma cells within the bone marrow. (iu.edu)
  • Not all bones have a medullary cavity, only those that contain marrow. (physicsforums.com)
  • This type of bone forms a cylindrical shaft around the marrow in the central part of the bone. (reference.com)
  • Polycythemia vera (PV) is a rare bone marrow disorder in which the body makes too many red blood cells. (healthline.com)
  • If I'm serving a whole chicken breast, I prefer airline breasts over regular boneless breasts, both for the presentation factor (that bone sticking out just looks so cool), and for the juicier meat it produces. (seriouseats.com)
  • Start with a whole chicken, a sharp boning knife or chef's knife, and a large, clean cutting board. (seriouseats.com)
  • Rotate the chicken by twisting it with the wing in your grip until you've completely cut through to the bone. (seriouseats.com)
  • Once both wing portions have been removed, turn the chicken onto its back and insert your boning knife into the breast on one side of the breast bone, trying to stay as close to the bone as possible. (seriouseats.com)
  • Lift the breast and the wing joint in one piece and slide your knife through, separating the entire cut from the rest of the chicken. (seriouseats.com)
  • I've tried dozens of methods of boning chicken thighs. (seriouseats.com)
  • Keeping the fingers of your non-knife hand curled for protection (raw chicken can be slippery) and using the tip of the knife, score a line through the meat along the length of the bone. (seriouseats.com)
  • Save bones for stock and use the meat for recipes as desired, such as these Grilled Turmeric Chicken Skewers , or Mario Batali's Chicken Thighs with Garlicky Crumbs , or this Real Deal Kung Pao Chicken . (seriouseats.com)
  • Boneless chicken breasts are the easiest option because you will not have to remove fat or bones from the chicken. (wikihow.com)
  • Chicken can be cooked bone-in, but the meat must be removed from the bone after cooking. (wikihow.com)
  • However, the chicken will cook faster and more thoroughly if you de-bone and cut it prior to cooking or purchase boneless chicken. (wikihow.com)
  • Cut the chicken off of the bone (or buy boneless chicken) and cut away fat. (wikihow.com)
  • Bone-in chicken will need longer. (wikihow.com)
  • Pull any bones out of the cooled chicken. (wikihow.com)
  • Be sure that your dog cannot access the chicken bones, either in the chicken pieces or from the trash can. (wikihow.com)
  • Chicken bones can splinter and become lodged in or puncture your dog's throat, stomach, or intestines. (wikihow.com)
  • However, people can have a different number of rib bones and bones in their hands and feet, making the exact number of bones in the skeleton, let alone their weight, only a statistical average. (reference.com)
  • Which bones are separated by the sutures? (78stepshealth.us)
  • Separated sutures are abnormally wide spaces in the bony joints of the skull in an infant. (stlukes-stl.com)
  • The inscriptions on the bones offer insight into many aspects of early Chinese society, including a record of a lunar eclipse dated to 1192 BCE -- one of the earliest such accounts in any civilization. (cio.com)
  • The inscriptions on the bones provide much insight into many aspects of early Chinese society, such as warfare, agriculture, hunting, medical problems, meteorology and astronomy. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The zygomatic process is a long, arched process projecting from the lower region of the squamous part and it articulates with the zygomatic bone . (wikipedia.org)
  • It separates zygomatic bone and zygomatic process of temporal bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3. To separate (meat) at the joints. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Each toe consists of three separate bones and two joints, except for the big toe, which has only two bones - distal and proximal phalanges - and one joint, like the thumb in the hand. (healthline.com)
  • At present, the solution to arthritic, cancerous or injured bones and joints is stainless-steel replacements. (sciencentral.com)
  • The coxal, or hip bone consists of the pubis, the ilium, and the ischium, as reported by Teach Me Anatomy. (reference.com)
  • The most common sites for a tarsal coalition are between the calcaneus and navicular bones and between the talus and calcaneus bones. (seattlechildrens.org)
  • The doctor may order X-rays to see if your child's calcaneus and navicular bones are joined together. (seattlechildrens.org)
  • Place the bottom of your boning knife near the center of the drumette and slice until it hits the bone. (seriouseats.com)
  • Keep the knife tip hugging the bones as closely as possible until the breast is fully released (you'll have to cut through the skin that connects it to the legs). (seriouseats.com)
  • Insert a sharp boning or paring knife into the joint. (seriouseats.com)
  • Expose the top of the bone by using the tip of your knife in short, flicking motions, making sure to keep your fingers well away from the blade. (seriouseats.com)
  • Grasp one end of the bone with your non-knife hand (a little piece of paper towel can help if it's very slippery), then using the base of your knife, scrap the meat off of the bone in short, firm flicks. (seriouseats.com)
  • A boning knife should have a curved bolster designed for this task. (seriouseats.com)
  • Using a sharp, thin knife, cut along the white membrane that runs lengthwise down the thigh and leg until the blade hits bone. (foodandwine.com)
  • Because squirrels are one of the few game mammals with a collar bone, you have to slice through the rib cage with a sharp knife towards the neck and break through the collar bone to separate the forelegs. (ehow.com)
  • In anatomical models and diagrams, it is depicted as a hollow bone nestled inside the temporal bones of the skull. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • The temporal bones are situated at the sides and base of the skull , and lateral to the temporal lobes of the cerebral cortex . (wikipedia.org)
  • The temporal bones are overlaid by the sides of the head known as the temples , and house the structures of the ears . (wikipedia.org)
  • The angular bone is separated from the mandible. (tolweb.org)
  • Researchers followed 351 women with no history of osteoporosis for two years, and found an 8 percent decrease in thickness and area in the outer shell of the bone - called the cortical bone among the women taking exemestane, also known by the brand name Aromasin -- compared to only a 1 percent loss in the placebo group. (go.com)
  • The University of Cambridge indicates that there are two types of bone in the human body: cortical, or compact, bone and cancellous bone, which is also known as spongy or trabecular bone. (reference.com)
  • Cortical bone accounts for 80 percent of the body's bone mass. (reference.com)
  • The temporal bone consists of four parts [1] [2] - the squamous , mastoid , petrous and tympanic parts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Premaxilla consists of separated, paired bones. (tolweb.org)
  • Publication: Lambertz M, Bertozzo F, Sander PM (2018) Bone histological correlates for air sacs and their implications for understanding the origin of the dinosaurian respiratory system. (innovations-report.com)
  • 3ds Max 2011, 2018 and 2014 versions are rigged using standard max bones. (turbosquid.com)
  • However, up to 30 % of patients present with bone metastases of unknown origin, where the site of the primary neoplasm cannot be identified at the time of diagnosis despite a thorough history, physical examination, appropriate laboratory testing and modern imaging technology (CT, MRI, PET). (springer.com)
  • The authors reviewed the relevant literature in an attempt to investigate the epidemiology of the histological primaries finally identified in patients with bone metastases from occult cancer, and a strategy of management and treatment of bone metastases from occult carcinomas is suggested. (springer.com)
  • Over the past 30 years, lung cancer is the main causative occult primary for bone metastases and has a poor prognosis with an average survival of 4-8 months. (springer.com)
  • However, if the creation of new bone doesn't keep up with the removal of old bone, your bones become less dense and lose some of their strength. (aidsmap.com)
  • This means that (some of) your bones are less dense than is normal for your age. (aidsmap.com)
  • The triquetrum is a proximal carpal bone located between the pisiform and lunate bones. (healthline.com)
  • An injectable bone mineral substitute material composition comprises an inorganic bone cement powder and a biologically compatible oil. (google.es)
  • KM - Can you tell the story of how you learned of Skull & Bones? (rense.com)
  • Especially astonishing was the fact that pneumosteum was not only restricted to pneumatized bones, but was also found on the surface of conspicuous cavities present in cervical vertebrae of sauropod dinosaurs. (innovations-report.com)
  • Another of the species' features was air cavities in its bones, making it lighter and promoting growth. (phys.org)
  • Do all bones have medullary cavities by the way. (physicsforums.com)
  • 8. The method of claim 7 wherein after the inserting step is complete the shaft portion extends through the hole and the head portion is flush with a top surface of the bone plate. (google.com)
  • Osteocytes are former osteoblasts that go beneath the surface of the bone and maintain its structure. (reference.com)
  • BETHESDA, Md.- WHILE calcium wars rage in pharmacies,health food stores and supermarkets throughout the country, research in osteoporosis is revealing that only a minority of cases of this bone-wasting disorder result from diets deficient in calcium. (nytimes.com)
  • A recent study by Dr. Bruce Ettinger of the Kaiser Permanente Medical Center in San Francisco indicated that when calcium supplements are given along with half the usual postmenopausal dose of estrogen, postmenopausal bone loss is dramatically reduced and bone mass may even increase slightly. (nytimes.com)
  • Before menopause but after the age of 30 when bone growth is usually completed, the possible usefulness of calcium supplements has not yet been adequately studied. (nytimes.com)
  • On the other hand, Dr. Robert P. Heaney of Creighton University in Omaha said it is far better to get needed calcium from foods, such as dairy products, fish eaten with the bones and certain green vegetables, such as collard greens. (nytimes.com)
  • The study also found that the medication worsened age-related bone loss even for those who took adequate supplements of vitamin D and calcium, which are prescribed to prevent bone loss. (go.com)
  • 13. The powder composition according to claim 1 , wherein said inorganic bone cement powder comprises a mixture of hydroxylapatite, calcium sulphate dihydrate, and calcium sulphate hemihydrate. (google.es)
  • The calcium resorbed from the bones is actually decreased with high protein intake ( Kerstetter ). (washington.edu)
  • Ground bones are great as a source of calcium in raw cat and dog food or as an organic fertilizer for plants. (wikihow.com)
  • Since the body is made up of various substances with differing densities, Ionising and non-ionising radiation can be used to reveal the internal structure of the body on an image receptor by highlighting these differences using attenuation , or in the case of ionising radiation, the absorption of X-ray photons by the denser substances (like calcium -rich bones). (wikipedia.org)
  • Trim away any gristle or bits of bone or cartilage that may have remained on the meat. (seriouseats.com)
  • Beyond artificial bone, Stupp is working on regenerating cartilage, nerve cells, and even the spinal cord. (sciencentral.com)
  • This curved bone sits between the talus and cuneiforms. (healthline.com)
  • Women aged 50 and over who garden at least once a week showed higher bone density readings than women who engage in almost any other form of exercise. (sciencentral.com)
  • But the new study found healthy postmenopausal women who took 25 mg of a type of aromatase inhibitor called exemestane daily for two years experienced bone loss in their wrists and ankles. (go.com)
  • Years ago, we discovered that a molecule named CD166 is important for the maintenance of stem cells because it is also expressed on immature osteoblasts, the bone-forming cells that are an important component of the hematopoietic niche," Srour said. (iu.edu)
  • The University of Cambridge also explains that bones contain three special cells called osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts. (reference.com)
  • Osteoblasts are responsible for making the collagen-rich substance osteoid, which is key in building bone. (reference.com)
  • Is the bony labyrinth of the inner ear really a separate bone? (thenakedscientists.com)
  • But I'm wondering, is it really a bone nestled within another bone, or is the bony labyrinth actually just a hollowed-out chamber inside the temporal bone? (thenakedscientists.com)
  • When your bones are thinner, a trip or fall can result in a broken bone. (aidsmap.com)
  • Osteoclasts are responsible for bone resorption. (reference.com)
  • These cells travel around the bone to areas in need of resorption. (reference.com)
  • At other times, a bone lesion can have such a highly undifferentiated histological appearance that a precise pathological classification on routine hematoxylin-eosin-stained section is not possible. (springer.com)
  • In these cases, the histological findings such as immunohistochemical and other morphological parameters from the bone biopsy can be diagnostic. (springer.com)
  • This study is the first to use computed tomography (CT) scans to take a detailed look at the exact type of bone loss experienced by women who take aromatase inhibitors. (go.com)
  • A class of medication used to prevent and treat breast cancer in postmenopausal women may boost the risk of bone loss, according to a new study published Monday in the journal Lancet Oncology. (go.com)
  • Living bone contains about 10 to 20 percent water and 60 to 70 percent bone mineral, as explained by the University of Cambridge. (reference.com)
  • Cancellous bone makes up only 20 percent of the body's bone mass, but it has a much higher surface area because of its higher porosity and honeycomb structure, according to the University of Cambridge. (reference.com)
  • Slice through the flesh on the inside of the leg and then pop them out of the joint to separate them from the body cavity. (ehow.com)
  • 8. The powder composition according to claim 2 , wherein the bone mineral substitute material comprises from 0.05 wt % to 10 wt % of the biologically active substance. (google.es)
  • 10. A method of preparing a bone mineral substitute composition of claim 1 , comprising intermixing the inorganic bone cement powder and the biologically compatible oil, wherein said oil comprises more than 1 wt % but less than 10 wt % of the total weight of said composition, at a temperature of between 30 C. and 120 C. (google.es)
  • You might be told that you have low bone mineral density or osteopenia. (aidsmap.com)
  • Natural bone is made up of tough collagen fibers, one of the most common components in the body, and mineral crystals, which gather on collagen scaffolds and add hardness. (sciencentral.com)
  • The resulting webs of mineral-coated nanofibers take the form of a very thin film whose structure closely mimics bone. (sciencentral.com)
  • A bone trabecle of this vertebral cavity shows the fine fibers of the pneumosteum, which indicate the former presence of air sacs. (innovations-report.com)
  • Does it only line medullary cavity or internal surfaces of all bones. (physicsforums.com)
  • Adult dinosaurs have a different, less porous bone structure than young specimens. (naturalsciences.be)
  • Sometimes only extensive histopathological investigations on bone specimens from biopsy can suggest the primary malignancy. (springer.com)
  • Maxillary bones are present but small. (tolweb.org)
  • Maxillary bones are present and well developed. (tolweb.org)
  • Sharp bone fragments are dangerous when eaten. (wikihow.com)
  • According to the National Center for Health Statistics, more than half of all injuries that befall Americans every year involve a broken bone or an injured joint. (sciencentral.com)
  • Researchers from the Cambridge University Library this week announced the creation of what they believe is the world's first 3D printed replica of a 3,000-year-old Chinese oracle bone. (cio.com)
  • Now, the 3D printed version of Oracle Bone CUL.52, as this one is called, makes the bone's engravings and markings even more visible than they are on the original itself while avoiding the risk of damage through handling. (cio.com)
  • In collaboration with the Media Studio of Addenbrooke's Hospital (part of the Cambridge Biomedical Campus), the scanned data were used to make what is believed to be the first 3D print of an oracle bone. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Whipping up a batch of Halloween bone breadsticks is almost as easy as twirling your magic wand. (pillsbury.com)
  • Form Pillsbury™ Breadsticks into bone shapes for a hauntingly delicious Halloween snack. (pillsbury.com)
  • separate at perforations into 12 breadsticks. (pillsbury.com)
  • Enjoy easy cleanup with these Halloween bone breadsticks. (pillsbury.com)
  • For an excellent "bone" structure, try to make the knots as close to the ends of the breadsticks as possible. (pillsbury.com)
  • Bone density is typically measured in doctors' offices by a standard bone density test. (go.com)
  • But the women enrolled in the study, who were, on average, 60 years old, were periodically monitored using both a standard bone density test and a CT scan. (go.com)
  • What is the bone density test used for? (reference.com)
  • But its bone structure is of an adult animal, an analysis by Koen Stein (Vrije Universiteit Brussel) concludes. (naturalsciences.be)
  • Filippo Bertozzo was pretty surprised when he analyzed the bone structure in the course of his master's thesis at the Steinmann-Institute for Geology, Mineralogy and Paleontology of the University of Bonn: "Bones that are in contact with air sacs exhibit a unique structure composed of very fine and densely packed fibers. (innovations-report.com)
  • The CT scan offered a more detailed three-dimensional look at the bone structure compared to the standard bone density scan. (go.com)
  • This helped researchers examine the outer structure of the bone separately from the inner meshwork. (go.com)
  • We know the bone structure matters in terms of strength," said Dr. Angela Cheung, director of the osteoporosis program at University Health Network in Toronto, and lead author of the study. (go.com)
  • Agreed, the structure of bones is extremely complex. (physicsforums.com)
  • It also differs in other aspects such as the tooth structure and the poorly ossified shoulder bones. (talkorigins.org)
  • In particular, the reverse sides of the bones, which are crucial to understanding the process of divination but have hitherto been neglected because of the difficulty of representing them adequately, can now be studied in detail thanks to this new technique. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Excavators found several vertebrae from the neck and tail as well as fore and hind leg bones. (phys.org)
  • The meatier hind legs are easier to separate. (ehow.com)
  • Divide the bones up into smaller sections to feed into the grinder. (wikihow.com)
  • The pelvic bones are also separated. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The second one is to attach the pelvic bones to each other. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The second surgery, pelvic bone surgery, may be done along with the bladder repair. (medlineplus.gov)
  • After pelvic bone surgery, your child will need to be in a lower body cast or sling for 4 to 6 weeks. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Are marine species immune to the bone-eroding effects of microgravity? (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Especially the fact that pneumosteum is not restricted to pneumatized bones but was also found on bone surfaces opens up access to studying species that might have exhibited air sacs as part of their respiratory system, but lack obviously pneumatized bones. (innovations-report.com)
  • Bone and some organs (such as lungs ) especially lend themselves to projection radiography. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cooked bones will splinter, so they are dangerous for pets to consume. (wikihow.com)
  • 3. The method of claim 1 wherein the fastening screw has a head and the locking step comprises the step of expanding the fastening screw head against the bushing to thereby lock the bushing to the bone plate. (google.com)
  • 9. The method of claim 1 wherein the inserting step comprises locating the bone plate adjacent to bone and inserting the fastening screw in situ. (google.com)
  • The image brings into sharp focus not only the finely incised questions on the obverse of the bone, but also the divination pits engraved on the reverse and the scorch marks caused by the application of heat to create the cracks (which were interpreted as the answers from the spirit world). (cam.ac.uk)
  • Serve warm "bones" with warm pizza sauce for dipping. (pillsbury.com)
  • By the end, the squirrel meat will be falling off the bone and the sauce reduced to a thick gravy. (ehow.com)
  • If you only want the bones, pull the meat off of them first. (wikihow.com)
  • In use, the bushing is seated within the through hole of the fixation device at a selected angle and the fastening screw is inserted through the bore of the bushing such that its head fits in the bushing and its shaft is threaded into bone. (google.com)
  • A long bone has a shaft and. (stlukes-stl.com)
  • Four recent studies have shown that excess vitamin A is harmful to bones. (washington.edu)