Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)
Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. The presence in a given individual is determined by the finding of HIV antibodies in the serum (HIV SEROPOSITIVITY).
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
An infant during the first month after birth.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.
Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Area of the human body underneath the SHOULDER JOINT, also known as the armpit or underarm.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, liver, and spleen.
Compounds that contain the triphenylmethane aniline structure found in rosaniline. Many of them have a characteristic magenta color and are used as COLORING AGENTS.
The ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data with the purpose of preventing or controlling disease or injury, or of identifying unusual events of public health importance, followed by the dissemination and use of information for public health action. (From Am J Prev Med 2011;41(6):636)
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Radionuclide imaging of the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)
A highly fatal, acute hemorrhagic fever, clinically very similar to MARBURG VIRUS DISEASE, caused by EBOLAVIRUS, first occurring in the Sudan and adjacent northwestern (what was then) Zaire.
Diseases of chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.
Provision of physical and biological barriers to the dissemination of potentially hazardous biologically active agents (bacteria, viruses, recombinant DNA, etc.). Physical containment involves the use of special equipment, facilities, and procedures to prevent the escape of the agent. Biological containment includes use of immune personnel and the selection of agents and hosts that will minimize the risk should the agent escape the containment facility.
A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.
A republic in central Africa, east of the REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, south of the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and north of ANGOLA and ZAMBIA. The capital is Kinshasa.
A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.

SWORD '97: surveillance of work-related and occupational respiratory disease in the UK. (1/1013)

SWORD is one of seven clinically based reporting schemes which together now provide almost comprehensive coverage of occupational diseases across the UK. Although SWORD is now in its tenth year, participation rates remain high. Of an estimated 3,903 new cases seen this year, 1,031 (26%) were of occupational asthma, 978 (25%) of mesothelioma, 794 (20%) of non-malignant pleural disease, 336 (9%) of pneumoconiosis and 233 (6%) of inhalation accidents. Incidence rates of occupational asthma were generally highest among workers in the manufacture of wood products, textiles and food (particularly grain products and crustaceans) and additionally, in the production of precious and non-ferrous metals, rubber goods, detergents and perfumes, and in mining. Health care workers were noted to have a surprisingly high incidence of inhalation accidents. Occupational asthma attributed to latex has increased dramatically; the highest rates are among laboratory technicians, shoe workers and health care workers.  (+info)

Multi-institutional melanoma lymphatic mapping experience: the prognostic value of sentinel lymph node status in 612 stage I or II melanoma patients. (2/1013)

PURPOSE: To compare the effect of pathologic sentinel lymph node (SLN) status with that of other known prognostic factors on recurrence and survival in patients with stage I or II cutaneous melanoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed the records of 612 patients with primary cutaneous melanoma who underwent lymphatic mapping and SLN biopsy between January 1991 and May 1995 to determine the effects of tumor thickness, ulceration, Clark level, location, sex, and SLN pathologic status on disease-free and disease-specific survival. RESULTS: In the 580 patients in whom lymphatic mapping and SLN biopsy were successful, the SLN was positive by conventional histology in 85 patients (15%) but negative in 495 patients (85%). SLN status was the most significant prognostic factor with respect to disease-free and disease-specific survival by univariate and multiple covariate analyses. Although tumor thickness and ulceration influenced survival in SLN-negative patients, they provided no additional prognostic information in SLN-positive patients. CONCLUSION: Lymphatic mapping and SLN biopsy is highly accurate in staging nodal basins at risk for regional metastases in primary melanoma patients and identifies those who may benefit from earlier lymphadenectomy. Furthermore, pathologic status of the SLN in these patients with clinically negative nodes is the most important prognostic factor for recurrence. The information from SLN biopsy is particularly helpful in establishing stratification criteria for future adjuvant trials.  (+info)

Prevalence of intestinal parasite infections with special reference to Entamoeba histolytica on the island of Bioko (Equatorial Guinea). (3/1013)

The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was assessed (1993 through 1995) among two different groups of persons on the island of Bioko, Equatorial Guinea. In the first group, parasitologic examinations were performed on stool specimens from a household-based sample of 557 dwellers from the rural area of the island. In the second group, 1,633 inpatients and outpatients at the General Hospital of Malabo (the capital of the country) were studied. All age groups were represented in both groups. The average prevalence of the most common protozoan and helminthic intestinal infections in rural and urban areas, respectively, was as follows: Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (14.9% and 32.7%, respectively), Giardia lamblia (7.2% and 8.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (45.8% and 31.4%), and Trichuris trichiura (25.7% and 36.4%). Seventy-nine sera from patients with amebic liver abscess (suspected by ultrasonography) were studied by an immunohemagglutination assay, with 44 (56%) showing anti-E. histolytica titers > or = 1:32. Of these 79 sera, 71 were studied by an enzyme immunoassay, 86% of which were positive with titers > or = 1:64. This study showed that parasitic infections in Equatorial Guinea represent a major health problem.  (+info)

Transmission of epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1 in rural western Kenya associated with drinking water from Lake Victoria: an environmental reservoir for cholera? (4/1013)

Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest reported cholera incidence and mortality rates in the world. In 1997, a cholera epidemic occurred in western Kenya. Between June 1997 and March 1998, 14,275 cholera admissions to hospitals in Nyanza Province in western Kenya were reported. There were 547 deaths (case fatality rate = 4%). Of 31 Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates tested, all but one were sensitive to tetracycline. We performed a case-control study among 61 cholera patients and age-, sex-, and clinic-matched controls. Multivariate analysis showed that risk factors for cholera were drinking water from Lake Victoria or from a stream, sharing food with a person with watery diarrhea, and attending funeral feasts. Compared with other diarrheal pathogens, cholera was more common among persons living in a village bordering Lake Victoria. Cholera has become an important public health concern in western Kenya, and may become an endemic pathogen in the region.  (+info)

Animals as sentinels of human health hazards of environmental chemicals. (5/1013)

A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environment," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, was held to consider the use of sentinel and surrogate animal species data for evaluating the potential human health effects of chemicals in the environment. The workshop took a broad view of the sentinel species concept, and included mammalian and nonmammalian species, companion animals, food animals, fish, amphibians, and other wildlife. Sentinel species data included observations of wild animals in field situations as well as experimental animal data. Workshop participants identified potential applications for sentinel species data derived from monitoring programs or serendipitous observations and explored the potential use of such information in human health hazard and risk assessments and for evaluating causes or mechanisms of effect. Although it is unlikely that sentinel species data will be used as the sole determinative factor in evaluating human health concerns, such data can be useful as for additional weight of evidence in a risk assessment, for providing early warning of situations requiring further study, or for monitoring the course of remedial activities. Attention was given to the factors impeding the application of sentinel species approaches and their acceptance in the scientific and regulatory communities. Workshop participants identified a number of critical research needs and opportunities for interagency collaboration that could help advance the use of sentinel species approaches.  (+info)

Demographic, dietary and lifestyle factors differentially explain variability in serum carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins: baseline results from the sentinel site of the Olestra Post-Marketing Surveillance Study. (6/1013)

Biochemical measures of nutrients or other dietary constituents can be an important component of nutritional assessment and monitoring. However, accurate interpretation of the nutrient concentration is dependent on knowledge of the determinants of the body pool measured. The purpose of this study was to identify the determinants of serum carotenoid and fat-soluble vitamin concentrations in a large, community-based sample (n = 1042). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine effects of demographic characteristics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, education), health-related behavior (exercise, sun exposure, smoking, alcohol consumption), and intake (diet, supplements) on serum retinol, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, alpha-tocopherol, phylloquinone, and carotenoid concentrations. Age, sex, race/ethnicity, vitamin A intake, and alcohol consumption were found to be determinants of serum retinol concentration. Race/ethnicity, vitamin D intake, body mass index, smoking status, and sun exposure were determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration. Determinants of serum alpha-tocopherol were age, sex, race/ethnicity, alpha-tocopherol intake, serum cholesterol, percentage of energy from fat (inversely related), supplement use, and body mass index. Age, sex, phylloquinone intake, serum triglycerides, and supplement use were determinants of serum phylloquinone concentration. Primary determinants of serum carotenoids were age, sex, race/ethnicity, carotenoid intake, serum cholesterol, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and smoking status. Overall, the demographic, dietary, and other lifestyle factors explained little of the variability in serum concentrations of retinol (R2 = 0.20), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (R2 = 0.24), and the carotenoids (R2 = 0.15-0.26); only modest amounts of the variability in serum phylloquinone concentration (R2 = 0.40); and more substantial amounts of the variability in serum alpha-tocopherol concentration (R2 = 0.62).  (+info)

Local evaluation of a rapid HIV assay for use in developing countries. (7/1013)

We present a research scheme for evaluating inexpensive HIV rapid tests in a developing country setting and assess the field validity of the Sero Strip HIV 1/2 rapid test. The research design features the random allocation of 100 true HIV-positive and 100 true HIV-negative serum specimens to 4 groups, followed by blind testing for HIV status. After one short training session, laboratory technicians at 4 township hospitals (25-35 beds) located 20-50 km from Yangon, Myanmar were sent 800 sera labelled with only an identification number and divided into four groups of 200 specimens each, half being HIV-positive and half HIV-negative. Testing was done in the field with the Sero-Strip HIV 1/2. Determination of the test's validity was based on 399 true HIV positive and 401 true HIV negative sera. All true positives were correctly identified, as were all but two of the true negatives. The sensitivity (% of true positives that test positive) was 100%, and the specificity (% of true negatives that test negative) was 99.5%. The research was completed by in-country scientists who are best suited to evaluate the validity of HIV tests conducted in local environments.  (+info)

Sentinel surveillance for enterovirus 71, Taiwan, 1998. (8/1013)

Outbreaks of enterovirus 71 have been reported around the world since 1969. The most recent outbreak occurred in Taiwan during April-July 1998. This hand, foot, and mouth disease epidemic was detected by a sentinel surveillance system in April at the beginning of the outbreak, and the public was alerted.  (+info)

Selection bias is common in clinic-based HIV surveillance. Clinics located in HIV hotspots are often the first to be chosen and monitored, while clinics in less prevalent areas are added to the surveillance system later on. Consequently, the estimated HIV prevalence based on clinic data is substantially distorted, with markedly higher HIV prevalence in the earlier periods and trends that reveal much more dramatic declines than actually occur. Using simulations, we compare and contrast the performance of the various approaches and models for handling selection bias in clinic-based HIV surveillance. In particular, we compare the application of complete-case analysis and multiple imputation (MI). Several models are considered for each of the approaches. We demonstrate the application of the methods through sentinel surveillance data collected between 2002 and 2008 from India. Simulations suggested that selection bias, if not handled properly, can lead to biased estimates of HIV prevalence trends and
The data from CPCSSN present a unique opportunity for longitudinal obesity surveillance among primary care users in Canada, and offer prevalence estimates similar to those obtained from nationally representative survey data.
VH-A was designated as a nationally notifiable infectious disease in 2000, and a sentinel surveillance system for this disease was established. The number of reported cases has steeply increased between 2007 and 2009 and reached its peak in 2009 (15,231 cases reported by the sentinel surveillance system). Given the high chance of the disease becoming epidemic, VH-A has been redesignated as one of the group 1 nationally notifiable infectious diseases, which are acquired through ingestion of contaminated food or water. A mandatory surveillance system has been operating since 2011. Every physician is required to mandatorily report patients presenting with typical VH-A manifestations and identified to be infected with HAV to the KCDC through the National Infectious Diseases Surveillance System.. Although the total number of cases identified by the surveillance system has considerably decreased until 2013, the number of cases is re-increasing recently. Particularly the reported number of VH-A in 2016 ...
Introduction: Dengue poses a significant socioeconomic and disease burden in Sri Lanka, where the geographic spread, incidence and severity of disease has been increasing since the first dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) epidemic occurred in 1989. Periodic epidemics have become progressively larger, peaking in 2012 with 44 456 cases. Passive surveillance was established nationwide more than a decade ago but dengue notifications have been based on clinical diagnosis, with infrequent laboratory confirmation. To obtain more accurate data on the disease burden, a laboratory-based enhanced sentinel surveillance system was established in Colombo Municipality, the area with the highest dengue incidence. Here we describe the study design and the results of the first 2 years (2012-2014).. Methods: Three government hospitals and two outpatient clinics in Colombo District were selected for the sentinel surveillance. All patients presenting with undifferentiated fever were enrolled, if consent given, ...
Local disease burden data are necessary to set national influenza vaccination policy. In 2010 the population of South Africa was 50 million and the HIV prevalence was 11%. We used a previously developed methodology to determine severe influenza burden in South Africa. Hospitalized severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) incidence was calculated, stratified by HIV status, for four age groups using data from population-based surveillance in one site situated in Gauteng Province for 2009-2011. These rates were adjusted for each of the remaining 8 provinces based on their prevalence of risk factors for pneumonia and healthcare- seeking behavior. We estimated non-hospitalized influenza-associated SARI from healthcare utilization surveys at two sites and used the percent of SARI cases positive for influenza from sentinel surveillance to derive the influenza-associated SARI rate. We applied rates of hospitalized and non-hospitalized influenza-associated SARI to census data to calculate the national ...
Abuse of reformulated OxyContin: Updated findings from a sentinel surveillance sample of individuals assessed for substance use disorder
Lippincotts Evidence-Based Practice Network offers the latest evidence-based research resources from our journals and the Joanna Briggs Institute.
BackgroundElectronic Medical Records (EMRs) are increasingly used in the provision of primary care and have been compiled into databases which can be utilized for surveillance, research and informing practice. The primary purpose of these records is for the provision of individual patient care; validation and examination of underlying limitations is crucial for use for research and data quality improvement. This study examines and describes the validity of chronic disease case definition algorithms and factors affecting data quality in a primary care EMR database.MethodsA retrospective chart audit of an age stratified random sample was used to validate and examine diagnostic algorithms applied to EMR data from the Manitoba Primary Care Research Network (MaPCReN), part of the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network (CPCSSN). The presence of diabetes, hypertension, depression, osteoarthritis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was determined by review of the medical record ...
Cases of whooping cough have been recorded by the Swiss Sentinel Surveillance Network Sentinella (SSSN) since June 1991 to monitor pertussis trends in Switzerland and to assess the current vaccination strategy. The Sentinella network consists of a sampl
National sentinel surveillance data show that HIV infections are increasing fast among men who have sex with men(MSM) in China. In some cities HIV prevalence among MSM is higher than 10%.It is urgent for China to explore innovative intervention to reduce HIV/AIDS transmission among this population.. The purposes of this study are:. ...
Even though National sentinel surveillance data show that the increase rate of HIV new infections among IDUs in China has become stabilized and slowed down, the new HIV infection is still on the rise, especially in the Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, Xinjiang and Sichuan. This study attempts to further reduce the new infection among MMT clients, and particularly to prevent the transmission from HIV infected clients to their sexual partners with comprehensive intervention.. The purposes of this study are:. ...
GISP is a CDC-supported sentinel surveillance system that has monitored N. gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibilities since 1986, and is the only source in the United States of national and regional N. gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility data. During September-December 2011, CDC and five external GISP principal investigators, each with N. gonorrhoeae-specific expertise in surveillance, antimicrobial resistance, treatment, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, reviewed antimicrobial susceptibility trends in GISP through August 2011 to determine whether to update CDCs current recommendations (2) for treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea. Each month, the first 25 gonococcal urethral isolates collected from men attending participating STD clinics (approximately 6,000 isolates each year) were submitted for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the lowest antimicrobial concentration that inhibits visible bacterial growth in the laboratory, is used ...
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential impact of various pneumococcal conjugate vaccination strategies, it is critical to ascertain the pre-vaccination epidemiology and to have a detailed evaluation of the current burden of pneumococcal disease. METHOD: A variety of national data sources and GP sentinel surveillance systems were used to estimate the incidence, number of hospital admissions, deaths, and GP consultations due to pneumococcal disease in England and Wales. Clinical outcomes included pneumococcal meningitis, bacteraemia, pneumonia and otitis media. A statistical model was used to attribute GP consultation recorded as pneumonia and acute otitis media to specific aetiological causes when these were not recorded. RESULTS: The burden of pneumococcal disease is considerable, with incidence rates of both invasive and non-invasive disease peaking in children (,5 years) and in the elderly (75+ years). Around 5800 hospitalisations specifically mentioning Streptococcus pneumoniae are estimated to ...
Age/sex registries have been examined as a method of estimating the number of individuals served by a primary care practice. These data can be used in estimating disease frequency from primary care encounter data. The experience with age/sex registries in the Ambulatory Sentinel Practice Network (ASPN) has identified three major sources of error when registry data are used to estimate disease rates: (1) studies using medical encounter data exclude those individuals who do not seek medical care, (2) visitation is not random and is a function of variables in addition to disease incidence, and (3) encounter data from primary care practices are incomplete due to reporting problems and patient-initiated visits to other health care providers. Despite these limitations, age/sex registries can provide a practical tool for estimating disease rates in appropriate settings, assessing the generalizability of results, and assessing the feasibility of studies in practice based research. Further research about ...
The RCGP RSC will be used to collect the biological specimens. Practices who participated in the virology swabbing scheme will be invited.. The project proposes to pilot a population based seroprevalence survey, involving 100-150 individuals across the following age range: 18-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and 70+ years, following the 2017/2018 influenza season. Patients, who attend their pilot sentinel network practice for routine blood test during the study period, will be asked to also provide an additional blood sample for serology. This will provide information on seroprevalence to set in context other measures of impact of an influenza season/epidemic in a population, and provide the most accurate measures of population exposure. This new approach to serology banking represents a compromise between using residual serum samples from laboratories where less is known about the patients medical and immunisation history and formal surveys that can collect such data, but can have non-response ...
Recommendations of first choice antibiotic therapy need to be based on actual antibiotic susceptibility data. We determined the antibiotic susceptibility of E. coli in uncomplicated UTI among women and compared the results with 2004 and 2009. In 30 sentinel general practitioner practices of Nivel Primary Care database, urine samples were collected from women with symptoms of uncomplicated UTI. Patient characteristics, E. coli susceptibility, and ESBL production were analyzed. Six hundred eightynine urine samples were collected; E. coli was the most isolated uropathogen (83%). Antibiotic susceptibility was stable over time except for ciprofloxacin (96% in 2004, 97% in 2009, and 94% in 2014; P , 0.05). The susceptibility to co-amoxiclav was 88%, 87%, and 92% in 2004, 2009, and 2014, respectively. The prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli increased from 0.1% in 2004 to 2.2% in 2014 (P , 0.05). Regional differences in antibiotic susceptibility for co-trimoxazole were found being the highest in the ...
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Sentinel influenza surveillance in the WHO European Region is based on nationally organized networks of primary care physicians, mostly general practitioners (GPs), covering at least 1-5% of the population in their countries (see table below). Depending on the country, physicians report the weekly number of patients seen with ILI and/or ARI, or both, to the national focal point for influenza surveillance. Primary care surveillance for influenza in the European Region is based mainly on these sentinel systems (i.e. data are collected and reported only from selected facilities), although some countries collect data on ILI or ARI from all health facilities in the country (universal surveillance). A subset of specimens from sentinel ILI and ARI patients is tested for influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. In addition, some countries, mainly in the eastern part of the Region, conduct sentinel surveillance for hospitalized cases presenting with SARI, according to standard case ...
Overview: New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) was established in 1999 to evaluate the impact of new vaccines and vaccine policies through active sentinel surveillance at three U.S. medical centers.
Weidle, P., Ganea, C., Irwin, K., Pieniazek, D., McGowan, J., Olivo, N., ... Ernst, J. (2000). Presence of HIV-1 Group M, Non-B Subtypes in Bronx, New York: A Sentinel Site for Monitoring the Genetic Diversity of HIV in the United States. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 181, 470 - 475 ...
KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) Province in South Africa has the highest HIV disease burden in the country, with an estimated population prevalence of 24.7%. A pilot sentinel surveillance project was undertaken in KZN to classify the proportion of adult patients failing first-line ART and to describe the patterns of drug resistance mutations (DRMs) in patients with virological failure (VF).VF in adults in KZN was
between both proportions is statistically significant.. Discussion. One of the main difficulties of sentinel networks lies in selecting the reporting physicians in such a way that the monitored population is representative of the general population. Most sentinel networks use design or quality control tools to enhance such representativeness as far as possible3,15.. Indeed, these types of designs, which at times encounter difficulties posed by the great extent of territory to be covered or the dispersion of the population to be monitored, are not always a simple task24,25. The reporting physicians in many highly important, traditional networks are volunteers26-28.. The Madrid Autonomous Region has a considerable population that is not homogeneous, with a great degree of demographic, cultural and economic diversity. Simple random sampling is an effective technique but does not ensure representativeness. However, by dividing the population into strata by means of variables which inform on ...
An opinion column was published by the BC Centre for Disease Control and the Offices of the Provincial Health Officer and Deputy Provincial Health Officer on sustained community transmission of COVID-19 in B.C., and how B.C.s response may look like in the months ahead.. Below is an excerpt from the British Columbia Medical Journal:. If sustained local transmission occurs, the focus of the intervention will shift. Testing for COVID-19 will decrease even as community cases increase, as we shift from containment to mitigation. People with mild symptoms consistent with COVID-19 (or with other respiratory illnesses), in whom knowledge of the infectious agent would not change management, will be asked to self-isolate without testing. Testing capacity will focus on severe cases and on sentinel surveillance, which will allow us to estimate the total disease burden and monitor trends in disease activity in our communities.. BC Medical Journal ...
You see it when radicals run for office or stop elections in other secular Islamic coun- tries.Sentinel surveillance, according to Woodhall, represents an
This book contains 46 summaries of positive findings from youth interventions based on 64 evaluations. Each of the summaries follows an outline that includes these components: an overview, population information, evidence of effectiveness, key components, contributing factors, study methodology, geographic areas, and contact information (plus a section of additional resources for some studies). The summaries are organized in three sections: education and career development, building strong communities, and of interest (recent studies dealing with a variety of topics about youth policies and practices). Among the best known approaches described are the following: Career Academies, School-to-Work, Tech Prep, Boys and Girls Clubs of America, 4-H, Teen Outreach Program, Youth as Resources, and programs recognized by PEPNet (the Promising and Effective Practices Network). The report also summarizes evaluations of community schools and after-school, juvenile justice, and English language
A profound shift toward coordinated, responsive care is underway in American medicine. This shift has the power to transform health care by improving quality, reducing costs and boosting satisfaction, while making care available to more people, at their convenience.. For example, imagine that your aging mother has been ill all day. She tells herself it was something she ate, but shes feeling woozy. She doesnt want to call you at work, and she is reluctant to dial 911 because she believes ambulances are embarrassing and expensive.. Patients and their families face dilemmas like this every day. But leading-edge medical thinkers are redesigning health care to make it more patient-centered and coordinated, integrating the possibilities of technology and the requirements for business success.. For instance, in some OptumCare medical practice networks, the mother in the example above has a phone number she can call any time. If she needs in-person evaluation, but not a trip to the ER, a nurse ...
This collection of papers provides an update on HIV estimation, exploring a variety of methods and analyses of primary data. The collection is one of a series where papers have focused on the tools used in the current round of estimates (in this case the 2011 set), the data and parameter estimates applied, proposals for future developments, some results and other related topics.. The 2011 set of UNAIDS/WHO estimates builds on improvements in estimation methods and assumptions: Bao et al1 describe the flexible epidemiological model that allows HIV infection risk to vary over time. The force of infection parameter, r, is allowed to vary over time through a random walk formulation, which can represent a greater variety of epidemic shapes continuing beyond the simple epidemic curve used previously. This has the advantage of allowing a closer representation of the data and the new patterns emerging as HIV epidemics age in populations. An informative prior distribution is used to improve short-term ...
Molecular testing (PCR Swab) will identify people with the virus. Antibody testing can tell whether a person has been previously infected. Most patients who recover from coronavirus have been found to produce antibodies, but it is not yet known if an individual with a positive result showing presence of IgG levels following being infected with SARS-CoV-2 will be protected, either fully or partially from future infection, or for how long protective immunity may last.. Testing should be undertaken 14 days or more following exposure or onset of symptoms. The incubation period of COVID-19 ranges from between 1 to 14 days, with the majority of cases manifesting with symptoms at 3 - 5 days. The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, tiredness, dry cough and difficulty breathing. These symptoms have the potential to develop into a very severe acute respiratory illness. Evidence shows that fatality rates increase with age, gender, body weight, ethnicity and comorbidities.. The host immune system ...
Artigos em autoria/coautoria de elementos da José de Mello Saúde, publicados em Revistas com Fator de Impacto: Bousquet J, Schunemann HJ, Fonseca J, Samolinski B, Bachert C, Morais-Almeida M, et al. MACVIA-ARIA Sentinel NetworK for allergic rhinitis (MASK-rhinitis): the new generation guideline implementation. Allergy. 2015;70(11):1372-92.
The World Health Organization has been diligently promoting quality of health care at all levels. In 2008, the WHO with its 36 member states formed a global network to conduct surveillance for invasive bacterial vaccine-preventable diseases (IB-VPD) in sentinel hospitals. …. ...
SENTINELS: OPERATION LEVIATHAN Welcome to this story thread, I hope it proves to be a long, enjoyable, constructive and prosperous thread. Sentinels, is a pe...
As if the Sentinel wasnt already a threat, it too benefits from the ERA upgrade making it a bigger threat to armored divisions anywhere.
Detailed comparison chart and breakdown between Frontline Tritak vs. Sentinel Spectrum. Visit and well help inform you.
Some hospitals allow patients to receive visits from their own pets as a means of improving the mood and possibly the health of those in their care
Ever since his teenage body turned on him, Kyle Rodas realized he'll never be carried off the field as the hero, despite defeating a foe far scarier than the Pittsburgh Steelers. Still, he would gladly settle for visiting the place Super Bowl heroes famously go after winning it all: Disney World.
No matter how many practices he misses and treatment he receives, the 39-year-old guard has faced what he calls a day-to-day struggle in ensuring he stays ahead of Father Time.
By Alana Melanson [email protected] T heyve beaten the odds, saved lives and have accomplished the seemingly impossible.
Due to the lack of ILI surveillance in Togo, there was no information about the epidemiology of ILI or influenza viruses until 2010. The first samples collected were processed in May 2010 and the presence of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) pdm09 virus was confirmed in Togo one year after the novel pandemic influenza occurred in Mexico (April 2009). This is the first report that describes the epidemiology of influenza in Togo using data from the ILI sentinel surveillance system. During the two and half year period of ILI sentinel surveillance, influenza viruses were detected in 236 (25%) of 955 samples. The average percentage positive in this study was higher than the positivity rate observed in 15 other African countries between 2006 and 2010 [17]. However, during the same timeframe, other countries in the temperate climate region: Madagascar (40%), Morocco (27%) and South Africa (40%) did show a high positivity rate as well as Peru (35%; 2006-2008) [18].. There are several reasons to explain the ...
In June 2006, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) expanded its 2004 recommendation for routine influenza vaccination of children aged 6--23 months to include children aged 24--59 months. The 2006 ACIP recommendations also reemphasized that previously unvaccinated children aged ,9 years should receive 2 doses of influenza vaccine administered at least 1 month apart to be fully vaccinated (1). In 2007, using data from six immunization information system (IIS)* sentinel sites, CDC conducted the first assessment of influenza vaccination coverage among children aged 6--59 months during the 2006--07 influenza season. The findings demonstrated that, at all six sites, ,30% of children aged 6--23 months and ,20% of children aged 24--59 months were fully vaccinated. Vaccination coverage data from national and state surveys for an influenza season generally are not available until the next influenza season. Rapid assessment of influenza vaccination coverage can help direct activities of ...
Background: Plasmodium vivax is the second most common species among malaria patients diagnosed in Europe, but epidemiological and clinical data on imported P. vivax malaria are limited. The TropNetEurop surveillance network has monitored the importation of vivax malaria into Europe since 1999. Objectives: To present epidemiological and clinical data on imported P. vivax malaria collected at European level. Material and methods: Data of primary cases of P. vivax malaria reported between January 1999 and September 2003 were analysed, focusing on disease frequency, patient characteristics, place of infection, course of disease, treatment and differences between network-member countries. Results: Within the surveillance period 4,801 cases of imported malaria were reported. 618 (12.9%) were attributed to P. vivax. European travellers and immigrants were the largest patient groups, but their proportion varied among the reporting countries. The main regions of infection in descending order were the ...
World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Western Pacific. (‎1979)‎. Working Group on Acute Respiratory Infections (‎Sentinel Surveillance Unit Methodology)‎, Goroka, Papua New Guinea, 28-30 January 1979 : report. Manila : WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific. ...
Human rotavirus A (RVA) is the main etiological agent of watery diarrhea among children under 5 years of age worldwide. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and diversity of RVA genotypes circulating in Turkey during a 2-year sentinel surveillance study. A total of 1639 rotavirus antigen-positive stool samples were obtained from children younger than 5 years of age hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis. Rotavirus G and P genotypes were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with consensus primers for the VP7 and VP4 genes, followed by semi-nested type-specific multiplex PCR. Rotavirus RNA was detected in 1396 (85.3%) of the samples tested. The highest detection rate (38.2%) was obtained among children in the 0-12 months age group, followed by children in the 13-24 months age group (36.2%). The most prevalent genotype was G1P[8] (24.6%) followed by G3P[8] (19.6%), G9P[8] (12.2%), G2P[4] (9.5%), G2P[8] (6.5%), and G4P[8] (4.8%). The ...
Abstract. In sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the epidemiology of pandemic-prone influenza viruses in urban settings. Using data from a prospective sentinel surveillance network, we characterized the emergence, epidemiology, and transmission dynamics of 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 influenza (H1N1pdm09) in Kampala, Uganda. After virus introduction via international air travel from England in June 2009, we estimated the basic reproductive number in Kampala to be 1.06-1.13, corresponding to attack rates of 12-22%. We subsequently identified 613 cases of influenza in Kampala from 2009 to 2015, of which 191 (31.2%) were infected with H1N1pdm09. Patients infected with H1N1pdm09 were more likely to be older adult (ages 35-64) males with illness onset during rainy season months. Urban settings in sub-Saharan Africa are vulnerable to importation and intense transmission of pandemic-prone influenza viruses. Enhanced surveillance and influenza pandemic preparedness in these settings is needed.
Introduction: Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) has the highest prevalence of cardiovascular ‎disease (CVD) in Canada. Dyslipidemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This study ‎compares the prevalence of dyslipidemia in the NL population with the rest of Canada.‎Methods: A cross-sectional study, using data from the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel ‎Surveillance Network (CPCSSN), was undertaken. The study population included adults, ‎excluding pregnant women, aged 20 years and older. Canadian guidelines were used for ‎classifying dyslipidemia. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to compare the ‎lipid levels and prevalence of dyslipidemia between NL and the rest of Canada.‎Results: 128,825 individuals (NL: 7,772; rest of Canada‎: 121,053) were identified with a mean ‎age of 59 years (55% Females). Mean levels of total Cholesterol (4.96 vs. 4.93, P=0.03), LDL ‎‎(3.00 vs. 2.90 mmol/L, PConclusion: The NL population has a significantly higher rate of
and contributes to relatively high treatment failure rates (26% because most patients will have positive serologic results in one study).5 Understanding antimicrobial resistance patterns can guide therapy and increase H. pylori treatment success in Treat H. pylori infection with an FDA-approved regimen accounting for local antimicrobial resistance patterns. In Alaska Native patients, metronidazole-based quadruple therapy regimens (usually containing tetracycline, The Arctic Investigations Program (AIP), Centers for Disease bismuth, and a proton pump inhibitor [PPI]) have shown Control and Prevention (CDC) H. pylori Sentinel Surveillance System cultures H. pylori from endoscopic biopsy tissue Test individuals treated for H. pylori infection 2 months submitted from five hospitals that provide care to Alaska Native people across five regions of Alaska. The AIP Consider other therapies (e.g., PPI, H2 blockers, or pro- laboratory conducts minimum inhibitory concentration testing kinetic drugs) ...
Introduction Data on the burden and risk groups for influenza-associated mortality from Africa are limited. We aimed to estimate the incidence and risk-factors for in-hospital influenza-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) deaths.. Methods Hospitalised patients with SARI were enrolled prospectively in four provinces of South Africa from 2009-2013. Using polymerase chain reaction, respiratory samples were tested for ten respiratory viruses and blood for pneumococcal DNA. The incidence of influenza-associated SARI deaths was estimated at one urban hospital with a defined catchment population.. Results We enrolled 1376 patients with influenza-associated SARI and 3% (41 of 1358 with available outcome data) died. In patients with available HIV-status, the case-fatality proportion (CFP) was higher in HIV-infected (5%, 22/419) than HIV-uninfected individuals (2%, 13/620; p = 0.006). CFPs varied by age group, and generally increased with increasing age amongst individuals ,5 years ...
By Alexander J. Varond & Josephine M. Torrente -. On March 17, 2015 FDA approved Cholbam (cholic acid) for pediatric and adult patients with bile acid synthesis disorders due to single enzyme defects, and for patients with peroxisomal disorders. In approving Cholbam, FDA also issued the third rare pediatric disease priority review voucher (Pediatric Voucher), triggering the Pediatric Voucher programs 1-year sunset clause in Section 529(b)(5) of the FD&C Act. Recall that a Pediatric Voucher is a voucher issued to the sponsor of a rare pediatric disease product application that entitles the holder of such voucher to priority review (instead of a longer standard review) of a single NDA or BLA after the date of approval of the rare pediatric disease product application. A qualifying rare pediatric disease product application is an NDA or BLA for a drug or biologic intended to prevent or treat a rare pediatric disease. Such drug or biologic may not contain any active ingredient (including any ...
Results More than 80% of facilities reported medications in stock, with the exceptions of oral cefixime (48.3%), oral erythromycin (75.1%) and paediatric syrups. Among 195 SP encounters, 18.7% (95% CI 10.7% to 30.5%) received all hypothesised essential STI services: offered HIV test (67.1%), offered condoms (31.4%), partner notification counselling (70.2%) and recommended syndromic treatment (60.7%). Men were more likely than women to be offered all services (25.1% vs 12.3%, p=0.023), recommended treatment (70.7% vs 50.9%, p=0.013) and partner notification counselling (79.9% vs 60.6%, p=0.020). Only 6.3% of providers discussed male circumcision with male SPs, and 26.3% discussed family planning with female SPs. ...
The current study compared the seroprevalence of HIV-1 and HIV-2 in pregnant women in The Gambia between May 2000 and August 2001 with the seroprevalence ...
Action contre la Faim (ACF) has been implementing cash-based interventions since the late 1990s. ACF s main focus is the treatment and prevention of acute malnutrition, and it has used cash-based responses to pursue this objective, including using vouchers to increase access to fresh foods (vegetables, fruit, eggs, meat, milk and fish). Fresh food vouchers (FFV) have provided households with complete food baskets, or have been used to supplement staple foods with fresh micronutrient-rich foods. FFV programmes also support local markets and traders. Fresh food vouchers can be used in slow-onset as well as acute crises to provide short- or longer-term support to people highly vulnerable to acute malnutrition.. ACF commissioned a meta-evaluation of five of its FFV programmes in Bolivia, Kenya, Haiti, Pakistan and the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt). The evaluation was funded by the Cash Learning Partnership (CaLP) and ECHO, and the results were used as the basis for the development of a good ...
The Somalia Cash and Voucher Monitoring Group (CVMG) was formed in September 2011. Monitoring activities involved the collection of both qualitative and quantitative data relating to the implementation process, and market and household impacts. Quantitative data were collected by the implementing NGOs, and qualitative data were collected by 18 IFMs hired specifically for the CVMG exercise.. For the cash projects, $43.9 million was distributed to 94,699 households through six hawala companies. The actual amount paid to beneficiaries varied among the NGOs and between regions according to the specific aim of the project and local market prices. The size of the cash transfer ranged from $75 to $125 a month, depending on the actual cost of the Minimum Expenditure Basket (MEB) in the local area.+The MEB was developed by the Somalia Food Security and Nutrition Analysis Unit (FSNAU). It represents a household s minimum daily food and non-food requirements. For the voucher projects, over 7,000 tonnes and ...
Marc Suchard speaking at BIRS workshop, Advances in Scalable Bayesian Computation, on Thursday, March 6, 2014 on the topic: Scaling Bayesian models for large-scale infectious disease surveillance.
Sophia G. de Vries, Benjamin J. Visser, Rhett J. Stoney, Jiri F. P. Wagenaar, Emmanuel Bottieau, Lin H. Chen, Annelies Wilder-Smith, Mary Wilson, Christophe Rapp, Karin Leder, Eric Caumes, Eli Schwartz, Noreen A. Hynes, Abraham Goorhuis, Douglas H. Esposito, Davidson H. Hamer, Martin P. Grobusch, and for the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network ...
The results of our study suggest a higher adherence to the German guideline for the management of CAP patients after active implementation. The proportion of guideline conformity increased concerning the indicators duration of antibiotic treatment in outpatients (+9.2%), antibiotic treatment in inpatients (+5.6%) and its duration (+5.0%), whereas in the CG, a decrease could be observed in all the said indicators (−7.9%, −4.7% and −2.9%, respectively) except the antibiotic treatment in outpatients (+0.6%). Nevertheless, the logit loglinear analyses showed no effect of intervention or time period on the process of care. In addition, no significant effect could be observed on the 30-days overall mortality, the CAP-related mortality and the length of hospital stay.. Our study differs from previous investigations in this area in several aspects. We recruited patients not only in hospitals but also in sentinel practices, which allowed us to estimate the effect on the process of care in ...
University of Limericks Centre for Interventions in Infection, Inflammation and Immunity (4i) represents recognition by like-minded researchers from across the University and distributed clinical campuses, in addition to the General Practice network now associated with the GEMS, of the need to provide the sense of identity, infrastructure support, vision and guidance that will enable existing and new researchers as they contribute to medical knowledge and, critically, by doing so to advance health outcomes for patients in the mid-West, nationally and beyond.. ...
Dr. Mario DiSaverio practices network spinal analysis in annapolis maryland. He also uses Cerebrospinal Fluid Technique (CSFT) and his innate intuition to help your inner physician to heal itself.
The Greater Accra and Ashanti Regions are currently having the highest HIV rates in the country, according to a recent report.. Per the latest figures, the two regions have overtaken Brong Ahafo and Volta Regions which topped in 2016.. The revelation was contained in the 2017 HIV Sentinel Survey (HSS) and Estimates Report, jointly released by the National AIDS and STI Control Programme (NACP).. In the report, the two regions both had 3.2 percent while the Northern Region had the lowest rate of 0.6%.. The Western Region followed with 2.4% taking the third position and Volta Region occupying the fourth position with 2.3%.. The report also placed Eastern Region at the 5th position, Brong Ahafo, 6th, Central Region, 7th, and Upper West and Upper East taking the 8th and 9th positions respectively.. About 18, 711 samples were collected nationwide for the report and drawn from 40 sentinel sites strategically located at 17 rural sites, 23 urban sites and 69 antenatal clinics within a period of four ...
The Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia and BGI are partnering to conduct large-scale sequencing and bioinformatics studies of rare and common pediatric diseases at a newly established Joint Genome Center at the hospital, the organizations said this week.
AbbVie (NYSE ABBV), a global biopharmaceutical company, announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted Rare Pediatric Disease Designat
Analyzed news - place for research news and trends news on a time line, FDA proposes drug development guidance for rare pediatric diseases, , healthNews
Study VII - Genetic and Pediatric Diseases flashcards from Rechie Mae Abear - Gabales's Davao Medical School Foundation Inc. class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
Study VII - Genetic and Pediatric Diseases flashcards from Augi Yap's class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
EISS implemented an evaluation protocol to assess the quality of clinical data collected by sentinel networks for the surveillance of influenza. The protocol was applied in Belgium and in three regions in Spain where it resulted in recommendations to improve the national and regional surveillance networks.
package Some::Class; use Sentinel; sub foo :lvalue { my $self = shift; sentinel get =, sub { return $self-,get_foo }, set =, sub { $self-,set_foo( $_[0] ) }; } sub bar :lvalue { my $self = shift; sentinel value =, $self-,get_bar, set =, sub { $self-,set_bar( $_[0] ) }; } sub splot :lvalue { sentinel obj =, shift, get =, \&get_splot, set =, \&set_splot; } sub wibble :lvalue { sentinel obj =, shift, get =, get_wibble, set =, set_wibble ...
Blood tests. A technician obtains a sample of your blood by inserting a needle into a vein, usually in your arm.. Urine tests. This painless test requires you to urinate into a container. To avoid potential contamination of the sample, you may be instructed to cleanse your genital area with an antiseptic pad and to collect the urine midstream.. Throat swabs. Samples from your throat, or other moist areas of your body, may be obtained with a sterile swab.. Stool sample. You may be instructed to collect a stool sample so a lab can check the sample for parasites and other organisms.. Spinal tap (lumbar puncture). This procedure obtains a sample of your cerebrospinal fluid through a needle carefully inserted between the bones of your lower spine. Youll usually be asked to lie on your side with your knees pulled up toward your chest. ...
The main objectives of ERLI-Net are to carry out virological surveillance of human influenza and to ensure that data are shared through the European Influenza Surveillance Network (EISN) reporting mechanisms in a timely manner.. ...
Article compiles Guidelines on Clinical management of severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) in suspect/confirmed novel Coronavirus (nCoV) cases, Updated Trave
Sentinel 300 EnviroWash Peroxide Cleaner Sentinel 300 EnviroWash Peroxide Cleaner is a professional strength hydrogen peroxide based cleaner that is designed to clean, remove organic stains, brighten and lighten surfaces and eliminate odors. Sentinels proprietary surfactant and hydrogen peroxide formula oxidizes soils and odors instantly, breaking them down into water and oxygen. Sentinel 300 has
Since the quake, WHO has helped establish more than 50 sentinel sites to detect cases of infectious diseases. Expanding the disease early warning system, along with providing mosquito nets to prevent malaria, dengue and other vector-borne disease control activities, are required. ...
BY J. CiLESSXER. CADIZ, OHIO , FRIDAY, AUGUST. S9, I a a . VWi. 1, ttOB iff . - l.--ev . . , . . s 1 ; M4A ,HSriirir7;i.-i.T CADIZ SENTINEL. AUGUST 27,1834. . Christys attack upon Judge Maxwell, We are much pleased with the fine style in which Judge Maxwell has completely used up Christy. Christy himself was satisfied of it, and kept the Judges vindication on hand as usual two weeks before he would let his readers see it, in order to ward off the heavy blows it contained by a conned reply. Bat all wont do if he had kept it 6 months he would have been unable 1o have justified his attack or satisfied the People that he intcuded no attack. We give the Judges vindication a place in the Sentinel that our readers may see that be has handled the man of the Tele graph without gloves, as well as to dojus tjee to aq individual whose standing for truth and veracity has been attempted to be assailed. From the Harrison Telegraph Vr; Christy: Sir, It appears that you have been for some time past ...
Historically, surveillance was difficult and expensive.. Over the decades, as technology advanced, surveillance became easier and easier. Today, we find ourselves in a world of ubiquitous surveillance, where everything is collected, saved, searched, correlated and analyzed.. But while technology allowed for an increase in both corporate and government surveillance, the private and public sectors took very different paths to get there. The former always collected information about everyone, but over time, collected more and more of it, while the latter always collected maximal information, but over time, collected it on more and more people.. Corporate surveillance has been on a path from minimal to maximal information. Corporations always collected information on everyone they could, but in the past they didnt collect very much of it and only held it as long as necessary. When surveillance information was expensive to collect and store, companies made do with as little as possible.. Telephone ...
Use of drug resistance sequence data for the systematic detection of non-B human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes: How to create a sentinel site for monitoring the genetic diversity of HIV-1 at a country scale ...
Key points its significant surveillance system: How it works Source of information common weakness how to improve evaluation of surveillance system
At OU Medicine, our mission is leading health care. Our vision is to be the premiere enterprise for advancing health care, medical education and research for the community, state and region. Through our combined efforts we strive to improve the lives of all people.. ...
Advanced Pediatrics provides information regarding pediatric medical conditions and diseases written by nationally recognized experts in pediatric health care.
Advanced Pediatrics provides information regarding pediatric medical conditions and diseases written by nationally recognized experts in pediatric health care.
"The WHO Global Influenza Surveillance Network was established in 1952 [renamed "Global Influenza Surveillance and Response ... Brown D (February 18, 2008). "Keeping ahead of flu comes down to guessing game". Knoxville News Sentinel. The Washington Post. ... Each year, three strains are chosen for selection in that year's flu vaccination by the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and ... "Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS)". World Health Organization. Retrieved October 22, 2019. "Spotlight: ...
"Yda Addis Under Close Surveillance". Santa Cruz, California: Evening Sentinel. December 21, 1899. p. 3. Retrieved July 18, 2017 ... "Yda Addis Storke is free". Santa Cruz Sentinel. May 12, 1900. Morning Press. June 18, 1901. Missing or empty ,title= (help) ... "Yda Addis Storke Is Free". Santa Cruz, California: Evening Sentinel. May 12, 1900. p. 3. Retrieved July 18, 2017 - via ... "Yda Addis Sentenced". Santa Cruz, California: Evening Sentinel. July 12, 1899. p. 3. Retrieved July 18, 2017 - via newspapers. ...
"Overview of Fiji NIC" (PDF). Influenza Sentinel Surveillance Newsletter (1). September 2008. p. 2.[permanent dead link] "Fiji ...
"Mali: RAF surveillance aircraft Sentinel deployed". BBC News. 25 January 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2016. "Three Royal Air ...
The BBC also reported that the RAF deployed a Sentinel R1 aircraft at the request of the French for surveillance support. The ... "Mali: RAF surveillance aircraft Sentinel deployed". BBC. 25 January 2013. Retrieved 25 January 2013. "Nigeria rejected British ... "Surveillance missions over Syria confirmed". Ministry of Defence. 21 October 2014. Retrieved 21 October 2014. "ROYAL AIR FORCE ... a Sentinel R1 airborne standoff radar aircraft, VC10 air-to-air refuelling tankers and TriStar air-to-air refuelling tankers. ...
"Mali: RAF surveillance aircraft Sentinel deployed". BBC News. 25 January 2013. "Sentinel" (PDF). Raytheon. Retrieved 23 June ... Defence Secretary Philip Hammond later announced the UK would also deploy a Sentinel R1 surveillance aircraft. The aircraft, ... "Royal Air Force lifts lid on Sentinel's role in Mali". flightglobal. 10 July 2013. "RAF Sentinel Comes Home". defense-aerospace ...
In 2016, the foundation donated $360,000 to a trial of continuous aerial surveillance using drones of Baltimore, Maryland.The ... "Who stays in jail before trial? Who goes free? Sometimes, an algorithm helps decide". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Retrieved ... "A divided federal appeals court rules Baltimore's surveillance plane is constitutional, cites city's struggles". Yahoo News. ... "Texas philanthropists say they're backing out of financing surveillance plane technology that flew over Baltimore". Baltimore ...
"Mali: RAF surveillance aircraft Sentinel deployed". BBC. 25 January 2013. Retrieved 25 January 2013. Nicholas Watt & Luke ... On 25 January 2013, the UK Ministry of Defence announced the deployment of a Sentinel R1 surveillance aircraft to support ... France asked the U.S. to speed up its contribution by sending drones to improve surveillance over the vast area of northern ... ABC News reported that 150 U.S. military personnel set up and carried out an operation involving surveillance drone over Mali ...
In July 1989 a sentinel surveillance system for infectious diseases was established in Taiwan by Disease, Surveillance and ... The sentinel surveillance system is physician based and has approximately 850 Taiwanese physicians participating from various ... In March 1998, under the sentinel surveillance system, it was noticed that there was an increasing number of HFMD cases and ... Wu, Trong-Neng (May-June 1999). "Sentinel Surveillance for Enterovirus 71, Taiwan, 1998". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 5 (3): ...
World Health Organization (2015). "Global Rotavirus Sentinel Hospital Surveillance Network" (PDF). Simpson E, Wittet S, Bonilla ...
"Sentinels of the Sky: The Persistent Threat Detection System". Lockheed Martin. Retrieved 2018-08-28. "Researchers Stimulate ... Since the Civil War, when Union Soldiers utilized hot air balloons to serve as a surveillance platform, airship technology has ... In Iraq and Afghanistan, there was a special need for enhanced surveillance, especially in the attempt to counter improvised ... and are strategically placed for surveillance purposes. They enhance situational awareness and improve force protection. ...
Polgreen P.M., Chen E., Segre A.M., Harris M., Pentella M., Rushton G. (2009). "Optimizing Influenza Sentinel Surveillance at ... Tracking the transmission of infectious diseases is called disease surveillance. Surveillance of infectious diseases in the ... One proxy in the case of influenza is tracking of influenza-like illness at certain sentinel sites of health care practitioners ... A New Model for Neglected Tropical Disease Surveillance". PLOS Negl Trop Dis. 5 (5): e1206. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001206. ...
Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved February 2, 2021. Spencer, Terry (February 4, 2021). "FBI slayings show risk surveillance cameras ... Perkins, Chris (February 2, 2021). "Among the deadliest: Past incidents that killed FBI agents". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved ... South Florida Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved February 4, 2021. Blaskey, Sarah; Rabin, Charles; Weaver, Jay; Ovalle, David (February 3 ...
Advances in high resolution ultrasound scanning have enabled surveillance of metastatic burden to the sentinel lymph nodes. The ... Biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes is a widely used procedure when treating cutaneous melanoma. Neither sentinel lymph node biopsy ... Depending on the stage, a sentinel lymph node biopsy may be performed. Controversy exists around trial evidence for sentinel ... Sentinel lymph node biopsy is often performed, especially for T1b/T2+ tumors, mucosal tumors, ocular melanoma and tumors of the ...
"HIV Sentinel Surveillance in Thailand -- An Example for Developing Countries". Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health. 8: 20-26 ... Frerichs, RR; Htoon, MT; Eskes, N; Lwin, S (1992). "Comparison of saliva and serum for HIV surveillance in developing countries ... Frerichs, RR (1991). "Epidemiologic surveillance in developing countries". Annu Rev Public Health. 12: 257-80. doi:10.1146/ ... and screening and surveillance methods for HIV/AIDS and other diseases. In addition, he consulted on epidemiological and ...
"A framework for evaluating animals as sentinels for infectious disease surveillance". Journal of the Royal Society Interface. 4 ... Meredith completed a PhD in 2012 supervised by Sarah Cleaveland on the use of carnivores as sentinels - animals which can ... Evaluation of predators as sentinels for emerging infectious diseases (PhD thesis). University of Edinburgh. hdl:1842/6480. ...
"The FDA's sentinel initiative-A comprehensive approach to medical product surveillance". Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics. ... In 2009, the pilot program Mini‐Sentinel was launched. In 2014, expansion to a full system began. The Sentinel System draws on ... Another monitoring system, the Sentinel System, became fully operational in 2016. Woodcock launched the Sentinel Initiative in ... FAERS is an online database that is used by the FDA for safety surveillance of all approved drugs and therapeutic biologic ...
1991 Aug;62(8):795-7. Use of sentinel health events (occupational) in computer assisted occupational health surveillance. ... The U.S. Coast Guard has developed a Coast Guard-wide comprehensive system for surveillance of workplace diseases. The American ... was used as a reference to expand the basic list of 50 Sentinel Health Events (Occupational) [SHE(O)] published by the National ...
Aegis Trust Internet censorship and surveillance in Sudan Satellite Sentinel Project 1.^ Note that the "Year" signifies the " ...
"Crow deaths as a sentinel surveillance system for West Nile virus in the northeastern United States, 1999". Emerging Infectious ... Eidson, M; Komar, N; Sorhage, F; Nelson, R; Talbot, T; Mostashari, F; McLean, R; West Nile Virus Avian Mortality Surveillance ...
For complete port security these systems are integrated with the surface surveillance and security systems employed at ports, ... "US Navy orders additional Sonardyne Sentinel sonar system - ROVworld Subsea Information". 2009-05-25. "Asian ... These sonars are now available from a number of different manufacturers who recommend their use for surveillance against ... Ronald T. Kessel, Reginald D. Hollett, October 2006 "dsIT to Supply First Underwater Surveillance System To Protect Oil ...
North Carolina Influenza Sentinel Surveillance Program ND Flu "Few flu cases reported this year". Bismarck Tribune. "Swine flu ... "Sentinel Provider Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) Surveillance Summary" (PDF). Tennessee - Department of Health. November 21, 2009 ... Iowa Influenza Surveillance Network (IISN) Reports update at Monday"Kansas H1N1 Flu Virus Information". Kansas - Department of ... "Influenza Surveillance Data 2008-2009". West Virginia - Department of Health and Human Resources. Archived from the original on ...
North Carolina Influenza Sentinel Surveillance Program ND Flu "Few flu cases reported this year". Bismarck Tribune. "Swine flu ... "Sentinel Provider Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) Surveillance Summary" (PDF). Tennessee - Department of Health. November 21, 2009 ... Changes in surveillance of cases of influenza-like illness, including new guidelines for identifying cases to test, increased ... Surveillance reports indicated that about 57% of the 2009 H1N1 influenza confirmed and probable cases were occurring among ...
Surveillance Australia, or Special Missions business unit operates a civilian aerial surveillance program on behalf of the ... Oil, Mining and Gas CASA website link to National Jet Express AOC. Retrieved ... Cobham Aviation Services provides aerial intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance for the Australian Government using ... 6 September 2008[dead link] Surveillance Australia - home page. Retrieved: 16 June 2009. ...
The Sun-Sentinel. Spencer, Terry (July 24, 2017). "State attorney: No sex assault charges for Michael Irvin". Associated Press ... "Michael Irvin says surveillance footage will prove his innocence in sexual assault investigation: 'Nothing happened'". The New ...
Sentinel surveillance uses a network of health care providers to report cases of occupational disease. This approach is similar ... Sentinel networks may not try to achieve total coverage, and may operate in a restricted geographical area or involve a sample ... The Occupational Surveillance Scheme for Audiologists (OSSA) operates within the THOR network. In some countries, medical ... health surveillance are properly applied. The Arbomonitor in the Netherlands provides representative information on the state ...
Advances in high resolution ultrasound scanning have enabled surveillance of metastatic burden to the sentinel lymph nodes.[161 ... Depending on the stage, a sentinel lymph node biopsy may be performed. Controversy exists around trial evidence for sentinel ... "The Screening and Surveillance of Ultrasound in Melanoma trial (SUNMEL)". Archived from the original on 2009-01-06.. ... Biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes is a widely used procedure when treating cutaneous melanoma.[90][91] ...
Post-market surveillance "Medical Device Reporting (MDR)". Retrieved 14 October 2017. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ... User facilities must now file an annual report instead of semiannual reports, and Sentinel reporting by user facilities was ...
Saha along with his team designed and set up four sentinel hospital surveillance network in Bangladesh. The "community adjusted ... is a model of surveillance that records data of the burden of diseases at a population level. The surveillance data is ... As a leading researcher in pediatrics, he has been performing surveillance on invasive childhood diseases in Bangladesh for ... "Integration of enteric fever surveillance into the WHO-coordinated Invasive Bacterial-Vaccine Preventable Diseases (IB-VPD) ...
21 February 2011). "FluCAN 2009: initial results from sentinel surveillance for adult influenza and pneumonia in eight ...
"Euro Surveillance. 11 (6): E060622.1. doi:10.2807/esw.11.25.02977-en. PMID 16819127.. ... Smith FD, Ballantyne R, Morgan ER, Wall R (March 2012). "Estimating Lyme disease risk using pet dogs as sentinels". Comparative ... "Euro Surveillance. 11 (10): 257-60. PMID 17130658. Archived from the original on 17 June 2012.. ... Surveillance Summaries. 57 (10): 1-9. PMID 18830214. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012.. ...
WHO Division of Emerging and other Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Control.. *^ Monath, T. P. (1989). "The absence of ... which serve as a sentinel species for yellow fever, that then spread to men working in the jungle. No cases had been ...
Orlando Sentinel. Besøkt 31. mai 2020.. *^ «The grim racial inequalities behind America's protests». The Economist. ISSN 0013- ... mai 2020). «Surveillance video does not support police claims that George Floyd resisted arrest». CNN. Arkivert fra originalen ... mai 2020). «George Floyd death: Newly emerged surveillance footage shows no evidence of resistance». Newshub. Arkivert fra ...
Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel, February 3, 2006. *^ Queensland to give train commuters wireless internet access Archived 2009-04- ... WISP and media delivery services as well as video surveillance focused on the suburb. Community social portal for information ... Mexico City, Mexico[149][150] free, coupled with new surveillance system (planned 2008) ...
Hepatitis Surveillance Report No. 56, 1995 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MMWR 55(24) Tattoo lasers / Histology, ... 2005). "Tattoo pigment in sentinel lymph nodes: a mimicker of metastatic malignant melanoma". Dermatol Online J. 11 (1): 14. ...
Carriers of these mutations may then undergo enhanced surveillance, chemoprevention, or preventative surgery to reduce their ...
If North Sentinel Island could be called a country, it would be the last remaining anarchist country on the planet.[134] The ... An anti-fascist poster from the libertarian socialist factions of Madrid, Spain reading "The surveillance of the city must be ... North Sentinel Island is one of the Andaman Islands in the Bay of Bengal, occupied by the Sentinelese tribe who've inhabited ... Know how 60,000 year-old human tribe of secluded North Sentinel Island behaves with outsiders (November, 2018). timestravel. ...
President's Surveillance Program. *Protect America Act of 2007. *September 11 attacks. *State Sponsors of Terrorism ... Operation Freedom's Sentinel (OFS) is the official name used by the U.S. Government for the mission succeeding Operation ... "Operation Freedom's Sentinel and our continued security investment in Afghanistan". Retrieved 2018-10-07.. ... "Meet Operation Freedom's Sentinel, the Pentagon's new mission in Afghanistan". Washington Post. Retrieved 2018-10-07.. ...
Scope of surveillance[edit]. As a "virtual, centralized, grand database",[38] the scope of surveillance includes, among others ... project was designed to predict and respond to bioterrorism by monitoring non-traditional data sources such as animal sentinels ... "Bio- Surveillance". Information Awareness Office. Archived from the original on 2006-09-19.. ... Harris, Shane (18 February 2010). The Watchers: The Rise of America's Surveillance State (reprint ed.). Penguin. ISBN ...
"Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved August 1, 2014.. *^ a b Steves, Rick (2013-11-18). "The Security Fence, the Anti-Terrorism Barrier, the ... to almost unlimited surveillance of virtually any person in the United States by the government without normal congressional ... pressure is great to employ intensive surveillance of virtually any potential perpetrator, "to look for them almost everywhere ...
The Northrop Grumman E-8 Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (Joint STARS) is a United States Air Force Airborne ... in use with the Royal Air Force as the Raytheon Sentinel and the USAF as the E-11A airborne communications relay. Aircraft ... The information is relayed in near-real time to the US Army's common ground stations via the secure jam-resistant surveillance ... Northrop Grumman E-8A Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System. The radome for the side-looking radar is visible under the ...
Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program. National Cancer Institute . [2016. március 4-i dátummal az eredetiből ... A műtét alatt mintákat vesznek a környező nyirokcsomókból (sentinel nyirokcsomók). Amennyiben a szövettan igazolja a daganatos ... Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER). [2007. július 6-i dátummal az eredetiből archiválva]. (Hozzáférés: 2007. ... July). „Postoperative Radiotherapy for Stage II or III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End ...
Sentinel Space Telescope(英语:Sentinel Space Telescope). *哨兵系統 ... NEOSSat(英语:Near Earth Object Surveillance Satellite). *NEOCam(英语:Near-Earth Object Camera) ...
Orlando Sentinel blog summary of official reports. 3 November 2008 *^ Klamper, Amy (8 September 2009) White House Panel Spells ... The stress of spaceflight gives viruses a holiday from immune surveillance, putting future deep-space missions in jeopardy". ...
"Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved January 4, 2016. From this farm the family migrated to Kansas in the summer of 1878.. ... so Eisenhower wanted to not only create a surveillance satellite to detect any threats but ballistic missiles that would ... to provide mutual access to each other's skies for open surveillance of military infrastructure. Russian leader Nikita ... In 1954 Eisenhower wanted to increase surveillance inside the Soviet Union. With Dulles' recommendation, he authorized the ...
"Santa Cruz Sentinel. Associated Press. Archived from the original on October 31, 2017. Retrieved October 30, 2017.. ... As part of his surveillance, he was known to look in the windows of future victims and prowl in the yards of homes for several ...
Etheridge, Elizabeth W. (1992-02-20). Sentinel for Health: A History of the Centers for Disease Control. University of ... ", "administer a medical surveillance program for miners, including chest X‑rays to detect pneumoconiosis (black lung disease) ...
Société Générale de Surveillance, STMicroelectronics, and Weatherford International.[70] Many other multinational companies ... Geneva seen from Sentinel-2 Satellite. Geneva is located at 46°12' North, 6°09' East, at the south-western end of Lake Geneva, ...
"Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance - United States, 2013". MMWR. Surveillance Summaries. 64 (11): 1-25. doi:10.15585 ... Sentinel Event Alert (44).. *. Rosenfield, Allan; Maine, Deborah; Freedman, Lynn (September 2006). "Meeting MDG-5: an ... Surveillance Summaries. 62 (9): 1-24. Retrieved 17 July 2016.. Maternal health[edit]. *. Filippi, Véronique; Ronsmans, Carine; ... Maternal mortality remains a major problem in global health and is considered a sentinel event in judging the quality of health ...
CDC «2017 Case Counts in the US» (en anglès). Reporting and Surveillance. Zika Cases in the US, 2018; Mar 12, pàgs: 6 [Consulta ... ATCC Product Sheet Zika virus (ATCC® VR84TM) Original Source: Blood from experimental forest sentinel rhesus monkey, Uganda, ... PAHO «Algorithm for detecting Zika virus (ZIKV)» (en anglès). Zika virus (ZIKV) Surveillance in the Americas: Laboratory ... a surveillance-based analysis» (en anglès). Lancet, 2017 Ag 26; 390 (10097), pp: 861-870. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31368-5. ...
"Colorectal cancer screening and surveillance: Clinical guidelines and rationale-Update based on new evidence". Gastroenterology ...
The Milwaukee Sentinel - June 23, 1929 *^ a b "Lindbergh given check by Orteig". The Gettysburg Times (Associated Press), June ... Charles, Douglas M. J. Edgar Hoover and the Anti-interventionists: FBI Political Surveillance and the Rise of the Domestic ... Charles, Douglas M. "Informing FDR: FBI Political Surveillance and the Isolationist-Interventionist Foreign Policy Debate, 1939 ...
The United States and these international partners have led global efforts to encourage countries to heighten surveillance for ... LPAI H5N1 was detected in ducks by the University of Minnesota conducting a sampling procedure in which sentinel ducks were ... Ongoing detailed mutually coordinated onsite surveillance and analysis of human and animal H5N1 avian flu outbreaks are being ... The World Health Organization Global Influenza Program Surveillance Network. (2005). "Evolution of H5N1 avian influenza viruses ...
AN/FPS-133 Air Force Space Surveillance System (AFSSS). *AN/FSQ-114 Ground-Based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance ( ... AN/GSQ-272 Sentinel. Ground-based. radar. *AN/FPQ-16 Perimeter Acquisition Attack Characterization System (PARCS) ...
"Pertussis , Whooping Cough , Surveillance , Cases by Year , CDC". Archived from the original on 10 April 2017. ... "the Journal Sentinel. Archived from the original on 19 August 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2012.. ... surveillance systems, and case definitions used. The study said protective immunity after vaccination wanes after 4-12 years.[ ...
Osborne noted that open balloting was carried out and voters were cowed into casting an approval vote under police surveillance ... "Lodi News-Sentinel. Retrieved 25 June 2015.. *^ Findlay (1995), p. 8. *^ Osborne (1994), p. 255. ...
Asia Sentinel, "Thailand's Royal Wealth: How Thailand's Royals Manage to Own All the Good Stuff" Archived 28 September 2007 at ... Thailand is on Reporters Without Borders list of countries Under Surveillance in 2011.[32] ... "Thailand's Massive Internet Censorship" Archived 21 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Pavin Chachavalpongpun, Asia Sentinel, ... the Wayback Machine, Asia Sentinel, 2 March 2007 *^ "Media Gag Order Sought For Thaksin's Asset Seizure Case" Archived 3 May ...
"Article". Cheney Sentinel. Cheney, Washington. September 13, 1889. p. 1.. *^ Little, Branden (August 2013). "Review of Jones, ... provides technical and financial support to governments and communities on vaccination campaigns and disease surveillance ...
... interrogation support and long range surveillance. The battalion's long-range surveillance detachment was stripped from the ... Operation Freedom's Sentinel[edit]. The 40th ID deployed to Afghanistan in September 2017 in support of Operation Freedom's ... 297th Battlefield Surveillance Brigade (AK NG)(Reorganized and redesignated as the 297th Regional Support Group) ... 1st Squadron, 299th Cavalry Regiment (RSTA) Reconnaissance Surveillance and Target Acquisition. *1st Battalion, 158th Infantry ...
"Orlando Sentinel. December 18, 1993. Archived from the original on January 11, 2016. Retrieved December 7, 2011.. ... Surveillance. The Des Plaines police confiscated Gacy's Oldsmobile and other PDM work vehicles. Police assigned two, two-man ... As he drove along the expressway, the surveillance officers noted he was holding a rosary to his chin, praying while he drove.[ ... As Gacy spoke with him, Cram informed the surveillance officers that Gacy had told him and Rossi that he had confessed to over ...
... of Health and Family Welfare initiated laboratory-supported surveillance for congenital rubella syndrome in five sentinel sites ... of Health and Family Welfare initiated laboratory-supported surveillance for congenital rubella syndrome in five sentinel sites ... The sentinel surveillance system also generated important epidemiologic data about CRS at these sentinel sites, including ... BOX. Case definitions* for congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) surveillance - Congenital Rubella Syndrome Sentinel Surveillance, ...
Police also will use more video surveillance than in years past as "a force multiplier" so police can monitor several locations ...
Sentinel surveillance in outpatient settings and emergency departments, implemented together with hospital-based surveillance, ... Sentinel surveillance in outpatient settings and emergency departments, implemented together with hospital-based surveillance, ... This sentinel surveillance system helped confirm community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in Santa Clara County. As a result of ... Rapid Sentinel Surveillance for COVID-19 - Santa Clara County, California, March 2020. Weekly / April 10, 2020 / 69(14);419-421 ...
Oregons Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet) is a collaborative effort between public health and ... Oregons Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet). What is ILINet?. The Oregon Outpatient Influenza-like ... Surveillance for influenza aids with the detection of new and emerging strains of influenza viruses. ... ILINet data, in combination with other surveillance data, can be used to guide prevention and control activities, vaccine ...
Annual Surveillance Data (page 2: Sentinel-Reporting Diseases). note:. *Data received as of February 25, 2012.*The data of 1999 ... Cases per sentinel. 0.28. 0.32. 0.29. 0.23. 0.21. .... .... .... .... .... .... .... Aseptic meningitis. Reported. cases. 1,126 ... Cases per sentinel. 15.86. 167.93. 65.70. 159.01. 247.14. 165.50. 330.65. 201.07. 259.04. 131.89. 643.34. 56.37. ... Cases per sentinel. 56.50. 92.36. 89.90. 86.73. 82.39. 81.46. 79.05. 88.07. 81.63. 74.52. 67.09. 77.48. ...
The workshop brought together participants from WHO-coordinated sentinel surveillance sites, other sentinel surveillance ... Sentinel surveillance of invasive bacterial vaccine-preventable diseases and rotavirus gastroenteritis. View/. Open. B5066.pdf ... sentinel surveillance site laboratories/national laboratories, regional reference laboratories for IB-VPD and RVGE surveillance ... The objective of the consultation was to further strengthen sentinel surveillance of IB-VPD and RVGE with a view to generating ...
2010)‎. Sentinel surveillance for patients with acute hepatitis in Egypt, 2001-04. EMHJ - Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal ... To define the epidemiology of the disease, sentinel surveillance was established in 5 hospitals in diverse areas of the country ... This surveillance system was useful in identifying the variable endemicity of acute HAV infection in different regions and for ...
Effective sentinel community surveillance can drive all the four critical early actions. Sentinel community surveillance is an ... Conceptually, sentinel community surveillance shares some basic principles with facility-based sentinel surveillance, except ... some of the affected communities were sensitised as sentinel community surveillance sites. When the sentinel surveillance sites ... would be a viable and effective framework for harnessing sentinel community surveillance. The important attributes of sentinel ...
HIV Sentinel Surveillance Among Women Seeking Elective Pregnancy Termination, San Francisco. From CDC National Prevention ... "Women electing pregnancy termination can serve as a sentinel population to track trends in the HIV epidemic," the authors ... "However, barriers remain to wider implementation of the approach as a surveillance tool." ...
WHO Regional Office for Europe guidance for influenza surveillance in humans  World Health Organization. Regional Office for ... Situation update in the European Region : overview of influenza surveillance data week 40/2009 to week 07/2010  ...
Hospital-acquired influenza in an Australian sentinel surveillance system. Nenad Macesic, Tom C Kotsimbos, Paul Kelly and Allen ... FluCAN 2009: initial results from sentinel surveillance for adult influenza and pneumonia in eight Australian hospitals. Med J ... The Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN) is a sentinel surveillance system that prospectively collects data on adult ... November of 2010 and 2011 using a hospital-based sentinel surveillance system. A nosocomial case was defined as polymerase ...
Sentinel chicken flocks are used to provide an early warning of increased flavivirus activity in four Australian states. This ... Sentinel Chicken Surveillance Program in Australia, July 2003 to June 2004. Sentinel chicken flocks are used to provide an ... The Sentinel Chicken Surveillance Program is used to provide an early warning of increased flavivirus activity in Australia. ... Serum samples from the Western Australian sentinel chicken flocks are tested by the Arbovirus Surveillance and Research ...
... the British governments communications and electronic surveillance headquarters, and The Security Service (MI5), the ... Britain Online Surveillance. This photo-illustration shows the web flash pages for GCHQ, the British governments communications ... This photo-illustration shows the web flash pages for GCHQ, the British governments communications and electronic surveillance ... and electronic surveillance headquarters, and The Security Service (MI5), the governments internal security service, on a ...
The findings will be helpful for the interpretation of virological data collected by sentinel physicians and for the creation ... is based on an integrated clinical and virological surveillance model. To assess the comparability of virological data, a ... Methods for sentinel virological surveillance of influenza in Europe - an 18-country survey * T J Meerhoff1, A Meijer1, W J ... Methods for sentinel virological surveillance of influenza in Europe - an 18-country survey. Euro Surveill. 2004;9(1):pii=442. ...
A sentinel surveillance system is used when high-quality data are needed about a particular disease that cannot be obtained ... through a passive system.Data collected in a well-designed sentinel system can be used to signal trends, identify outbreaks and ... monitor the burden of disease in a community, providing a rapid, economical alternative to other surveillance methods. ... WHO strengthens sentinel surveillance for vaccine preventable diseases... WHO strengthens sentinel surveillance for vaccine ...
Regional Differences in HIV Trends in The Gambia: Results From Sentinel Surveillance Among Pregnant Women. ...
... 2018-06-18 02:03:12 , ... Home » Citations » Colorectal Cancer Screening Among Primary Care Physicians of the Swiss Sentinel Surveillance Network ... More From BioPortfolio on "Colorectal Cancer Screening Among Primary Care Physicians of the Swiss Sentinel Surveillance Network ...
This hand, foot, and mouth disease epidemic was detected by a sentinel surveillance system in April at the beginning of the ... Sentinel Surveillance for Enterovirus 71, Taiwan, 1998. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5(3):458-460. doi:10.3201/ ... In this sentinel surveillance system, public health officers contact local and regional physicians weekly to actively collect ... A physician-based sentinel surveillance system can play an important role in preventing emerging infectious diseases. Even ...
Data from the Australian Collaboration of Coordinated Enhanced Sentinel Surveillance study, which includes the same clinics as ... Human papillomavirus vaccination and genital warts in young Indigenous Australians: national sentinel surveillance data. ... The Genital Warts Surveillance Network receives funding from Seqirus (formerly bioCSL) and the Australian Department of Health ... Second, these data come from a national surveillance network with wide geographic coverage. Third, retrospective data were ...
In France, may supplement the ILI sentinel network after ARI surveillance discontinuation in 2014. ... which were compared to those from sentinel networks. We focused on the 2012/13 and 2013/14 seasons when two sentinel networks, ... We explored the usefulness of data from, a participatory surveillance system, to estimate influenza-related ... The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control ILI definition, commonly used by participatory surveillance in Europe, ...
217, 2000). Existing programs can be categorized into population-based surveillance and sentinel and nosocomial surveillance ... Role of Sentinel Surveillance of Candidemia: Trends in Species Distribution and Antifungal Susceptibility. M. A. Pfaller, D. J ... Thus, the sentinel surveillance programs discussed in this review all focus on Candida spp. and BSI identified consecutively at ... Sentinel surveillance programs, on the other hand, can be criticized for being nonrepresentative of all hospitals, potentially ...
Detection of Rift Valley Fever Virus Interepidemic Activity in Some Hotspot Areas of Kenya by Sentinel Animal Surveillance, ...
Countries whose SARI data are presented in the EuroFlu bulletin have SARI sentinel surveillance systems that meet the following ... Health topics Communicable diseases Influenza Publications Overview of sentinel systems for hospitalized severe acute ... Overview of sentinel systems for hospitalized severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) represented in the weekly EuroFlu ... consistent weekly reporting of epidemiological and virological data from the sentinel SARI system to the EuroFlu surveillance ...
Junior Sentinel. *Melange. *Saturday Fare. *Multilingual. *MORE*NATIONAL*INTERNATIONAL*Entertainment*BUSINESS*Life*Health* ... Junior Sentinel. *Melange. *Saturday Fare. *Multilingual. *MORE*NATIONAL*INTERNATIONAL*Entertainment*BUSINESS*Life*Health* ... Junior Sentinel. *Melange. *Saturday Fare. *Multilingual. *MORE*NATIONAL*INTERNATIONAL*Entertainment*BUSINESS*Life*Health* ... Sentinel TV*NEWS IN YOUR LANGUAGE*আজিৰ অসম (ASSAMESE NEWS)*সময় প্ৰবাহ (BENGALI NEWS)*बर सेंन्टिनेल (BODO NEWS)*Sports*LOCAL ...
The data from CPCSSN present a unique opportunity for longitudinal obesity surveillance among primary care users in Canada, and ... Keywords: BMI - body mass index; CPCSSN - Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network; EMR - Electronic Medical Record ... Adult obesity prevalence in primary care users: An exploration using Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network ( ... électroniques au sein du Réseau canadien de surveillance sentinelle en soins primaires (RCSSSP) pour la surveillance de ...
Geographic representativeness for sentinel influenza surveillance: implications for routine surveillance and pandemic ... The data extracted by the RCGP RSC sentinel system is the principal primary care public health surveillance data used by PHE. ... Data from primary care sentinel networks is widely used in research and surveillance;1 the Royal College of General ... Demographics and geographical spread are important, and many sentinel networks are involved in the surveillance of infectious ...
The RCGP RSC is one of the oldest sentinel networks in Europe, it has completed its 51st season of surveillance. ... Royal College of General Practitioners Research and Surveillance Centre (RCGP RSC) sentinel network: a cohort profile. BMJ Open ... Serological surveillance of influenza in an English sentinel network: pilot study protocol ... Serological surveillance of influenza in an English sentinel network: pilot study protocol ...
Sentinel surveillance data from TropNetEurop. In: Malaria Journal 2004, 3:5 ... Results: Within the surveillance period 4,801 cases of imported malaria were reported. 618 (12.9%) were attributed to P. vivax ... The TropNetEurop surveillance network has monitored the importation of vivax malaria into Europe since 1999. Objectives: To ...
... confirmed that domestic dogs and cats could serve as sentinel animals for plague surveillance. Meanwhile, the antibody ... f Serologic Survey of the Sentinel Animals for Plague Surveillance and Screening for Complementary Diagnostic Markers to F1 ... Serologic Survey of the Sentinel Animals for Plague Surveillance and Screening for Complementary Diagnostic Markers to F1 ... confirmed that domestic dogs and cats could serve as sentinel animals for plague surveillance. Meanwhile, the antibody ...
  • Sentinel surveillance in outpatient settings and emergency departments, implemented together with hospital-based surveillance, mortality surveillance, and serologic surveys, can provide a robust approach to monitor the epidemiology of COVID-19. (
  • To define the epidemiology of the disease, sentinel surveillance was established in 5 hospitals in diverse areas of the country in 2001. (
  • We assessed whether sentinel surveillance based in primary care could be used to monitor changes in the epidemiology of travellers' diarrhoea. (
  • Laboratory results and epidemiological data were reported weekly and shared with all sentinel sites, Ministry of Health, Division of Epidemiology, WHO and CDC/NAMRU-3. (
  • Spatial epidemiology and climatic predictors of paediatric dengue infections captured via sentinel site surveillance, Phnom Penh Cambodia 2011-2012. (
  • Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER). (
  • We applied time-series methods to multivariate sentinel aberration (M1), 2 simultaneous aberrations (M2), the fi rst surveillance data recorded in Hong Kong during 1998-2007. (
  • A sentinel surveillance system is used when high-quality data are needed about a particular disease that cannot be obtained through a passive system.Data collected in a well-designed sentinel system can be used to signal trends, identify outbreaks and monitor the burden of disease in a community, providing a rapid, economical alternative to other surveillance methods. (
  • Surveillance and data driven methods would lead to discrimination against people. (
  • Choice of diseases for surveillance, development of methods, ongoing systematic evaluation and dissemination to those who need to know, are each components which require expert, knowledgeable attention. (
  • Methods Since 1995, cross-sectional sentinel surveys have repeatedly been conducted in China. (
  • METHODS: One hundred and forty general practices from a representative Swiss sentinel network of primary care physicians participated in this cluster-randomized prospective intervention study. (
  • Methods of surveillance for HIV infection at U.S. sentinel hospitals. (
  • There are several methods of surveillance employed for influenza. (
  • Three (4%) cases were identified through the UNEX and MED-X programs, 25 (36%) through hospital surveillance, 24 (34%) through death certificate review, and 18 (26%) through other methods. (
  • METHODS: We used sentinel surveillance to determine incidence and transmission patterns for acute hepatitis C in the United States using data from 25 years of population-based surveillance in the general community. (
  • CRS surveillance met or surpassed indicators for data adequacy, specimen collection, and timeliness of specimen transport. (
  • The experience gained during the first phase of surveillance will be useful in expanding the surveillance network, and data from the surveillance network will be used to help monitor progress toward control of rubella and CRS in India. (
  • Surveillance Data an aberration had occurred when the current observation fell outside a forecast interval generated by the model. (
  • Our study demonstrates that simultaneous monitoring of rations within a 2-week period (M4), and any 3 aberrations multiple streams of infl uenza surveillance data can improve the accuracy and timeliness of alerts compared with moni- within a 2-week period (M5). (
  • The use of separate data streams based on sentinel sur- tween the data streams (online Technical Appendix). (
  • We combined these metrics has been given to the combined analysis of multivariate and estimated the area under the weighted receiver operat- sentinel data ( 3-5 ). (
  • The Table shows the highest AU- the ability to more quickly detect peak periods of infl uenza WROC, for each method, from a predefi ned selection of activity in Hong Kong through simultaneous monitoring of parameter combinations and the sensitivity and timeliness multiple streams of sentinel surveillance data. (
  • On the basis of aggregated have general implications in the choice of surveillance al- data, we determined that alerts generated from the GOPC gorithms where multistream data are available. (
  • AUWROC from each of the data streams was produced by The local Department of Health publishes weekly re- the GP New Territories East data, which outperformed the ports ( 6 ) from a network of 50 private-sector sentinel gen- aggregate GP data. (
  • Conversely, for GOPC data, the perfor- eral practitioners (GP) and 62 public-sector sentinel gen- mance of aggregate data was superior to that of any single eral outpatient clinics (GOPC) on the proportion of patients data stream. (
  • In this study, we used sults for all 8 geographic data streams from both GPs and the GP and GOPC sentinel surveillance data in 9 annual GOPCs. (
  • Data reported by ILINet providers, in combination with other influenza surveillance data, provide a national picture of influenza virus and ILI activity in the U. S. and Oregon. (
  • ILINet data, in combination with other surveillance data, can be used to guide prevention and control activities, vaccine strain selection, and patient care. (
  • ILINet providers receive feedback on the data submitted, and data are summarized and reported along with other influenza surveillance mechanisms in the Oregon ILINet data . (
  • Participants were provided with updates on the global and regional status of IB-VPD and RVGE surveillance and laboratory networks, as well as global expectations for standardizing laboratory practice and data management. (
  • Conceptually, sentinel community surveillance shares some basic principles with facility-based sentinel surveillance, except that the entire selected community is used as a "mini-universe" for continuous scrutiny and generating of frames of data. (
  • All the health facilities in the selected sentinel communities would be visited at a determined frequency for data and frontline fieldworker narratives uptake and analysis and for conversation interactions with community members by the surveillance personnel. (
  • The Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN) is a sentinel surveillance system that prospectively collects data on adult patients hospitalised with confirmed influenza. (
  • The findings will be helpful for the interpretation of virological data collected by sentinel physicians and for the creation of a Community Network of Reference Laboratories for Human Influenza in Europe. (
  • The overall meeting objective was to strengthen the sentinel‐hospital based rotavirus, Pediatric Bacterial Meningitis (PBM) and CRS surveillance by addressing key issues related to the technical, data management and administrative. (
  • Surveillance data provided the basis for immediate public health action. (
  • Analysis of routinely collected data from patients attending 39 sexual health clinics (SHCs) in the Genital Warts Surveillance Network for the first time. (
  • Participatory surveillance systems provide rich crowdsourced data, profiling individuals and their health status at a given time. (
  • We explored the usefulness of data from, a participatory surveillance system, to estimate influenza-related illness incidence in France. (
  • The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control ILI definition, commonly used by participatory surveillance in Europe, performed better in tracking ARI than ILI when applied to data. (
  • So although population-based surveillance may provide a very accurate view of candidemia in a given area or region, the data may not be generalizable to an entire country or a prolonged period of time. (
  • Sentinel surveillance programs, on the other hand, can be criticized for being nonrepresentative of all hospitals, potentially missing data and thus underrepresenting the burden of disease and failing to provide a true estimate of disease incidence ( 49 ). (
  • There was consistent weekly reporting of epidemiological and virological data from the sentinel SARI system to the EuroFlu surveillance platform during the 2010/2011 influenza season. (
  • Concerns over 'surveillance state': Can excessive data monitoring lead to discrimination? (
  • A major problem with surveillance is that it reduces identity to data packages like "where we live", "what we consume", "how we spend", "where we surf", etc. (
  • Four UN rapporteurs recently raised an alarm about whether the Bengali Muslim minorities in Assam might get discriminated against in the National Register of Citizens compilation process, raising anxiety over the data generated through surveillance mechanisms. (
  • So, the use of data generated through surveillance becomes not merely a matter of safety and privacy, but also one for the denial of social justice. (
  • While the rich capitalise on data-driven modes of transaction by virtue of their technological competence and affordability, the poor become victims of surveillance. (
  • The data from CPCSSN present a unique opportunity for longitudinal obesity surveillance among primary care users in Canada, and offer prevalence estimates similar to those obtained from nationally representative survey data. (
  • We propose collecting population based sera from the Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) Research and Surveillance Centre (RSC), a sentinel network with extensive clinical data. (
  • Data by sentinel site or specific study on which the medians were calculated are printed at the end of this fact sheet. (
  • The communication age will greatly redefine approaches to surveillance, both for data acquisition and dissemination. (
  • Surveillance is defined as "ongoing" systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data and the distribution to those who need to know [1]. (
  • These surveillance activities of data collection, analysis and timely dissemination are a dynamic process, are interrelated and rely upon each other. (
  • The main objective of the surveillance system is to provide quality data necessary for studying the burden of disease caused by each causative organism, and to assist evidence-based decision-making on the introduction of vaccines. (
  • Within the same framework, WHO Country Office in Egypt supported the Communicable Disease Control Department with 16 desktop computers to strengthen the electronic surveillance system for the reporting of acute infectious neurological diseases through timely data reporting and analysis. (
  • The workshop format included sharing and familiarizing participants with CDC and WHO tools to evaluate key attributes of surveillance systems such as: (i) data quality (including data completeness and accuracy), (ii) timeliness, (iii) representativeness, (iv) simplicity, (v) flexibility, (vi) acceptability and sustainability, (vii) stability and (viii) utility through a combination of presentations, group discussions, and one-to-one mentoring. (
  • We analyzed data from the national surveillance system of the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control. (
  • During 1998 and 1999, 25 sentinel general practices contributed clinical surveillance data and 16 metropolitan practices participated in laboratory surveillance. (
  • General practice sentinel surveillance and laboratory identification of influenza provided similar data on the pattern of influenza in the community between May and September. (
  • The Sentinel Practices Data Sourcing project aimed to establish a sentinel site surveillance system to obtain a region-specific estimate of the prevalence of chronic diseases and mental health disorders within the Illawarra-Shoalhaven region of New South Wales, Australia. (
  • The currently available peer reviewed literature indicates multiple avenues of population health surveillance including national surveys, administrative data and electronic health records. (
  • Data reported by the sentinel providers is used to determine the burden of influenza in the state. (
  • The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) burden among adults in India is estimated officially by direct extrapolation of annual sentinel surveillance data from public-sector antenatal and sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics and some high-risk groups. (
  • We calculated the number of people with HIV in Guntur district based on these data, compared it with the estimate using the sentinel surveillance data and method, and analysed health services use data to understand the differences. (
  • The Australian Influenza Report is compiled from a number of data sources, including laboratory-confirmed notifications to NNDSS, sentinel influenza-like illness reporting from general practitioners and emergency departments, workplace absenteeism, and laboratory testing. (
  • The pilot program, Mini-Sentinel , uses a distributed data network (rather than a centralized database) of health plans and other organizations to create data files in a standard format while maintaining physical and operational control over their own patient-level data, thus ensuring patient privacy. (
  • The initial focus of Mini-Sentinel has been on developing the ability to use medical claims data. (
  • This report 1) describes a review of the literature for algorithms used in administrative data environments to identify FDA-prioritized health outcomes that may be related to medical product and/or medical countermeasure exposure, and 2) recommends algorithms to identify these outcomes for use by Mini-Sentinel Prospective Routine Observational Monitoring Program Tools (PROMPT) in future surveillance activities. (
  • Continuous morbidity registration sentinel stations, The Netherlands / data collection, E.E. Colet-van Woezik, M. Heshusius-van Valen, C.M. Felperlaan. (
  • The purpose of the influenza statistics page is to provide summaries of influenza information obtained from the Oklahoma State Department of Health (OSDH) Acute Disease Service (ADS) influenza surveillance system which includes outpatient influenza-like illness sentinel surveillance, influenza-associated hospitalizations and deaths, and OSDH Public Health Laboratory (PHL) testing data. (
  • States and territories voluntarily forward de-identified data on a nationally agreed group of communicable diseases to the Department of Health (Health) for the purposes of national communicable disease surveillance. (
  • Surveillance data may also differ from data on communicable diseases gathered in other settings. (
  • The National Influenza Surveillance Scheme includes data from sentinel general practice consultations for influenza-like illness, laboratory reports of influenza and absenteeism rates from a national employer. (
  • Laboratory-confirmed influenza is a nationally notifiable disease in all states and territories and data are reported from each state or territory health department to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). (
  • Surveillance data are summarized by influenza season (generally October-April) rather than calendar year. (
  • In the context of surveillance, smart cities monitor citizens through strategically placed sensors around the urban landscape, which collect data regarding many different factors of urban living. (
  • This constant and omnipresent transmission of data from disparate sources into a single government entity has led to concerns being raised of these systems turning into 'electronic panopticons', where governments exploit data-driven technologies to maximize effective surveillance of their citizens. (
  • The most discernible use of smart city technology for Government Surveillance arises in law enforcement, where critics consider the accumulation of intelligence through data collection strategies key to intelligence-based policing. (
  • This report published in Communicable Diseases Intelligence Volume 23, No 3, 18 March 1999 contains an analysis and tables of monthly notifiable diseases and laboratory data, and quarterly surveillance reports. (
  • The Australian Gonococcal Surveillance Programme (AGSP) reference laboratories in the various States and Territories report data on sensitivity to an agreed 'core' group of antimicrobial agents on a quarterly basis. (
  • GSI provides technical assistance to MISAU in data analysis and report writing for ongoing HIV surveillance among pregnant women attending public antenatal care (ANC) clinics across Mozambique, known as ANC Sentinel Surveillance. (
  • This includes quality assurance of ANC sentinel surveillance data in relation to the regular Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) Program. (
  • To describe the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of K. pneumoniae isolates from bacteraemic patients submitted by sentinel laboratories in five regions of South Africa from mid-2010 to mid-2012. (
  • This research examines the feasibility of using electronic medical records within the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network (CPCSSN) for obesity surveillance in Canada by assessing obesity trends over time and comparing BMI distribution estimates from CPCSSN to those obtained from nationally representative surveys. (
  • We calculated the age-sex standardized prevalence of diagnosed osteoarthritis and its association with comorbidities and covariates available in the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network database. (
  • Sentinel chicken flocks are used to provide an early warning of increased flavivirus activity in four Australian states. (
  • Detection of flavivirus seroconversions in sentinel chicken flocks located in four Australian states are used to provide an early warning of increased levels of Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) and Kunjin virus (KUNV) activity in the region. (
  • MVEV and KUNV activity is monitored in Australia by detecting seroconversions in sentinel chicken flocks. (
  • 1 During the 2003-2004 season sentinel flocks were located in Western Australia, the Northern Territory, New South Wales and Victoria. (
  • Sentinel chicken flocks are used to monitor flavivirus activity in Australia. (
  • Sentinel chicken serology was carried out for 29 of the 30 flocks in Western Australia in January and February 2001. (
  • Sentinel chicken serology was carried out for 28 of the 30 flocks in Western Australia in March and April 2001. (
  • Serum samples from all of the 8 Northern Territory sentinel chicken flocks were tested at the University of Western Australia in January and February 2001. (
  • Purpose The Royal College of General Practitioners Research and Surveillance Centre (RCGP RSC) is one of the longest established primary care sentinel networks. (
  • The Royal College of General Practitioners Research and Surveillance Centre network is representative of the national population on a variety of domains, both demographic and clinical, which support the network's suitability for real-world evidence research. (
  • Before 2016, India did not have a systematic CRS surveillance system. (
  • Maintaining high population immunity to rubella, creating a network of laboratories, and developing and sustaining a case-based surveillance system are the principal strategies for elimination of measles and control of rubella and CRS ( 3 ). (
  • Although several published studies in India have examined the prevalence of CRS among different population groups, including patients with cataracts and other ocular abnormalities, hearing loss, mental retardation, cardiac defects, and other congenital anomalies, there was no systematic CRS surveillance system ( 7 ). (
  • COVID-19 cases identified through this sentinel surveillance system helped confirm community transmission in the county. (
  • This sentinel surveillance system helped confirm community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in Santa Clara County. (
  • In the context of Ebola, the primary health care system, if robust, would be a viable and effective framework for harnessing sentinel community surveillance. (
  • Prospective case series of adults hospitalised with influenza during April - November of 2010 and 2011 using a hospital-based sentinel surveillance system. (
  • This hand, foot, and mouth disease epidemic was detected by a sentinel surveillance system in April at the beginning of the outbreak, and the public was alerted. (
  • To the best of our knowledge, the outbreak in Taiwan marked the first time that an EV71 outbreak was detected by a surveillance system, which alerted the public about the epidemic of HFMD. (
  • We describe how the EV71 outbreak was reported by a sentinel surveillance system established in July 1989 by Disease Surveillance and Quarantine Service (originally National Quarantine Services), Ministry of Health, Taiwan. (
  • In this sentinel surveillance system, public health officers contact local and regional physicians weekly to actively collect disease information. (
  • When an epidemic of fatal myocarditis was reported in Sarawak, Malaysia, in 1997, we started to collect information regarding HFMD and vesicular pharyngitis (herpangina) through the sentinel surveillance system. (
  • Surveillance of the wastewater in our community will serve as an early warning detection system, which will help us better identify hotspots earlier in our community," said Madison County Health Director Eric Faisst. (
  • Surveillance often relies on the astute observations of inquisitive individuals as it does on a system. (
  • 19 March 2016, Cairo - WHO Country Office in Egypt and the Communicable Disease Control Department at the Ministry of Health and Population are working together to strengthen the sentinel surveillance system for acute infectious neurological diseases, including meningitis and encephalitis, in 8 governorates. (
  • Information obtained during primary care interactions may provide a valuable surveillance system for chronic disease burden. (
  • Selection of sentinel sites that are representative of the population being served will facilitate an accurate and region-specific system for the purpose of population health planning at the primary care level. (
  • The U.S. sentinel hospital surveillance system for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection includes approximately 40 short-stay hospitals located in 31 metropolitan areas in the United States and Puerto Rico. (
  • Although some limitations, the perspective of routinely using this information system for surveillance of near miss and implementing measures to avoid maternal death is promising. (
  • Using the Mini-Sentinel system, the FDA will also be able to obtain rapid responses to new questions about medical products and, eventually, to evaluate the health effects of its regulatory actions. (
  • If your lab would like to begin reporting for this surveillance system, please email [email protected] or call 971-673-1075. (
  • The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is the largest continuously conducted health survey system in the world, conducting telephone interviews with more than 400,000 U.S. adults each year. (
  • The mission of the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risk (SENSOR) program is to build and maintain occupational illness and injury surveillance capacity within state health departments. (
  • We now understand that the Avr gene system of potential plant pathogens directly or indirectly provides a biochemical target for a plant surveillance system in which the R gene plays a central role. (
  • A JEV wildlife and sentinel chicken surveillance system was initiated in 2010 through to 2017 to study the animal host seroprofiles. (
  • In ten of the most food insecure counties, ACF launched the Surveillance and Evaluation Team (SET), funded by UNICEF and with technical support from CDC, to monitor the nutrition status, provide the foundations of nutrition monitoring system, and provide technical support to nutrition partners. (
  • Remarkably, neurodegenerative diseases are increasingly found to be accompanied by activation of the innate immune surveillance system normally associated with pathogen recognition and response. (
  • Innate surveillance is the cell's quality control system for the purpose of detecting such danger signals and responding in an appropriate manner. (
  • Innate surveillance is an "intelligent system," in that the manner of response is relevant to the magnitude and duration of the threat. (
  • The Jaegar Ranger PTZ thermal camera is a ready to go surveillance system, ideal for long range surveillance applications. (
  • This article published in Communicable Diseases Intelligence Volume 25, No 4, November 2001 contains the 1999 annual report of National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. (
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Sentinel System developed tools for sequential surveillance. (
  • Acute cases of hepatitis C were identified from 1982 through 2006 by a stimulated passive surveillance system in 4 to 6 US counties. (
  • This study published in Communicable Diseases Intelligence Volume 24, No 12, December 2000 contains describes the implementation of laboratory-supported influenza surveillance in Victorian sentinel general practices and provides an estimate of the proportion of patients with an influenza-like illness proven to have influenza. (
  • For more information and details of the location of sentinel chicken sites see Commun Dis Intell 2000;24:8-9. (
  • The workshop brought together participants from WHO-coordinated sentinel surveillance sites, other sentinel surveillance networks in Member States, sentinel surveillance site laboratories/national laboratories, regional reference laboratories for IB-VPD and RVGE surveillance, the Regional Office for South-East Asia and WHO headquarters. (
  • NSW have reported that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was the most common respiratory virus diagnosed by sentinel laboratories in March 2010. (
  • Test results reported via this surveillance project are based upon 23 active, voluntary sentinel laboratories reporting for 36 hospitals. (
  • Nineteen percent (97/522) of RSV tests performed by sentinel laboratories were positive. (
  • The Laboratory Virology and Serology (LabVISE) Reporting Scheme is a passive surveillance scheme based on voluntary reports of infectious agents contributed by sentinel virology and serology laboratories around Australia, to the Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care. (
  • We focused on the 2012/13 and 2013/14 seasons when two sentinel networks, monitoring influenza-like-illness (ILI) and acute respiratory infections (ARI) existed in France. (
  • Along with a recognition of the importance of candidemia and an emphasis on surveillance of bacterial infections and antibacterial resistance has come an interest in developing surveillance efforts to monitor trends in this important infectious disease ( 13 , 21 , 37 ). (
  • A US Institute of Medicine report of 1992, entitled Emerging infections: microbial threats to health , stated that surveillance is a fundamental component of the strategy against emergence of infection [2]. (
  • Global Surveillance of HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is a joint effort of WHO and UNAIDS. (
  • Infections of sentinel birds with different AIV subtypes confirmed the value of such surveillance for AIV monitoring. (
  • Answers to frequently asked questions about how health care-associated infections and antibiotic resistance are connected, and surveillance programs Minnesota uses to measure HAIs and antibiotic resistance in the state. (
  • The maximum and minimum prevalence rates observed, as well as the total number of surveys/sentinel sites, are provided with the median, to give an overview of the diversity of HIV-prevalence results in a given population within the country. (
  • The sentinel surveillance method (HIV prevalence: antenatal clinic 3%, STI clinic 22.8%, female sex workers 12.8%) led to an estimate of 112635 (4.38%) people with HIV, 15-49 years old, in Guntur district, which was 2.5 times the 45942 (1.79%) estimate based on our population-based study. (
  • The results from ANC Sentinel Surveillance provide information for the development of important HIV estimates, such as population HIV prevalence, persons living with HIV, persons in need of ART, and AIDS-related mortality, and will help inform intervention design and resource allocation.PMTCT) Program. (
  • An intercountry workshop on sentinel surveillance of invasive bacterial vaccine-preventable diseases (‎IB-VPD)‎ and rotavirus gastroenteritis (‎RVGE)‎ was held from 20 to 21 June 2013, in New Delhi, India. (
  • A sentinel surveillance scheme of 30 volunteer general practices distributed throughout Wales provides weekly reports of consultations for eight infectious diseases to the national Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre. (
  • The TropNetEurop surveillance network has monitored the importation of vivax malaria into Europe since 1999. (
  • Other surveillance schemes for which CDI publishes annual reports include tuberculosis notifications ( Commun Dis Intell 2015;39(2):E217-E235), the Australian Mycobacterium Reference Laboratory Network ( Commun Dis Intell 2014;38(4):E356-E368), and the Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program ( Commun Dis Intell 2015;39(3):E337-E346). (
  • This form of nutritional surveillance took place through the national Child Supplementary Feeding Programme (CSFP), set up by the Nutrition Working Group 3 , as well as through community based sentinel sites operated by the Ministry of Public Service, Labour and Social Welfare. (
  • The European Influenza Surveillance Scheme (EISS) is based on an integrated clinical and virological surveillance model. (
  • The sentinel physicians, who have voluntarily cooperated with us for 10 years, used a clinical case definition of HFMD/herpangina we created when the surveillance started. (
  • This complemented the clinical influenza surveillance that had been coordinated by DHS through a sentinel general practitioner (GP) network in previous years. (
  • Indicated by number of hospitalisations, ICU admissions and deaths from sentinel hospital surveillance as well as emergence of more severe clinical picture in hospitalised cases and ICU admissions. (
  • The aim of this work was the establishment of a national laboratory sentinel surveillance service for human clinical Campylobacter in Ireland. (
  • For the 2008-2009 season, surveillance was expanded statewide, although the collection of clinical information on hospitalized cases was limited to metropolitan area residents only. (
  • H ospitalized patients meeting a syndromic SARI case definition are routinely monitored, tested for influenza and reported to the national level on a weekly basis from a standard and generally stable number of sentinel hospitals. (
  • Of women who had become pregnant during the past 2 years, 21.1% had used antenatal care in large public-sector hospitals participating in sentinel surveillance. (
  • and emergency department (ED) presentations of ILI at sentinel hospitals (New South Wales and Western Australia). (
  • Methodology/Findings This is a prospective surveillance study of the causes of ILI based on viral culture of oropharyngeal specimens and case report forms obtained in hospitals from two cities of Ecuador over 4 years. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of acute HCV declined substantially over the 25 years of population-based surveillance. (
  • Seasonal influenza subtypes were not recorded, but other surveillance systems suggest that pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza was the major circulating strain in 2010 and 2011. (
  • The emergence of avian influenza A/H5N1 in 2003 as well as the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 highlighted the need to establish influenza sentinel surveillance in Togo. (
  • Laboratory-supported influenza surveillance is important as part of pandemic preparedness, for identifying and isolating candidate vaccine strains, for supporting trials of anti-influenza drugs and for refining the influenza surveillance case definition in practice. (
  • Surveillance with laboratory support has been recognised as an important part of the pandemic response in Australia's recently published pandemic plan. (
  • Since the H1N1 pandemic, MDH has increased its surveillance efforts to identify deaths related to influenza. (
  • Ministries of Health Tanzania Mainland and Zanzibar in collaboration with World Health Organization gathered in Dodoma for three days to evaluate the performance of sentinel sites for paediatric bacterial meningitis, rotavirus and congenital rubella syndrome. (
  • The objective of the consultation was to further strengthen sentinel surveillance of IB-VPD and RVGE with a view to generating evidence on disease burden due to these diseases in the South-East Asia Region. (
  • From 1992 to 2001 the results of the state sentinel chicken programs were reported bimonthly in Communicable Diseases Intelligence . (
  • Mumps, varicella, diarrhea, and upper-tract respiratory infection are among the diseases subject to routine surveillance. (
  • Laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis of influenza in sentinel general practices was introduced into Victoria in 1998 as a joint initiative of the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory (VIDRL)* and the Department of Human Services (DHS). (
  • The goal of this project is to expand the ongoing surveillance of mosquito vectors and monitoring of insecticide resistance along the TX/MX border, a region that is of particular concern for introduction and local transmission of vector-borne diseases such as Zika, dengue, and chikungunya viruses. (
  • An integrated surveillance program should monitor weather, mosquito abundance, host abundance, virus activity, human cases of mosquito-borne diseases, and other factors to detect or predict changes in the transmission dynamics of mosquito-borne viruses (CDC 1993, 2013). (
  • This suggests that individuals harboring these mutations may have an amplified response to innate-mediated damage in neural tissues, and renders innate surveillance mediated cell death a plausible common pathogenic pathway responsible for neurodegenerative diseases, in both familial and sporadic forms. (
  • These white leghorn laying chickens, used as a "sentinels" to detect the presence of mosquito-borne diseases, such as West Nile Virus, are placed at El Dorado East Regional Park in Long Beach. (
  • The Greater Los Angeles County Vector Control District places sentinel chickens throughout the county to detect diseases. (
  • The Greater Los Angeles County Vector Control District places sentinel chickens throughout the county to detect the presence of mosquito-borne diseases, such as West Nile Virus. (
  • Communicable Diseases Intelligence, publishes a number of annual, quarterly, and regular reports produced by various communicable disease surveillance groups. (
  • This article describes the surveillance schemes that are routinely reported on in Communicable Diseases Intelligence (CDI). (
  • We used an established sentinel surveillance scheme based in primary care to obtain an estimate of the incidence of TD presenting to general practitioners, to monitor seasonal and secular trends, and to describe its epidemiological characteristics. (
  • Expansion of the sentinel CRS surveillance network to other states can be guided by experiences during the first 8 months. (
  • In France, may supplement the ILI sentinel network after ARI surveillance discontinuation in 2014. (
  • Recruitment of GPs to the sentinel surveillance network was restricted to those who were anticipated to have an interest in surveillance. (
  • Medical officers of health in local government authorities and general practitioners who had participated in influenza surveillance in previous years, or those known to have an interest in immunisation, were invited to become part of the sentinel surveillance network. (
  • At the end of the recruitment process, in an attempt to include sentinel practices throughout Victoria, practices in regions that were not represented in the network were contacted. (
  • Seroconversions in sentinel chickens were observed at two time points. (
  • The purpose of this document is to describe the sentinel program designed to monitor the health status of animals housed in LAR in an effort to prevent, detect and control the presence of specific infectious pathogens which may adversely affect animal health and/or influence research protocols. (
  • Sentinels cannot detect all pathogens but may serve as indicators of adherence to and effectiveness of barrier systems, containment areas, and preventive practices such as cage opening/changing, animal transport and procurement, use of protective equipment, and introduction of biological products. (
  • Until 2016, when the Government of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and the Indian Council of Medical Research initiated surveillance for CRS in five sentinel sites, India did not conduct systematic surveillance for CRS. (
  • To address this gap, the Indian Council of Medical Research and the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare initiated laboratory-supported surveillance for CRS in five sentinel sites in five Indian states in December 2016. (
  • During March 5-14, among patients with respiratory symptoms evaluated at one of four Santa Clara County urgent care centers serving as sentinel surveillance sites, 23% had positive test results for influenza. (
  • During March 5-14, 2020, four urgent care centers in Santa Clara County participated as sentinel sites. (
  • During March 5-14, 2020, four urgent care centers in Santa Clara County were selected to participate as sentinel sites based on varied geographic locations throughout the county, diversity in adult and pediatric patient populations served by the centers, and staffing and resource capacity to collect and transport specimens. (
  • For instance, during a measles outbreak and a period of high maternal mortality in some of the poorest communities in Acapulco Providencia in the state of Guerrero, Mexico in the early 1990s, some of the affected communities were sensitised as sentinel community surveillance sites. (
  • When the sentinel surveillance sites were enabled to compare some health facts in their communities with "better-off" communities they were then able to link measles with children who did not receive measles vaccination. (
  • The coordination meeting was attended by participants from 8 sentinel sites. (
  • During the opening participants were reminded of the progress made in the last 17 years of conducting sentinel surveillance where by new vaccines were introduced after the evidence of the burden of disease provided by the sentinel sites. (
  • Rotavirus Vaccine impact assessment was also done in the sentinel sites and provided evidence of the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine in reducing diarrhoea in children under 5 years caused by rotavirus. (
  • The term Outside Major Urban Areas considers that most sentinel sites are not located in strictly rural areas, even if they are located in somewhat rural districts. (
  • Patients with ILI presenting at sentinel sites were enrolled by trained medical staff based on the World Health Organization (WHO) case definitions. (
  • Results In 1995, survey results found no HIV infection among drug users in 8 sentinel surveillance sites. (
  • In 1998 however, HIV infection had been found in 17 of 19 sentinel surveillance sites. (
  • 3 The present study describes the implementation of laboratory supported influenza surveillance in Victorian sentinel practice sites in 1998-9 and provides an estimate of the proportion of patients with an ILI proven to have influenza. (
  • To determine the effectiveness of ducks as sentinels for avian influenza virus (AIV) infection, we placed mallards in contact with wild birds at resting sites in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. (
  • 2,900 serum samples from domestic dogs and cats in and around the county, where human plague occurred, confirmed that domestic dogs and cats could serve as sentinel animals for plague surveillance. (
  • Through initiation of the Sentinel Initiative (May 2008), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is developing the capacity for actively monitoring the safety/toxicity of approved medical products using the electronic health information in claims systems, inpatient and outpatient medical records, and patient registries. (
  • We thank Grainne M. Moloney (Kenya Nutrition Chief, UNICEF) who initiated the nutrition surveillance initiative in South Sudan and provided input and reviewed this article. (
  • That report strongly recommended increased research on antimicrobial resistance, including the establishment of surveillance programs to detect emerging resistance, to monitor resistance rates, and to guide infection control and formulary intervention programs. (
  • Conversely, sentinel programs are quite flexible and allow sampling of consecutive episodes of infection from a large number of institutions over a broad geographic area and for prolonged periods of time ( 18 , 19 , 27 , 41 - 47 ). (
  • Paediatric dengue infection in Cirebon, Indonesia: a temporal and spatial analysis of notified dengue incidence to inform surveillance. (
  • We included the imported dengue cases reported by sentinel airports and clinics as well as the domestic cases from 2007-2010. (
  • ILINet is a surveillance program with participating healthcare providers from outpatient clinics. (
  • These sentinel programs are funded by the state health departments and each state has a contingency plan, which will be implemented if one or more chickens in a flock seroconverts to one of these viruses. (
  • Sentinel chickens. (
  • But sentinel chickens, as they are called, are increasingly losing favor. (
  • Guidelines for conducting HIV sentinel serosurveys among pregnant women and other groups / UNAIDS/WHO Working Group on Global HIV/AIDS and STI Surveillance. (
  • Guidelines for conducting HIV sentinel serosurveys among pregnant women and other groups. (
  • The RCGP RSC is one of the oldest sentinel networks in Europe, it has completed its 51st season of surveillance. (
  • For decades, vector-control agencies in California, responsible for fighting insidious disease-carrying pests and rodents, have relied on the domesticated fowl as a surveillance tool to predict when human cases of West Nile Virus and St. Louis Encephalitis are likely to occur. (
  • The report includes the proceedings of the technical sessions, outcomes of the group work, and recommendations made by participants to further strengthen sentinel surveillance of RVGE and IB-VPD in the WHO South-East Asia Region. (
  • The primary objective of the working group is to strengthen national, regional and global structures and networks for improved monitoring and surveillance of HIV/AIDS and STIs. (
  • The Oregon Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Program (ILINet) is a collaborative effort between healthcare providers, the Oregon Public Health Division, and the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (
  • The Indiana State Department of Health (ISDH) in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) participates in the national influenza-like illness surveillance program, ILINet. (
  • Severe maternal morbidity (near miss) as a sentinel event of maternal death. (
  • This photo-illustration shows the web flash pages for GCHQ, the British governments communications and electronic surveillance headquarters, and The Security Service (MI5), the governments internal security service, on a computer and smartphone in London, Friday, Nov. 25, 2016. (
  • No matter how exquisite an externally-driven surveillance framework is, it may not be able to pick up all the hidden or unreported cases of illness in a household. (
  • Different case definitions based on reported signs/symptoms and inclusions of criteria accounting for individuals' reporting and participation were used to produce influenza-related illness incidence estimates, which were compared to those from sentinel networks. (
  • This study describes the implementation of laboratory-supported influenza surveillance in Victorian sentinel general practices and provides an estimate of the proportion of patients with an influenza-like illness proven to have influenza. (
  • Influenza-associated deaths are reported through several surveillance systems including hospital surveillance, Unexplained Critical Illnesses and Deaths of Possible Infectious Etiology (UNEX) reporting, Medical Examiner Infectious Deaths (MED-X) surveillance, death certificate review, nursing home outbreaks, as well as other sources. (
  • The Sentinel Chicken Surveillance Program is used to provide an early warning of increased flavivirus activity in Australia. (
  • Additional information on the Australian sentinel chicken surveillance program has also been presented earlier. (
  • The Western Australian sentinel chicken program is funded by the Health Department of Western Australia. (
  • Outbreak-based and laboratory-supported measles and rubella surveillance was established in the country in 2005 ( 5 , 6 ). (
  • 3 Patients were identified by surveillance of laboratory testing logs. (
  • CDC's Influenza Division and the Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) in partnership with the African Society of Laboratory Medicine (ASLM) and the Institut National d'Hygiene Publique (INHP), hosted the Workshop on Monitoring and Evaluation of Surveillance Systems with Emphasis on Influenza Sentinel Surveillance. (
  • Moreover, in recent years, laboratory surveillance has also been critical in supporting general practice trials of anti-influenza drugs, specifically neuraminidase inhibitors, used in the treatment and prevention of influenza. (
  • Published estimates of the proportion of patients with ILI confirmed as having influenza by laboratory testing vary from as low as 6 to14 per cent at the introduction of surveillance networks 4 up to 70 per cent as part of a trial of influenza antiviral medication. (
  • Indicated by emergence of drug resistance or gene drift or shift from laboratory surveillance. (
  • The ABLES program is a state-based surveillance program of laboratory-reported adult blood lead levels. (
  • On October 16, 2012, the Engelberg Center for Health Care Reform at Brookings held a webinar on "Findings from a Mini-Sentinel Medical Product Assessment. (
  • Mini-Sentinel investigators have recently completed an assessment that examined a possible association between use of certain antihypertensive medications and angioedema events. (
  • The assessment also enabled Mini-Sentinel investigators to build general strategies to assess suspected associations of selected medical products and adverse events. (
  • On the one-year anniversary of the BP oil spill, NOAA Administrator Jane Lubchenco talked to Orlando Sentinel columnist Mike Thomas about the health of the Gulf, the safety of seafood, conflicting science and the media's role in covering the disaster. (
  • By April 2010, Togo was actively involved in influenza surveillance. (
  • ABSTRACT Surveillance, whether active or passive, is a dynamic process. (
  • Several training workshops were conducted for health care workers and surveillance officers on case definition, case investigation and surveillance standard operating procedures. (
  • Please visit for the most current case definition. (
  • It contributes to improve the comparability of epidemics across seasons and with sentinel systems. (
  • This document describes the SARI surveillance systems that are currently represented in the EuroFlu weekly bulletin. (
  • The problems of establishing surveillance systems lie in the connection, coordination and linkage of practitioners and institutions for the purpose of surveillance. (
  • The workshop was designed to provide cooperative agreement partners with tools, information, and technical assistance needed to systematically evaluate how well their surveillance systems are achieving their objectives. (
  • Mentors worked with the participants to develop a draft protocol for the evaluation of their surveillance systems. (
  • Influenza activity and severity in the community is instead monitored by the surveillance systems listed below. (
  • It is still uncertain whether plant surveillance systems utilize molecular pattern recognition to identify pathogen challenges. (
  • The Fact Sheets may also be instrumental in identifying potential partners when planning and implementing improved surveillance systems. (
  • The use of nutrition surveillance as a tool for early warning systems is fairly well understood. (
  • The National Health Security Agreement, signed by Health Ministers in April 2008, establishes the operational arrangements to formalise and enhance existing surveillance and reporting systems, an important objective of the Act. (
  • Conversely, population-based surveillance is expensive and difficult to conduct and thus by necessity must be limited to a specific geographic area and a limited period of time. (
  • Vector, climate and sentinel animal surveillance measures for arboviruses (in particular for MVEV) conducted by states and territories, and also at the border are described. (
  • Communicable disease surveillance in Australia operates at the national, state and local levels. (
  • NTP) and national AIDS programmes (NAP), those people responsible for HIV surveillance, and public health decision-makers at national and sub-national level. (
  • Results: Within the surveillance period 4,801 cases of imported malaria were reported. (
  • The results of plague surveillance in China, 2006. (
  • This study aims to describe the implementation of ILI surveillance and results obtained from April 2010 to December 2012. (
  • WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{Sentinel surveillance. (
  • Results generated from surveillance schemes must be interpreted with caution, particularly when comparing results between schemes, between different geographical areas or jurisdictions and over time. (