A diagnostic procedure used to determine whether LYMPHATIC METASTASIS has occurred. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a neoplasm.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Area of the human body underneath the SHOULDER JOINT, also known as the armpit or underarm.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)
Compounds that contain the triphenylmethane aniline structure found in rosaniline. Many of them have a characteristic magenta color and are used as COLORING AGENTS.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, liver, and spleen.
Radionuclide imaging of the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
Inorganic compounds that contain TECHNETIUM as an integral part of the molecule. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) is an isotope of technetium that has a half-life of about 6 hours. Technetium 99, which has a half-life of 210,000 years, is a decay product of technetium 99m.
Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Thinly cut sections of frozen tissue specimens prepared with a cryostat or freezing microtome.
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Electronic instruments that produce photographs or cathode-ray tube images of the gamma-ray emissions from organs containing radionuclide tracers.
A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
Radiographic study of the lymphatic system following injection of dye or contrast medium.
The period during a surgical operation.
A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)
The tunnel in the lower anterior ABDOMINAL WALL through which the SPERMATIC CORD, in the male; ROUND LIGAMENT, in the female; nerves; and vessels pass. Its internal end is at the deep inguinal ring and its external end is at the superficial inguinal ring.
Diseases of LYMPH; LYMPH NODES; or LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
The external junctural region between the lower part of the abdomen and the thigh.
Edema due to obstruction of lymph vessels or disorders of the lymph nodes.
Conducting a biopsy procedure with the aid of a MEDICAL IMAGING modality.
A benign compound nevus occurring most often in children before puberty, composed of spindle and epithelioid cells located mainly in the dermis, sometimes in association with large atypical cells and multinucleate cells, and having a close histopathological resemblance to malignant melanoma. The tumor presents as a smooth to slightly scaly, round to oval, raised, firm papule or nodule, ranging in color from pink-tan to purplish red, often with surface telangiectasia. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.
A sarcoma of young, often female, adults of the lower extremities and acral regions, intimately bound to tendons as circumscribed but unencapsulated melanin-bearing tumors of neuroectodermal origin. An ultrastructural finding simulates flattened and curved barrel staves, corresponding to the internal structures of premelanosomes. There is a 45-60% mortality in clear cell sarcoma. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Dissection in the neck to remove all disease tissues including cervical LYMPH NODES and to leave an adequate margin of normal tissue. This type of surgery is usually used in tumors or cervical metastases in the head and neck. The prototype of neck dissection is the radical neck dissection described by Crile in 1906.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in cardiovascular and cerebral circulation.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.
Cancers or tumors of the PENIS or of its component tissues.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Tumor-like sterile accumulation of serum in a tissue, organ, or cavity. It results from a tissue insult and is the product of tissue inflammation. It most commonly occurs following MASTECTOMY.
Tumors or cancer of the VULVA.
Newly arising secondary tumors so small they are difficult to detect by physical examination or routine imaging techniques.
A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.
The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.
Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
External or interstitial irradiation to treat lymphomas (e.g., Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas) and lymph node metastases and also some autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.
Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.
Removal of only the breast tissue and nipple and a small portion of the overlying skin.
Inflammation of the lymph nodes.
Infection of the lymph nodes by tuberculosis. Tuberculous infection of the cervical lymph nodes is scrofula.
Inorganic compounds that contain tin as an integral part of the molecule.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A dye obtained from the heartwood of logwood (Haematoxylon campechianum Linn., Leguminosae) used as a stain in microscopy and in the manufacture of ink.
Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.
A carcinoma arising from MERKEL CELLS located in the basal layer of the epidermis and occurring most commonly as a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Merkel cells are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin and histologically show neurosecretory granules. The skin of the head and neck are a common site of Merkel cell carcinoma, occurring generally in elderly patients. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1245)
A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.
A versatile red dye used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, textiles, etc., and as tissue stain, vital stain, and counterstain with HEMATOXYLIN. It is also used in special culture media.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Development of lesions in the lymph node characterized by infiltration of the cortex or paracortex by large collections of proliferating histiocytes and complete or, more often, incomplete necrosis of lymphoid tissue.
Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
Graphical representation of a statistical model containing scales for calculating the prognostic weight of a value for each individual variable. Nomograms are instruments that can be used to predict outcomes using specific clinical parameters. They use ALGORITHMS that incorporate several variables to calculate the predicted probability that a patient will achieve a particular clinical endpoint.
In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
Diagnosis of the type and, when feasible, the cause of a pathologic process by means of microscopic study of cells in an exudate or other form of body fluid. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.
A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.
The formation of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-7 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.
The use of light interaction (scattering, absorption, and fluorescence) with biological tissue to obtain morphologically based information. It includes measuring inherent tissue optical properties such as scattering, absorption, and autofluorescence; or optical properties of exogenous targeted fluorescent molecular probes such as those used in optical MOLECULAR IMAGING, or nontargeted optical CONTRAST AGENTS.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
Tubular vessels that are involved in the transport of LYMPH and LYMPHOCYTES.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The conic organs which usually give outlet to milk from the mammary glands.
Any neoplasms of the male breast. These occur infrequently in males in developed countries, the incidence being about 1% of that in females.
Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Nanometer sized fragments of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between L-tyrosine, L-dopa, and oxygen to yield L-dopa, dopaquinone, and water. It is a copper protein that acts also on catechols, catalyzing some of the same reactions as CATECHOL OXIDASE. EC 1.14.18.1.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.
A self-limiting bacterial infection of the regional lymph nodes caused by AFIPIA felis, a gram-negative bacterium recently identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and by BARTONELLA HENSELAE. It usually arises one or more weeks following a feline scratch, with raised inflammatory nodules at the site of the scratch being the primary symptom.
Neoplasms, usually carcinoma, located within the center of an organ or within small lobes, and in the case of the breast, intraductally. The emphasis of the name is on the location of the neoplastic tissue rather than on its histological type. Most cancers of this type are located in the breast.
A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.

Sentinel node biopsy as a practical alternative to axillary lymph node dissection in breast cancer patients: an approach to its validity. (1/921)

BACKGROUND: Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) has been proposed as an alternative to axillary lymph-node dissection (ALND) in breast cancer. Before implementing SNB in our practice, we wished to test its validity by comparing it to the standard ALND, both in our hands and with other reported series. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred thirty-two patients were included prospectively. SNB and immediate ALND were performed. For SNB, a technetium-colloid was used to produce preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative gamma-probe search for the SN. Serial sectioning and immunostains were used on the SN. A comprehensive review of the literature was done in order to run a meta-analysis of diagnostic tests using a summary receiver operating characteristic curve (SROC) to calculate the pooled parameters of sensitivity and associated 95% confidence interval (95% CI), including our own data. RESULTS: Our technical success rate was 96%. Local sensitivity was 96%, with a 95% CI from 85%-99%. Seven patients were upstaged by the SNB. A literature search identified 18 studies published from 1996-1999. Estimates of sensitivity ranged from 83%-100%. The pooled data meta-analysis gave a global sensitivity of 91%, with a 95% CI from 89%-93%. The area under the global SROC curve was 0.9967. CONCLUSIONS: The minimally invasive SNB was shown to be a practical alternative to ALND. We propose to use local as well as global sensitivity and associated 95% CI to test the validity of SNB in the clinical setting. Due to limitations of ALND as the golden standard, SNB can in fact be considered a more accurate method for nodal staging.  (+info)

Sentinel lymph node biopsy is accurate after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. (2/921)

PURPOSE: Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy has proved to be an accurate method for detecting nodal micrometastases in previously untreated patients with early-stage breast cancer. We investigated the accuracy of this technique for patients with more advanced breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with stage II or III breast cancer who had undergone doxorubicin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy before breast surgery were eligible. Intraoperative lymphatic mapping was performed with peritumoral injections of blue dye alone or in combination with technetium-labeled sulfur colloid. All patients were offered axillary lymph node dissection. Negative sentinel and axillary nodes were subjected to additional processing with serial step sectioning and immunohistochemical staining with an anticytokeratin antibody to detect micrometastases. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients underwent SLN biopsy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy from 1994 to 1999. The SLN identification rate improved from 64.7% to 94.1%. Twenty-two (51.2%) of the 43 successfully mapped patients had positive SLNs, and in 10 of those 22 patients (45.5%), the SLN was the only positive node. Three patients had false-negative SLN biopsy; that is, the sentinel node was negative, but at least one nonsentinel node contained metastases. Additional processing revealed occult micrometastases in four patients (three in sentinel nodes and one in a nonsentinel node). CONCLUSION: SLN biopsy is accurate after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The SLN identification improved with experience. False-negative findings occurred at a low rate throughout the series. This technique is a potential way to guide the axillary treatment of patients who are clinically node negative after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.  (+info)

Factors affecting sentinel node localization during preoperative breast lymphoscintigraphy. (3/921)

Variable success rates for identifying axillary (AX) sentinel nodes in breast cancer patients using preoperative lymphoscintigraphy have been reported. We evaluated the effects of age, weight, breast size, method of biopsy, interval after biopsy, and imaging view on the success of sentinel node identification and on the kinetics of radiopharmaceutical migration. METHODS: Preoperative breast lymphoscintigraphy was performed in consecutive breast cancer patients from February 1998 to December 1998. The ipsilateral shoulder was elevated on a foam wedge and the arm was abducted and elevated overhead. Imaging using this modified oblique view of the axilla (MOVA) started immediately after peritumoral injection of Millipore-filtered 99mTc-sulfur colloid and continued until AX sentinel nodes were identified. Anterior views were obtained after MOVA. AX, internal mammary (IM), and clavicular (CL) basins were monitored in all patients. MOVA was compared with the anterior view for sentinel node identification. Age, weight, breast size, method of biopsy, interval after biopsy, and primary tumor location were evaluated for their effects on sentinel node localization and transit times from injection to arrival at the sentinel nodes. RESULTS: Seventy-six lymphoscintigrams were obtained for 75 patients. AX sentinel nodes were revealed in 75 (99%) cases. IM or CL sentinel nodes were found in 19 (25%) cases and were not related to tumor location; exclusive IM drainage was present in 1 (1%) case. Identification of AX sentinel nodes was equivalent with MOVA and anterior views in 18 (24%) patients, was better with MOVA in 20 (26%) patients, and was accomplished only with MOVA in 38 (50%) patients. Median transit time was 17.5 min (range, 1 min to 18 h) after injection, and larger breast size was associated with increased transit time. No effect of age, weight, biopsy method, interval from biopsy, or tumor location on transit time was found. CONCLUSION: Use of MOVA can improve identification of AX sentinel nodes. Although AX drainage is the predominant pattern, a tumor in any portion of the breast can drain to IM sentinel nodes. Transit time was influenced by breast size. Overall short arrival times with this technique allow sentinel lymph node dissection to be performed on the same day as lymphoscintigraphy.  (+info)

Axillary staging of breast cancer and the sentinel node. (4/921)

Pathological aspects of axillary nodal staging of breast cancer and in particular sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy are reviewed. SLN biopsy seems an almost ideal staging procedure because it has both high accuracy and a low false negative rate. It may also allow a cost effective use of more sensitive methods of metastasis detection. However, the biological relevance of metastases detected only by modern tools remains to be elucidated. This review focuses on standard axillary staging and the histopathological investigation of SLNs, with emphasis on the intraoperative setting. Future trends including ancillary studies, quality control issues, prediction of non-SLN involvement, and suggestions concerning the minimum requirements for the histology of axillary SLNs are also discussed.  (+info)

Is intra-operative gamma probe detection really necessary for inguinal sentinel lymph node biopsy? (5/921)

CONTEXT: Sentinel node (SN) biopsy has changed the surgical treatment of malignant melanoma. The literature has emphasized the importance of gamma probe detection (GPD) of the SN. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of patent blue dye (PBD) and GPD for SN biopsy in different lymphatic basins. DESIGN: Patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma in stages I and II were submitted to biopsy of the SN, identified by PBD and GPD, as part of a research project. SETTING: Patients were seen at Hospital Sao Paulo by a multidisciplinary group (Plastic Surgery Tumor Branch, Nuclear Medicine and Pathology). PATIENTS: 64 patients with localized malignant melanoma were studied. The median age was 46.5 years. The primary tumor was located in the neck, trunk or extremities. INTERVENTIONS: Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy, lymphatic mapping with PBD and intraoperative GPD was performed on all patients. The SN was examined by conventional and immunohistochemical staining. If the SN was not found or contained micrometastases, only complete lymphadenectomy was performed. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: The SN was identified by PBD if it was blue-stained, and by GPD if demonstrated activity five times greater than the adipose tissue of the neighborhood. RESULTS: Seventy lymphatic basins were explored. Lymphoscintigraphy showed ambiguous drainage in 7 patients. GPD identified the SN in 68 basins (97%) and PBD in 53 (76%). PBD and GPD identified SN in 100% of the inguinal basins. For the remaining basins both techniques were complementary. A metastatic SN was found in 10 basins. Three patients with negative SN had recurrence (median follow-up = 11 months). CONCLUSION: Although both GPD and PBD are useful and complementary, PBD alone identified the SN in 100% of the inguinal lymphatic basins.  (+info)

Multicenter trial of sentinel node biopsy for breast cancer using both technetium sulfur colloid and isosulfan blue dye. (6/921)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors associated with false-negative results on sentinel node biopsy and sentinel node localization (identification rate) in patients with breast cancer enrolled in a multicenter trial using a combination technique of isosulfan blue with technetium sulfur colloid (Tc99). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Sentinel node biopsy is a diagnostic test used to detect breast cancer metastases. To test the reliability of this method, a complete lymph node dissection must be performed to determine the false-negative rate. Single-institution series have reported excellent results, although one multicenter trial reported a false-negative rate as high as 29% using radioisotope alone. A multicenter trial was initiated to test combined use of Tc99 and isosulfan blue. METHODS: Investigators (both private-practice and academic surgeons) were recruited after attending a course on the technique of sentinel node biopsy. No investigator participated in a learning trial before entering patients. Tc99 and isosulfan blue were injected into the peritumoral region. RESULTS: Five hundred twenty-nine patients underwent 535 sentinel node biopsy procedures for an overall identification rate in finding a sentinel node of 87% and a false-negative rate of 13%. The identification rate increased and the false-negative rate decreased to 90% and 4.3%, respectively, after investigators had performed more than 30 cases. Univariate analysis of tumor showed the poorest success rate with older patients and inexperienced surgeons. Multivariate analysis identified both age and experience as independent predictors of failure. However, with older patients, inexperienced surgeons, and patients with five or more metastatic axillary nodes, the false-negative rate was consistently greater. CONCLUSIONS: This multicenter trial, from both private practice and academic institutions, is an excellent indicator of the general utility of sentinel node biopsy. It establishes the factors that play an important role (patient age, surgical experience, tumor location) and those that are irrelevant (prior surgery, tumor size, Tc99 timing). This widens the applicability of the technique and identifies factors that require further investigation.  (+info)

Methodological questions in sentinel lymph node analysis in breast cancer patients. (7/921)

BACKGROUND: The sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure has been proposed to women with breast cancer with clinically negative axillary lymph nodes, in order to avoid conventional axillary lymph node dissection and its associated side-effects. Methodological aspects of the validation of the SLN procedure are questioned here. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The results of relevant published studies are reviewed, with emphasis on pathological techniques. The ability of the SLN procedure to diagnose lymph node metastases, the extent to which axillary lymph node dissection contributes to treatment, apart from identification of the stage, and the effect of a modified staging procedure on treatment strategies are analyzed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Both the sensitivity and the negative predictive value of the SLN procedure are overestimated if the probability of missing lymph node metastases is not taken into account, even when a complete axillary dissection is performed as a control. The SLN strategy and its effects on staging and treatment cannot be evaluated by comparison with conventional axillary lymph node dissection in a one-arm study but require carefully designed randomized trials.  (+info)

Sentinel lymph node biopsy in the management of patients with primary cutaneous melanoma: review of a large single-institutional experience with an emphasis on recurrence. (8/921)

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the authors' experience with sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and the subsequent incidence and pattern of recurrence in patients with positive and negative nodes. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Lymphatic mapping with SLNB has become widely accepted in the management of patients with melanoma who are at risk for occult regional lymph node metastases. Because this procedure is relatively new, the pattern of recurrence after SLNB is not yet clear. METHODS: All patients with primary cutaneous melanoma who underwent SLNB from 1991 through 1998 were identified from a prospective single-institution melanoma database. RESULTS: Three hundred fifty-seven consecutive patients with localized primary cutaneous melanoma who underwent SLNB were identified. The sentinel node was identified in 332 patients (93%) and was positive in 56 (17%). Fourteen percent of patients had developed a recurrence at a median follow-up of 24 months. The median time to recurrence was 13 months. The 3-year relapse-free survival rates for patients with positive and negative nodes were 56% and 75%, respectively. SLN status was the most important predictor of disease recurrence. The site of first recurrence in patients with negative and positive nodes was more commonly locoregional than distant. Reexamination of the SLN in 11 patients with negative nodes with initial nodal and in-transit recurrence showed evidence of metastases in 7 (64%). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with positive sentinel nodes have a significantly increased risk for recurrence. The early pattern of first recurrence for patients with negative and positive results is characterized by a preponderance of locoregional sites, similar to that reported in previous series of elective lymph node dissection. These data underscore the need for careful pathologic analysis of the SLN as well as a careful, directed locoregional physical examination in the follow-up of these patients.  (+info)

A sentinel lymph node biopsy is a surgical procedure used in cancer staging to determine if the cancer has spread beyond the primary tumor to the lymphatic system. This procedure involves identifying and removing the sentinel lymph node(s), which are the first few lymph nodes to which cancer cells are most likely to spread from the primary tumor site.

The sentinel lymph node(s) are identified by injecting a tracer substance (usually a radioactive material and/or a blue dye) near the tumor site. The tracer substance is taken up by the lymphatic vessels and transported to the sentinel lymph node(s), allowing the surgeon to locate and remove them.

The removed sentinel lymph node(s) are then examined under a microscope for the presence of cancer cells. If no cancer cells are found, it is unlikely that the cancer has spread to other lymph nodes or distant sites in the body. However, if cancer cells are present, further lymph node dissection and/or additional treatment may be necessary.

Sentinel lymph node biopsy is commonly used in the staging of melanoma, breast cancer, and some types of head and neck cancer.

Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped organs that are part of the immune system. They are found throughout the body, especially in the neck, armpits, groin, and abdomen. Lymph nodes filter lymph fluid, which carries waste and unwanted substances such as bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells. They contain white blood cells called lymphocytes that help fight infections and diseases by attacking and destroying the harmful substances found in the lymph fluid. When an infection or disease is present, lymph nodes may swell due to the increased number of immune cells and fluid accumulation as they work to fight off the invaders.

The term "axilla" is used in anatomical context to refer to the armpit region, specifically the space located lateral to the upper part of the chest wall and medial to the upper arm. This area contains a number of important structures such as blood vessels, nerves, and lymph nodes, which play a critical role in the health and functioning of the upper limb. Understanding the anatomy of the axilla is essential for medical professionals performing various procedures, including surgeries and injections, in this region.

Lymphatic metastasis is the spread of cancer cells from a primary tumor to distant lymph nodes through the lymphatic system. It occurs when malignant cells break away from the original tumor, enter the lymphatic vessels, and travel to nearby or remote lymph nodes. Once there, these cancer cells can multiply and form new tumors, leading to further progression of the disease. Lymphatic metastasis is a common way for many types of cancer to spread and can have significant implications for prognosis and treatment strategies.

Lymph node excision is a surgical procedure in which one or more lymph nodes are removed from the body for the purpose of examination. This procedure is often conducted to help diagnose or stage various types of cancer, as malignant cells may spread to the lymphatic system and eventually accumulate within nearby lymph nodes.

During a lymph node excision, an incision is made in the skin overlying the affected lymph node(s). The surgeon carefully dissects the tissue surrounding the lymph node(s) to isolate them from adjacent structures before removing them. In some cases, a sentinel lymph node biopsy may be performed instead, where only the sentinel lymph node (the first lymph node to which cancer cells are likely to spread) is removed and examined.

The excised lymph nodes are then sent to a laboratory for histopathological examination, which involves staining and microscopic evaluation of the tissue to determine whether it contains any malignant cells. The results of this examination can help guide further treatment decisions and provide valuable prognostic information.

Rosaniline dyes are a type of basic dye that were first synthesized in the late 19th century. They are named after rosaniline, which is a primary chemical used in their production. Rosaniline dyes are characterized by their ability to form complexes with metal ions, which can then bind to proteins and other biological molecules. This property makes them useful as histological stains, which are used to highlight specific structures or features within tissues and cells.

Rosaniline dyes include a range of different chemicals, such as methyl violet, crystal violet, and basic fuchsin. These dyes are often used in combination with other staining techniques to provide contrast and enhance the visibility of specific cellular components. For example, they may be used to stain nuclei, cytoplasm, or other structures within cells, allowing researchers and clinicians to visualize and analyze tissue samples more effectively.

It's worth noting that some rosaniline dyes have been found to have potential health hazards, particularly when used in certain forms or concentrations. Therefore, it's important to follow proper safety protocols when handling these chemicals and to use them only under the guidance of trained professionals.

Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid is a radioactive tracer used in medical imaging procedures, specifically in nuclear medicine. It is composed of tiny particles of sulfur colloid that are labeled with the radioisotope Technetium-99m. This compound is typically injected into the patient's body, where it accumulates in certain organs or tissues, depending on the specific medical test being conducted.

The radioactive emissions from Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid are then detected by a gamma camera, which produces images that can help doctors diagnose various medical conditions, such as liver disease, inflammation, or tumors. The half-life of Technetium-99m is approximately six hours, which means that its radioactivity decreases rapidly and is eliminated from the body within a few days.

Lymphoscintigraphy is a medical imaging technique that uses radioactive tracers to examine the lymphatic system, specifically the lymph nodes and vessels. In this procedure, a small amount of radioactive material is injected into the area of interest, usually an extremity or the site of a surgical incision. The tracer then travels through the lymphatic channels and accumulates in the regional lymph nodes. A specialized camera called a gamma camera detects the radiation emitted by the tracer and creates images that reveal the function and anatomy of the lymphatic system.

Lymphoscintigraphy is often used to diagnose and assess conditions affecting the lymphatic system, such as lymphedema, cancer metastasis to lymph nodes, or unusual lymphatic flow patterns. It can help identify sentinel lymph nodes (the first node(s) to receive drainage from a tumor) in patients with melanoma and breast cancer, which is crucial for surgical planning and staging purposes.

In summary, lymphoscintigraphy is a non-invasive imaging technique that utilizes radioactive tracers to visualize the lymphatic system's structure and function, providing valuable information for diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making in various clinical scenarios.

Technetium compounds refer to chemical substances that contain the radioactive technetium (Tc) element. Technetium is a naturally rare element and does not have any stable isotopes, making it only exist in trace amounts in the Earth's crust. However, it can be produced artificially in nuclear reactors.

Technetium compounds are widely used in medical imaging as radioactive tracers in diagnostic procedures. The most common technetium compound is Technetium-99m (Tc-99m), which has a half-life of 6 hours and emits gamma rays that can be detected by external cameras. Tc-99m is often bound to various pharmaceuticals, such as methylene diphosphonate (MDP) or human serum albumin (HSA), to target specific organs or tissues in the body.

Technetium compounds are used in a variety of diagnostic procedures, including bone scans, lung perfusion scans, myocardial perfusion imaging, and brain scans. They provide valuable information about organ function, blood flow, and tissue metabolism, helping doctors diagnose various medical conditions such as cancer, heart disease, and bone fractures.

It is important to note that technetium compounds should only be used under the supervision of trained medical professionals due to their radioactive nature. Proper handling, administration, and disposal procedures must be followed to ensure safety and minimize radiation exposure.

A "false negative" reaction in medical testing refers to a situation where a diagnostic test incorrectly indicates the absence of a specific condition or disease, when in fact it is present. This can occur due to various reasons such as issues with the sensitivity of the test, improper sample collection, or specimen handling and storage.

False negative results can have serious consequences, as they may lead to delayed treatment, misdiagnosis, or a false sense of security for the patient. Therefore, it is essential to interpret medical test results in conjunction with other clinical findings, patient history, and physical examination. In some cases, repeating the test or using a different diagnostic method may be necessary to confirm the initial result.

Breast neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the breast tissue that can be benign or malignant. Benign breast neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors or growths, while malignant breast neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body.

Breast neoplasms can arise from different types of cells in the breast, including milk ducts, milk sacs (lobules), or connective tissue. The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma, which starts in the milk ducts and can spread to other parts of the breast and nearby structures.

Breast neoplasms are usually detected through screening methods such as mammography, ultrasound, or MRI, or through self-examination or clinical examination. Treatment options for breast neoplasms depend on several factors, including the type and stage of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and personal preferences. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or targeted therapy.

Melanoma is defined as a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes. It typically occurs in the skin but can rarely occur in other parts of the body, including the eyes and internal organs. Melanoma is characterized by the uncontrolled growth and multiplication of melanocytes, which can form malignant tumors that invade and destroy surrounding tissue.

Melanoma is often caused by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds, but it can also occur in areas of the body not exposed to the sun. It is more likely to develop in people with fair skin, light hair, and blue or green eyes, but it can affect anyone, regardless of their skin type.

Melanoma can be treated effectively if detected early, but if left untreated, it can spread to other parts of the body and become life-threatening. Treatment options for melanoma include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, depending on the stage and location of the cancer. Regular skin examinations and self-checks are recommended to detect any changes or abnormalities in moles or other pigmented lesions that may indicate melanoma.

Skin neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the skin that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They result from uncontrolled multiplication of skin cells, which can form various types of lesions. These growths may appear as lumps, bumps, sores, patches, or discolored areas on the skin.

Benign skin neoplasms include conditions such as moles, warts, and seborrheic keratoses, while malignant skin neoplasms are primarily classified into melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. These three types of cancerous skin growths are collectively known as non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). Melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous form of skin cancer, while NMSCs tend to be less invasive but more common.

It's essential to monitor any changes in existing skin lesions or the appearance of new growths and consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and treatment if needed.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

"Frozen sections" is a medical term that refers to the process of quickly preparing and examining a small piece of tissue during surgery. This procedure is typically performed by a pathologist in order to provide immediate diagnostic information to the surgeon, who can then make informed decisions about the course of the operation.

To create a frozen section, the surgical team first removes a small sample of tissue from the patient's body. This sample is then quickly frozen, typically using a special machine that can freeze the tissue in just a few seconds. Once the tissue is frozen, it can be cut into thin slices and stained with dyes to help highlight its cellular structures.

The stained slides are then examined under a microscope by a pathologist, who looks for any abnormalities or signs of disease. The results of this examination are typically available within 10-30 minutes, allowing the surgeon to make real-time decisions about whether to remove more tissue, change the surgical approach, or take other actions based on the findings.

Frozen sections are often used in cancer surgery to help ensure that all of the cancerous tissue has been removed, and to guide decisions about whether additional treatments such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy are necessary. They can also be used in other types of surgeries to help diagnose conditions and make treatment decisions during the procedure.

Coloring agents, also known as food dyes or color additives, are substances that are added to foods, medications, and cosmetics to improve their appearance by giving them a specific color. These agents can be made from both synthetic and natural sources. They must be approved by regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) before they can be used in products intended for human consumption.

Coloring agents are used for various reasons, including:

* To replace color lost during food processing or preparation
* To make foods more visually appealing
* To help consumers easily identify certain types of food
* To indicate the flavor of a product (e.g., fruit-flavored candies)

It's important to note that while coloring agents can enhance the appearance of products, they do not affect their taste or nutritional value. Some people may have allergic reactions to certain coloring agents, so it's essential to check product labels if you have any known allergies. Additionally, excessive consumption of some synthetic coloring agents has been linked to health concerns, so moderation is key.

Neoplasm staging is a systematic process used in medicine to describe the extent of spread of a cancer, including the size and location of the original (primary) tumor and whether it has metastasized (spread) to other parts of the body. The most widely accepted system for this purpose is the TNM classification system developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC).

In this system, T stands for tumor, and it describes the size and extent of the primary tumor. N stands for nodes, and it indicates whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. M stands for metastasis, and it shows whether the cancer has spread to distant parts of the body.

Each letter is followed by a number that provides more details about the extent of the disease. For example, a T1N0M0 cancer means that the primary tumor is small and has not spread to nearby lymph nodes or distant sites. The higher the numbers, the more advanced the cancer.

Staging helps doctors determine the most appropriate treatment for each patient and estimate the patient's prognosis. It is an essential tool for communication among members of the healthcare team and for comparing outcomes of treatments in clinical trials.

A gamma camera, also known as a scintillation camera, is a device used in nuclear medicine to image gamma-emitting radionuclides in the body. It detects gamma radiation emitted by radioisotopes that have been introduced into the body, usually through injection or ingestion. The camera consists of a large flat crystal (often sodium iodide) that scintillates when struck by gamma rays, producing light flashes that are detected by an array of photomultiplier tubes.

The resulting signals are then processed by a computer to generate images that reflect the distribution and concentration of the radionuclide in the body. Gamma cameras are used in a variety of medical imaging procedures, including bone scans, lung scans, heart scans (such as myocardial perfusion imaging), and brain scans. They can help diagnose conditions such as cancer, heart disease, and neurological disorders.

Methylene Blue is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C16H18ClN3S. It is primarily used as a medication, but can also be used as a dye or as a chemical reagent. As a medication, it is used in the treatment of methemoglobinemia (a condition where an abnormal amount of methemoglobin is present in the blood), as well as in some forms of poisoning and infections. It works by acting as a reducing agent, converting methemoglobin back to hemoglobin, which is the form of the protein that is responsible for carrying oxygen in the blood. Methylene Blue has also been used off-label for other conditions, such as vasculitis and Alzheimer's disease, although its effectiveness for these uses is not well established.

It is important to note that Methylene Blue should be used with caution, as it can cause serious side effects in some people, particularly those with kidney or liver problems, or those who are taking certain medications. It is also important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when using this medication, as improper use can lead to toxicity.

Carcinoma, ductal, breast is a type of breast cancer that begins in the milk ducts (the tubes that carry milk from the lobules of the breast to the nipple). It is called "ductal" because it starts in the cells that line the milk ducts. Ductal carcinoma can be further classified as either non-invasive or invasive, based on whether the cancer cells are confined to the ducts or have spread beyond them into the surrounding breast tissue.

Non-invasive ductal carcinoma (also known as intraductal carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ) is a condition where abnormal cells have been found in the lining of the milk ducts, but they have not spread outside of the ducts. These cells have the potential to become invasive and spread to other parts of the breast or body if left untreated.

Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) is a type of breast cancer that starts in a milk duct and then grows into the surrounding breast tissue. From there, it can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream and lymphatic system. IDC is the most common form of breast cancer, accounting for about 80% of all cases.

Symptoms of ductal carcinoma may include a lump or thickening in the breast, changes in the size or shape of the breast, dimpling or puckering of the skin on the breast, nipple discharge (especially if it is clear or bloody), and/or redness or scaling of the nipple or breast skin. However, many cases of ductal carcinoma are detected through mammography before any symptoms develop.

Treatment for ductal carcinoma depends on several factors, including the stage and grade of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and personal preferences. Treatment options may include surgery (such as a lumpectomy or mastectomy), radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and/or targeted therapies.

Lymphography is not a commonly used term in current medical practice. However, historically, it referred to a radiographic imaging technique that involved the injection of a contrast material into the lymphatic system to visualize the lymph nodes and lymph vessels. This procedure was used primarily for diagnostic purposes, particularly in the evaluation of cancerous conditions like lymphoma or melanoma.

The process typically involved injecting a radiopaque substance into the interstitial tissue, which would then be taken up by the lymphatic vessels and transported to the regional lymph nodes. X-ray imaging was used to track the progression of the contrast material, creating detailed images of the lymphatic system.

Due to advancements in medical imaging technology, lymphography has largely been replaced by other non-invasive imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) scans. These modern methods provide high-resolution images of the body's internal structures without requiring invasive procedures or the use of contrast materials.

The intraoperative period is the phase of surgical treatment that refers to the time during which the surgery is being performed. It begins when the anesthesia is administered and the patient is prepared for the operation, and it ends when the surgery is completed, the anesthesia is discontinued, and the patient is transferred to the recovery room or intensive care unit (ICU).

During the intraoperative period, the surgical team, including surgeons, anesthesiologists, nurses, and other healthcare professionals, work together to carry out the surgical procedure safely and effectively. The anesthesiologist monitors the patient's vital signs, such as heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and body temperature, throughout the surgery to ensure that the patient remains stable and does not experience any complications.

The surgeon performs the operation, using various surgical techniques and instruments to achieve the desired outcome. The surgical team also takes measures to prevent infection, control bleeding, and manage pain during and after the surgery.

Overall, the intraoperative period is a critical phase of surgical treatment that requires close collaboration and communication among members of the healthcare team to ensure the best possible outcomes for the patient.

Carcinoma, lobular is a type of breast cancer that begins in the milk-producing glands (lobules) of the breast. It can be either invasive or non-invasive (in situ). Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) occurs when the cancer cells break through the wall of the lobule and invade the surrounding breast tissue, and can potentially spread to other parts of the body. Non-invasive lobular carcinoma (LCIS), on the other hand, refers to the presence of abnormal cells within the lobule that have not invaded nearby breast tissue.

ILC is usually detected as a mass or thickening in the breast, and it may not cause any symptoms or show up on mammograms until it has grown quite large. It tends to grow more slowly than some other types of breast cancer, but it can still be serious and require extensive treatment. LCIS does not typically cause any symptoms and is usually found during a biopsy performed for another reason.

Treatment options for carcinoma, lobular depend on several factors, including the stage of the cancer, the patient's overall health, and their personal preferences. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or targeted therapy. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or the development of new cancers.

The inguinal canal is a narrow passage in the lower abdominal wall. In males, it allows for the spermatic cord and blood vessels to travel from the abdomen to the scrotum. In females, it provides a pathway for the round ligament of the uterus to pass through. The inguinal canal is located in the groin region, and an inguinal hernia occurs when a portion of the intestine protrudes through this canal.

Lymphatic diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the lymphatic system, which is an important part of the immune and circulatory systems. The lymphatic system consists of a network of vessels, organs, and tissues that help to transport lymph fluid throughout the body, fight infection, and remove waste products.

Lymphatic diseases can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, cancer, and autoimmune disorders. Some common types of lymphatic diseases include:

1. Lymphedema: A condition that causes swelling in the arms or legs due to a blockage or damage in the lymphatic vessels.
2. Lymphoma: A type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system, including Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
3. Infections: Certain bacterial and viral infections can affect the lymphatic system, such as tuberculosis, cat-scratch disease, and HIV/AIDS.
4. Autoimmune disorders: Conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and scleroderma can cause inflammation and damage to the lymphatic system.
5. Congenital abnormalities: Some people are born with abnormalities in their lymphatic system, such as malformations or missing lymph nodes.

Symptoms of lymphatic diseases may vary depending on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medication, physical therapy, surgery, or radiation therapy. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of a lymphatic disease, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes.

Radiopharmaceuticals are defined as pharmaceutical preparations that contain radioactive isotopes and are used for diagnosis or therapy in nuclear medicine. These compounds are designed to interact specifically with certain biological targets, such as cells, tissues, or organs, and emit radiation that can be detected and measured to provide diagnostic information or used to destroy abnormal cells or tissue in therapeutic applications.

The radioactive isotopes used in radiopharmaceuticals have carefully controlled half-lives, which determine how long they remain radioactive and how long the pharmaceutical preparation remains effective. The choice of radioisotope depends on the intended use of the radiopharmaceutical, as well as factors such as its energy, range of emission, and chemical properties.

Radiopharmaceuticals are used in a wide range of medical applications, including imaging, cancer therapy, and treatment of other diseases and conditions. Examples of radiopharmaceuticals include technetium-99m for imaging the heart, lungs, and bones; iodine-131 for treating thyroid cancer; and samarium-153 for palliative treatment of bone metastases.

The use of radiopharmaceuticals requires specialized training and expertise in nuclear medicine, as well as strict adherence to safety protocols to minimize radiation exposure to patients and healthcare workers.

In medical terms, the "groin" refers to the area where the lower abdomen meets the thigh. It is located on both sides of the body, in front of the upper part of each leg. The groin contains several important structures such as the inguinal canal, which contains blood vessels and nerves, and the femoral artery and vein, which supply blood to and from the lower extremities. Issues in this region, such as pain or swelling, may indicate a variety of medical conditions, including muscle strains, hernias, or infections.

Lymphedema is a chronic condition characterized by swelling in one or more parts of the body, usually an arm or leg, due to the accumulation of lymph fluid. This occurs when the lymphatic system is unable to properly drain the fluid, often as a result of damage or removal of lymph nodes, or because of a genetic abnormality that affects lymphatic vessel development.

The swelling can range from mild to severe and may cause discomfort, tightness, or a feeling of heaviness in the affected limb. In some cases, lymphedema can also lead to skin changes, recurrent infections, and reduced mobility. The condition is currently not curable but can be managed effectively with various treatments such as compression garments, manual lymphatic drainage, exercise, and skincare routines.

An image-guided biopsy is a medical procedure in which imaging technologies, such as ultrasound, CT (computed tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), or mammography, are used to guide the removal of tissue samples from a suspicious area in the body for further examination and diagnosis. This technique allows healthcare professionals to obtain biopsy specimens precisely and accurately, even from deep-seated or hard-to-reach locations, minimizing injury to surrounding tissues and improving diagnostic confidence. The type of imaging modality used depends on the location, size, and nature of the suspected abnormality.

A nevus is a general term for a benign growth or mole on the skin. There are many different types of nevi, including epithelioid and spindle cell nevi.

Epithelioid cell: A type of cell that is typically found in certain types of nevi, as well as in some malignant tumors such as melanoma. Epithelioid cells are large, round cells with a pale, clear cytoplasm and centrally located nuclei.

Spindle cell: A type of cell that is often found in certain types of nevi, including Spitz nevi and deep penetrating nevi. Spindle cells are elongated, thin cells with cigar-shaped nuclei. They can also be found in some malignant tumors such as melanoma.

Epithelioid and spindle cell nevus: A type of nevus that contains both epithelioid and spindle cells. These nevi are typically benign, but they can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from melanoma, especially if they have atypical features. Therefore, it is important for these types of nevi to be evaluated by a dermatopathologist or a specialist in skin pathology.

A needle biopsy is a medical procedure in which a thin, hollow needle is used to remove a small sample of tissue from a suspicious or abnormal area of the body. The tissue sample is then examined under a microscope to check for cancer cells or other abnormalities. Needle biopsies are often used to diagnose lumps or masses that can be felt through the skin, but they can also be guided by imaging techniques such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI to reach areas that cannot be felt. There are several types of needle biopsy procedures, including fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA uses a thin needle and gentle suction to remove fluid and cells from the area, while core needle biopsy uses a larger needle to remove a small piece of tissue. The type of needle biopsy used depends on the location and size of the abnormal area, as well as the reason for the procedure.

Sarcoma, clear cell, is a rare type of cancer that arises from certain types of connective tissue in the body. It is called "clear cell" because the cancer cells have a clear appearance when viewed under a microscope due to the presence of lipids or glycogen within the cytoplasm.

Clear cell sarcoma can occur in various parts of the body, but it most commonly affects the soft tissues of the extremities, such as the legs and arms. It is an aggressive cancer that tends to spread to other parts of the body, including the lungs, lymph nodes, and bones.

Clear cell sarcoma typically occurs in young adults, with a median age at diagnosis of around 30 years old. The exact cause of this type of sarcoma is not known, but it has been linked to genetic mutations involving the EWSR1 gene. Treatment for clear cell sarcoma usually involves surgery to remove the tumor, followed by radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. Despite treatment, the prognosis for patients with clear cell sarcoma is generally poor, with a five-year survival rate of around 50%.

Neck dissection is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of lymph nodes and other tissues from the neck. It is typically performed as part of cancer treatment, particularly in cases of head and neck cancer, to help determine the stage of the cancer, prevent the spread of cancer, or treat existing metastases. There are several types of neck dissections, including radical, modified radical, and selective neck dissection, which vary based on the extent of tissue removal. The specific type of neck dissection performed depends on the location and extent of the cancer.

Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin is a radiopharmaceutical preparation used in diagnostic imaging. It consists of radioactive technetium-99m (^99m^Tc) chemically bonded to human serum albumin, which has been aggregated to increase its size and alter its clearance from the body.

The resulting compound is injected into the patient's bloodstream, where it accumulates in the reticuloendothelial system (RES), including the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. The radioactive emission of technetium-99m can then be detected by a gamma camera, producing images that reflect the distribution and function of the RES.

This imaging technique is used to diagnose and monitor various conditions, such as liver disease, inflammation, or tumors. It provides valuable information about the patient's health status and helps guide medical decision-making.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

A mastectomy is a surgical procedure where the entire breast tissue along with the nipple and areola is removed. This is usually performed to treat or prevent breast cancer. There are different types of mastectomies, such as simple (total) mastectomy, skin-sparing mastectomy, and nipple-sparing mastectomy. The choice of procedure depends on various factors including the type and stage of cancer, patient's preference, and the recommendation of the surgical team.

Penile neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the penis. These can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The most common type of penile cancer is squamous cell carcinoma, which begins in the flat cells that line the surface of the penis. Other types of penile cancer include melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma.

Benign penile neoplasms include conditions such as papillomas, condylomas, and peyronie's disease. These growths are usually not life-threatening, but they can cause discomfort, pain, or other symptoms that may require medical treatment.

It is important to note that any unusual changes in the penis, such as lumps, bumps, or sores, should be evaluated by a healthcare professional to determine the underlying cause and appropriate treatment.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

A seroma is an accumulation of sterile clear fluid, specifically serous fluid, that forms in a closed surgical space or dead space within the body after trauma, injury, or surgery. It is a common post-surgical complication and can occur following various types of surgeries, including but not limited to breast augmentation, mastectomy, lumpectomy, gynecologic procedures, and orthopedic surgeries.

Seromas form due to the disruption of lymphatic vessels during surgery, which results in the leakage of fluid into the surgical site. The body's natural response is to produce more fluid to fill the space, leading to the formation of a seroma. In some cases, seromas may resolve independently as the body reabsorbs the fluid over time. However, larger or persistent seromas might require medical intervention, such as aspiration (drainage) with a needle or surgical drain placement to facilitate healing and prevent complications like infection or delayed recovery.

Vulvar neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the vulvar region, which is the exterior female genital area including the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and the vaginal vestibule. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign vulvar neoplasms may include conditions such as vulvar cysts, fibromas, lipomas, or condylomas (genital warts). They are typically slow-growing and less likely to spread or invade surrounding tissues.

Malignant vulvar neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancers that can invade nearby tissues and potentially metastasize (spread) to distant parts of the body. The most common types of malignant vulvar neoplasms are squamous cell carcinoma, vulvar melanoma, and adenocarcinoma.

Early detection and treatment of vulvar neoplasms are essential for improving prognosis and reducing the risk of complications or recurrence. Regular gynecological examinations, self-examinations, and prompt attention to any unusual symptoms or changes in the vulvar area can help ensure timely diagnosis and management.

A neoplasm micrometastasis is a small focus of cancer cells that has spread (metastasized) from the primary tumor to a distant site and is too small to be detected by standard diagnostic methods, such as imaging studies or clinical examination. It is typically identified through the use of immunohistochemical stains or molecular techniques during microscopic examination of tissue samples.

Micrometastases are often found in patients with early-stage cancer and can indicate a higher risk of recurrence or metastasis. However, not all micrometastases will progress to clinical metastases, and their significance is still an area of ongoing research.

Intraductal carcinoma, noninfiltrating is a medical term used to describe a type of breast cancer that is confined to the milk ducts of the breast. It is also sometimes referred to as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Noninfiltrating means that the cancer cells have not spread beyond the ducts into the surrounding breast tissue or elsewhere in the body.

In this type of cancer, abnormal cells line the milk ducts and fill the inside of the ducts. These abnormal cells may look like cancer cells under a microscope, but they have not grown through the walls of the ducts into the surrounding breast tissue. However, if left untreated, noninfiltrating intraductal carcinoma can progress to an invasive form of breast cancer where the cancer cells spread beyond the milk ducts and invade the surrounding breast tissue.

It is important to note that while noninfiltrating intraductal carcinoma is considered a precancerous condition, it still requires medical treatment to prevent the development of invasive breast cancer. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, or hormone therapy, depending on the size and location of the tumor and other individual factors.

Lymph is a colorless, transparent fluid that circulates throughout the lymphatic system, which is a part of the immune and circulatory systems. It consists of white blood cells called lymphocytes, proteins, lipids, glucose, electrolytes, hormones, and waste products. Lymph plays an essential role in maintaining fluid balance, absorbing fats from the digestive tract, and defending the body against infection by transporting immune cells to various tissues and organs. It is collected from tissues through lymph capillaries and flows through increasingly larger lymphatic vessels, ultimately returning to the bloodstream via the subclavian veins in the chest region.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Indocyanine green (ICG) is a sterile, water-soluble, tricarbocyanine dye that is used as a diagnostic agent in medical imaging. It is primarily used in ophthalmology for fluorescein angiography to examine blood flow in the retina and choroid, and in cardiac surgery to assess cardiac output and perfusion. When injected into the body, ICG binds to plasma proteins and fluoresces when exposed to near-infrared light, allowing for visualization of various tissues and structures. It is excreted primarily by the liver and has a half-life of approximately 3-4 minutes in the bloodstream.

Sentinel surveillance is a type of public health surveillance that is used to monitor the occurrence and spread of specific diseases or health events in a defined population. It is called "sentinel" because it relies on a network of carefully selected healthcare providers, hospitals, or laboratories to report cases of the disease or event of interest.

The main goal of sentinel surveillance is to provide timely and accurate information about the incidence and trends of a particular health problem in order to inform public health action. This type of surveillance is often used when it is not feasible or practical to monitor an entire population, such as in the case of rare diseases or emerging infectious diseases.

Sentinel surveillance systems typically require well-defined criteria for case identification and reporting, as well as standardized data collection and analysis methods. They may also involve active monitoring and follow-up of cases to better understand the epidemiology of the disease or event. Overall, sentinel surveillance is an important tool for detecting and responding to public health threats in a timely and effective manner.

Lymphatic irradiation is a medical procedure that involves the use of radiation therapy to target and treat the lymphatic system. This type of treatment is often used in cancer care, specifically in cases where cancer has spread to the lymph nodes. The goal of lymphatic irradiation is to destroy any remaining cancer cells in the lymphatic system and reduce the risk of cancer recurrence.

The procedure typically involves the use of a linear accelerator, which directs high-energy X-rays or electrons at the affected area. The radiation oncologist will determine the appropriate dose and duration of treatment based on the location and extent of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and medical history.

It is important to note that lymphatic irradiation can have side effects, including fatigue, skin changes, and swelling in the affected area. Patients may also experience longer-term side effects, such as lymphedema, which is a chronic swelling of the limbs due to damage to the lymphatic system.

Overall, lymphatic irradiation is an important tool in cancer care and can help improve outcomes for patients with cancer that has spread to the lymphatic system. However, it should be administered by trained medical professionals and accompanied by appropriate supportive care to manage side effects and optimize patient outcomes.

Colloids are a type of mixture that contains particles that are intermediate in size between those found in solutions and suspensions. These particles range in size from about 1 to 1000 nanometers in diameter, which is smaller than what can be seen with the naked eye, but larger than the molecules in a solution.

Colloids are created when one substance, called the dispersed phase, is dispersed in another substance, called the continuous phase. The dispersed phase can consist of particles such as proteins, emulsified fats, or finely divided solids, while the continuous phase is usually a liquid, but can also be a gas or a solid.

Colloids are important in many areas of medicine and biology, including drug delivery, diagnostic imaging, and tissue engineering. They are also found in nature, such as in milk, blood, and fog. The properties of colloids can be affected by factors such as pH, temperature, and the presence of other substances, which can influence their stability and behavior.

A feasibility study is a preliminary investigation or analysis conducted to determine the viability of a proposed project, program, or product. In the medical field, feasibility studies are often conducted before implementing new treatments, procedures, equipment, or facilities. These studies help to assess the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed intervention, as well as its potential benefits and risks.

Feasibility studies in healthcare typically involve several steps:

1. Problem identification: Clearly define the problem that the proposed project, program, or product aims to address.
2. Objectives setting: Establish specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) objectives for the study.
3. Literature review: Conduct a thorough review of existing research and best practices related to the proposed intervention.
4. Methodology development: Design a methodology for data collection and analysis that will help answer the research questions and achieve the study's objectives.
5. Resource assessment: Evaluate the availability and adequacy of resources, including personnel, time, and finances, required to carry out the proposed intervention.
6. Risk assessment: Identify potential risks and challenges associated with the implementation of the proposed intervention and develop strategies to mitigate them.
7. Cost-benefit analysis: Estimate the costs and benefits of the proposed intervention, including direct and indirect costs, as well as short-term and long-term benefits.
8. Stakeholder engagement: Engage relevant stakeholders, such as patients, healthcare providers, administrators, and policymakers, to gather their input and support for the proposed intervention.
9. Decision-making: Based on the findings of the feasibility study, make an informed decision about whether or not to proceed with the proposed project, program, or product.

Feasibility studies are essential in healthcare as they help ensure that resources are allocated efficiently and effectively, and that interventions are evidence-based, safe, and beneficial for patients.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Intraoperative care refers to the medical care and interventions provided to a patient during a surgical procedure. This care is typically administered by a team of healthcare professionals, including anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, and other specialists as needed. The goal of intraoperative care is to maintain the patient's physiological stability throughout the surgery, minimize complications, and ensure the best possible outcome.

Intraoperative care may include:

1. Anesthesia management: Administering and monitoring anesthetic drugs to keep the patient unconscious and free from pain during the surgery.
2. Monitoring vital signs: Continuously tracking the patient's heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, body temperature, and other key physiological parameters to ensure they remain within normal ranges.
3. Fluid and blood product administration: Maintaining adequate intravascular volume and oxygen-carrying capacity through the infusion of fluids and blood products as needed.
4. Intraoperative imaging: Utilizing real-time imaging techniques, such as X-ray, ultrasound, or CT scans, to guide the surgical procedure and ensure accurate placement of implants or other devices.
5. Neuromonitoring: Using electrophysiological methods to monitor the functional integrity of nerves and neural structures during surgery, particularly in procedures involving the brain, spine, or peripheral nerves.
6. Intraoperative medication management: Administering various medications as needed for pain control, infection prophylaxis, or the treatment of medical conditions that may arise during the surgery.
7. Temperature management: Regulating the patient's body temperature to prevent hypothermia or hyperthermia, which can have adverse effects on surgical outcomes and overall patient health.
8. Communication and coordination: Ensuring effective communication among the members of the surgical team to optimize patient care and safety.

A segmental mastectomy, also known as a partial mastectomy, is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of a portion of the breast tissue. This type of mastectomy is typically used to treat breast cancer that is limited to a specific area of the breast. During the procedure, the surgeon removes the cancerous tumor along with some surrounding healthy tissue, as well as the lining of the chest wall below the tumor and the lymph nodes in the underarm area.

In a segmental mastectomy, the goal is to remove the cancer while preserving as much of the breast tissue as possible. This approach can help to achieve a more cosmetic outcome compared to a total or simple mastectomy, which involves removing the entire breast. However, the extent of the surgery will depend on the size and location of the tumor, as well as other factors such as the patient's overall health and personal preferences.

It is important to note that while a segmental mastectomy can be an effective treatment option for breast cancer, it may not be appropriate for all patients or tumors. The decision to undergo this procedure should be made in consultation with a healthcare provider, taking into account the individual patient's medical history, diagnosis, and treatment goals.

Local neoplasm recurrence is the return or regrowth of a tumor in the same location where it was originally removed or treated. This means that cancer cells have survived the initial treatment and started to grow again in the same area. It's essential to monitor and detect any local recurrence as early as possible, as it can affect the prognosis and may require additional treatment.

Technetium is not a medical term itself, but it is a chemical element with the symbol Tc and atomic number 43. However, in the field of nuclear medicine, which is a branch of medicine that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose or treat diseases, Technetium-99m (a radioisotope of technetium) is commonly used for various diagnostic procedures.

Technetium-99m is a metastable nuclear isomer of technetium-99, and it emits gamma rays that can be detected outside the body to create images of internal organs or tissues. It has a short half-life of about 6 hours, which makes it ideal for diagnostic imaging since it decays quickly and reduces the patient's exposure to radiation.

Technetium-99m is used in a variety of medical procedures, such as bone scans, lung scans, heart scans, liver-spleen scans, brain scans, and kidney scans, among others. It can be attached to different pharmaceuticals or molecules that target specific organs or tissues, allowing healthcare professionals to assess their function or identify any abnormalities.

A simple mastectomy, also known as a total mastectomy, is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the entire breast tissue, including the nipple and areola, but does not include the removal of the lymph nodes or muscles in the chest wall. This type of mastectomy may be recommended for patients with early-stage breast cancer, large tumors, or multiple tumors in one breast, as well as those who have a high risk of developing breast cancer due to genetic factors.

The goal of a simple mastectomy is to remove the cancerous tissue while preserving as much healthy tissue as possible. This procedure may be performed as a preventative measure for individuals at high risk of developing breast cancer, or as a treatment option for those diagnosed with breast cancer. It's important to note that a simple mastectomy does not involve the removal of axillary lymph nodes, which are typically removed in a modified radical mastectomy for patients with breast cancer that has spread to the lymph nodes.

After the procedure, patients may require reconstructive surgery to rebuild the shape and appearance of the breast. It's essential for patients to discuss their options with their healthcare provider to determine the best course of treatment based on their individual needs and circumstances.

Lymphadenitis is a medical term that refers to the inflammation of one or more lymph nodes, which are small, bean-shaped glands that are part of the body's immune system. Lymph nodes contain white blood cells called lymphocytes, which help fight infection and disease.

Lymphadenitis can occur as a result of an infection in the area near the affected lymph node or as a result of a systemic infection that has spread through the bloodstream. The inflammation causes the lymph node to become swollen, tender, and sometimes painful to the touch.

The symptoms of lymphadenitis may include fever, fatigue, and redness or warmth in the area around the affected lymph node. In some cases, the overlying skin may also appear red and inflamed. Lymphadenitis can occur in any part of the body where there are lymph nodes, including the neck, armpits, groin, and abdomen.

The underlying cause of lymphadenitis must be diagnosed and treated promptly to prevent complications such as the spread of infection or the formation of an abscess. Treatment may include antibiotics, pain relievers, and warm compresses to help reduce swelling and discomfort.

Tuberculosis (TB) of the lymph node, also known as scrofula or tuberculous lymphadenitis, is a specific form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. It involves the infection and inflammation of the lymph nodes (lymph glands) by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium. The lymph nodes most commonly affected are the cervical (neck) and supraclavicular (above the collarbone) lymph nodes, but other sites can also be involved.

The infection typically spreads to the lymph nodes through the bloodstream or via nearby infected organs, such as the lungs or intestines. The affected lymph nodes may become enlarged, firm, and tender, forming masses called cold abscesses that can suppurate (form pus) and eventually rupture. In some cases, the lymph nodes may calcify, leaving hard, stone-like deposits.

Diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis often involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies (such as CT or MRI scans), and microbiological or histopathological examination of tissue samples obtained through fine-needle aspiration biopsy or surgical excision. Treatment typically consists of a standard anti-tuberculosis multi-drug regimen, which may include isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide for at least six months. Surgical intervention might be necessary in cases with complications or treatment failure.

Tin compounds refer to chemical substances that contain tin (Sn) combined with one or more other elements. Tin can form various types of compounds, including oxides, sulfides, halides, and organometallic compounds. These compounds have different properties and uses depending on the other element(s) they are combined with.

For example:

* Tin (IV) oxide (SnO2) is a white powder used as an opacifying agent in glass and ceramics, as well as a component in some types of batteries.
* Tin (II) sulfide (SnS) is a black or brown solid used in the manufacture of some types of semiconductors.
* Tin (IV) chloride (SnCl4) is a colorless liquid used as a catalyst in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and other plastics.
* Organotin compounds, such as tributyltin (TBT), are used as biocides and antifouling agents in marine paints. However, they have been found to be toxic to aquatic life and are being phased out in many countries.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Hematoxylin is not a medical term per se, but it is widely used in the field of histology and pathology, which are subspecialties within medicine. Hematoxylin is a natural dye that is commonly used in histological staining procedures to highlight cell nuclei in tissue samples. It is often combined with eosin, another dye, to create the well-known hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain, which is routinely used to examine tissue architecture and diagnose various medical conditions.

In essence, hematoxylin is a histological stain that selectively binds to the acidic components of nuclear chromatin, imparting a blue-purple color to the cell nuclei when visualized under a microscope. This staining technique helps pathologists and researchers identify and analyze various cellular structures and abnormalities within tissue samples.

Neoadjuvant therapy is a treatment regimen that is administered to patients before they undergo definitive or curative surgery for their cancer. The main goal of neoadjuvant therapy is to reduce the size and extent of the tumor, making it easier to remove surgically and increasing the likelihood of complete resection. This type of therapy often involves the use of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or targeted therapy, and it can help improve treatment outcomes by reducing the risk of recurrence and improving overall survival rates. Neoadjuvant therapy is commonly used in the treatment of various types of cancer, including breast, lung, esophageal, rectal, and bladder cancer.

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive type of skin cancer that originates from the uncontrolled growth of Merkel cells, which are specialized nerve cells found in the top layer of the skin (epidermis). These cells are responsible for touch sensation. MCC typically presents as a painless, firm, rapidly growing nodule or mass, often on sun-exposed areas such as the head, neck, and arms of older adults.

The primary risk factors for Merkel cell carcinoma include:

1. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight or tanning beds
2. Advanced age (most commonly occurs in people over 50)
3. A weakened immune system due to conditions like HIV/AIDS, organ transplantation, or long-term use of immunosuppressive medications
4. History of other types of skin cancer, such as melanoma or basal cell carcinoma
5. Fair skin and light eye color

MCC is considered an aggressive cancer because it can spread quickly to nearby lymph nodes and other parts of the body (metastasize). The major prognostic factor for MCC is the presence or absence of lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Early detection and treatment are crucial for improving outcomes.

Standard treatments for Merkel cell carcinoma include surgical excision, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Immunotherapy with drugs like avelumab has also shown promising results in treating advanced stages of MCC. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or metastasis.

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive optical technique that uses the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum (approximately 700-2500 nanometers) to analyze various chemical and physical properties of materials, primarily in the fields of biomedical research and industry. In medicine, NIRS is often used to measure tissue oxygenation, hemodynamics, and metabolism, providing valuable information about organ function and physiology. This technique is based on the principle that different molecules absorb and scatter near-infrared light differently, allowing for the identification and quantification of specific chromophores, such as oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and cytochrome c oxidase. NIRS can be employed in a variety of clinical settings, including monitoring cerebral or muscle oxygenation during surgery, assessing tissue viability in wound healing, and studying brain function in neuroscience research.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Neoplasm invasiveness is a term used in pathology and oncology to describe the aggressive behavior of cancer cells as they invade surrounding tissues and organs. This process involves the loss of cell-to-cell adhesion, increased motility and migration, and the ability of cancer cells to degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM) through the production of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).

Invasive neoplasms are cancers that have spread beyond the original site where they first developed and have infiltrated adjacent tissues or structures. This is in contrast to non-invasive or in situ neoplasms, which are confined to the epithelial layer where they originated and have not yet invaded the underlying basement membrane.

The invasiveness of a neoplasm is an important prognostic factor in cancer diagnosis and treatment, as it can indicate the likelihood of metastasis and the potential effectiveness of various therapies. In general, more invasive cancers are associated with worse outcomes and require more aggressive treatment approaches.

Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells, which are the cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body. These cells cover organs, glands, and other structures within the body. Carcinomas can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, lungs, breasts, prostate, colon, and pancreas. They are often characterized by the uncontrolled growth and division of abnormal cells that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body through a process called metastasis. Carcinomas can be further classified based on their appearance under a microscope, such as adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

A fine-needle biopsy (FNB) is a medical procedure in which a thin, hollow needle is used to obtain a sample of cells or tissue from a suspicious or abnormal area in the body, such as a lump or mass. The needle is typically smaller than that used in a core needle biopsy, and it is guided into place using imaging techniques such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI.

The sample obtained during an FNB can be used to diagnose various medical conditions, including cancer, infection, or inflammation. The procedure is generally considered safe and well-tolerated, with minimal risks of complications such as bleeding, infection, or discomfort. However, the accuracy of the diagnosis depends on the skill and experience of the healthcare provider performing the biopsy, as well as the adequacy of the sample obtained.

Overall, FNB is a valuable diagnostic tool that can help healthcare providers make informed decisions about treatment options and improve patient outcomes.

Squamous cell carcinoma is a type of skin cancer that begins in the squamous cells, which are flat, thin cells that form the outer layer of the skin (epidermis). It commonly occurs on sun-exposed areas such as the face, ears, lips, and backs of the hands. Squamous cell carcinoma can also develop in other areas of the body including the mouth, lungs, and cervix.

This type of cancer usually develops slowly and may appear as a rough or scaly patch of skin, a red, firm nodule, or a sore or ulcer that doesn't heal. While squamous cell carcinoma is not as aggressive as some other types of cancer, it can metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body if left untreated, making early detection and treatment important.

Risk factors for developing squamous cell carcinoma include prolonged exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds, fair skin, a history of sunburns, a weakened immune system, and older age. Prevention measures include protecting your skin from the sun by wearing protective clothing, using a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30, avoiding tanning beds, and getting regular skin examinations.

Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis is a condition characterized by the inflammation and necrosis (death of tissue) of lymph nodes, caused by an abnormal proliferation and activation of histiocytes (a type of white blood cell). It is also known as Kikuchi's disease. The exact cause of this condition is unknown, but it is thought to be related to an immune response to viral infections or other antigens.

Histopathologically, it is characterized by the presence of necrotizing granulomatous inflammation with histiocytic predominance and absence of neutrophils. The condition is typically self-limiting, with symptoms resolving within a few months without specific treatment. However, in some cases, it can be associated with systemic symptoms or other autoimmune disorders.

Adjuvant radiotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses radiation therapy as an adjunct to a primary surgical procedure. The goal of adjuvant radiotherapy is to eliminate any remaining microscopic cancer cells that may be present in the surrounding tissues after surgery, thereby reducing the risk of local recurrence and improving the chances of cure.

Radiotherapy involves the use of high-energy radiation to destroy cancer cells and shrink tumors. In adjuvant radiotherapy, the radiation is usually delivered to the tumor bed and regional lymph nodes in order to target any potential sites of residual disease. The timing and dosing of adjuvant radiotherapy may vary depending on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as other factors such as patient age and overall health status.

Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the treatment of various types of cancer, including breast, colorectal, lung, head and neck, and gynecologic cancers. Its use has been shown to improve survival rates and reduce the risk of recurrence in many cases, making it an important component of comprehensive cancer care.

In medical terms, the arm refers to the upper limb of the human body, extending from the shoulder to the wrist. It is composed of three major bones: the humerus in the upper arm, and the radius and ulna in the lower arm. The arm contains several joints, including the shoulder joint, elbow joint, and wrist joint, which allow for a wide range of motion. The arm also contains muscles, blood vessels, nerves, and other soft tissues that are essential for normal function.

A nomogram is a graphical representation of a mathematical formula or equation that allows the user to quickly solve a problem by simply drawing a line between different values on the chart. In the field of medicine, nomograms are often used as a tool for predicting patient outcomes, assessing risk, or making diagnostic decisions based on specific clinical data.

For example, a nomogram may be used to estimate the probability of survival in patients with a particular type of cancer, based on factors such as age, tumor size, and stage of disease. The user would locate the appropriate values for each factor on the nomogram, draw a line connecting them, and read off the estimated probability at the intersection point.

Nomograms can be a useful and intuitive way to communicate complex medical information and help clinicians make informed decisions in a timely manner. However, it is important to note that nomograms are only as accurate as the data they are based on, and should always be used in conjunction with clinical judgment and other relevant factors.

The breast is the upper ventral region of the human body in females, which contains the mammary gland. The main function of the breast is to provide nutrition to infants through the production and secretion of milk, a process known as lactation. The breast is composed of fibrous connective tissue, adipose (fatty) tissue, and the mammary gland, which is made up of 15-20 lobes that are arranged in a radial pattern. Each lobe contains many smaller lobules, where milk is produced during lactation. The milk is then transported through a network of ducts to the nipple, where it can be expressed by the infant.

In addition to its role in lactation, the breast also has important endocrine and psychological functions. It contains receptors for hormones such as estrogen and progesterone, which play a key role in sexual development and reproduction. The breast is also a source of sexual pleasure and can be an important symbol of femininity and motherhood.

It's worth noting that males also have breast tissue, although it is usually less developed than in females. Male breast tissue consists mainly of adipose tissue and does not typically contain functional mammary glands. However, some men may develop enlarged breast tissue due to conditions such as gynecomastia, which can be caused by hormonal imbalances or certain medications.

Cytodiagnosis is the rapid, initial evaluation and diagnosis of a disease based on the examination of individual cells obtained from a body fluid or tissue sample. This technique is often used in cytopathology to investigate abnormalities such as lumps, bumps, or growths that may be caused by cancerous or benign conditions.

The process involves collecting cells through various methods like fine-needle aspiration (FNA), body fluids such as urine, sputum, or washings from the respiratory, gastrointestinal, or genitourinary tracts. The collected sample is then spread onto a microscope slide, stained, and examined under a microscope for abnormalities in cell size, shape, structure, and organization.

Cytodiagnosis can provide crucial information to guide further diagnostic procedures and treatment plans. It is often used as an initial screening tool due to its speed, simplicity, and cost-effectiveness compared to traditional histopathological methods that require tissue biopsy and more extensive processing. However, cytodiagnosis may not always be able to distinguish between benign and malignant conditions definitively; therefore, additional tests or follow-up evaluations might be necessary for a conclusive diagnosis.

In medical terms, the "neck" is defined as the portion of the body that extends from the skull/head to the thorax or chest region. It contains 7 cervical vertebrae, muscles, nerves, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and glands (such as the thyroid gland). The neck is responsible for supporting the head, allowing its movement in various directions, and housing vital structures that enable functions like respiration and circulation.

The lymphatic system is a complex network of organs, tissues, vessels, and cells that work together to defend the body against infectious diseases and also play a crucial role in the immune system. It is made up of:

1. Lymphoid Organs: These include the spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, tonsils, adenoids, and Peyer's patches (in the intestines). They produce and mature immune cells.

2. Lymphatic Vessels: These are thin tubes that carry clear fluid called lymph towards the heart.

3. Lymph: This is a clear-to-white fluid that contains white blood cells, mainly lymphocytes, which help fight infections.

4. Other tissues and cells: These include bone marrow where immune cells are produced, and lymphocytes (T cells and B cells) which are types of white blood cells that help protect the body from infection and disease.

The primary function of the lymphatic system is to transport lymph throughout the body, collecting waste products, bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances from the tissues, and filtering them out through the lymph nodes. The lymphatic system also helps in the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins from food in the digestive tract.

Lymphangiogenesis is the formation of new lymphatic vessels from pre-existing ones. It is a complex biological process that involves the growth, differentiation, and remodeling of lymphatic endothelial cells, which line the interior surface of lymphatic vessels. Lymphangiogenesis plays crucial roles in various physiological processes, including tissue drainage, immune surveillance, and lipid absorption. However, it can also contribute to pathological conditions such as cancer metastasis, inflammation, and fibrosis when it is dysregulated.

The process of lymphangiogenesis is regulated by a variety of growth factors, receptors, and signaling molecules, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, VEGF-D, and their receptor VEGFR-3, as well as other factors such as angiopoietins, integrins, and matrix metalloproteinases. Understanding the mechanisms of lymphangiogenesis has important implications for developing novel therapies for a range of diseases associated with abnormal lymphatic vessel growth and function.

Adjuvant chemotherapy is a medical treatment that is given in addition to the primary therapy, such as surgery or radiation, to increase the chances of a cure or to reduce the risk of recurrence in patients with cancer. It involves the use of chemicals (chemotherapeutic agents) to destroy any remaining cancer cells that may not have been removed by the primary treatment. This type of chemotherapy is typically given after the main treatment has been completed, and its goal is to kill any residual cancer cells that may be present in the body and reduce the risk of the cancer coming back. The specific drugs used and the duration of treatment will depend on the type and stage of cancer being treated.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Keratin-19 is a type I acidic keratin that is primarily expressed in simple epithelia, such as the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, and epidermal appendages (e.g., hair follicles, sweat glands). It plays an essential role in maintaining the structure and integrity of these tissues by forming intermediate filaments that provide mechanical support to cells.

Keratin-19 is often used as a marker for simple epithelial differentiation and has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including cancer progression and metastasis. Mutations in the KRT19 gene, which encodes keratin-19, have been associated with certain genetic disorders, such as epidermolysis bullosa simplex, a blistering skin disorder.

In summary, Keratin-19 is an important structural protein expressed in simple epithelia that plays a crucial role in maintaining tissue integrity and has implications in various pathological conditions.

Optical imaging is a non-invasive medical imaging technique that uses light to capture images of internal structures and processes within the body. This method often involves the use of endoscopes, microscopes, or specialized cameras to visualize targeted areas, such as organs, tissues, or cells. Optical imaging can be used for various diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, including monitoring disease progression, guiding surgical procedures, and studying biological functions at the cellular level. Different optical imaging techniques include reflectance imaging, fluorescence imaging, bioluminescence imaging, and optical coherence tomography (OCT).

In summary, optical imaging is a versatile and non-ionizing medical imaging technique that utilizes light to visualize internal body structures and processes for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

Keratins are a type of fibrous structural proteins that constitute the main component of the integumentary system, which includes the hair, nails, and skin of vertebrates. They are also found in other tissues such as horns, hooves, feathers, and reptilian scales. Keratins are insoluble proteins that provide strength, rigidity, and protection to these structures.

Keratins are classified into two types: soft keratins (Type I) and hard keratins (Type II). Soft keratins are found in the skin and simple epithelial tissues, while hard keratins are present in structures like hair, nails, horns, and hooves.

Keratin proteins have a complex structure consisting of several domains, including an alpha-helical domain, beta-pleated sheet domain, and a non-repetitive domain. These domains provide keratin with its unique properties, such as resistance to heat, chemicals, and mechanical stress.

In summary, keratins are fibrous structural proteins that play a crucial role in providing strength, rigidity, and protection to various tissues in the body.

Lymphatic vessels are thin-walled, valved structures that collect and transport lymph, a fluid derived from the interstitial fluid surrounding the cells, throughout the lymphatic system. They play a crucial role in immune function and maintaining fluid balance in the body. The primary function of lymphatic vessels is to return excess interstitial fluid, proteins, waste products, and immune cells to the bloodstream via the subclavian veins near the heart.

There are two types of lymphatic vessels:

1. Lymphatic capillaries: These are the smallest lymphatic vessels, found in most body tissues except for the central nervous system (CNS). They have blind ends and are highly permeable to allow the entry of interstitial fluid, proteins, and other large molecules.
2. Larger lymphatic vessels: These include precollecting vessels, collecting vessels, and lymphatic trunks. Precollecting vessels have valves that prevent backflow of lymph and merge to form larger collecting vessels. Collecting vessels contain smooth muscle in their walls, which helps to propel the lymph forward. They also have valves at regular intervals to ensure unidirectional flow towards the heart. Lymphatic trunks are large vessels that collect lymph from various regions of the body and eventually drain into the two main lymphatic ducts: the thoracic duct and the right lymphatic duct.

Overall, lymphatic vessels play a vital role in maintaining fluid balance, immune surveillance, and waste removal in the human body.

Tumor markers are substances that can be found in the body and their presence can indicate the presence of certain types of cancer or other conditions. Biological tumor markers refer to those substances that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer or certain benign (non-cancerous) conditions. These markers can be found in various bodily fluids such as blood, urine, or tissue samples.

Examples of biological tumor markers include:

1. Proteins: Some tumor markers are proteins that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to the presence of cancer. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by normal prostate cells and in higher amounts by prostate cancer cells.
2. Genetic material: Tumor markers can also include genetic material such as DNA, RNA, or microRNA that are shed by cancer cells into bodily fluids. For example, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is genetic material from cancer cells that can be found in the bloodstream.
3. Metabolites: Tumor markers can also include metabolic products produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer. For example, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that is released into the bloodstream when cancer cells break down glucose for energy.

It's important to note that tumor markers are not specific to cancer and can be elevated in non-cancerous conditions as well. Therefore, they should not be used alone to diagnose cancer but rather as a tool in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluations.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

A nipple is a small projection or tubular structure located at the center of the areola, which is the darker circle of skin surrounding the nipple on the breast. The primary function of the nipple is to provide a pathway for milk flow from the mammary glands during lactation in females.

The nipple contains smooth muscle fibers that contract and cause the nipple to become erect when stimulated, such as during sexual arousal or cold temperatures. Nipples can come in various shapes, sizes, and colors, and some individuals may have inverted or flat nipples. It is essential to monitor any changes in the appearance or sensation of the nipples, as these could be indicative of underlying medical conditions, such as breast cancer.

Breast neoplasms in males refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the male breast tissue. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). While breast cancer is much less common in men than in women, it can still occur and should be taken seriously.

The most common type of breast cancer in men is invasive ductal carcinoma, which starts in the milk ducts and spreads to surrounding tissue. Other types of breast cancer that can occur in men include inflammatory breast cancer, lobular carcinoma, and Paget's disease of the nipple.

Risk factors for developing male breast cancer include age (most cases are diagnosed after age 60), family history of breast cancer, genetic mutations such as BRCA1 or BRCA2, radiation exposure, obesity, liver disease, and testicular conditions such as undescended testicles.

Symptoms of male breast neoplasms may include a painless lump in the breast tissue, skin changes such as dimpling or redness, nipple discharge, or a retracted nipple. If you notice any of these symptoms, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional for further evaluation and treatment.

Preoperative care refers to the series of procedures, interventions, and preparations that are conducted before a surgical operation. The primary goal of preoperative care is to ensure the patient's well-being, optimize their physical condition, reduce potential risks, and prepare them mentally and emotionally for the upcoming surgery.

Preoperative care typically includes:

1. Preoperative assessment: A thorough evaluation of the patient's overall health status, including medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and diagnostic imaging, to identify any potential risk factors or comorbidities that may impact the surgical procedure and postoperative recovery.
2. Informed consent: The process of ensuring the patient understands the nature of the surgery, its purpose, associated risks, benefits, and alternative treatment options. The patient signs a consent form indicating they have been informed and voluntarily agree to undergo the surgery.
3. Preoperative instructions: Guidelines provided to the patient regarding their diet, medication use, and other activities in the days leading up to the surgery. These instructions may include fasting guidelines, discontinuing certain medications, or arranging for transportation after the procedure.
4. Anesthesia consultation: A meeting with the anesthesiologist to discuss the type of anesthesia that will be used during the surgery and address any concerns related to anesthesia risks, side effects, or postoperative pain management.
5. Preparation of the surgical site: Cleaning and shaving the area where the incision will be made, as well as administering appropriate antimicrobial agents to minimize the risk of infection.
6. Medical optimization: Addressing any underlying medical conditions or correcting abnormalities that may negatively impact the surgical outcome. This may involve adjusting medications, treating infections, or managing chronic diseases such as diabetes.
7. Emotional and psychological support: Providing counseling, reassurance, and education to help alleviate anxiety, fear, or emotional distress related to the surgery.
8. Preoperative holding area: The patient is transferred to a designated area near the operating room where they are prepared for surgery by changing into a gown, having intravenous (IV) lines inserted, and receiving monitoring equipment.

By following these preoperative care guidelines, healthcare professionals aim to ensure that patients undergo safe and successful surgical procedures with optimal outcomes.

Quantum dots are not a medical term per se, but they are often referred to in the field of medical research and technology. Quantum dots are semiconductor nanocrystals that exhibit unique optical properties, making them useful for various applications in biology and medicine. They can range in size from 1 to 10 nanometers in diameter and can be composed of materials such as cadmium selenide (CdSe), indium arsenide (InAs), or lead sulfide (PbS).

In the medical context, quantum dots have been explored for use in bioimaging, biosensing, and drug delivery. Their small size and tunable optical properties make them ideal for tracking cells, proteins, and other biological molecules in real-time with high sensitivity and specificity. Additionally, quantum dots can be functionalized with various biomolecules, such as antibodies or peptides, to target specific cell types or disease markers.

However, it is important to note that the use of quantum dots in medical applications is still largely in the research stage, and there are concerns about their potential toxicity due to the heavy metals used in their composition. Therefore, further studies are needed to evaluate their safety and efficacy before they can be widely adopted in clinical settings.

Tyrosinase, also known as monophenol monooxygenase, is an enzyme (EC 1.14.18.1) that catalyzes the ortho-hydroxylation of monophenols (like tyrosine) to o-diphenols (like L-DOPA) and the oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones. This enzyme plays a crucial role in melanin synthesis, which is responsible for the color of skin, hair, and eyes in humans and animals. Tyrosinase is found in various organisms, including plants, fungi, and animals. In humans, tyrosinase is primarily located in melanocytes, the cells that produce melanin. The enzyme's activity is regulated by several factors, such as pH, temperature, and metal ions like copper, which are essential for its catalytic function.

MART-1, also known as Melanoma Antigen Recognized by T-Cells 1 or Melan-A, is a protein that is primarily found in melanocytes, which are the pigment-producing cells located in the skin, eyes, and hair follicles. It is a member of the family of antigens called melanoma differentiation antigens (MDAs) that are specifically expressed in melanocytes and melanomas. MART-1 is considered a tumor-specific antigen because it is overexpressed in melanoma cells compared to normal cells, making it an attractive target for immunotherapy.

MART-1 is presented on the surface of melanoma cells in complex with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, where it can be recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). This recognition triggers an immune response that can lead to the destruction of melanoma cells. MART-1 has been widely used as a target in various immunotherapy approaches, including cancer vaccines and adoptive cell transfer therapies, with the goal of enhancing the body's own immune system to recognize and eliminate melanoma cells.

Mammary ultrasonography, also known as breast ultrasound, is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses high-frequency sound waves to produce detailed images of the internal structures of the breast tissue. It is often used in conjunction with mammography to help identify and characterize breast abnormalities, such as lumps, cysts, or tumors, and to guide biopsy procedures.

Ultrasonography is particularly useful for evaluating palpable masses, assessing the integrity of breast implants, and distinguishing between solid and fluid-filled lesions. It is also a valuable tool for monitoring treatment response in patients with known breast cancer. Because it does not use radiation like mammography, mammary ultrasonography is considered safe and can be repeated as often as necessary. However, its effectiveness is highly dependent on the skill and experience of the sonographer performing the examination.

Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is a bacterial infection caused by Bartonella henselae. It is typically transmitted through contact with a cat, especially when the animal scratches or bites a person and then introduces the bacteria into the wound. The incubation period for CSD is usually 7-14 days after exposure.

The most common symptoms of CSD include:

* A small, raised bump (called a papule) that develops at the site of the scratch or bite within a few days of being scratched or bitten by a cat. This bump may be tender and can sometimes form a crust or pustule.
* Swollen lymph nodes (also called lymphadenopathy) near the site of the infection, which usually develop 1-2 weeks after the initial scratch or bite. These swollen lymph nodes are often painful and may be warm to the touch.
* Fatigue, fever, headache, and muscle aches are also common symptoms of CSD.

In most cases, cat-scratch disease is a mild illness that resolves on its own within a few weeks or months. However, in some cases, it can cause more severe complications, such as infection of the heart valves (endocarditis), inflammation of the brain (encephalitis), or damage to the eyes (retinitis).

Treatment for cat-scratch disease typically involves supportive care, such as pain relief and anti-inflammatory medications. Antibiotics may be prescribed in some cases, particularly if the infection is severe or if the patient has a weakened immune system. Preventive measures include washing hands after handling cats, avoiding rough play with cats, and promptly treating cat bites and scratches.

Neoplasms: Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that serve no physiological function. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Ductal Neoplasms: Ductal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths that occur in the milk ducts of the breast. The most common type of ductal neoplasm is ductal carcinoma, which can be either non-invasive (also known as ductal carcinoma in situ or DCIS) or invasive (also known as infiltrating ductal carcinoma).

Lobular Neoplasms: Lobular neoplasms refer to abnormal growths that occur in the milk-producing lobules of the breast. The two main types of lobular neoplasms are lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) and invasive lobular carcinoma.

Medullary Neoplasms: Medullary neoplasms refer to a type of cancer that can occur in various organs, including the breast, thyroid gland, and salivary glands. In the breast, medullary carcinoma is a rare type of invasive breast cancer that accounts for less than 5% of all breast cancers. Medullary carcinoma typically affects younger women and tends to have a better prognosis compared to other types of invasive breast cancer.

In summary, neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the body, while ductal, lobular, and medullary neoplasms refer to specific types of abnormal growths that occur in different parts of the breast or other organs.

Hodgkin disease, also known as Hodgkin lymphoma, is a type of cancer that originates in the white blood cells called lymphocytes. It typically affects the lymphatic system, which is a network of vessels and glands spread throughout the body. The disease is characterized by the presence of a specific type of abnormal cell, known as a Reed-Sternberg cell, within the affected lymph nodes.

The symptoms of Hodgkin disease may include painless swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, or groin; fever; night sweats; weight loss; and fatigue. The exact cause of Hodgkin disease is unknown, but it is thought to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and infectious factors.

Hodgkin disease is typically treated with a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or immunotherapy, depending on the stage and extent of the disease. With appropriate treatment, the prognosis for Hodgkin disease is generally very good, with a high cure rate. However, long-term side effects of treatment may include an increased risk of secondary cancers and other health problems.

Disease-free survival (DFS) is a term used in medical research and clinical practice, particularly in the field of oncology. It refers to the length of time after primary treatment for a cancer during which no evidence of the disease can be found. This means that the patient shows no signs or symptoms of the cancer, and any imaging studies or other tests do not reveal any tumors or other indications of the disease.

DFS is often used as an important endpoint in clinical trials to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatments for cancer. By measuring the length of time until the cancer recurs or a new cancer develops, researchers can get a better sense of how well a particular treatment is working and whether it is improving patient outcomes.

It's important to note that DFS is not the same as overall survival (OS), which refers to the length of time from primary treatment until death from any cause. While DFS can provide valuable information about the effectiveness of cancer treatments, it does not necessarily reflect the impact of those treatments on patients' overall survival.

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Content last modified May 2009 Gershenwald JE, Ross MI (5 May 2011). "Sentinel-Lymph-Node Biopsy for Cutaneous Melanoma". New ... and the sentinel node is identified within the incision by inspection; the isosulfan blue dye will usually stain any lymph ... tilmanocept are injected intradermally around the intended biopsy site. The general location of the sentinel node is determined ... The radioactive properties of 99mTc can be used to identify the predominant lymph nodes draining a cancer, such as breast ...
Buyten, Jeffrey (20 September 2006). "Neck Dissection and sentinel lymph node biopsy" (PDF). Grand Rounds. Department of ... Cervical lymph nodes are lymph nodes found in the neck. Of the 800 lymph nodes in the human body, 300 are in the neck. Cervical ... Lymph nodes below this plane, including the transverse cervical nodes and supraclavicular nodes (except Virchow's node which is ... affects the cervical lymph nodes which become swollen. The characterization of cancerous lymph nodes on CT scan, MRI or ...
Performed earliest & popularized Sentinel lymph node biopsy procedure in India. First in India to initiate Robotic Scarless ... A Prospective Comparative Study Of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy With Indo-Cyanine Green (ICG) Florescence Technique versus Dual ... "Sentinel lymphnode biopsy in early breast cancer using methylene blue dye and radioactive sulphur colloid - a single ...
Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the analysis of a few removed sentinel nodes for the presence of cancerous cells. A radioactive ... Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) may be used to determine if the cancer has ... Axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy, as a method of screening for metastatic disease in otherwise non-invasive DCIS, is falling ... Zujewski J, Eng-Wong J (August 2005). "Sentinel lymph node biopsy in the management of ductal carcinoma in situ". Clinical ...
Tan JC, McCready DR, Easson AM, Leong WL (February 2007). "Role of sentinel lymph node biopsy in ductal carcinoma-in-situ ... "Long-Term Outcomes of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Ductal Carcinoma in Situ". JNCI Cancer Spectrum. 3 (4): pkz052. doi: ... van Deurzen CH, Hobbelink MG, van Hillegersberg R, van Diest PJ (April 2007). "Is there an indication for sentinel node biopsy ... research indicates that sentinel node biopsy has risks that outweigh the benefits for most women with DCIS. SNB should be ...
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Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Patients with Previous Ipsilateral Complete Axillary Lymph Node Dissection". Breast Diseases: A ... "Predictors of completion axillary lymph node dissection in patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes". Ann Surg Oncol 2009 ... She has specialized in sentinel-node biopsy, a diagnostic method that determines cancer stages based on spread to regional ... PMID 21646475 Port E.R., Patil S., Stempel M., Morrow M., Cody H.S. "The Number of Nodes Removed in Sentinel Node-Negative ...
... sentinel' nodes. These can then be detected and excised during a sentinel lymph node biopsy procedure. The company's products ... "FDA Approves Magnetic System for Lymph Node Biopsy During Mastectomy". Oncology Nursing News. 26 July 2018. Retrieved 27 July ... in 2018 to identify and remove sentinel lymph nodes in women undergoing mastectomy for breast cancer. The company has won a ... The Magtrace liquid marker is injected near the tumor prior to surgery and migrates to the lymph nodes draining the primary ...
Once an MCC diagnosis is made, a sentinel lymph node biopsy as well as imaging are recommended as a part of the staging process ... Part of the staging process - sentinel lymph node biopsy - is often performed at the same time. Radiation therapy is the ... An ideal biopsy specimen is either a punch biopsy or a full-thickness incisional biopsy of the skin including full-thickness ... Diagnosis of MCC begins with a clinical examination of the skin and lymph nodes to determine suspicious areas for further ...
June 1999). "Sentinel lymph node biopsy with metastasis: can axillary dissection be avoided in some patients with breast cancer ... March 1999). "Immunohistochemistry with pancytokeratins improves the sensitivity of sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with ... July 1999). "99mTc-human serum albumin: an effective radiotracer for identifying sentinel lymph nodes in melanoma". J. Nucl. ... His research also has discovered alternate sentinel lymph node mapping possibilities and opportunities to avoid axillary ...
"Timing of sentinel lymph node biopsy and reconstruction for patients undergoing mastectomy" Annuals of Plastic Surgery. ... As a member of a cooperative group to validate the use of sentinel node biopsy for staging breast cancer, Dr. Rosenberg ... "Novel intraoperative molecular test for sentinel lymph node metastases in patients with early-stage breast cancer" Journal of ... "Sentinel node staging for breast cancer: intraoperative molecular pathology overcomes conventional histologic sampling errors" ...
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Ultrasound-guided percutaneous axillary lymph node core biopsy: how often is the sentinel lymph node being biopsied? The Breast ... Use of ultrasound-guided axillary node core biopsy in staging of early breast cancer. European Radiology 2009; 19: 561-569 ... In 2009, Wishart pioneered preoperative axillary lymph node staging in breast cancer treatment. Gordon Wishart currently holds ...
"The Lymphatic Anatomy of the Breast and its Implications for Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy: A Human Cadaver Study". Annals of ... The subareolar plexus of Sappey communicated with the plexus of lymph nodes located in the deep fascia of pectoralis major ...
2012). "Sentinel lymph node biopsy before mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction may predict post-mastectomy ... Mannu GS, Navi A, Hussien M (June 2015). "Sentinel lymph node biopsy before mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction does ...
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Povoski, S.P., Dauway, E.L. and Ducatman, B.S. (2002). Sentinel lymph node mapping and biopsy for breast cancer at a rural- ... Radioguidance for nonpalpable primary lesions and sentinel lymph node(s). The American Journal of Surgery, 182(4), pp. 404-406 ... Results from that study indicated that the surgeons had discovered a safe new method of taking biopsies from lesions in the ... "Radioactive Seeds Localize Biopsy Lesions, American College of Surgeons". NewsWise. 14 October 1999. Retrieved 20 November 2019 ...
Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLB or SLN biopsy) allows selective, minimally invasive access for assessment of the regional lymph ... "Sentinel Node Biopsy by Indocyanine Green Retention Fluorescence Detection for Inguinal Lymph Node Staging of Anal Cancer: ... The first draining lymph note, the "sentinel", represents an existing or non-existing tumour of an entire lymph node region. ... fluorescent dye-based navigation for sentinel lymph node biopsy and real-time lymphography with solitary tumors'] (in German). ...
The sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the standard of care for detecting nodal metastases in cutaneous melanoma patients and ... Moody, J.A. (2017). "Complications of sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma - A systematic review of the literature". ... is able to identify cutaneous melanoma patients at low-risk for nodal metastasis who may forgo the sentinel lymph node biopsy ( ... Yousaf, A. (2021). "Validation of CP-GEP (Merlin Assay) for predicting sentinel lymph node metastasis in primary cutaneous ...
The concept of the sentinel lymph node is important because of the advent of the sentinel lymph node biopsy technique, also ... also termed sentinel lymph node biopsy or SLNB) is the identification, removal and analysis of the sentinel lymph nodes of a ... "Sentinel node biopsy". Cancer Management Handbook. August 11, 2011. "Sentinel Lymph Node". Know Your Body. "International ... The sentinel lymph node is the hypothetical first lymph node or group of nodes draining a cancer. In case of established ...
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... lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel lymph node biopsy, parathyroid imaging for hyperparathyroidism, pulmonary perfusion and ... for measuring sentinel lymph node uptake during mastectomy procedures to and for radiation safety. In the United States, the ...
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The sentinel lymph node is the first node where a cancer usually spreads. The test can show whether your cancer is likely to ... A sentinel lymph node biopsy is a test that checks lymph nodes for cancer cells. Some cancers, such as breast cancer and ... What is a sentinel lymph node biopsy?. A sentinel lymph node biopsy is a test that checks lymph nodes for cancer cells. Lymph ... Other names: lymph node biopsy, sentinel node biopsy, sentinel lymph node mapping and biopsy ...
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Discover the impact of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy (SLNB) in melanoma staging. Explore guidelines for SLNB in thin melanomas and ... Predicting Sentinel and Residual Lymph Node Basin Disease after Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Melanoma. Cancer, 89, 453-462. ... The Role of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Thin Melanoma (Breslow Thickness ≤ 0.75 mm and 0.76 mm - 1.0 mm Respectively): Our ... Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy (SLNB) in melanoma is an important tool of staging. The impact on overall survival still remains ...
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Utility of MIA and MSKCC Nomograms in Selecting Patients With Melanoma for Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy J Surg Oncol · May 02, ... Alternatives and a Reduced Need for Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Staging for Melanoma Eur. J. Cancer · March 13, 2023 ... Are the MIA and MSKCC nomograms useful in selecting patients with melanoma for sentinel lymph node biopsy?. J Surg Oncol 2023 ... Utility of MIA and MSKCC Nomograms in Selecting Patients With Melanoma for Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Journal of Surgical ...
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Zitelli walked us through the new and changing role of sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma during the ODAC Dermatology ... set out to prove the survival benefit of sentinel lymph node biopsy in melanoma. However, sentinel lymph node biopsy failed to ... Sentinel lymph node biopsy improves survival. What the evidence shows: There is not a single solid tumor for which sentinel ... lymph node biopsy has been shown to provide a survival benefit.. Weve been told that sentinel lymph node biopsy improves ...
Biopsy of the sentinel lymph node (SLN)-the first node to be involved in lymphatic spread-can predict the potential for cancer ... encoded search term (Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Patients With Melanoma) and Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Patients With ... Biopsy of the sentinel lymph node (SLN)-the first node to be involved in lymphatic spread-can predict the potential for cancer ... "sentinel node" (SN) or "sentinel lymph node" (SLN). [14] Finally, in 1992, Morton et al showed that the SLN could accurately ...
Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has replaced the routine level I and II axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for women with ... internal mammary lymph node biopsy, criteria for patient selection (in intraductal carcinoma?), its staging accuracy, and the ... the evaluation of internal mammary lymph nodes and determination of micrometastases by hematoxylin-eosin or by ... clinically node-negative T1 and T2 breast cancer. Studies have shown that SLNB is highly predictive of axillary nodal status ...
The concept of sentinel node biopsy and utilization of the Maruyama Computer Program are significant components of stage- ... The concept of sentinel node biopsy and utilization of the Maruyama Computer Program are significant components of stage- ... Postoperative morbidity and accurate nodal staging are heavily influenced by the extent of lymph node dissection. On one hand, ... Approximately one-third of patients with gastric cancer undergoes an avoidable lymph node dissection. Many of the recent ...
Breast Biopsy Surgery. Laparoscopic Gallbladder Surgery. Laparoscopic Hernia Surgery. Lumpectomy & Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. ... Blue dye for the sentinel lymph node biopsy may cause some bluish discoloration of your breast and will turn your urine blue. ... If more than 6 lymph nodes were removed, your surgeon will explain exercises at your post-op check. Most patients can drive ... Lumpectomy & Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. *You are here: *Home. *Lumpectomy & Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy ...
ASO Visual Abstract: The Association of Guideline-Concordant Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Melanoma at Minority-Serving ... ASO Visual Abstract: The Association of Guideline-Concordant Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Melanoma at Minority-Serving ... ASO Visual Abstract : The Association of Guideline-Concordant Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Melanoma at Minority-Serving ... title = "ASO Visual Abstract: The Association of Guideline-Concordant Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Melanoma at Minority- ...
Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. For women who have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, a sentinel lymph node biopsy enables ... so that the sentinel nodes become readily apparent. If cancer is detected, additional lymph nodes may be removed. ... The type of procedure depends on the stage of the cancer, how big the tumor is, whether lymph nodes are involved, the chances ... a surgeon to determine whether the cancer has spread beyond the primary tumor and into the lymph nodes. During this procedure, ...
Sentinel node biopsy for diagnosis of lymph node involvement in endometrial cancer. Overview of attention for article published ... Accuracy and Survival Outcomes after National Implementation of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Early Stage Endometrial Cancer. ... Lymphadenectomy or sentinel node biopsy for the management of endometrial cancer: a network meta‐analysis. Article (September ...
... What is this leaflet about?. If you have ... you may be eligible and benefit from an addition procedure called sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). This leaflet explains what ...
keywords = "Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, Sentinel lymph node, Sentinel lymph node biopsy", ... "Sentinel lymph node biopsy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma",. abstract = "Objectives/Hypothesis: Sentinel lymph node ... On average, 2.9 sentinel lymph nodes (range, 1-5) were identified in 2.2 (range, 1-4) levels of the neck. Sentinel lymph nodes ... On average, 2.9 sentinel lymph nodes (range, 1-5) were identified in 2.2 (range, 1-4) levels of the neck. Sentinel lymph nodes ...
Melanoma and the Role of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Los Angeles, CA ... However, sentinel lymph node biopsy for T1 melanomas (those tumors of Breslow depths less than or equal to 1 mm) and, ... Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is a procedure that has been developed as a minimally invasive procedure not associated with ... Article 5: Melanoma and the Role of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Article 6: Desmoid tumors of Bilateral Breasts. Article 7: The ...
... provided both radioisotope and blue dye are used to locate the sentinel nodes. Hiram S Cody (2003). Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy ... This major randomized trial performed in several centres in the UK produced clear evidence that sentinel node biopsy (SNB), ...
... ... The Role of redo-Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Patients With Prior Ipsilateral Breast Cancer Surgery , Clinical Breast Cancer ...
Sentinel lymph node biopsy for evaluation and treatment of patients with Merkel Cell Carcinoma.. Gupta SG, Wang LC, Penas PF, ... Sentinel lymph node biopsy detects MCC spread in one third of patients whose tumors would have otherwise been clinically and ... To determine the diagnostic accuracy and usefulness of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and computed tomographic scans in the ... for detecting MCC that had spread to the lymph node basin and low specificity for distant disease (only 4 of 21 "positive" ...
Objective Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy aims to assess lymph node status with reduced surgical morbidity. The aim of the ... Sentinel lymph node biopsy alone in the management of early cervical carcinoma ... Sentinel lymph node biopsy alone in the management of early cervical carcinoma ... Of 103 patients, 7 (6.7%) patients had lymph node involvement. There were no pelvic or para-aortic lymph node recurrences with ...
... including sentinel lymph nodes, in cases of breast carcinoma significantly underestimates lymph node metastases. This ... deficiency may be overcome by SS of the entire lymph nodes and staining with a specific monoclonal antibody. The percentage of ... but it is feasible if applied only to sentinel lymph nodes. Methods: Sentinel lymph nodes from 52 patients with invasive breast ... Conclusions: Routine histologic examination of axillary lymph nodes, including sentinel lymph nodes, in cases of breast ...
Radioisotope and blue dye are standard agents for performing sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in breast cancer. The paucity of ... Evaluation of Dual Dye Technique for Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer: Two-Arm Open-Label Parallel Design Non- ... Evaluation of Dual Dye Technique for Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer: Two-Arm ... Upfront operable node negative early breast cancer was included in the study. Clinico-demographic data, number & type of SLN, ...
Validation of subareolar and periareolar injection techniques for breast sentinel lymph node biopsy. In: Archives of Surgery. ... Validation of subareolar and periareolar injection techniques for breast sentinel lymph node biopsy. Archives of Surgery. 2004 ... Validation of subareolar and periareolar injection techniques for breast sentinel lymph node biopsy. / Chagpar, Anees; Martin, ... title = "Validation of subareolar and periareolar injection techniques for breast sentinel lymph node biopsy", ...
Sentinel node biopsy and radical lymph node dissection for advanced melanoma in the elderly. *V Desiato. 1, ... Desiato, V., Perrotta, S., Benassai, G. et al. Sentinel node biopsy and radical lymph node dissection for advanced melanoma in ... Sentinel node biopsy and radical lymph node dissection for advanced melanoma in the elderly ... During the last decade, the Sentinel Node Biopsy (SNB), from a research procedure, has become standard of care in most ...
  • The use of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) could be a promising procedure to assess this risk in clinically N0 patients. (hindawi.com)
  • However, because of its low morbidity when compared to empiric elective lymph node dissection or radiation therapy of lymphatic basins, SLNB has allowed sparing a lot of morbidity and could therefore be used in nonmelanoma skin cancer patients, even though a significant impact on survival has not been demonstrated. (hindawi.com)
  • 20 years ago [ 1 ], sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) was introduced for melanoma patients and later for numerous other tumors with lymphatic metastatic propensity. (hindawi.com)
  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is a minimally invasive way to diagnose axillary lymph node (ALN) metastases in breast cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Introduction: The Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy (SLNB) in melanoma is an important tool of staging. (scirp.org)
  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) at upfront surgery is the gold-standard surgical method for axillary lymph node staging in early stage breast cancer: the technique provides adequate information regarding axillary status, with similar oncological safety and lower morbidity compared to axillary dissection, despite the false negative rates. (qxmd.com)
  • This paper reviews current evidence on the management of axillary surgery following NACT under different circumstances, with suggested recommendations in each scenario: clinically negative nodes at diagnosis and SLNB after NACT, clinically positive nodes at diagnosis and SLNB after NACT, positive SLNB following NACT and finally the possibility of omitting axillary surgery in good responders. (qxmd.com)
  • Optimal treatment for clinically localized melanoma requires surgical control of the primary site and accurate staging of the regional nodal basin with sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). (medscape.com)
  • In 1992, the technique of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) was introduced to the field of melanoma care and publications detailing its use continue to grow exponentially. (medscape.com)
  • Many other areas of active research on this topic are ongoing, including investigations into improved selection criteria for patients undergoing SLNB based on features of the primary tumor, refinements in histopathologic and molecular evaluation of the sentinel node (SN), the prognostic importance of positive non-SNs and quality of life following the procedure, to name a few. (medscape.com)
  • Performing a sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) to determine whether cancer cells have migrated requires reliable and accurate marking of the sentinel nodes. (endomag.com)
  • Despite the advantages of SLNB over more invasive procedures such as axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), the conventional method involves injecting a radioactive tracer with blue dye, then localizing the lymph nodes using a gamma probe. (endomag.com)
  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has replaced the routine level I and II axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for women with clinically node-negative T1 and T2 breast cancer. (istanbul.edu.tr)
  • In addition to this, you may be eligible and benefit from an addition procedure called sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). (ekhuft.nhs.uk)
  • Studies have demonstrated sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) as a valid and relatively minimally invasive technique for evaluating regional lymph nodes in patients with melanoma. (aaps1921.org)
  • This helps ensure the lymph drainage is intact so the results of the SLNB are accurate. (cancer.org)
  • If the SLNB is negative (the sentinel nodes do not contain cancer cells), no more lymph node surgery is needed because it's very unlikely the cancer would have spread beyond this point. (cancer.org)
  • If your results are positive, it means cancer was found and may have spread to nearby lymph nodes and/or other organs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This is a good sign that your cancer hasn't spread to nearby lymph nodes or other organs. (healthline.com)
  • A conservative approach to lymph node removal surgery may be best for people with melanoma that has spread from the skin to one or a small number of nearby lymph nodes, new results from a large international clinical trial suggest. (cancer.gov)
  • In the trial, there was no difference in melanoma-specific survival between patients who had only the lymph nodes to which the cancer was most likely to spread, known as sentinel lymph nodes, removed and patients who had more extensive surgery to remove additional nearby lymph nodes. (cancer.gov)
  • Many types of cancer spread through the lymphatic system and nearby lymph nodes are one of the first places they spread to. (bupa.co.uk)
  • Even in people who have MCC with no obvious spread to nearby lymph nodes (or distant organs), about 1 out of 3 have cancer cells in their lymph nodes when the nodes are looked at with a microscope. (cancer.org)
  • But radiation therapy might still be given to the nearby lymph nodes just in case. (cancer.org)
  • If cancer cells are found in the sentinel node(s), the other nearby lymph nodes are often taken out and checked, too. (cancer.org)
  • Treatment involves wide surgical excision of individual lesions and removal of regional lymph node metastases. (hughesplasticsurgery.com)
  • Historically, a formal lymph node dissection (LND) was performed after wide local excision of the melanoma to prevent the dissemination of the tumor throughout the body. (hughesplasticsurgery.com)
  • site of the primary several hours before the excision of the node or nodes is to be performed. (hughesplasticsurgery.com)
  • Karakousis C, Grigoropoulos P: Sentinel node biopsy before and after wide excision of the primary melanoma. (edu.pl)
  • If MCC is diagnosed from the biopsy, a wide excision (described below) is used to remove more skin and other nearby tissues. (cancer.org)
  • Methods: All the axillary sentinel and nonsentinel lymph nodes of 1228 patients were reviewed histologically and reclassified according to the current TNM classification of malignant tumors as bearing isolated tumor cells only, micrometastases, or (macro)metastases. (uniba.it)
  • The prevalence of metastases in nonsentinel lymph nodes was correlated to the type of SLN involvement and the size of the metastasis, the number of affected SLNs, and the prospectively collected clinicopathologic variables of the primary tumors. (uniba.it)
  • Factors predictive of tumor-positive nonsentinel lymph nodes after tumor-positive sentinel lymph node dissection for melanoma. (edu.pl)
  • The node is usually located near the site of the original tumor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A sentinel lymph node (SLN) is the first lymph node or group of nodes to receive lymphatic drainage from a tumor at a particular anatomic area. (medscape.com)
  • The crux of sentinel lymph node biopsy is based on the theory of orderly progression , in which malignant melanoma cells leave the tumor and preferentially enter the lymphatics and the first lymph node. (orlandoderm.org)
  • There is not a single solid tumor for which sentinel lymph node biopsy has been shown to provide a survival benefit. (orlandoderm.org)
  • The type of procedure depends on the stage of the cancer, how big the tumor is, whether lymph nodes are involved, the chances of a recurrence, and a woman's own comfort level, among other factors. (qualityhealth.com)
  • For women who have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer , a sentinel lymph node biopsy enables a surgeon to determine whether the cancer has spread beyond the primary tumor and into the lymph nodes. (qualityhealth.com)
  • During this procedure, the skin near the tumor is injected with either a radioactive isotope or a blue dye (or both) so that the sentinel nodes become readily apparent. (qualityhealth.com)
  • Tumor metastases were found in 6 patients (12%) when the sentinel lymph nodes were sectioned at 2 mm intervals and stained with H & E, compared with 30 patients (58%) when the same lymph nodes were serially sectioned at 0.25 mm intervals and stained with cytokeratin. (nih.gov)
  • Natural history of melanoma in 733 patients with tumor-negative sentinel lymph nodes. (edu.pl)
  • Mapping is done before a biopsy using a mildly radioactive liquid that's injected into the site of your primary cancer or tumor. (healthline.com)
  • Lymphoscintigraphy is indicated for proven palpable or nonpalpable invasive breast carcinoma for which removal of the primary tumor and axillary node dissection would be indicated. (medscape.com)
  • If the sentinel lymph node is negative for metastasis, it is likely that the neoplasm is still within the location of the primary tumor. (medscape.com)
  • The surgical approach may be an incisional biopsy, which removes only part of the abnormal area, or an excisional biopsy, which removes the entire tumor. (medpagetoday.com)
  • A margin or edge of normal breast tissue around the tumor may also be removed, depending on the reason for the biopsy. (medpagetoday.com)
  • This surgery involves removal of the all breast tissue including the tumor, the nipple, areola, and skin overlying the tumor, as well as the axillary (under arm) lymph nodes. (preferhome.com)
  • When a diagnosis of MCC is made by skin biopsy, the tumor site will most likely need to be surgically cut out (excised) to help make sure the cancer has been removed completely. (cancer.org)
  • In such cases, full-thickness incisional or punch biopsy is an acceptable alternative, provided that the procedure allows for accurate primary tumor microstaging and does not interfere with treatment planning. (medpagetoday.com)
  • MRI is more reliable than CT scanning in revealing metastatic nodal disease and extracapsular spread of tumor in lymph nodes smaller than 2 cm in diameter. (medscape.com)
  • Our purpose was to address some of the ongoing controversies about this procedure, including technical issues, use of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy, internal mammary lymph node biopsy, criteria for patient selection (in intraductal carcinoma? (istanbul.edu.tr)
  • Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is a procedure that has been developed as a minimally invasive procedure not associated with any significant morbidity. (hughesplasticsurgery.com)
  • Sentinel node biopsy in melanoma: technical considerations of the procedure as performed at the John Wayne Cancer Institute. (aaps1921.org)
  • Your doctor or the technician performing your sentinel node mapping procedure may inject a numbing solution along with the radioactive material that traces your lymph flow. (healthline.com)
  • Sentinel node mapping is rapidly becoming an alternative staging procedure for the axilla in managing early breast cancer . (medscape.com)
  • [ 2 ] The procedure is applicable to almost all regions of the body, but the greatest impetus to the technique came with the application of the procedure to identify breast sentinel nodes. (medscape.com)
  • Lymphoscintigraphy is an important procedure because if the sentinel node is free of metastasis, subsequent nodes are also likely to be free of disease. (medscape.com)
  • [ 13 ] The Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial concluded that sentinel node scanning is a low-morbidity procedure for evaluating the regional nodal basin in early melanoma and should become the standard of care. (medscape.com)
  • In comparison, axillary lymphadenectomy, also called axillary lymph node dissection , is a surgical procedure where the lymph nodes are dissected out within the axilla en bloc. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Surgical biopsy requires preoperative localization to guide the procedure. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Background: The sentinel lymph node biopsy is a standard procedure for staging clinically node negative patients with early invasive breast cancer and melanoma. (amjcaserep.com)
  • That procedure involved removal of all breast tissue,the pectoralis muscles of the chest wall, overlying skin, and all regional lymph nodes. (preferhome.com)
  • The axillary lymph nodes are not removed in this procedure. (preferhome.com)
  • This procedure is less invasive and better tolerated by the patient when compared to axillary lymph node dissection. (preferhome.com)
  • Lymph node removal is a surgical procedure to take out one or more of your lymph nodes. (bupa.co.uk)
  • In this procedure, your surgeon removes a number of lymph nodes from your armpit (axilla). (bupa.co.uk)
  • A potential diagnostic pitfall is the presence of vascular metastasis in the intracapsular lymphatic vessels of the node, which mimics capsular nevi. (medscape.com)
  • Lymph nodes are the most common location for metastasis, with a strong correlation between metastasis in the lymphatic system and prognosis. (medscape.com)
  • Excisional biopsy might be undesirable or inappropriate for certain sites, such as the face, palms, soles of the feet, or under a toenail or fingernail, as well as for large lesions. (medpagetoday.com)
  • No compelling evidence exists to suggest that one type of excisional biopsy is superior to the others. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Three of 20 patients had cervical metastases, and the sentinel lymph node was identified in 2 of 3 patients with pathologic nodes (pN+). (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Retrospective serial sectioning of axillary lymph nodes has revealed undetected metastases in 9-30% of these patients. (nih.gov)
  • Routine histologic examination of axillary lymph nodes, including sentinel lymph nodes, in cases of breast carcinoma significantly underestimates lymph node metastases. (nih.gov)
  • Objective: To assess whether the risk for nonsentinel node metastases may be predicted, thus sparing a subgroup of patients with breast carcinoma and a positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). (uniba.it)
  • A predictive model based on the characteristics most strongly associated with nonsentinel node metastases was able to identify subgroups of patients at significantly different risk for further axillary involvement. (uniba.it)
  • Conclusions: Patients with the most favorable combination of predictive factors still have no less than 13% risk for nonsentinel lymph node metastases and should be offered completion ALND outside of clinical trials of SLN biopsy without back-up axillary clearing. (uniba.it)
  • The patients whose sentinel node included metastases found in the H+E examination or micrometastases identified by means of the immunohistochemical investigation were subjected to a supplementary lymphadenectomy.Results. (edu.pl)
  • In a group of 28 patients (12.3%), the presence of metastases within the sentinel node was visualised by means of H+E examination. (edu.pl)
  • Supplementary lymphadenectomy was carried out in patients who screened positive, and metastases were identified in other regional lymph nodes in 11 (4.8%) patients.Conclusions. (edu.pl)
  • In a study of patients with early-stage cervical cancer presented by Balaya et al during the Gynecologic Cancer Oral Abstract Session of the ASCO20 Virtual Scientific Program (Abstract 6006), researchers assessed disease-free and disease-specific survival to determine whether sentinel lymph node. (ascopost.com)
  • Lymphoscintigraphic imaging revealed one sentinel lymph node in the right axilla, which was successfully removed. (amjcaserep.com)
  • Again lymphoscintigraphy was performed and revealed three sentinel lymph nodes in the right axilla. (amjcaserep.com)
  • Lymphosintigraphic imaging showed three sentinel lymph nodes, all three again in th right axilla. (amjcaserep.com)
  • During the operation five sentinel lymph nodes from the right axilla were found and removed. (amjcaserep.com)
  • Recent studies have shown that removal of the sentinel lymph node is just as safe and accurate as traditional armpit surgery which removes more nodes. (ulh.nhs.uk)
  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy - removal of the sentinel lymph node. (bupa.co.uk)
  • 4 patients from group B had positive SLN (11.1%) and underwent Completion Lymph Node Dissection (CLND). (scirp.org)
  • In fact, 33% of patients who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy, did so because they thought it would improve their survival. (orlandoderm.org)
  • Twenty patients (stage NO) whose treatment included elective neck dissection were studied with preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and underwent intraoperative identification of the sentinel lymph node to determine the accuracy and feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Interventions: All patients underwent attempted SLN biopsy followed by completion axillary dissection. (utmb.edu)
  • 2326 breast cancer patients of the Austrian Sentinel node study group who underwent SN biopsy and intraoperative FS examination of the SN were further analysed for incorrect negative results and clinicopathologic factors indicating a higher rate of incorrect negative results. (nih.gov)
  • Nonmelanoma skin cancer with potential metastatic spreading to regional lymph nodes regroups skin lesions like high-risk squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), and pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM). (hindawi.com)
  • Fine-needle aspiration ( FNA ) biopsy is performed using a small needle to obtain samples of tissue and fluid from solid or cystic breast lesions. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Benefits include cost-effectiveness, simplicity, and ability to perform multiple biopsies of separate lesions within the same breast quadrant. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) recommends three types of excisional biopsies for suspicious pigmented lesions: elliptical, punch, and saucerization (deep shave). (medpagetoday.com)
  • A superficial shave biopsy can compromise the diagnosis and assessment of Breslow thickness, but is acceptable for low-suspicion lesions. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Objectives/Hypothesis: Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a minimally invasive method to stage the regional lymphatics that has revolutionized the management of patients with intermediate-thickness cutaneous melanoma. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Conclusions: Sentinel lymph node biopsy is technically feasible and is a promising, minimally invasive method for staging the regional lymphatics in patients with stage NO HNSCC. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • A leader in disseminating novel techniques such as minimally invasive inguinal lymph node surgery and radioactive seed localized breast surgery. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The difference in disease-free survival , the study authors wrote, appears to be due to a reduction in recurrence of cancer in the lymph nodes after completion lymph-node surgery. (cancer.gov)
  • The sentinel lymph node biopsy provides reliable information about whether there is cancer in the lymph nodes while removing far less lymph nodes. (preferhome.com)
  • These patients are then typically offered a completion lymphadenectomy to remove the remainder of the lymph nodes in that anatomic area to improve local control of disease. (medscape.com)
  • While SLN biopsy offers valuable prognostic information, there is little evidence that either SLN biopsy or completion lymphadenectomy affects survival. (medscape.com)
  • A cornerstone trial, the Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial (MSLT-1), set out to prove the survival benefit of sentinel lymph node biopsy in melanoma. (orlandoderm.org)
  • On one hand, insufficient lymphadenectomy may result in understaging and undertreatment of a patient, on the other hand, unnecessary lymph node dissection may result in a higher rate of postoperative complications. (frontiersin.org)
  • 3. The application of sentinel node biopsy allowed lymphadenectomy to be avoided in 154 (67.8%) patients. (edu.pl)
  • Lymphadenectomy - the medical term for lymph node removal. (bupa.co.uk)
  • A sentinel lymph node biopsy may be done in a hospital or an outpatient surgical center. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Objective Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy aims to assess lymph node status with reduced surgical morbidity. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusion In carefully selected patients with early cervical carcinoma, SLN biopsy alone appears to be a safe method for lymph node assessment of women undergoing surgical staging. (bmj.com)
  • A model to predict the status of nonsentinel axillary lymph nodes could help tailor surgical therapy to those patients most-likely to benefit from completion ALND. (uniba.it)
  • There are two basic types of breast biopsy -- needle and surgical. (medpagetoday.com)
  • They can be placed days in advance of surgical biopsy and at the patient's convenience. (medpagetoday.com)
  • It seems logical to take those nodes out, even if we can't detect melanoma there yet," to keep the cancer from spreading, explained MSLT-II lead investigator Mark Faries, M.D., a surgical oncologist at the Angeles Clinic and Research Institute, an affiliate of Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, in Los Angeles. (cancer.gov)
  • Lymphoscintigraphy takes pictures of the lymphatic system and is used to locate the sentinel lymph node. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Multiinstitutional melanoma lymphatic mapping experience: the prognostic value of sentinel lymph node status in 612 stage I or II melanoma patients. (edu.pl)
  • Intraoperative left axillary sentinel lymph node seen after uptake with blue dye. (medscape.com)
  • Thirty percent of lymph node negative patients with operable breast carcinoma experience disease recurrence within 10 years. (nih.gov)
  • Lymph nodes are part of the lymphatic system, a network of organs and vessels that help the body fight infections and other diseases. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Lymph nodes are sampling organs , sampling antigens in order to initiate an immune response. (orlandoderm.org)
  • Lymph nodes are small organs spread throughout the body as a part of the lymphatic system. (healthline.com)
  • This usually indicates that your cancer has spread from its original location to the sentinel lymph node and possibly other lymph nodes or organs. (healthline.com)
  • Lymph nodes are small, kidney bean-shaped organs found throughout your body, including in your armpits, neck and groin. (bupa.co.uk)
  • The management of lymph nodes in nonmelanoma skin cancer patients is currently still debated. (hindawi.com)
  • By definition, sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) are analyzed in patients who do not have a clinically positive lymph node. (medscape.com)
  • Methods: The ongoing international non-inferiority SENOMAC trial randomizes clinically node-negative breast cancer patients (T1-T3) with 1-2 sentinel lymph node (SLN) macrometastases to completion ALND or no further axillary surgery. (lu.se)
  • Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), traditionally used for locally advanced breast cancer, plays an important role in the treatment of early stage breast cancer, making downstaging possible in axillary lymph node and breast cancer, thus minimizing the impact of surgery and reducing morbidity, as well as enabling patients with residual disease to be selected for adjuvant treatment. (qxmd.com)
  • Subsequently, MSLT-2 looked at whether removing positive lymph nodes further down the line would improve survival in patients who had positive sentinel lymph nodes - this was also a negative study. (orlandoderm.org)
  • After the revision of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system for breast cancer in 2002, the evaluation of internal mammary lymph nodes and determination of micrometastases by hematoxylin-eosin or by immunohistochemistry have become increasingly important in staging of patients. (istanbul.edu.tr)
  • Approximately one-third of patients with gastric cancer undergoes an avoidable lymph node dissection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Head and neck surgeons have been encouraged by the accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy in cutaneous melanoma and have applied the technique to patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Study Design: Two methods of investigation were employed: a prospective laboratory study using a feline model for sentinel lymph node biopsy and a retrospective review of patients who received lymphoscintigraphy before neck dissection and intraoperative identification of the sentinel lymph node. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • In the human study, the sentinel lymph node was accurately identified in 19 of 20 (95%) NO patients. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Sentinel lymph nodes were bilateral in 4 of 19 patients. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • 9, 20 Additionally, survival rates for T1 patients generally range from 91 to 95%, and patients with melanomas less than 1.0 mm in depth have a relatively low risk (2% to 6%) of metastatic melanoma in the SLN node. (hughesplasticsurgery.com)
  • All patients were given the choice of pelvic node dissection and SLN mapping or SLN only. (bmj.com)
  • Of 103 patients, 7 (6.7%) patients had lymph node involvement. (bmj.com)
  • Sentinel lymph nodes from 52 patients with invasive breast carcinoma were cut at 2 mm intervals, fixed in 10% formalin, and embedded in paraffin. (nih.gov)
  • The percentage of patients found to have colonies of cells that were missed by routine sectioning corresponds closely to the percentage of "lymph node negative" patients who would be expected to relapse. (nih.gov)
  • Results: An SLN biopsy was performed in 3961 patients using blue dye alone or radioactive colloid plus blue dye. (utmb.edu)
  • Summary Background Data: The SLN is the only involved axillary lymph node in the majority of the patients undergoing ALND for a positive SLN biopsy. (uniba.it)
  • Intraoperative frozen section (FS) examination of the Sentinel node (SN) in breast cancer patients is questioned due to the relatively high number of positive SN(s) found in the permanent histological examination. (nih.gov)
  • This study reviews the data of the Austrian sentinel node study group on FS examination of the SN and tries to identify patients with a high risk of incorrect negative results. (nih.gov)
  • Incorrect negative results of FS examination are seen in 15% of patients and require a secondary axillary lymph node dissection. (nih.gov)
  • From 2000 to 2004, a sentinel node biopsy was carried out on 227 patients being treated for skin melanoma. (edu.pl)
  • In all the patients, the sentinel node was subjected to a standard histological evaluation with the application of H+E staining. (edu.pl)
  • The sentinel node was identified in all the patients. (edu.pl)
  • 1. After finishing the learning curve, the sentinel node biopsy is a simple and effective method, enabling precise assessment of the lymphatic system in patients with skin melanoma. (edu.pl)
  • Review and evaluation of sentinel node procedur es in 250 melanoma patients with a median follow-up of 6 years. (edu.pl)
  • Ariyan S, Ariyan C, Farber LR, Fischer DS, Flynn SD, Truini C. Reliability of identification of 655 sentinel lymph nodes in 263 consecutive patients with malignant melanoma. (aaps1921.org)
  • In managing these patients, palpating the regional lymph nodes is important because the spread to the conjunctival sac's ipsilateral preauricular, submandibular, and cervical nodes is well recognized. (medscape.com)
  • Most patients with newly diagnosed melanoma undergo a sentinel lymph node biopsy, in which the sentinel lymph nodes are removed and examined to find out if the cancer has spread from the skin. (cancer.gov)
  • Most patients in the study had one or two cancer-containing sentinel nodes. (cancer.gov)
  • At their most recent follow-up visit, 24.1% of patients in the completion group and 6.3% in the observation group had had lymphedema, a condition that occurs when excess lymph fluid builds up in tissues and causes swelling. (cancer.gov)
  • These trials will provide information about whether certain groups of patients benefit from radiation after surgery and whether patients with cancer that has spread to lymph nodes benefit from chemotherapy or pelvic radiation therapy. (cancer.org)
  • Is Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Alone Oncologically Safe for Patients With Early-Stage Cervical Cancer? (ascopost.com)
  • You may also be injected with a blue dye that stains the lymph node, making it easier to see. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Blue dye for the sentinel lymph node biopsy may cause some bluish discoloration of your breast and will turn your urine blue. (advancedsurg.net)
  • Tc-SC and isosulfan blue dye were used to study the injection technique for the mucosal lymphatics and to determine the time course of the dye and Tc-SC to the sentinel lymph node. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Results: In the feline study, both Tc-SC and isosulfan blue dye traversed the lymphatics rapidly, appearing in the sentinel lymph node in less than 5 minutes. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • This major randomized trial performed in several centres in the UK produced clear evidence that sentinel node biopsy (SNB), used to stage axillary spread of disease, can be used with low failed localization and false negative rates, provided both radioisotope and blue dye are used to locate the sentinel nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of the study was to determine the accuracy and safety of SLN biopsy in the management of early cervical carcinoma using a double technique (technetium-99m (Tc-99m) nanocolloid and methylene blue dye injection). (bmj.com)
  • Radioisotope and blue dye are standard agents for performing sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in breast cancer . (bvsalud.org)
  • Introduction: This report evaluates whether health related quality of life (HRQoL) and patient-reported arm morbidity one year after axillary surgery are affected by the omission of axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). (lu.se)
  • Conclusion: One year after surgery, arm morbidity is significantly worse affected by ALND than by SLN biopsy only. (lu.se)
  • The SLN is defined as the first lymph node or nodes to receive lymphatic drainage from the primary, as such, are the nodes most likely to contain metastatic deposits. (hughesplasticsurgery.com)
  • In case of new primary cancers or recurrent cancers a second sentinel lymph node biopsy was shown to be feasible in the same nodal basin. (amjcaserep.com)
  • Case Report: We present and discuss the case of a 57 years old female who had three consecutive sentinel lymph node biopsies successfully performed in the same nodal basin. (amjcaserep.com)
  • Conclusions: This case report indicates that a second and even third sentinel lymph node biopsy in the same nodal basin is feasible and representative. (amjcaserep.com)
  • Referred pain to the ear (through the lingual nerve), halitosis, evidence of regional lymph node involvement, and bleeding are signs of advanced disease. (medscape.com)
  • A handheld gamma probe used by the surgeon will detect the radioactive tracer as it collects at the node. (hughesplasticsurgery.com)
  • Approximately 1 to 4 nodes are usually removed, and afterwards the gamma probe is used to determine that bed counts are less than 10% of the counts of the least radioactive SLN. (hughesplasticsurgery.com)
  • Hypothesis: Subareolar or periareolar injection of radioactive technetium sulfur colloid is equivalent to other injection techniques for breast cancer sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy. (utmb.edu)
  • The radioactive fluid is carried along the lymph vessels to the sentinel lymph node. (ulh.nhs.uk)
  • During your operation the surgeon will use a special probe to remove the radioactive node as this is the node most likely to be the SLN. (ulh.nhs.uk)
  • Postoperative morbidity and accurate nodal staging are heavily influenced by the extent of lymph node dissection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Sentinel node biopsy for early-stage melanoma: Accuracy and morbidity in MSLT-I, an international multicenter trial. (aaps1921.org)
  • Lymphoscintigraphy is the staging modality of choice for early breast cancer, and breast cancer trials with 5- to 10-year outcome data have shown no significant differences in disease-free survival rates or overall survival rates between lymphoscintigraphy and axial lymph node dissection but have shown significantly lower morbidity with lymphoscintigraphy. (medscape.com)
  • Having swollen lymph nodes doesn't mean that you'll necessarily need your lymph nodes removed. (bupa.co.uk)
  • Swollen lymph nodes often get better on their own. (bupa.co.uk)
  • However, sentinel lymph node biopsy for T1 melanomas (those tumors of Breslow depths less than or equal to 1 mm) and, particularly, biopsy for those between 0.75 mm and 1.0 mm is controversial. (hughesplasticsurgery.com)
  • For people who have certain types of cancer, lymph nodes may contain bits of tumors or cancer cells that have separated from the primary location, traveling along the highway before settling at a pit stop. (healthline.com)
  • The sentinel lymph node, which can be identified by a radioisotope, visual dye, or both, is based on the principle that primary tumors drain to one or or more lymph nodes before they spread widely. (medscape.com)
  • A sentinel lymph node biopsy is used to find out whether an early-stage cancer has spread through the lymphatic system. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Lymphoscintigraphy (sentinel lymph node mapping) is an imaging technique that is used to identify the lymph drainage basin, determine the number of sentinel nodes, differentiate sentinel nodes from subsequent nodes, locate the sentinel node in an unexpected location, and mark the sentinel node over the skin for biopsy. (medscape.com)
  • Lymphoscintigraphy allows the patient to avoid axillary clearance surgery ( axillary lymph node dissection ) if the sentinel node is negative for metastatic disease. (medscape.com)
  • Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM), and other rare skin neoplasms have a well-known risk to spread to regional lymph nodes. (hindawi.com)
  • Because of this, a sentinel lymph node biopsy (described in Tests for Merkel Cell Carcinoma ) is a very important part of determining the stage of the cancer. (cancer.org)
  • A recent meta-analysis to examine the relationship between biopsy technique and four melanoma outcomes showed a small but significant increase in all-cause mortality with punch biopsies. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The concept of sentinel node biopsy and utilization of the Maruyama Computer Program are significant components of stage-adapted gastric cancer surgery. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recognized expert in lymph node surgery for many types of cancer. (mayoclinic.org)
  • [ 6 ] Sentinel node scanning was initially studied in cutaneous melanomas to detect lymphatic drainage patterns before surgery. (medscape.com)
  • But, until now, the survival benefit of this "completion" lymph node surgery had been unclear. (cancer.gov)
  • Half of the 1,934 study participants were randomly assigned to have immediate surgery to remove the remaining lymph nodes in the area near the sentinel nodes (completion-surgery group). (cancer.gov)
  • The only remaining question is whether any patient with sentinel node-positive melanoma should undergo immediate completion lymph-node [surgery]. (cancer.gov)
  • Surgery to remove lymph nodes may be done at the same time as your main surgery for cancer. (bupa.co.uk)
  • If more than 6 lymph nodes were removed, your surgeon will explain exercises at your post-op check. (advancedsurg.net)
  • What Does the Pathologist Exactly Need From the Surgeon When Carrying Out a Lymph Node Biopsy? (bccancer.bc.ca)
  • Your surgeon will also likely use at least topical anesthetics during the biopsy, in some cases, general anesthesia may be used. (healthline.com)
  • This then travels to the involved lymph nodes, and the surgeon is able to visualize or use a special detector to identify the 'sentinel' lymph node, which is then removed. (preferhome.com)
  • However, sentinel lymph node biopsy failed to improve melanoma specific survival. (orlandoderm.org)
  • We've been told that sentinel lymph node biopsy improves survival in intermediate thickness melanoma, because subclinical deposits are removed from the lymph nodes before they can grow. (orlandoderm.org)
  • The survival advantage of SLN biopsy was statistically significant for each T-stage category (T2, T3, and T4). (hughesplasticsurgery.com)
  • If the pathologist finds the sentinel lymph node/nodes contain cancer, you will need more armpit treatment. (ulh.nhs.uk)
  • The lymph node is then removed through this incision and sent to a pathologist for testing. (healthline.com)
  • A positive result on your biopsy means that the pathologist found cancer cells in the lymph node. (healthline.com)
  • Core needle biopsy ( CNB ) removes a small tissue sample, through a very small incision, with a hollow-core needle. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Serial sectioning (SS) is impractical for all axillary lymph nodes harvested from Levels I and II, but it is feasible if applied only to sentinel lymph nodes. (nih.gov)
  • Macrophages, pigmented or not, may resemble metastatic melanoma in the sentinel lymph nodes (SLN). (medscape.com)