The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth as detected by THERMORECEPTORS.
The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.
Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.
A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Failure of voluntary control of the anal sphincters, with involuntary passage of feces and flatus.
Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The smallest difference which can be discriminated between two stimuli or one which is barely above the threshold.
The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.

Transient and permanent deficits in motion perception after lesions of cortical areas MT and MST in the macaque monkey. (1/3575)

We examined the nature and the selectivity of the motion deficits produced by lesions of extrastriate areas MT and MST. Lesions were made by injecting ibotenic acid into the representation of the left visual field in two macaque monkeys. The monkeys discriminated two stimuli that differed either in stimulus direction or orientation. Direction and orientation discrimination were assessed by measuring thresholds with gratings and random-dots placed in the intact or lesioned visual fields. At the start of behavioral testing, we found pronounced, motion-specific deficits in thresholds for all types of moving stimuli, including pronounced elevations in contrast thresholds and in signal-to-noise thresholds measured with moving gratings, as well as deficits in direction range thresholds and motion coherence measured with random-dot stimuli. In addition, the accuracy of direction discrimination was reduced at smaller spatial displacements (i.e. step sizes), suggesting an increase in spatial scale of the residual directional mechanism. Subsequent improvements in thresholds were seen with all motion stimuli, as behavioral training progressed, and these improvements occurred only with extensive behavioral testing in the lesioned visual field. These improvements were particularly pronounced for stimuli not masked by noise. On the other hand, deficits in the ability to extract motion from noisy stimuli and in the accuracy of direction discrimination persisted despite extensive behavioral training. These results demonstrate the importance of areas MT and MST for the perception of motion direction, particularly in the presence of noise. In addition, they provide evidence for the importance of behavioral training for functional recovery after cortical lesions. The data also strongly support the idea of functional specialization of areas MT and MST for motion processing.  (+info)

Spinal cord-evoked potentials and muscle responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation in 10 awake human subjects. (2/3575)

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TCMS) causes leg muscle contractions, but the neural structures in the brain that are activated by TCMS and their relationship to these leg muscle responses are not clearly understood. To elucidate this, we concomitantly recorded leg muscle responses and thoracic spinal cord-evoked potentials (SCEPs) after TCMS for the first time in 10 awake, neurologically intact human subjects. In this report we provide evidence of direct and indirect activation of corticospinal neurons after TCMS. In three subjects, SCEP threshold (T) stimulus intensities recruited both the D wave (direct activation of corticospinal neurons) and the first I wave (I1, indirect activation of corticospinal neurons). In one subject, the D, I1, and I2 waves were recruited simultaneously, and in another subject, the I1 and I2 waves were recruited simultaneously. In the remaining five subjects, only the I1 wave was recruited first. More waves were recruited as the stimulus intensity increased. The presence of D and I waves in all subjects at low stimulus intensities verified that TCMS directly and indirectly activated corticospinal neurons supplying the lower extremities. Leg muscle responses were usually contingent on the SCEP containing at least four waves (D, I1, I2, and I3).  (+info)

Electrophysiological evidence for tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels in slowly conducting dural sensory fibers. (3/3575)

A tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant sodium channel was recently identified that is expressed only in small diameter neurons of peripheral sensory ganglia. The peripheral axons of sensory neurons appear to lack this channel, but its presence has not been investigated in peripheral nerve endings, the site of sensory transduction in vivo. We investigated the effect of TTX on mechanoresponsiveness in nerve endings of sensory neurons that innervate the intracranial dura. Because the degree of TTX resistance of axonal branches could potentially be affected by factors other than channel subtype, the neurons were also tested for sensitivity to lidocaine, which blocks both TTX-sensitive and TTX-resistant sodium channels. Single-unit activity was recorded from dural afferent neurons in the trigeminal ganglion of urethan-anesthetized rats. Response thresholds to mechanical stimulation of the dura were determined with von Frey monofilaments while exposing the dura to progressively increasing concentrations of TTX or lidocaine. Neurons with slowly conducting axons were relatively resistant to TTX. Application of 1 microM TTX produced complete suppression of mechanoresponsiveness in all (11/11) fast A-delta units [conduction velocity (c.v.) 5-18 m/s] but only 50% (5/10) of slow A-delta units (1.5 +info)

Uninjured C-fiber nociceptors develop spontaneous activity and alpha-adrenergic sensitivity following L6 spinal nerve ligation in monkey. (4/3575)

We investigated whether uninjured cutaneous C-fiber nociceptors in primates develop abnormal responses after partial denervation of the skin. Partial denervation was induced by tightly ligating spinal nerve L6 that innervates the dorsum of the foot. Using an in vitro skin-nerve preparation, we recorded from uninjured single afferent nerve fibers in the superficial peroneal nerve. Recordings were made from 32 C-fiber nociceptors 2-3 wk after ligation and from 29 C-fiber nociceptors in control animals. Phenylephrine, a selective alpha1-adrenergic agonist, and UK14304 (UK), a selective alpha2-adrenergic agonist, were applied to the receptive field for 5 min in increasing concentrations from 0.1 to 100 microM. Nociceptors from in vitro control experiments were not significantly different from nociceptors recorded by us previously in in vivo experiments. In comparison to in vitro control animals, the afferents found in lesioned animals had 1) a significantly higher incidence of spontaneous activity, 2) a significantly higher incidence of response to phenylephrine, and 3) a higher incidence of response to UK. In lesioned animals, the peak response to phenylephrine was significantly greater than to UK, and the mechanical threshold of phenylephrine-sensitive afferents was significantly lower than for phenylephrine-insensitive afferents. Staining with protein gene product 9.5 revealed an approximately 55% reduction in the number of unmyelinated terminals in the epidermis of the lesioned limb compared with the contralateral limb. Thus uninjured cutaneous C-fiber nociceptors that innervate skin partially denervated by ligation of a spinal nerve acquire two abnormal properties: spontaneous activity and alpha-adrenergic sensitivity. These abnormalities in nociceptor function may contribute to neuropathic pain.  (+info)

Quantitative structure-activity relationships for nasal pungency thresholds of volatile organic compounds. (5/3575)

A model was developed for describing the triggering of nasal pungency in humans, based on the partition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) between the air phase and the biophase. Two partition parameters are used in the model: the water-air partition coefficient and the octanol-water partition coefficient. The model was validated using data from the literature, principally on alcohols, acetates and ketones. The model suggests that all test compounds, regardless of their chemical functional groups, bind to a common receptor site within the hydrophobic interior of the bilayer membrane of the trigeminal nerve endings. There is probably only a slight, non-specific interaction between the VOC molecule and the receptor molecule, whereas this type of non-specific interaction for the detection of odor is much stronger. In practical terms, the suggestion that all VOCs share a common irritation receptor site implies that nasal-pungency thresholds of individual VOCs may be additive. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for nasal-pungency thresholds were also developed from the model, which can be used to predict nasal-pungency thresholds of common VOCs. Although the present model does not offer additional precision over that of M.H. Abraham et al., 1996, Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 31, 71-76, it requires fewer descriptors and offers a physiological basis to the QSAR. Another advantage of the present model is that it also provides a basis for comparison between the olfactory process and nasal pungency.  (+info)

Paradoxical heat sensation in healthy subjects: peripherally conducted by A delta or C fibres? (6/3575)

Paradoxical heat sensation upon cooling of the skin has been reported in central as well as in peripheral neurological conditions. In our study, we examined this phenomenon in 35 naive healthy test subjects, of whom 23 experienced paradoxical heat sensation under test conditions. We measured the peripheral conduction velocities of cold sensation, warm sensation and of paradoxical heat sensation by using a quantitative sensory testing model of indirect peripheral conduction velocity measurement. This was based on comparison of measurements at a proximal and a distal site using two measurement methods, one inclusive and the other exclusive of reaction time. We found that the conduction velocity of paradoxical heat sensation (0.70 m/s) was similar to that of warm sensation (0.68 m/s), and that the conduction velocity of cold sensation (7.74-8.01 m/s) was considerably faster. Thus, we conclude that paradoxical heat sensation in healthy subjects is conducted peripherally via slow unmyelinated C fibres and not via the faster A delta fibres. Consequently, we propose that paradoxical heat sensation is encoded via the heat sensing pathway, in accordance with the labelled-line code theory. The mechanisms proposed suggest a malfunctioning cold-sensing pathway disinhibiting the heat-sensing pathway, at peripheral, central or both levels, thus facilitating a paradoxical heat sensation.  (+info)

Impairment in preattentive visual processing in patients with Parkinson's disease. (7/3575)

We explored the possibility of whether preattentive visual processing is impaired in Parkinson's disease. With this aim, visual discrimination thresholds for orientation texture stimuli were determined in two separate measurement sessions in 16 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The results were compared with those of 16 control subjects age-matched and 16 young healthy volunteers. Discrimination thresholds were measured in a four-alternative spatial forced-choice paradigm, in which subjects judged the location of a target embedded in a background of distractors. Four different stimulus configurations were employed: (i) a group of vertical targets among horizontal distractors ('vertical line targets'); (ii) targets with varying levels of orientation difference on a background of spatially filtered vertically oriented noise ('Gaussian filtered noise'); (iii) one 'L' among 43 '+' signs ('texton'), all of which assess preattentive visual processing; and (iv) control condition, of one 'L' among 43 'T' distractors ('non-texton' search target), which reflects attentive visual processing. In two of the preattentive tasks (filtered noise and texton), patients with Parkinson's disease required significantly greater orientation differences and longer stimulus durations, respectively. In contrast, their performance in the vertical line target and non-texton search target was comparable to that of the matched control subjects. These differences were more pronounced in the first compared with the second session. Duration of illness and age within the patient group correlated significantly with test performance. In all conditions tested, the young control subjects performed significantly better than the more elderly control group, further indicating an effect of age on this form of visual processing. The results suggest that, in addition to the well documented impairment in retinal processing, idiopathic Parkinson's disease is associated with a deficit in preattentive cortical visual processing.  (+info)

NOS inhibitor antagonism of PGE2-induced mechanical sensitization of cutaneous C-fiber nociceptors in the rat. (8/3575)

Prostaglandins, metabolites of arachidonic acid, released during tissue injury and inflammation sensitize primary afferent nociceptors. While it has been suggested that this effect on nociceptors is mediated mainly via the cAMP second messenger system, recent evidence suggests that nitric oxide (NO) is also involved in peripheral pain mechanisms. To test the hypothesis that NO contributes to the sensitization of nociceptors to mechanical stimuli induced by hyperalgesic prostaglandins, we compared von Frey hair mechanical threshold as well as the response evoked by 10-s sustained threshold mechanical stimulation before and after injection of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) alone, and NOS inhibitor NG-methyl-L-arginine (L-NMA) or its inactive stereoisomer NG-methyl-D-arginine (D-NMA) plus PGE2, adjacent to the receptive field of C-fiber nociceptors. The reduction of mechanical threshold and increase in number of action potentials to sustained mechanical stimulation induced by intradermal application of PGE2 was blocked by L-NMA, but not D-NMA. It is suggested that NO contributes to nociceptor sensitization induced by hyperalgesic prostaglandins.  (+info)

Sensory thresholds are the minimum levels of stimulation that are required to produce a sensation in an individual, as determined through psychophysical testing. These tests measure the point at which a person can just barely detect the presence of a stimulus, such as a sound, light, touch, or smell.

There are two types of sensory thresholds: absolute and difference. Absolute threshold is the minimum level of intensity required to detect a stimulus 50% of the time. Difference threshold, also known as just noticeable difference (JND), is the smallest change in intensity that can be detected between two stimuli.

Sensory thresholds can vary between individuals and are influenced by factors such as age, attention, motivation, and expectations. They are often used in clinical settings to assess sensory function and diagnose conditions such as hearing or vision loss.

Thermosensing refers to the ability of living organisms to detect and respond to changes in temperature. This is achieved through specialized proteins called thermosensors, which are capable of converting thermal energy into chemical or electrical signals that can be interpreted by the organism's nervous system. Thermosensing plays a critical role in regulating various physiological processes, such as body temperature, metabolism, and development. In medicine, understanding thermosensing mechanisms can provide insights into the treatment of conditions associated with impaired temperature regulation, such as fever or hypothermia.

In medical terms, sensation refers to the ability to perceive and interpret various stimuli from our environment through specialized receptor cells located throughout the body. These receptors convert physical stimuli such as light, sound, temperature, pressure, and chemicals into electrical signals that are transmitted to the brain via nerves. The brain then interprets these signals, allowing us to experience sensations like sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell.

There are two main types of sensations: exteroceptive and interoceptive. Exteroceptive sensations involve stimuli from outside the body, such as light, sound, and touch. Interoceptive sensations, on the other hand, refer to the perception of internal bodily sensations, such as hunger, thirst, heartbeat, or emotions.

Disorders in sensation can result from damage to the nervous system, including peripheral nerves, spinal cord, or brain. Examples include numbness, tingling, pain, or loss of sensation in specific body parts, which can significantly impact a person's quality of life and ability to perform daily activities.

Pain threshold is a term used in medicine and research to describe the point at which a stimulus begins to be perceived as painful. It is an individual's subjective response and can vary from person to person based on factors such as their pain tolerance, mood, expectations, and cultural background.

The pain threshold is typically determined through a series of tests where gradually increasing levels of stimuli are applied until the individual reports feeling pain. This is often used in research settings to study pain perception and analgesic efficacy. However, it's important to note that the pain threshold should not be confused with pain tolerance, which refers to the maximum level of pain a person can endure.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "touch" is not a term that has a specific medical definition in the context you've provided. In a general sense, touch refers to the ability to perceive things through physically contacting them, which is a function of our nervous system. However, it's not a term used to describe a specific medical condition, diagnosis, treatment, or procedure. If you have any more specific context or question in mind, I'd be happy to try and help further!

In the context of medicine and physiology, vibration refers to the mechanical oscillation of a physical body or substance with a periodic back-and-forth motion around an equilibrium point. This motion can be produced by external forces or internal processes within the body.

Vibration is often measured in terms of frequency (the number of cycles per second) and amplitude (the maximum displacement from the equilibrium position). In clinical settings, vibration perception tests are used to assess peripheral nerve function and diagnose conditions such as neuropathy.

Prolonged exposure to whole-body vibration or hand-transmitted vibration in certain occupational settings can also have adverse health effects, including hearing loss, musculoskeletal disorders, and vascular damage.

Fecal incontinence is the involuntary loss or leakage of stool (feces) from the rectum. It is also known as bowel incontinence. This condition can range from occasional leakage of stool when passing gas to a complete loss of bowel control. Fecal incontinence can be an embarrassing and distressing problem, but there are treatments available that can help improve symptoms and quality of life.

The causes of fecal incontinence can vary, but some common factors include:

* Damage to the muscles or nerves that control bowel function, such as from childbirth, surgery, spinal cord injury, or long-term constipation or diarrhea.
* Chronic digestive conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), or celiac disease.
* Neurological conditions, such as multiple sclerosis, stroke, or spina bifida.
* Aging, which can lead to a decrease in muscle strength and control.

Treatment for fecal incontinence depends on the underlying cause of the condition. Treatments may include:

* Bowel training exercises to improve muscle strength and control.
* Changes in diet to help regulate bowel movements.
* Medications to treat constipation or diarrhea.
* Surgery to repair damaged muscles or nerves, or to create a new opening for stool to exit the body.

If you are experiencing symptoms of fecal incontinence, it is important to speak with your healthcare provider. They can help determine the cause of your symptoms and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) diseases, also known as Peripheral Neuropathies, refer to conditions that affect the functioning of the peripheral nervous system, which includes all the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. These nerves transmit signals between the central nervous system (CNS) and the rest of the body, controlling sensations, movements, and automatic functions such as heart rate and digestion.

PNS diseases can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, toxins, metabolic disorders, trauma, or autoimmune conditions. The symptoms of PNS diseases depend on the type and extent of nerve damage but often include:

1. Numbness, tingling, or pain in the hands and feet
2. Muscle weakness or cramps
3. Loss of reflexes
4. Decreased sensation to touch, temperature, or vibration
5. Coordination problems and difficulty with balance
6. Sexual dysfunction
7. Digestive issues, such as constipation or diarrhea
8. Dizziness or fainting due to changes in blood pressure

Examples of PNS diseases include Guillain-Barre syndrome, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, diabetic neuropathy, and peripheral nerve injuries. Treatment for these conditions varies depending on the underlying cause but may involve medications, physical therapy, lifestyle changes, or surgery.

In medical terms, pressure is defined as the force applied per unit area on an object or body surface. It is often measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) in clinical settings. For example, blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the arteries and is recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (when the heart beats and pushes blood out) and diastolic pressure (when the heart rests between beats).

Pressure can also refer to the pressure exerted on a wound or incision to help control bleeding, or the pressure inside the skull or spinal canal. High or low pressure in different body systems can indicate various medical conditions and require appropriate treatment.

Manometry is a medical test that measures pressure inside various parts of the gastrointestinal tract. It is often used to help diagnose digestive disorders such as achalasia, gastroparesis, and irritable bowel syndrome. During the test, a thin, flexible tube called a manometer is inserted through the mouth or rectum and into the area being tested. The tube is connected to a machine that measures and records pressure readings. These readings can help doctors identify any abnormalities in muscle function or nerve reflexes within the digestive tract.

Pain measurement, in a medical context, refers to the quantification or evaluation of the intensity and/or unpleasantness of a patient's subjective pain experience. This is typically accomplished through the use of standardized self-report measures such as numerical rating scales (NRS), visual analog scales (VAS), or categorical scales (mild, moderate, severe). In some cases, physiological measures like heart rate, blood pressure, and facial expressions may also be used to supplement self-reported pain ratings. The goal of pain measurement is to help healthcare providers better understand the nature and severity of a patient's pain in order to develop an effective treatment plan.

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. It is a complex phenomenon that can result from various stimuli, such as thermal, mechanical, or chemical irritation, and it can be acute or chronic. The perception of pain involves the activation of specialized nerve cells called nociceptors, which transmit signals to the brain via the spinal cord. These signals are then processed in different regions of the brain, leading to the conscious experience of pain. It's important to note that pain is a highly individual and subjective experience, and its perception can vary widely among individuals.

In a medical context, "hot temperature" is not a standard medical term with a specific definition. However, it is often used in relation to fever, which is a common symptom of illness. A fever is typically defined as a body temperature that is higher than normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F) for adults and above 37.5-38°C (99.5-101.3°F) for children, depending on the source.

Therefore, when a medical professional talks about "hot temperature," they may be referring to a body temperature that is higher than normal due to fever or other causes. It's important to note that a high environmental temperature can also contribute to an elevated body temperature, so it's essential to consider both the body temperature and the environmental temperature when assessing a patient's condition.

The Differential Threshold, also known as the Just Noticeable Difference (JND), is the minimum change in a stimulus that can be detected or perceived as different from another stimulus by an average human observer. It is a fundamental concept in psychophysics, which deals with the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they produce.

The differential threshold is typically measured using methods such as the method of limits or the method of constant stimuli, in which the intensity of a stimulus is gradually increased or decreased until the observer can reliably detect a difference. The difference between the original stimulus and the barely detectable difference is then taken as the differential threshold.

The differential threshold can vary depending on a number of factors, including the type of stimulus (e.g., visual, auditory, tactile), the intensity of the original stimulus, the observer's attention and expectations, and individual differences in sensory sensitivity. Understanding the differential threshold is important for many applications, such as designing sensory aids for people with hearing or vision impairments, optimizing the design of multimedia systems, and developing more effective methods for detecting subtle changes in physiological signals.

The auditory threshold is the minimum sound intensity or loudness level that a person can detect 50% of the time, for a given tone frequency. It is typically measured in decibels (dB) and represents the quietest sound that a person can hear. The auditory threshold can be affected by various factors such as age, exposure to noise, and certain medical conditions. Hearing tests, such as pure-tone audiometry, are used to measure an individual's auditory thresholds for different frequencies.

Several different sensory thresholds have been defined; Absolute threshold: the lowest level at which a stimulus can be ... "Determination of sensory thresholds". Retrieved 2016-12-02. "Sensation: Thresholds and Psychophysics". users. ... In measuring sensory threshold, noise must be accounted for. Signal noise is defined as the presence of extra, unwanted energy ... When related to motion in any of the possible six degrees of freedom (6-DoF), the fact that sensory thresholds exist is why it ...
Regardless of the sensory domain, there are three main areas of investigation: absolute thresholds, discrimination thresholds ... Absolute threshold is also often referred to as detection threshold. Several different methods are used for measuring absolute ... For 'absolute thresholds' again the subject reports whether they are able to detect the stimulus. For 'difference thresholds' ... A threshold is estimated from the mean midpoint of all runs. This estimate approaches, asymptotically, the correct threshold. ...
... with their sensory threshold and common sensory descriptors: 4-ethylphenol (>140 μg/L): Band-aids, barnyard, horse stable, ... Levels above the sensory threshold of >30 μg/L in white wines and >50 μg/L for red wines, give the wine characteristics of ... The sensory threshold for acetaldehyde is 100-125 mg/L. Beyond this level it imparts a sherry type character to the wine which ... The sensory threshold for hydrogen sulfide is 8-10 μg/L, with levels above this imparting a distinct rotten egg aroma to the ...
Main article: Sensory processing disorder Some people have an abnormally high or low absolute threshold for one or more senses ... Limen Psychometric function Sensory threshold Colman, Andrew M. (2009). A Dictionary of Psychology. OUP Oxford. p. 3. ISBN 978- ... The absolute threshold relates to the sound that can just be heard by the organism. An example of absolute threshold of hearing ... The absolute threshold can be compared to the difference threshold, which is the measure of how different two stimuli must be ...
... increases the sensory threshold. In other words, sleeping persons perceive fewer stimuli, but can generally still respond ... Sleep is a state of reduced mental and physical activity in which consciousness is altered and sensory activity is inhibited to ... the forebrain then creates a story in an attempt to reconcile and make sense of the nonsensical sensory information presented ... to loud noises and other salient sensory events. During slow-wave sleep, humans secrete bursts of growth hormone. All sleep, ...
Blakeslee, A. F. (1 January 1932). "Genetics of Sensory Thresholds: Taste for Phenyl Thio Carbamide". Proceedings of the ... In 1949, Harris and Kalmus developed a method for differentiation of bimodal threshold stimuli for tasting PTC. They proposed a ... binding of a ligand to the extracellular region of the receptor sets an action potential that sends an impulse to the sensory ...
2006): Aesthetic Sensitivity (AES, having greater awareness of beauty), Low Sensory Threshold (LST, easily unpleasantly aroused ... Sensory processing sensitivity (SPS) is a temperamental or personality trait involving "an increased sensitivity of the central ... By way of definition, Aron and Aron (1997) wrote that sensory processing here refers not to the sense organs themselves, but to ... Aron, E.; Aron, A.; Jagiellowicz, J. (2012). "Sensory processing sensitivity: A review in the light of the evolution of ...
Sensory processing is often affected, especially the vestibular system. A high pain threshold is often observed. If speech ...
Have a relatively low-threshold sensory apparatus. Mainly located at the pulp-dentine border at the top of the pulp, and more ... The differing structural features of the two sensory nerve fibres also result in different types of sensory stimulation. ... Sensory nerve fibers that originate from inferior and superior alveolar nerves innervate the odontoblastic layer of the pulp ... There are two main types of sensory nerve fibres in the pulp, each densely placed at different locations. ...
The thalamus is responsible for relaying sensory and motor signals to the cerebral cortex. Therefore, much research has been ... Low-threshold spikes (LTS) refer to membrane depolarizations by the T-type calcium channel. LTS occur at low, negative, ... The spike is typically crowned by a burst of two to seven action potentials, which is known as a low-threshold burst. LTS are ... Low-threshold calcium spikes have been described in neurons from a variety of brain nuclei, including the thalamic relay, ...
"Limiares/Threshold". Dan Cameron. Retrieved 2023-04-24. Schwabsky, Barry. "Studio Visit" (PDF). Trans: 86-93. Brea, José Luis ... "Exhibition at D MUSEUM fills entire museum with sound and multi-sensory experiences". Retrieved 2023-03-30. " ... "José Luis Brea on "Threshold"". Retrieved 2023-04-24. "Studio Guenzani - Exhibitions - Kristin Oppenheim" (in ... Threshold: Ten American Sculptors, curated by Dan Cameron. The exhibition was held at the Fundação de Serralves in Porto, ...
... evaluation of sensory thresholds in the lumbar area". Pain. 36 (3): 289-295. doi:10.1016/0304-3959(89)90087-0. PMID 2710558. ... sensory) nerve fibers entering the spinal cord at the same level as the superficial, somatic structures experiencing the pain. ... is due to the low density of sensory innervation of viscera and the extensive divergence of visceral input within the central ...
This is also called sensory threshold or threshold of responsiveness. Is the child bothered by external stimuli like noises, ... and a low threshold for pleasure. This factor reflects the degree to which a child can focus attention, is not easily ... and sensory sensitivity. Redundancies between the categories have been found and a reduced list is normally used by ...
Thewissen, J. G. M. (2008). Sensory Evolution on the Threshold Adaptations in Secondarily Aquatic Vertebrates (1st ed.). ... Thewissen, J. G. M.; Nummela, S. (2008). Sensory Evolution on the Threshold: Adaptations in Secondarily Aquatic Vertebrates. ...
"The specification and wiring of mammalian cutaneous low-threshold mechanoreceptors". Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: ... Type II sensory fiber (group Aβ) is a type of sensory fiber, the second of the two main groups of touch receptors. The ... Type II sensory fiber (group Aα) is another type of sensory fiber, which participate in the sensation of body position ( ... Type II sensory fibers are slowly-adapting (SA), meaning that even when there is no change in touch, they keep respond to ...
Rand Evans, "The Just Noticeable Difference: Psychophysical instrumentation and the determination of sensory thresholds". ... At first I conceived the problem in purely sensationist terms, sought to determine thresholds experimentally, raised the ...
In Sensory Evolution On the Threshold: Adaptations in Secondarily Aquatic Vertebrates. University of California Press, 43-63. ... In lieu of the organ, fish possess sensory epithelium that contains three types of sensory cells, two of which are responsible ... Like other sensory systems, prolonged exposure to an odorant often leads to a stimulus-specific decrease in olfactory ... Nozawa M, Kawahara Y, Nei M. (2007). "Genomic drift and copy number variation of sensory receptor genes in humans". Proceedings ...
In, Sensory Evolution on the Threshold: Adaptations in Secondarily Aquatic Vertebrates. J.G.M Thewissen and S. Nummels (Eds). ... It has been proposed that the flattening of the sensory organ in hyperosmotic sea water is sensed by the animal as "touch", but ... Cranial: The upper and lower jaws are covered with sensory pits, visible as small, black speckles on the skin, the crocodilian ... Crocodilian tegument have pores believed to be sensory in function, analogous to the lateral line in fishes. They are ...
Biswas, Abhijit; Manivannan, M.; Srinivasan, Mandyam A. (2015). "Vibrotactile Sensitivity Threshold: Nonlinear Stochastic ... Sensory substitution is a change of the characteristics of one sensory modality into stimuli of another sensory modality. A ... Auditory sensory substitution systems like the tactile sensory substitution systems aim to use one sensory modality to ... Tongue display for sensory substitution The vOICe auditory display for sensory substitution. Artificial Retinas Sensory ...
2008). Sensory Evolution on the Threshold: Adaptations in Secondarily Aquatic Vertebrates. Berkeley: University of California ... The vomeronasal organ's sensory neurons act on a different signaling pathway than that of the main olfactory system's sensory ... These sensory receptors are located on the medial concave surface of the crescent lumen. The lateral, convex surface of the ... Vomeronasal sensory neurons are extremely sensitive and fire action potentials at currents as low as 1 pA. Many patch-clamp ...
... effects on thermal sensory and pain thresholds". Neuroscience Letters. 363 (2): 157-162. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2004.03.069. PMID ...
A definite spatial hierarchy is maintained, the thresholds of which may be physical or sensory. The otlas or osari (platforms) ...
... the recovery from lowering the item's threshold is less fulfilled compared to low-frequency words so less sensory information ... Each logogen has a threshold (for identification) and words with higher frequencies have lower thresholds. Words with higher ... Then, sensory trace, consisting of line features is used to activate word detectors. When an acceptable number of detectors are ... These items are drawn from the lexicon on the basis of similarity to the sensory trace, which help with the identity of the ...
... effects on thermal sensory and pain thresholds". Neuroscience Letters. 363 (2): 157-62. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2004.03.069. PMID ... they provide sound perception in users who are hearing-impaired due to missing or damaged sensory cells (cilia) in the inner ... and functional therapy ranging from bladder and bowel or respiratory control to improvement of sensory deficits, such as ...
Quantitative sensory threshold testing to detect the inability to sense temperature changes. High-frequency ultrasonography to ... The pudendal nerve carries both motor and sensory axons. It stems from the spinal nerves S2-S4 of the sacral plexus. The nerve ... and the dorsal sensory nerve of the penis or clitoris. These three nerves are also referred to as the terminal branches, and ...
... capture live scombrids for behavioral and sensory threshold experiments at Kewalo Basin; return yellowfin chilled in ice to a ...
Sensory Evolution on the Threshold: Adaptations in Secondarily Aquatic Vertebrates (1 ed.). University of California Press. 4 ... One study identified small sensory organs on the head of Lapemis curtus similar to the mechanoreceptors in alligators and ... Zimmerman, K; Heatwole, H (1990). "Cutaneous Photoreception: A New Sensory Mechanism for Reptiles". Copeia. 1990 (3): 860-862. ... Soares, Daphne (16 May 2002). "Neurology: An ancient sensory organ in crocodilians". Nature. 417 (6886): 241-242. Bibcode: ...
... means situated at a sensory threshold, hence barely perceptible. Subliminal means below perception. The absolute threshold is ... In physiology, psychology, or psychophysics, a limen or a liminal point is a sensory threshold of a physiological or ... Such points delineate boundaries of perception; that is, a limen defines a sensory threshold beyond which a particular stimulus ... Just noticeable difference (least perceptible difference) Threshold of pain, the boundary where perception becomes pain Weber- ...
Attention Anne Treisman Donald Broadbent Cocktail party effect Sensory threshold Treisman, A. (1964). "Monitoring and storage ... Given that sensory information is constantly besieging us from the five sensory modalities, it was of interest to not only ... The operation of the recognition threshold is simple: for every possible input, an individual has a certain threshold or " ... The lower this threshold, the more easily and likely an input is to be perceived, even after undergoing attenuation. Context ...
Once the threshold value is reached, an action potential is produced, causing a rapid increase of Na+ enters the cell with more ... It may also facilitate computation, particularly processing of sensory signals. All in all, although the subthreshold membrane ... The threshold is reached to overcome the electrochemical equilibrium within a neuron, where there is a balance between ... In order for neurons to reach threshold for action potential to fire, enough sodium (Na+) ions must enter the cell through ...
Several different sensory thresholds have been defined; Absolute threshold: the lowest level at which a stimulus can be ... "Determination of sensory thresholds". Retrieved 2016-12-02. "Sensation: Thresholds and Psychophysics". users. ... In measuring sensory threshold, noise must be accounted for. Signal noise is defined as the presence of extra, unwanted energy ... When related to motion in any of the possible six degrees of freedom (6-DoF), the fact that sensory thresholds exist is why it ...
One part of temperament is sensory threshold. Sensory threshold describes how much sensory information a child needs before he ... Your Childs Sensory Threshold: I wont eat that, touch that, wear that!. Every child is born with her own way of approaching ... So, the first step is understanding your childs sensory threshold.. What you can do. Next, think about how you can use ... Parents who have questions or concerns about their childs sensory threshold should talk with a health care provider. ...
Determining SR thresholds.. The participants sensory perception threshold was determined for each foot after donning the ... This limited our ability to accurately set thresholds for participants with sensory perception thresholds below 10% of the ... Their shoes were fitted with SR insoles that were set at 90% of the participants sensory threshold. The treadmill incline was ... Therefore, we had to exclude one participant with sensory perception thresholds below 10% as noted in our inclusion criteria. ...
... your sensory thresholds are lower. As a result, the same stimulus provides a higher sense of awareness. By ramping up that ... of years ago via Bernstein testing performed in patients with both fragmented and normal sleep that the sensory thresholds all ... You may also have a sensory arousal, whether its due to GER symptoms, auditory stimuli, bumping your toe, or whatever ...
... regardless of lower vibration detection thresholds vs those with type 2 diabetes. ... patients with type 1 diabetes may be more hypoalgesic to bone pressure pain detection and pressure pain tolerance thresholds, ... Association Between Vibration Detection Threshold and Sensory Response in Patients With Diabetes. Clinical Pain Advisor ... Close more info about Association Between Vibration Detection Threshold and Sensory Response in Patients With Diabetes ...
Sensory System Agents / administration & dosage * Splanchnic Nerves / immunology* * Splanchnic Nerves / physiology * TRPV ... Role of TRPV1 in high-threshold rat colonic splanchnic afferents is revealed by inflammation Neurosci Lett. 2009 Aug 7;459(2): ... Recordings were made from serosal/mesenteric afferents responding only at high thresholds to graded mechanical stimulation with ... We conclude that mechanosensitivity of high-threshold serosal colonic splanchnic afferents to graded stimuli is unaffected ...
There was also impairment in olfactory threshold in head-down tilt compared with upright positioning, but not for smell ... We demonstrated that IIH patients have marked impairment in olfactory threshold levels, out of proportion to smell ... The threshold detection was mildly impaired in head-down tilt compared with upright position in the combined subjects (6.05 (95 ... There was also impairment in olfactory threshold in head-down tilt compared with upright positioning, but not for smell ...
Quantitative sensory threshold testing. We have had an immediate response from one of our readers (SS) who has found 5 articles ... thereby providing a measurement of genital sensory threshold. This is different to nerve conduction studies which also use ... Quantitative sensory testing is the collective term for a group of tests that are used to assess skin sensation. Devices which ... Thermal thresholds are assessed by placing a probe onto the body part being investigated. The temperature of the probe then ...
Sensory and motor function were quantitatively measured and related to the severity of the initial poisoning and type of OP ... Comparison of grip strength, pinch strength, index finger vibration thresholds, and big toe vibration thresholds among subjects ... Vibration thresholds were measured using a Vibraton II (Sensortek, Inc., Clifton, NJ) for dominant index and big toe.28 Five ... Vibration thresholds were slightly increased after the two year period among all OP poisonings, the index finger vibration ...
... flavour and taste detection thresholds by a three-alternative forced-choice (3-AFC) procedure ... Sensory analysis - Methodology - General guidance for measuring odour, ... Sensory analysis. Methodology. General guidance for measuring odour, flavour and taste detection thresholds by a three- ... the processing of the data to estimate the value of a threshold and its error bounds, and other statistics related to the ...
... flavour and taste detection thresholds by a three-alternative forced-choice (3-AFC) procedure ... Sensory analysis - Methodology - General guidance for measuring odour, ... Sensory analysis - Methodology - General guidance for measuring odour, flavour and taste detection thresholds by a three- ... the processing of the data to estimate the value of a threshold and its error bounds, and other statistics related to the ...
Sensory thresholds among construction trade painters: a cross-sectional study using new methods for measuring temperature and ... Apparatuses, such as the neurometer, vibrometer, and sensory nerve perception threshold-testing device, often are used in ... Lead: Acute, high-level exposure can reportedly cause motor neuropathy with minimal sensory involvement and, in rare cases, ... Carbon disulfide: Reduced or absent sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) are common; conduction velocities are usually ...
and the evidence of increased and decreased sensory thresholds ( Joosten & Bundy, 2010). Baker, Lane, Angley, & Young (2008 ... tion, sensory support, and writing or typing abilities.. Snack Time, Sensory Diet According to His Needs, and Motor Group: ... Sensory diet/body wakeup: Sensory diet provided according to his individual needs and may include brushing and "buzzing," body ... Sensory Diet According to His Sensory Needs. Speech Therapy: Individual therapy sessions focus on articulation, proper rate of ...
We propose that utility-dependent recruitment of sensory experience during memory consolidation is a general coding ... These axonal projections formed sequential assemblies that conjunctively link sensory features to spatial location and ... By contrast, axons encoding uninformative, peripatetic sensory cues were notably suppressed during memory replay. Thus, while ... How neural circuits enable behavioural adaptation by selectively and durably representing subsets of sensory stimuli that are& ...
Temporary (compound) and permanent threshold shifts were measured using evoked potentials. Sensory cell populations were ... Sensory-thresholds; Models; Acoustics; Acoustic-signals; Animals; Laboratory-animals; Hearing-loss; Hearing; Vibration; ... were consistent in showing that the presence of vibration did not have a statistically significant effect on hearing thresholds ...
The statistical significance of responses was tested using z-score transform thresholds. Z-scores were computed by subtracting ... This allowed for the distinction of sensory-driven responses from effects on the brain state (e.g., switch from slow-wave to ... Large Intercalated Neurons of Amygdala Relay Noxious Sensory Information Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... Large Intercalated Neurons of Amygdala Relay Noxious Sensory Information. Thomas C.M. Bienvenu, Daniela Busti, Benjamin R. ...
Bitterness generally below sensory threshold; sourness provides the balance. No hop flavor. Dry finish, increasing with age. ... Compared to Lambic, has a clean lactic sourness with restrained to below sensory threshold Brett. Also lower in alcohol content ... Light to moderate salt character, up to the threshold of taste; the salt should be noticeable (particularly in the initial ...
... microelectrode arrays implanted in peripheral nerves could restore motor function after spinal cord injury or sensory function ... Intrafascicular stimulation of monkey arm nerves evokes coordinated grasp and sensory responses , High-count ... Stimulation thresholds and electrode impedances increased initially but then remained relatively stable over time. Significance ... Sensory percepts were consistently evoked over the span of 14 months, were not significantly different in size, and highlighted ...
... which are under the sensory limit (1 ,i,μ,/i,g/kg). Application of this method for incurred fish samples ... However, the sensory thresholds for human organoleptic response are quite sensitive and are reported to be no more than 1 µg/kg ... R. F. Robertson, K. Jauncey, M. C. M. Beveridge, and L. A. Lawton, "Depuration rates and the sensory threshold concentration of ... The sensory threshold varies, depending on the flavors of fish [17]. Moreover, the off-flavors can only be assessed without the ...
Thresholds THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: Subliminal Stimulation and Subliminal Persuasion Sensory Adaptation Perceptual Set ...
1. Sensory thresholds. 2. Detection and discrimination. 3. Psychophysical methods and interpretation of thresholds. B. Signal ... A. Looming Thresholds With Moving Viewers. 1. Controlled research thresholds. 2. Real-world thresholds. B. Looming Thresholds ... Chapter 5: Visibility Analysis 2: Psychology and Contrast Thresholds. 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Determining Contrast Threshold. A. ... 4. Looming threshold: 0.004-0.008 rad/sec. 5. Accelerated approach. 8.6 Analysis of Task Assumptions. A. Do Drivers Use τ?. 1. ...
Mechanical sensory threshold in Cavalier King Charles spaniels with syringomyelia-associated scratching and control dogs. ...
Nonsmokers SHS odor and irritation sensory thresholds were massively exceeded. Post-ban air pollution measurements showed 90% ... and assessed odor and irritation levels using published SHS-RSP thresholds. RESULTS: Pre-smoking-ban RSP levels in 6 pubs (one ...
Sensory mechanisms: thresholds, adaptation. STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS: 5-6% of the exam. Consciousness is a persons state of ...
The threshold of the tremulation response was estimated from the SPL at which both the frequency and probability of tremulation ... Sensory overload may unsurprisingly differ in its attractive or aversive value between various Orthopterans. ... Response Threshold and Overload. An exception to the increase in probability and frequency of tremulation, and the probability ... Any vibrational non-acoustic cues from the males walking fell below the threshold of measurement of a Polytec Laser Doppler ...
... electric sensory thresholds of the fingers and subjective symptoms. Scand J Work Environ Health 1. :109-116. ...
1946) estimated the sensory threshold of a number of ketones including isophorone. An average of 12 subjects of both sexes were ... which was defined as the threshold limit value 28.5 mg/m3 (5 ppm) divided by the odour threshold, was 25. From the magnitude of ... Amoore & Hautala (1983) reported an air odour threshold for isophorone of 1.14 mg/m3 (0.2 ppm). The "odour safety factor", ... Silverman L, Schulte HF, & First MW (1946) Further studies on sensory response to certain industrial solvent vapors. J Ind Hyg ...
Sensory evolution on the threshold: adaptations in secondarily aquatic vertebrates Berkeley: University of California Press. ... Sensory evolution on the threshold: adaptations in secondarily aquatic vertebrates. Berkeley: University of California Press.). ...
  • Weber was able to define absolute and difference threshold statistically, which led to the establishment of Weber's Law and the concept of just noticeable difference to describe threshold perception of stimuli. (
  • There are three common methods used to determine sensory thresholds: Method of Limits: In the first step, the subject is stimulated by strong, easily detectable stimuli that are decreased stepwise (descending sequence) until they cannot detect the stimulus. (
  • Intensities involve stimuli which are surely subthreshold and stimuli which are surely supra-threshold. (
  • You may also have a sensory arousal, whether it's due to GER symptoms, auditory stimuli, bumping your toe, or whatever disruptive event. (
  • We conclude that mechanosensitivity of high-threshold serosal colonic splanchnic afferents to graded stimuli is unaffected during DSS colitis. (
  • How neural circuits enable behavioural adaptation by selectively and durably representing subsets of sensory stimuli that are pertinent to a specific outcome is not known. (
  • Two-photon calcium imaging of CA3 axonal projections to CA1 combined with simultaneous local field potential recordings revealed that CA3 projections that encode behaviourally informative sensory stimuli were selectively recruited during the memory replay events that underlie hippocampal memory consolidation 5 . (
  • Innocuous mechanical stimuli acting on the skin are detected by sensory neurons, known as low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs). (
  • We tested the hypothesis that cryolipolysis can attenuate nociception of a range of sensory stimuli, including stimuli that evoke itch. (
  • Subliminal advertising, invented in the 1950s, uses sensory stimuli below an individual's threshold for conscious perception. (
  • The sensitivity of a child to stimuli determines how they react to sensory stimuli. (
  • Sensory threshold refers to the sensitivity level of a child and how they react to stimuli like lighting, noise, touch and pressure. (
  • Recordings were made from serosal/mesenteric afferents responding only at high thresholds to graded mechanical stimulation with von Frey probes. (
  • We propose that, during salient sensory stimulation, L-ITCcs disinhibit local and distant principal neurons, acting as "hub cells," to orchestrate the activity of a distributed network. (
  • Effects of subthalamic deep brain stimulation with duloxetine on mechanical and thermal thresholds in 6OHDA lesioned rats. (
  • Effect of low-frequency deep brain stimulation on sensory thresholds in Parkinson's disease. (
  • The Effect of High-Frequency Stimulation on Sensory Thresholds in Chronic Pain Patients. (
  • CRPS is felt to occur as the result of stimulation of sensory nerve fibers. (
  • The result is inflammation or swelling leading to more stimulation of the sensory nerve fibers. (
  • SENSORY STIMULATION: Inspired by the ancient Chinese technique of acupressure, aims to stimulate the release of natural endorphins to relax the nervous system. (
  • Everyone requires a certain "minimum" amount of stimulation before a sensation is perceived (called the threshold). (
  • If you want to determine perception thresholds. (
  • The study found that warm thermal thresholds at the glans produced the best results. (
  • Thermal thresholds are assessed by placing a probe onto the body part being investigated. (
  • These peripheral cold receptors, both Aδ- and C-fibers, have thermal thresholds (i.e., the temperature at which nerve impulses are generated) for cold activation between 30-20°C, temperatures considered to be innocuously cool [ 4 , 6 ]. (
  • Mechanical and thermal pain thresholds were measured on treated and contralateral untreated (control) flanks. (
  • No association was observed between VDT and quantitative sensory testing. (
  • We discussed several tests that can be used to investigate this condition including skin biopsy, corneal confocal microscopy and quantitative sensory testing. (
  • Quantitative sensory testing is the collective term for a group of tests that are used to assess skin sensation. (
  • The interesting point about quantitative sensory testing is that in addition to investigating conditions like small fibre neuropathy, it is sometimes also used in urology if a patient is experiencing genital numbness, or if they have erectile dysfunction that is suspected to involve a neuropathy. (
  • The effects of cryolipolysis on sensory phenomena were evaluated by quantitative sensory testing (QST) in 11 healthy subjects over a period of 56 days. (
  • Quantitative sensory tests were performed and the Neuropathic Pain Scale was assessed at 3 and 6 months. (
  • Our sensory systems are able to detect subtle changes in ambient temperature, due to the coordinated efforts of thermosensory neurons. (
  • Thus, there is significant diversity in the types of neurons that respond to cold, as well as an expansive range of cold activation thresholds. (
  • However, in the mid- to late 1990s, a number of laboratories interested in cold transduction began to use primary cultures of either dorsal root (DRG) or trigeminal (TG) ganglia neurons as in vitro models of sensory afferents. (
  • Approximately 10-20 percent of ganglia neurons respond to cold temperatures, with thresholds for activation below 30°C [ 2 , 14-16 ]. (
  • Validate any salient sensory changes in your product! (
  • Tiling and somatotopic alignment of mammalian low-threshold mechanoreceptors. (
  • In the early to mid-twentieth century, a number of laboratories began to observe cold-induced electrical impulses when recording from mammalian sensory nerves. (
  • Within each trigeminal nerve are thousands of individual nerve branches that each carry a specific type of sensory information . (
  • The special surface of the Sensory Ball increases sensations and aims to stimulate nerve endings for enhanced relaxation. (
  • Sensory information is converted into nerve signals that are carried to the brain. (
  • High-count microelectrode arrays implanted in peripheral nerves could restore motor function after spinal cord injury or sensory function after limb loss. (
  • A sneeze is initiated when sensory nerves in our nose are stimulated by an irritant such as allergens, viruses, bacteria or even fluid. (
  • The sensory nerves then carry this irritant information to the brain. (
  • The trigeminal nerves are the largest of our 12 pairs of cranial nerves and the largest sensory nerves in the body. (
  • The left and right trigeminal nerves carry sensory information from the face to the brain. (
  • Sensory nerves travel to the brain via the spinal cord. (
  • The sensory nerves that carry pain and irritant signals are narrow, whereas those that carry touch information are wider and faster. (
  • Most of the nerves are motor, but some are sensory. (
  • Normally, bladder filling stimulates stretch receptors in the bladder wall to send impulses via spinal nerves S2 to S4 to the spinal cord, then to the sensory cortex, where the need to void is perceived. (
  • Researchers conducted a study to determine whether there is an association between vibration detection thresholds and sensory responses in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. (
  • Patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) may be more hypoalgesic to bone pressure pain detection thresholds (pPDT) and pressure pain tolerance thresholds (pPTT), regardless of lower vibration detection thresholds (VDT), according to results of a study recently published in Frontiers in Pain Research . (
  • This study concerns the third of a series of three examinations of hand strength and vibration thresholds in a two year period after acute OP poisoning among 48 Nicaraguan men. (
  • Also, index finger and toe vibration thresholds were slightly increased at the end of the two year period, among men with OP poisonings in all categories, but patterns of onset and evolvement of impairment of vibration sensitivity were less clear than with grip and pinch strength. (
  • The results obtained from each of the above paradigms were consistent in showing that the presence of vibration did not have a statistically significant effect on hearing thresholds. (
  • Mechanosensory responses had thresholds of 1-2g, and maximal responses were observed at 12 g. (
  • Internal tobacco industry documents show that product appeal and inhalation intensity are mainly determined by the harshness-smoothness balance, non-irritant sensory responses such as taste and satisfaction, and resistance to draw (RTD). (
  • We demonstrated that IIH patients have marked impairment in olfactory threshold levels, out of proportion to smell identification impairment. (
  • There was also impairment in olfactory threshold in head-down tilt compared with upright positioning, but not for smell identification. (
  • To evaluate the association of acute organophosphate (OP) poisoning with chronic sensory and motor neurological impairment. (
  • This study will examine the impact of upper airway sensory impairment from chronic rhinosinusitis as a potential mechanism for development of OSA in WTC responders. (
  • LISBON, Portugal - Six months of treatment with growth hormone has improved sensory function in patients with spinal-cord injury and concomitant growth-hormone deficiency, according to the first such trial of this approach. (
  • Defining and measuring sensory thresholds requires setting the sensitivity limit such that the perception observations lead to the absolute threshold. (
  • Vibrotactile threshold abnormalities occurred much more often in the lower extremities. (
  • Your Child's Sensory Threshold: I won't eat that, touch that, wear that! (
  • At mealtime, offer a mix of foods that include some of your child's sensory likes and dislikes so that she can explore and try different foods. (
  • Parents who have questions or concerns about their child's sensory threshold should talk with a health care provider. (
  • The level of sensitivity is usually assumed to be constant in determining the threshold limit. (
  • While some people tend normally toward sensory processing sensitivity (SPS), others fall below those thresholds. (
  • The threshold detection was mildly impaired in head-down tilt compared with upright position in the combined subjects (6.05 (95% CI 4.58 to 7.51) vs 6.85 (95% CI 5.43 to 8.27), p=0.004). (
  • the processing of the data to estimate the value of a threshold and its error bounds, and other statistics related to the detection of the stimulus. (
  • A ) Representative 20-s segment of data showing unit activity (blue ticks), movement data (black trace), movement periods (green blocks), movement-detection threshold (horizontal dotted line), and behavioral state. (
  • Evaluate if the sensory experiences such as taste, aroma, flavour, texture, or touch of a product differs when changes are made. (
  • For example, experience has shown that chemicals with a low odor threshold often require low OELs even though many are not toxic or do not cause irritation at those air concentrations. (
  • Olfaction was tested for all subjects in upright and 6° head-down tilt positions using two different measures: University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test and Olfactory Threshold Sniffin' Sticks with phenylethyl alcohol. (
  • The olfactory threshold dilution levels were 9.07 (95% CI 1.85 to 5.81) and 3.83 (95% CI 7.04 to 11.10), p=0.001, and smell identification scores were 35.61 (95% CI 34.03 to 37.18) and 32.47 (95% CI 30.85 to 34.09), p=0.008, for control and IIH subjects, respectively. (
  • The underlying mechanisms for olfactory threshold dysfunction in IIH patients need further exploration. (
  • The study will also examine the contribution of other pathophysiologic mechanisms (impaired upper airway muscle responsiveness, low arousal threshold and loop gain) in the development of OSA that may be used to target therapeutic interventions in the future in this population. (
  • A study by Macklin et al suggested that electrical perceptual threshold (EPT) tests are more sensitive than ISNCSCI exams for determining the level of SCI at which sensory function still exists in patients with chronic incomplete cervical SCI. (
  • 1978. Documentation of threshold limit values for substances in workroom air, 3rd ed. (
  • Of centrations is difficult for odors and sensory irritants the 600 substances for which an OEL has already because some chemicals have odors that warn of been established, 66% are sensory irritants (Kurtz, their presence before irritation is produced. (
  • This includes touch, pain and irritation sensory information from the facial skin and from inside the nose and mouth. (
  • By contrast, axons encoding uninformative, peripatetic sensory cues were notably suppressed during memory replay. (
  • The chapters are detailed how-to discussions on determining contrast threshold, and hence when a roadway object would be visible. (
  • Chapter 4 reviews the physical calculations needed to determine contrast, while Chapter 5 outlines the methods for calculating contrast threshold. (
  • In seminal studies conducted by Hensel and Zotterman in the 1950s, menthol elicited its "cool" sensation by increasing the threshold temperature for activation of cold receptors [ 13 ]. (
  • These impulses were then reduced in intensity until the subject could no longer feel them, thereby providing a measurement of genital sensory threshold. (
  • The measurement is conducted in a sensory laboratory using 8-12 trained and selected judges from the RISE analytical panel. (
  • Fig. 4: Replay of sensory cue-driven cognitive maps in CA3SCs. (
  • Pain Threshold" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Pain Threshold" by people in this website by year, and whether "Pain Threshold" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Pain Threshold" by people in Profiles. (
  • This means that distractions quickly become disruptive and intense sensory experiences may even cause pain. (
  • This lowers the pain threshold. (
  • Use your body weight to apply varied levels of muscle compression and suit your personal pain threshold. (
  • In-depth conversations between a person with autism and an occupational therapist provide insight into understanding differences and difficulties in sensory processing and regulation, praxis, and communication. (
  • This article illustrates the benefits of an intensive therapeutic program designed to address sensory and motor differences underlying communication, as well as the vital role the occupational therapist plays in addressing these underlying differences to improve functional communication and social participation. (
  • Methods Truth Tobacco Industry Documents was reviewed for studies showing noticeable sensory differences resulting from variations in tobacco blend and design characteristics. (
  • Conclusions While some clusters of brand varieties provided a noticeably different product for consumers, in many cases design differences within these clusters did not exceed the expected discrimination threshold. (
  • The sensory test was specially designed to detect subclinical intraindividual differences, said Dr Cuatrecasas. (
  • Recognition threshold: the level at which a stimulus can not only be detected but also recognized. (
  • The guidelines do not measure a recognition threshold as defined in ISO 5492. (
  • Sensory cell populations were evaluated with the surface preparation technique. (
  • In addition, the CGRP neuron populations also translate threatening sensory input and communicate it with other brain networks. (
  • fundamentally, the procedures measure a difference threshold because a test sample is compared with a reference sample. (
  • According to a press release , co-first author Sukjae Joshua Kang said, "drugs that block CGRP have been used to treat migraine, so I'm hoping that our study can be an anchor to use this kind of drug in relieving threat memories in PTSD, or sensory hypersensitivity in autism, too. (
  • Variations in tobacco type, additives and physical design characteristics, most notably filter ventilation, determine smoke sensory perception. (
  • 3 Trained panellists or consumers describe their sensory experience, test whether they can discriminate products or score products on hedonic properties such as liking. (
  • As the measurements come closer to the absolute threshold, the variability of the noise increases, causing the threshold to be obscured. (
  • Aging increases this threshold, so the amount of sensory input needed to be aware of the sensation becomes greater. (
  • These axonal projections formed sequential assemblies that conjunctively link sensory features to spatial location and thus reward proximity. (
  • To form coherent motion percepts, the visual system must first detect and sense these changes at different spatial and temporal frequencies, and then combine the sensory information appropriately. (
  • Results Industry documents identified discrimination thresholds for ventilation, pressure drop, tobacco weight, filter length, and tar and nicotine levels in smoke while evidence for other design characteristics was less conclusive. (
  • We offer a selection of discrimination tests with our analytical sensory panel. (
  • Methods have been developed to measure thresholds in any of the senses. (
  • As our human diversity allows-us-to experience the world uniquely through every set of senses & perception systems, we all exist under varying degrees qualitatively when it comes-to-noir threshold-levels . (
  • Sensory threshold describes how much sensory information a child needs before he reacts. (
  • 1 2 Therefore, the tobacco industry devotes considerable resources to sensory evaluation of their products. (
  • If you have any other questions about general sensory evaluation don't hesitate to contact us. (
  • The investigators reported that the spinal segment at which sensory function was found to be maintained was lower in EPT testing than in ISNCSCI evaluation in 15 of 17 individuals with this sort of SCI. (
  • Some children get overwhelmed by sensory information frequently or have very strong reactions. (
  • Key elements of the examination include motor and sensory testing, which allows for the designation of a neurologic level of injury (NLOI) and of the completeness of injury. (
  • In addition, rectal examination is required to assess motor and sensory functions. (
  • The NLOI is defined as the most caudal (ie, lowest) level of the spinal cord that has normal motor and sensory function. (
  • Fortunately, there are other methods of investigating sensory issues. (
  • They do not address the standardization of methods of determining air quality as discussed in EN 13725. (
  • The first systematic studies to determine sensory thresholds were conducted by Ernst Heinrich Weber, a physiologist and pioneer of experimental psychology at the Leipzig University. (
  • His experiments were intended to determine the absolute and difference, or differential, thresholds. (
  • To determine your threshold of taste for sweetness, sourness and saltiness. (
  • In this human biology science project, you will determine your own taste thresholds for sweet, sour, and salty solutions. (
  • In psychophysics, sensory threshold is the weakest stimulus that an organism can sense. (
  • Absolute threshold: the lowest level at which a stimulus can be detected. (
  • Differential threshold: the level at which an increase in a detected stimulus can be perceived. (
  • The strength of the stimulus, perceived in more than half of the presentations, will be taken as the threshold. (
  • A universal absolute threshold is difficult to define a standard because of the variability of the measurements. (
  • Fig. 1: Rapid reorganization of CA3SC activity during sensory experience. (