Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Thermosensing: The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth as detected by THERMORECEPTORS.Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Touch: Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.Vibration: A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fecal Incontinence: Failure of voluntary control of the anal sphincters, with involuntary passage of feces and flatus.Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Manometry: Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Differential Threshold: The smallest difference which can be discriminated between two stimuli or one which is barely above the threshold.Auditory Threshold: The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Median Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.Diabetic Neuropathies: Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)Sural Nerve: A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Chinchilla: A genus of the family Chinchillidae which consists of three species: C. brevicaudata, C. lanigera, and C. villidera. They are used extensively in biomedical research.Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced: Hearing loss due to exposure to explosive loud noise or chronic exposure to sound level greater than 85 dB. The hearing loss is often in the frequency range 4000-6000 hertz.Noise: Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.Noise, Occupational: Noise present in occupational, industrial, and factory situations.Ear Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of the ears from loud or high intensity noise, water, or cold. These include earmuffs and earplugs.Stainless Steel: Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Expert Systems: Computer programs based on knowledge developed from consultation with experts on a problem, and the processing and/or formalizing of this knowledge using these programs in such a manner that the problems may be solved.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Telemetry: Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)National Socialism: The doctrines and policies of the Nazis or the National Social German Workers party, which ruled Germany under Adolf Hitler from 1933-1945. These doctrines and policies included racist nationalism, expansionism, and state control of the economy. (from Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. and American Heritage College Dictionary, 3d ed.)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Hypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Autonomic Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the parasympathetic or sympathetic divisions of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; which has components located in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Autonomic dysfunction may be associated with HYPOTHALAMIC DISEASES; BRAIN STEM disorders; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. Manifestations include impairments of vegetative functions including the maintenance of BLOOD PRESSURE; HEART RATE; pupil function; SWEATING; REPRODUCTIVE AND URINARY PHYSIOLOGY; and DIGESTION.Awareness: The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Intraoperative Period: The period during a surgical operation.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Pinnipedia: The suborder of aquatic CARNIVORA comprising the WALRUSES; FUR SEALS; SEA LIONS; and EARLESS SEALS. They have fusiform bodies with very short tails and are found on all sea coasts. The offspring are born on land.Cetacea: An order of wholly aquatic MAMMALS occurring in all the OCEANS and adjoining seas of the world, as well as in certain river systems. They feed generally on FISHES, cephalopods, and crustaceans. Most are gregarious and most have a relatively long period of parental care and maturation. Included are DOLPHINS; PORPOISES; and WHALES. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp969-70)Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Seals, Earless: The family Phocidae, suborder PINNIPEDIA, order CARNIVORA, comprising the true seals. They lack external ears and are unable to use their hind flippers to walk. It includes over 18 species including the harp seal, probably the best known seal species in the world.

Transient and permanent deficits in motion perception after lesions of cortical areas MT and MST in the macaque monkey. (1/3575)

We examined the nature and the selectivity of the motion deficits produced by lesions of extrastriate areas MT and MST. Lesions were made by injecting ibotenic acid into the representation of the left visual field in two macaque monkeys. The monkeys discriminated two stimuli that differed either in stimulus direction or orientation. Direction and orientation discrimination were assessed by measuring thresholds with gratings and random-dots placed in the intact or lesioned visual fields. At the start of behavioral testing, we found pronounced, motion-specific deficits in thresholds for all types of moving stimuli, including pronounced elevations in contrast thresholds and in signal-to-noise thresholds measured with moving gratings, as well as deficits in direction range thresholds and motion coherence measured with random-dot stimuli. In addition, the accuracy of direction discrimination was reduced at smaller spatial displacements (i.e. step sizes), suggesting an increase in spatial scale of the residual directional mechanism. Subsequent improvements in thresholds were seen with all motion stimuli, as behavioral training progressed, and these improvements occurred only with extensive behavioral testing in the lesioned visual field. These improvements were particularly pronounced for stimuli not masked by noise. On the other hand, deficits in the ability to extract motion from noisy stimuli and in the accuracy of direction discrimination persisted despite extensive behavioral training. These results demonstrate the importance of areas MT and MST for the perception of motion direction, particularly in the presence of noise. In addition, they provide evidence for the importance of behavioral training for functional recovery after cortical lesions. The data also strongly support the idea of functional specialization of areas MT and MST for motion processing.  (+info)

Spinal cord-evoked potentials and muscle responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation in 10 awake human subjects. (2/3575)

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TCMS) causes leg muscle contractions, but the neural structures in the brain that are activated by TCMS and their relationship to these leg muscle responses are not clearly understood. To elucidate this, we concomitantly recorded leg muscle responses and thoracic spinal cord-evoked potentials (SCEPs) after TCMS for the first time in 10 awake, neurologically intact human subjects. In this report we provide evidence of direct and indirect activation of corticospinal neurons after TCMS. In three subjects, SCEP threshold (T) stimulus intensities recruited both the D wave (direct activation of corticospinal neurons) and the first I wave (I1, indirect activation of corticospinal neurons). In one subject, the D, I1, and I2 waves were recruited simultaneously, and in another subject, the I1 and I2 waves were recruited simultaneously. In the remaining five subjects, only the I1 wave was recruited first. More waves were recruited as the stimulus intensity increased. The presence of D and I waves in all subjects at low stimulus intensities verified that TCMS directly and indirectly activated corticospinal neurons supplying the lower extremities. Leg muscle responses were usually contingent on the SCEP containing at least four waves (D, I1, I2, and I3).  (+info)

Electrophysiological evidence for tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels in slowly conducting dural sensory fibers. (3/3575)

A tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant sodium channel was recently identified that is expressed only in small diameter neurons of peripheral sensory ganglia. The peripheral axons of sensory neurons appear to lack this channel, but its presence has not been investigated in peripheral nerve endings, the site of sensory transduction in vivo. We investigated the effect of TTX on mechanoresponsiveness in nerve endings of sensory neurons that innervate the intracranial dura. Because the degree of TTX resistance of axonal branches could potentially be affected by factors other than channel subtype, the neurons were also tested for sensitivity to lidocaine, which blocks both TTX-sensitive and TTX-resistant sodium channels. Single-unit activity was recorded from dural afferent neurons in the trigeminal ganglion of urethan-anesthetized rats. Response thresholds to mechanical stimulation of the dura were determined with von Frey monofilaments while exposing the dura to progressively increasing concentrations of TTX or lidocaine. Neurons with slowly conducting axons were relatively resistant to TTX. Application of 1 microM TTX produced complete suppression of mechanoresponsiveness in all (11/11) fast A-delta units [conduction velocity (c.v.) 5-18 m/s] but only 50% (5/10) of slow A-delta units (1.5 +info)

Uninjured C-fiber nociceptors develop spontaneous activity and alpha-adrenergic sensitivity following L6 spinal nerve ligation in monkey. (4/3575)

We investigated whether uninjured cutaneous C-fiber nociceptors in primates develop abnormal responses after partial denervation of the skin. Partial denervation was induced by tightly ligating spinal nerve L6 that innervates the dorsum of the foot. Using an in vitro skin-nerve preparation, we recorded from uninjured single afferent nerve fibers in the superficial peroneal nerve. Recordings were made from 32 C-fiber nociceptors 2-3 wk after ligation and from 29 C-fiber nociceptors in control animals. Phenylephrine, a selective alpha1-adrenergic agonist, and UK14304 (UK), a selective alpha2-adrenergic agonist, were applied to the receptive field for 5 min in increasing concentrations from 0.1 to 100 microM. Nociceptors from in vitro control experiments were not significantly different from nociceptors recorded by us previously in in vivo experiments. In comparison to in vitro control animals, the afferents found in lesioned animals had 1) a significantly higher incidence of spontaneous activity, 2) a significantly higher incidence of response to phenylephrine, and 3) a higher incidence of response to UK. In lesioned animals, the peak response to phenylephrine was significantly greater than to UK, and the mechanical threshold of phenylephrine-sensitive afferents was significantly lower than for phenylephrine-insensitive afferents. Staining with protein gene product 9.5 revealed an approximately 55% reduction in the number of unmyelinated terminals in the epidermis of the lesioned limb compared with the contralateral limb. Thus uninjured cutaneous C-fiber nociceptors that innervate skin partially denervated by ligation of a spinal nerve acquire two abnormal properties: spontaneous activity and alpha-adrenergic sensitivity. These abnormalities in nociceptor function may contribute to neuropathic pain.  (+info)

Quantitative structure-activity relationships for nasal pungency thresholds of volatile organic compounds. (5/3575)

A model was developed for describing the triggering of nasal pungency in humans, based on the partition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) between the air phase and the biophase. Two partition parameters are used in the model: the water-air partition coefficient and the octanol-water partition coefficient. The model was validated using data from the literature, principally on alcohols, acetates and ketones. The model suggests that all test compounds, regardless of their chemical functional groups, bind to a common receptor site within the hydrophobic interior of the bilayer membrane of the trigeminal nerve endings. There is probably only a slight, non-specific interaction between the VOC molecule and the receptor molecule, whereas this type of non-specific interaction for the detection of odor is much stronger. In practical terms, the suggestion that all VOCs share a common irritation receptor site implies that nasal-pungency thresholds of individual VOCs may be additive. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for nasal-pungency thresholds were also developed from the model, which can be used to predict nasal-pungency thresholds of common VOCs. Although the present model does not offer additional precision over that of M.H. Abraham et al., 1996, Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 31, 71-76, it requires fewer descriptors and offers a physiological basis to the QSAR. Another advantage of the present model is that it also provides a basis for comparison between the olfactory process and nasal pungency.  (+info)

Paradoxical heat sensation in healthy subjects: peripherally conducted by A delta or C fibres? (6/3575)

Paradoxical heat sensation upon cooling of the skin has been reported in central as well as in peripheral neurological conditions. In our study, we examined this phenomenon in 35 naive healthy test subjects, of whom 23 experienced paradoxical heat sensation under test conditions. We measured the peripheral conduction velocities of cold sensation, warm sensation and of paradoxical heat sensation by using a quantitative sensory testing model of indirect peripheral conduction velocity measurement. This was based on comparison of measurements at a proximal and a distal site using two measurement methods, one inclusive and the other exclusive of reaction time. We found that the conduction velocity of paradoxical heat sensation (0.70 m/s) was similar to that of warm sensation (0.68 m/s), and that the conduction velocity of cold sensation (7.74-8.01 m/s) was considerably faster. Thus, we conclude that paradoxical heat sensation in healthy subjects is conducted peripherally via slow unmyelinated C fibres and not via the faster A delta fibres. Consequently, we propose that paradoxical heat sensation is encoded via the heat sensing pathway, in accordance with the labelled-line code theory. The mechanisms proposed suggest a malfunctioning cold-sensing pathway disinhibiting the heat-sensing pathway, at peripheral, central or both levels, thus facilitating a paradoxical heat sensation.  (+info)

Impairment in preattentive visual processing in patients with Parkinson's disease. (7/3575)

We explored the possibility of whether preattentive visual processing is impaired in Parkinson's disease. With this aim, visual discrimination thresholds for orientation texture stimuli were determined in two separate measurement sessions in 16 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The results were compared with those of 16 control subjects age-matched and 16 young healthy volunteers. Discrimination thresholds were measured in a four-alternative spatial forced-choice paradigm, in which subjects judged the location of a target embedded in a background of distractors. Four different stimulus configurations were employed: (i) a group of vertical targets among horizontal distractors ('vertical line targets'); (ii) targets with varying levels of orientation difference on a background of spatially filtered vertically oriented noise ('Gaussian filtered noise'); (iii) one 'L' among 43 '+' signs ('texton'), all of which assess preattentive visual processing; and (iv) control condition, of one 'L' among 43 'T' distractors ('non-texton' search target), which reflects attentive visual processing. In two of the preattentive tasks (filtered noise and texton), patients with Parkinson's disease required significantly greater orientation differences and longer stimulus durations, respectively. In contrast, their performance in the vertical line target and non-texton search target was comparable to that of the matched control subjects. These differences were more pronounced in the first compared with the second session. Duration of illness and age within the patient group correlated significantly with test performance. In all conditions tested, the young control subjects performed significantly better than the more elderly control group, further indicating an effect of age on this form of visual processing. The results suggest that, in addition to the well documented impairment in retinal processing, idiopathic Parkinson's disease is associated with a deficit in preattentive cortical visual processing.  (+info)

NOS inhibitor antagonism of PGE2-induced mechanical sensitization of cutaneous C-fiber nociceptors in the rat. (8/3575)

Prostaglandins, metabolites of arachidonic acid, released during tissue injury and inflammation sensitize primary afferent nociceptors. While it has been suggested that this effect on nociceptors is mediated mainly via the cAMP second messenger system, recent evidence suggests that nitric oxide (NO) is also involved in peripheral pain mechanisms. To test the hypothesis that NO contributes to the sensitization of nociceptors to mechanical stimuli induced by hyperalgesic prostaglandins, we compared von Frey hair mechanical threshold as well as the response evoked by 10-s sustained threshold mechanical stimulation before and after injection of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) alone, and NOS inhibitor NG-methyl-L-arginine (L-NMA) or its inactive stereoisomer NG-methyl-D-arginine (D-NMA) plus PGE2, adjacent to the receptive field of C-fiber nociceptors. The reduction of mechanical threshold and increase in number of action potentials to sustained mechanical stimulation induced by intradermal application of PGE2 was blocked by L-NMA, but not D-NMA. It is suggested that NO contributes to nociceptor sensitization induced by hyperalgesic prostaglandins.  (+info)

  • The data were best modeled by a two-segment age model that yielded a constant baseline below an age cutoff of about 40 and a threshold increase above the age cutoff. (
  • For all subjects who passed all conditions of the balance test, the baseline thresholds were 0.97°/s for yaw rotation, 0.66°/s for 1-Hz roll tilt, 0.35°/s for 0.2-Hz roll tilt, 0.58 cm/s for y -translation, and 1.24 cm/s for z -translation. (
  • As a percentage of the baseline, the fitted slopes (indicating the threshold increase each decade above the age cutoff) were 83% for z -translation, 56% for 1-Hz roll tilt, 46% for y -translation, 32% for 0.2-Hz roll tilt, and 15% for yaw rotation. (
  • Even taking age and other factors into consideration, we found a significant correlation of balance test failures with increasing roll-tilt thresholds. (
  • Benson reported perceptual translation thresholds (i.e., the smallest motion that can be reliably perceived as leftward or rightward) for females that were roughly 40% lower than for males for each of the three translation directions ( 7 ), but this difference was not statistically significant. (
  • Similarly, yaw rotation thresholds were reported to be about 20% lower in females than males ( 8 ), but again, this difference was not statistically significant. (
  • Methods have been developed to measure thresholds in any of the senses. (
  • Methods: Small sensory fibers were selectively blocked by 120-minute topical application of LP and confirmed by quantitative sensory testing. (
  • Application of these methods led to intriguing findings, such as the presence lower pain-thresholds in healthy children compared to healthy adolescents. (
  • Here, we compared the particle acceleration and pressure auditory thresholds of three species of fish with differing hearing specialisations, goldfish ( Carassius auratus , weberian ossicles), bigeye ( Pempheris adspersus , ligamentous hearing specialisation) and a third species with no swim bladder, the common triplefin ( Forstergyian lappillum ), using three different methods of determining particle acceleration. (
  • Direction-recognition thresholds were measured using standard methods. (
  • Because it fluctuates, the threshold is difficult to measure, and the various methods that have been tried do not always yield the same value. (
  • Methods for the measurement and analysis of the temporal discrimination threshold are presented, and its application to the study of the pathogenesis of cervical dystonia are discussed. (
  • To compare two methods for quantitative testing of cold sensory function (as a sign of neuropathy) in the upper airway with special focus on test-retest repeatability (study III). (
  • In study III 40 non-snoring subjects were tested for cold detection thresholds at the soft palate and the lip at two separate occasions with two different methods (MLE/MLI). (
  • However, except for a significant decrease in the amplitude of the sensory nerve action potentials of the sural nerves, these afferent dysfunctions were not progressive over the follow-up period of 6 months, in contrast to the marked deterioration in motor functions. (
  • Temporary (compound) and permanent threshold shifts were measured using evoked potentials. (
  • In this study, the sensory disturbance of the lower-extremity was quantitatively analyzed using CPT testing before and after lumbar discectomy. (
  • CPT measured by a Neurometer is very useful in assessing lower-extremity sensory functions before and after surgery for lumbar disc herniation. (
  • As the measurements come closer to the absolute threshold, the variability of the noise increases causing the threshold to be obscured. (
  • A universal absolute threshold is difficult to define a standard because of the variability of the measurements. (
  • In order to analyze whether this noise could influence the thermal threshold measurements we compared the thresholds obtained with a silent thermotesting device to those obtained with a commercially available device. (
  • Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess agreement in measurements obtained with different devices and it was shown that the intersubject variability of the thresholds obtained with the two devices was comparable for all four thresholds tested. (
  • selecting the initial current level to insure safety while minimizing a quantity of measurements required to determine the threshold-NRT (T-NRT) level of the target neural region. (
  • In practice, it is most important when making VPT measurements to take into account the age and sex of the subject and possibly also to allow for thresholds slightly higher than usual with subjects engaged in physical work. (
  • When a single trigger hair of the Venus flytrap ( Dionaea muscipula ) is bent twice or when two different sensory organs are bent once by an obstacle, the lobes of the trap close abruptly, "catching the prey. (
  • The glycemic thresholds for counterregulatory responses, generation of symptoms, and cognitive impairment are reset at lower levels of blood glucose in people who have developed IAH ( 4 ). (
  • Both self-reported snoring years and OSA severity are correlated to the degree of cold sensory impairment in the upper airway. (
  • There is a close functional relationship between the jaw and neck regions and it has been suggested that trigeminal sensory impairment can follow whiplash injury. (
  • In this single-blind and cross-over trial, electrical sensory threshold and current tolerance of 24 healthy volunteers were evaluated by using biphasic symmetrical pulses (240 μsec, 50 pps), prior to and following thermal agent (cold pack, hot pack and ultrasound) applications. (
  • The detection threshold is recorded as the concentration at which the patient correctly identifies the butanol on 5 consecutive trials. (
  • Furthermore, the relationship between motion-detection threshold and an unsuccessful stand was stronger for the most difficult stand on one foot (the soleo stand) ( P = 0.02). (
  • This may be because experimental studies describe participants' responses exclusively in terms of thresholds that conflate several aspects of the response. (
  • The Psychophysiological Investigations of Myocardial Ischemia (PIMI) study, a multicenter study of patients with documented coronary artery disease, has multiple objectives (12) , including examination of the relations between symptoms associated with myocardial ischemia and somatic sensory threshold, autonomic reflexive control of the heart and beta-endorphin responses. (
  • Food acceptance and preference depend on human sensory responses. (
  • Devices that help people with impaired sensory responses. (
  • Goldberg JM, Lindblom U (1979) Standardised method of determining vibratory perception thresholds for diagnosis and screening in neurological investigation. (
  • These findings suggest that CPT testing might contribute to diagnosis of PD, as well as the understanding of sensory processing involving peripheral deafferentation. (
  • Dr. Catherine Lord, a leading autism expert and the director of the Center for Autism and the Developing Brain at New York-Presbyterian Hospital, argues that sensory issues are an important concern, but not a diagnosis in themselves. (
  • In measuring sensory threshold, noise must be accounted for. (
  • Military studies of temporary threshold shift on protected and unprotected ears following impulse noise exposure. (
  • Studies of temporary threshold shift in protected and unprotected ears exposed to impulse noise were conducted in French Army personnel. (
  • Asymptotic threshold shift in chinchillas exposed to impulse noise. (
  • In an effort to more fully understand the results of long term exposures to impulse noise as they relate to asymptotic threshold shift (ATS), five monaural chinchillas were exposed to a repetitive, reverberant impulse noise for 10 days. (
  • The stability of the ATS produced by impulse noise and the consistency across the five animals suggest that the phenomenon may be useful in the systematic study of both temporary threshold shift and noise induced permanent threshold shift. (
  • People who have been exposed to more noise/music usually have a higher threshold pressure. (
  • Freyman RL, Griffin AM, Zurek PM. Threshold of the precedence effect in noise. (
  • The remaining chapters describe the relationship between sensory characteristics and various physical and chemical properties of foods. (
  • We aimed to quantify effects of pregabalin on colonic sensory and motor functions and assess relationships between sensory effects and colonic compliance. (
  • Complex animal behaviors are built from dynamical relationships between sensory inputs, neuronal activity, and motor outputs in patterns with strategic value. (
  • By soft manual palpation of the craniosacral and fascia system sensory, motor, cognitive, and emotional processes can be influenced. (
  • The results suggest that the LRJT is a complex mental task that involves cognitive, sensory, motor, and behavioural processes. (
  • After sensory information passes through these centers, it is then routed to brain regions responsible for emotions, memory, and higher level cognitive functions. (
  • These patients also have several sensory losses even in taste and smell function, recently described (Siqueira et al. (
  • We studied these two aspects of the disease in a group of 50 patients by prospectively assessing several sensory indices and by studying the selectivity of the spinal motor neuron loss. (