The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth as detected by THERMORECEPTORS.
The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.
Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.
A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Failure of voluntary control of the anal sphincters, with involuntary passage of feces and flatus.
Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The smallest difference which can be discriminated between two stimuli or one which is barely above the threshold.
The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.
Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)
A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.
A genus of the family Chinchillidae which consists of three species: C. brevicaudata, C. lanigera, and C. villidera. They are used extensively in biomedical research.
Hearing loss due to exposure to explosive loud noise or chronic exposure to sound level greater than 85 dB. The hearing loss is often in the frequency range 4000-6000 hertz.
Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.
Noise present in occupational, industrial, and factory situations.
Personal devices for protection of the ears from loud or high intensity noise, water, or cold. These include earmuffs and earplugs.
Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
Diseases of the parasympathetic or sympathetic divisions of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; which has components located in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Autonomic dysfunction may be associated with HYPOTHALAMIC DISEASES; BRAIN STEM disorders; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. Manifestations include impairments of vegetative functions including the maintenance of BLOOD PRESSURE; HEART RATE; pupil function; SWEATING; REPRODUCTIVE AND URINARY PHYSIOLOGY; and DIGESTION.
The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
Computer programs based on knowledge developed from consultation with experts on a problem, and the processing and/or formalizing of this knowledge using these programs in such a manner that the problems may be solved.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The doctrines and policies of the Nazis or the National Social German Workers party, which ruled Germany under Adolf Hitler from 1933-1945. These doctrines and policies included racist nationalism, expansionism, and state control of the economy. (from Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. and American Heritage College Dictionary, 3d ed.)
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.
The period during a surgical operation.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Pain during the period after surgery.

Transient and permanent deficits in motion perception after lesions of cortical areas MT and MST in the macaque monkey. (1/3575)

We examined the nature and the selectivity of the motion deficits produced by lesions of extrastriate areas MT and MST. Lesions were made by injecting ibotenic acid into the representation of the left visual field in two macaque monkeys. The monkeys discriminated two stimuli that differed either in stimulus direction or orientation. Direction and orientation discrimination were assessed by measuring thresholds with gratings and random-dots placed in the intact or lesioned visual fields. At the start of behavioral testing, we found pronounced, motion-specific deficits in thresholds for all types of moving stimuli, including pronounced elevations in contrast thresholds and in signal-to-noise thresholds measured with moving gratings, as well as deficits in direction range thresholds and motion coherence measured with random-dot stimuli. In addition, the accuracy of direction discrimination was reduced at smaller spatial displacements (i.e. step sizes), suggesting an increase in spatial scale of the residual directional mechanism. Subsequent improvements in thresholds were seen with all motion stimuli, as behavioral training progressed, and these improvements occurred only with extensive behavioral testing in the lesioned visual field. These improvements were particularly pronounced for stimuli not masked by noise. On the other hand, deficits in the ability to extract motion from noisy stimuli and in the accuracy of direction discrimination persisted despite extensive behavioral training. These results demonstrate the importance of areas MT and MST for the perception of motion direction, particularly in the presence of noise. In addition, they provide evidence for the importance of behavioral training for functional recovery after cortical lesions. The data also strongly support the idea of functional specialization of areas MT and MST for motion processing.  (+info)

Spinal cord-evoked potentials and muscle responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation in 10 awake human subjects. (2/3575)

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TCMS) causes leg muscle contractions, but the neural structures in the brain that are activated by TCMS and their relationship to these leg muscle responses are not clearly understood. To elucidate this, we concomitantly recorded leg muscle responses and thoracic spinal cord-evoked potentials (SCEPs) after TCMS for the first time in 10 awake, neurologically intact human subjects. In this report we provide evidence of direct and indirect activation of corticospinal neurons after TCMS. In three subjects, SCEP threshold (T) stimulus intensities recruited both the D wave (direct activation of corticospinal neurons) and the first I wave (I1, indirect activation of corticospinal neurons). In one subject, the D, I1, and I2 waves were recruited simultaneously, and in another subject, the I1 and I2 waves were recruited simultaneously. In the remaining five subjects, only the I1 wave was recruited first. More waves were recruited as the stimulus intensity increased. The presence of D and I waves in all subjects at low stimulus intensities verified that TCMS directly and indirectly activated corticospinal neurons supplying the lower extremities. Leg muscle responses were usually contingent on the SCEP containing at least four waves (D, I1, I2, and I3).  (+info)

Electrophysiological evidence for tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels in slowly conducting dural sensory fibers. (3/3575)

A tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant sodium channel was recently identified that is expressed only in small diameter neurons of peripheral sensory ganglia. The peripheral axons of sensory neurons appear to lack this channel, but its presence has not been investigated in peripheral nerve endings, the site of sensory transduction in vivo. We investigated the effect of TTX on mechanoresponsiveness in nerve endings of sensory neurons that innervate the intracranial dura. Because the degree of TTX resistance of axonal branches could potentially be affected by factors other than channel subtype, the neurons were also tested for sensitivity to lidocaine, which blocks both TTX-sensitive and TTX-resistant sodium channels. Single-unit activity was recorded from dural afferent neurons in the trigeminal ganglion of urethan-anesthetized rats. Response thresholds to mechanical stimulation of the dura were determined with von Frey monofilaments while exposing the dura to progressively increasing concentrations of TTX or lidocaine. Neurons with slowly conducting axons were relatively resistant to TTX. Application of 1 microM TTX produced complete suppression of mechanoresponsiveness in all (11/11) fast A-delta units [conduction velocity (c.v.) 5-18 m/s] but only 50% (5/10) of slow A-delta units (1.5 +info)

Uninjured C-fiber nociceptors develop spontaneous activity and alpha-adrenergic sensitivity following L6 spinal nerve ligation in monkey. (4/3575)

We investigated whether uninjured cutaneous C-fiber nociceptors in primates develop abnormal responses after partial denervation of the skin. Partial denervation was induced by tightly ligating spinal nerve L6 that innervates the dorsum of the foot. Using an in vitro skin-nerve preparation, we recorded from uninjured single afferent nerve fibers in the superficial peroneal nerve. Recordings were made from 32 C-fiber nociceptors 2-3 wk after ligation and from 29 C-fiber nociceptors in control animals. Phenylephrine, a selective alpha1-adrenergic agonist, and UK14304 (UK), a selective alpha2-adrenergic agonist, were applied to the receptive field for 5 min in increasing concentrations from 0.1 to 100 microM. Nociceptors from in vitro control experiments were not significantly different from nociceptors recorded by us previously in in vivo experiments. In comparison to in vitro control animals, the afferents found in lesioned animals had 1) a significantly higher incidence of spontaneous activity, 2) a significantly higher incidence of response to phenylephrine, and 3) a higher incidence of response to UK. In lesioned animals, the peak response to phenylephrine was significantly greater than to UK, and the mechanical threshold of phenylephrine-sensitive afferents was significantly lower than for phenylephrine-insensitive afferents. Staining with protein gene product 9.5 revealed an approximately 55% reduction in the number of unmyelinated terminals in the epidermis of the lesioned limb compared with the contralateral limb. Thus uninjured cutaneous C-fiber nociceptors that innervate skin partially denervated by ligation of a spinal nerve acquire two abnormal properties: spontaneous activity and alpha-adrenergic sensitivity. These abnormalities in nociceptor function may contribute to neuropathic pain.  (+info)

Quantitative structure-activity relationships for nasal pungency thresholds of volatile organic compounds. (5/3575)

A model was developed for describing the triggering of nasal pungency in humans, based on the partition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) between the air phase and the biophase. Two partition parameters are used in the model: the water-air partition coefficient and the octanol-water partition coefficient. The model was validated using data from the literature, principally on alcohols, acetates and ketones. The model suggests that all test compounds, regardless of their chemical functional groups, bind to a common receptor site within the hydrophobic interior of the bilayer membrane of the trigeminal nerve endings. There is probably only a slight, non-specific interaction between the VOC molecule and the receptor molecule, whereas this type of non-specific interaction for the detection of odor is much stronger. In practical terms, the suggestion that all VOCs share a common irritation receptor site implies that nasal-pungency thresholds of individual VOCs may be additive. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for nasal-pungency thresholds were also developed from the model, which can be used to predict nasal-pungency thresholds of common VOCs. Although the present model does not offer additional precision over that of M.H. Abraham et al., 1996, Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 31, 71-76, it requires fewer descriptors and offers a physiological basis to the QSAR. Another advantage of the present model is that it also provides a basis for comparison between the olfactory process and nasal pungency.  (+info)

Paradoxical heat sensation in healthy subjects: peripherally conducted by A delta or C fibres? (6/3575)

Paradoxical heat sensation upon cooling of the skin has been reported in central as well as in peripheral neurological conditions. In our study, we examined this phenomenon in 35 naive healthy test subjects, of whom 23 experienced paradoxical heat sensation under test conditions. We measured the peripheral conduction velocities of cold sensation, warm sensation and of paradoxical heat sensation by using a quantitative sensory testing model of indirect peripheral conduction velocity measurement. This was based on comparison of measurements at a proximal and a distal site using two measurement methods, one inclusive and the other exclusive of reaction time. We found that the conduction velocity of paradoxical heat sensation (0.70 m/s) was similar to that of warm sensation (0.68 m/s), and that the conduction velocity of cold sensation (7.74-8.01 m/s) was considerably faster. Thus, we conclude that paradoxical heat sensation in healthy subjects is conducted peripherally via slow unmyelinated C fibres and not via the faster A delta fibres. Consequently, we propose that paradoxical heat sensation is encoded via the heat sensing pathway, in accordance with the labelled-line code theory. The mechanisms proposed suggest a malfunctioning cold-sensing pathway disinhibiting the heat-sensing pathway, at peripheral, central or both levels, thus facilitating a paradoxical heat sensation.  (+info)

Impairment in preattentive visual processing in patients with Parkinson's disease. (7/3575)

We explored the possibility of whether preattentive visual processing is impaired in Parkinson's disease. With this aim, visual discrimination thresholds for orientation texture stimuli were determined in two separate measurement sessions in 16 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The results were compared with those of 16 control subjects age-matched and 16 young healthy volunteers. Discrimination thresholds were measured in a four-alternative spatial forced-choice paradigm, in which subjects judged the location of a target embedded in a background of distractors. Four different stimulus configurations were employed: (i) a group of vertical targets among horizontal distractors ('vertical line targets'); (ii) targets with varying levels of orientation difference on a background of spatially filtered vertically oriented noise ('Gaussian filtered noise'); (iii) one 'L' among 43 '+' signs ('texton'), all of which assess preattentive visual processing; and (iv) control condition, of one 'L' among 43 'T' distractors ('non-texton' search target), which reflects attentive visual processing. In two of the preattentive tasks (filtered noise and texton), patients with Parkinson's disease required significantly greater orientation differences and longer stimulus durations, respectively. In contrast, their performance in the vertical line target and non-texton search target was comparable to that of the matched control subjects. These differences were more pronounced in the first compared with the second session. Duration of illness and age within the patient group correlated significantly with test performance. In all conditions tested, the young control subjects performed significantly better than the more elderly control group, further indicating an effect of age on this form of visual processing. The results suggest that, in addition to the well documented impairment in retinal processing, idiopathic Parkinson's disease is associated with a deficit in preattentive cortical visual processing.  (+info)

NOS inhibitor antagonism of PGE2-induced mechanical sensitization of cutaneous C-fiber nociceptors in the rat. (8/3575)

Prostaglandins, metabolites of arachidonic acid, released during tissue injury and inflammation sensitize primary afferent nociceptors. While it has been suggested that this effect on nociceptors is mediated mainly via the cAMP second messenger system, recent evidence suggests that nitric oxide (NO) is also involved in peripheral pain mechanisms. To test the hypothesis that NO contributes to the sensitization of nociceptors to mechanical stimuli induced by hyperalgesic prostaglandins, we compared von Frey hair mechanical threshold as well as the response evoked by 10-s sustained threshold mechanical stimulation before and after injection of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) alone, and NOS inhibitor NG-methyl-L-arginine (L-NMA) or its inactive stereoisomer NG-methyl-D-arginine (D-NMA) plus PGE2, adjacent to the receptive field of C-fiber nociceptors. The reduction of mechanical threshold and increase in number of action potentials to sustained mechanical stimulation induced by intradermal application of PGE2 was blocked by L-NMA, but not D-NMA. It is suggested that NO contributes to nociceptor sensitization induced by hyperalgesic prostaglandins.  (+info)

The concept of a threshold has become important in ecology and natural resources management (Lindenmayer & Luck 2005; Briske et al. 2006; Groffman et al. 2006). Critical thresholds occur when the response of a species or ecological process to disturbance is not linear, but instead changes abruptly at some threshold level. Exceeding this threshold leads to a loss of ecosystem functions and biodiversity; change in the opposite direction can instead lead to recovery if the threshold change can be reversed. Typical examples include observations that the loss of native vegetation cover to levels below a threshold leads to increased loss of species that depend on that native vegetation (Fahrig 2003; Radford et al. 2005) and that floristic composition changes abruptly at a threshold distance from habitat edges (Toms & Lesperance 2003). A comprehensive understanding of whether such threshold changes exist in rangeland ecosystems may be achieved through a grazing gradient approach (Lange 1969; Andrew ...
We measured vestibular perceptual thresholds in 105 healthy humans (54F/51M) ranging from 18 to 80 years of age. Direction-recognition thresholds were measured using standard methods. The motion consisted of single cycles of sinusoidal acceleration at 0.2 Hz for roll tilt and 1.0 Hz for yaw rotation about an earth-vertical axis, inter-aural earth-horizontal translation (y-translation), inferior-superior earth-vertical translation (z-translation), and roll tilt. A large subset of this population (99 of 105) also performed a modified Romberg test of standing balance. Despite the relatively large population (54F/51M), we found no difference between thresholds of male and female subjects. After pooling across sex, we found that thresholds increased above the age of 40 for all five motion-directions investigated. The data were best modeled by a two-segment age model that yielded a constant baseline below an age cut-off of about 40 and a threshold increase above the age cut-off. For all subjects who passed
TY - CONF. T1 - Visual Support of Electrical Pain Threshold Measurements. T2 - Construction and Preliminary Results of the QScale. AU - Jansen, Niels AU - Buitenweg, Jan R.. PY - 2020/9/9. Y1 - 2020/9/9. M3 - Poster. ER - ...
Sensory strength-duration curves were obtained using percutaneous true square-wave pulses ranging from 0.1 to 20.0 ms produced by an isolated constant current stimulator. In 119 healthy volunteers sensory thresholds were measured bilaterally by stimulating the distal phalange of the little finger. In order to examine the relationship of sensory threshold and handedness the latter was assessed by means of the Edinburgh Inventory. An asymmetry of sensory threshold was found for all the subjects and this was more pronounced with shorter stimuli. Of right-handers tested 73.5% had a lower threshold on the left side while 70.8% of left-handers had a lower threshold on the right side. Although threshold asymmetry is associated with handedness this is not necessarily due to cerebral lateralization.. ...
The threshold data were analyzed with respect to SAR, anatomy imaged, cardiac chamber, and time from lead implant to the MRI examination. Any change in threshold was considered important, even though only increases in these values are detrimental.. One study suggests that limiting the distance from the pacemaker pulse generator to the anatomical region being imaged is beneficial to MRI safety (20). Therefore, the data were analyzed with respect to the anatomy that underwent imaging. For ease of statistical analysis, the MRI examinations were grouped into above and below the diaphragm. Neither anatomical region was associated with pacing threshold changes.. Pacing thresholds were also examined as a function of cardiac chamber. It was theorized that the atrium, because of its smaller mass with possible less heat transfer, would more readily undergo threshold changes than would the ventricle. However, the atrium was no more likely to develop pacing threshold changes than was the ventricle.. Because ...
Shop Better Office Products Letter Size, Top Load Reusable Envelope (34030-V) at Staples. Choose from our wide selection of Better Office Products Letter Size, Top Load Reusable Envelope (34030-V) and get fast & free shipping on select orders.
Shop Pendaflex® Reversaflex® Deluxe Hanging File Folder, Letter Size, 8-1/2 x 11, Navy at Staples. Choose from our wide selection of Pendaflex® Reversaflex® Deluxe Hanging File Folder, Letter Size, 8-1/2 x 11, Navy and get fast & free shipping on select orders.
An implantable cardiac stimulation device with automatic threshold testing capabilities. The device utilizes an algorithm for measuring a first and a second threshold settings. The first threshold setting is determined by decreasing the stimulation energy from an initially high, supra-threshold value until loss of capture is detected, and is set as the pulse energy at which capture is still detected. The second threshold setting is determined by increasing the stimulation energy from an initially low, sub-threshold value until capture is detected, and is set as the stimulation energy at which capture is regained. The algorithm further determines if the threshold test results are reliable by comparing the difference between the first and second threshold settings to an expected difference, known as the Wedensky Effect value. A deviation from the Wedensky Effect value which is known for a given patient, indicates a discrepancy in the threshold test result. Such a deviation could be used to indicate when a
Effect of Complex Score Threshold on MCODE Prediction Accuracy Figure legend: MCODE complexes equal to or greater than a specific score were compared to a bench
In a frequency-domain excision system for a wide band receiver, a window function is applied to blocks of received signal samples and a transform function is applied to the windowed blocks. Each block of frequency-domain coefficients from the transform function is morphologically filtered to generate a threshold function representing an estimate of the spectrum of the desired wide band signal, and a non-linear gain function is applied to the coefficients. The gain function has a fixed-gain region for input values less than a threshold value from the threshold function, an excision region for input values greater than a multiple of the threshold value, and a soft limiting region between the fixed-gain region and the excision region. The inverse transform is performed on the excised blocks of coefficients, and an overlap-eliminating central portion of the inverse of the window function is applied to the resulting blocks of signal samples.
Measurements are reported of the effects of respiratory stresses upon the absolute threshold of peripheral (rod) vision. Since subjects were kept wholly dark adapted and the photochemical system of the rods therefore stationary, the changes recorded may be assumed to have originated more centrally. To this degree the measurements provide a quantitative index of central nervous imbalance.. Breathing room air or 32 to 36 per cent oxygen at about double the normal rate causes the visual threshold to fall to approximately half the normal value within 5 to 10 minutes.. This change is due primarily to alkalosis induced by the hyperventilation, and can be abolished or reversed by adding carbon dioxide to the inspired mixtures. Normal or rapid breathing of 2 per cent carbon dioxide causes no change in threshold; with 5 per cent carbon dioxide the threshold is approximately doubled.. Breathing 10 per cent oxygen at the normal rate also approximately doubles the threshold. This effect is compensated in ...
Discount Xerox 100% Recycled Bond Paper, 92 Brightness, 20-lbs., 8-1/2 x 11, Letter Size, White, 5000 Sheets Per Carton in stock. OfficeSuperSavers.com recommends Xerox Copy Paper
Discount Xerox 100% Recycled Bond Paper, 92 Brightness, 20-lbs., 8-1/2 x 11, Letter Size, White, 5000 Sheets Per Carton in stock. OfficeSuperSavers.com recommends Xerox Copy Paper
Shop for Hirsh 22-inch Deep 2-drawer Letter Size Commercial Vertical File Cabinet. Get free delivery at Overstock.com - Your Online Office Furniture Store! Get 5% in rewards with Club O! - 14138694
35% Off Putty Locking Mobile Tub File with Drawer, Letter Size by Safco Products. @ Give organizing the right push with a mobile filing system. This filing system is complete with a tub file on top and a full suspension bottom file drawer that provides additional filing and storage capacity. Both l
Amazon.com : Scotch Thermal Laminating Pouches, 200-Pack, 8.9 x 11.4 Inches, Letter Size Sheets, Clear, 3-Mil (TP3854-200) : Laminating Supplies : Office Products
The amount by which the SNR exceeds the detection threshold, DT, is called the signal excess (SE):. SE (decibels) = SNR - DT = (SL - 2TL + TS - NL) - DT. If the SE is greater than 0 dB, then the decision is made that the target is present. If the SE is negative, the decision is that the target is not present.. If the detection threshold is set high (which is equivalent to assuming that the signal power is high relative to the noise) only strong targets will exceed the threshold and be detected. There will not be many false alarms in which noise is mistakenly decided to be the signal of interest; however, there may be many misses in which the signal, though present, is not detected. If the threshold is set low, weaker targets will be detected, but the number of false alarms will also increase.. The following figure shows the importance of setting the detection threshold. The top trace (a) shows three target echoes with different amplitudes. The middle trace (b) shows the noise. The bottom ...
Teamwork between humans and robots will be the motto of the future. But robots may not injure humans at all. When does contact cause an injury, though? Researchers are exploring this for the first time in a study.
Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes based on structured parity check matrices are widely used due to their favorable implementation properties. Often, however
functions to compute true and false positive rates TPR ,- function(d, th){ sum(d$signal==present & d$measurement,=th) / sum(d$signal==present)} FPR ,- function(d, th){ sum(d$signal==absent & d$measurement,=th) / sum(d$signal==absent)} # use all the sorted values are possible threshods thresholds ,- sort(d$measurement) roc ,- data.frame(y=sapply(thresholds, function(th){TPR(d,th)}), x=sapply(thresholds, function(th){FPR(d,th)}) ) ggplot(roc,aes(x,y))+geom_point()+theme_bw()+labs(y=fraction of signal present\nmeasurements ,= threshold\n(true positive rate), x=fraction of signal absent\nmeasurements ,= threshold\n(false positive rate))+geom_abline(intercept=0,slope=1,lty=2 ...
The ECLAMC surveillance data, like data from other surveillance systems,3132 records diagnoses made by clinicians for clinical (not research) purposes, which are only to a limited extent subject to standardisation by belonging to a surveillance network. In our data, about half of cases had a head size larger than −3 SD (according to the Intergrowth curve), including some larger than −2 SD in whom other signs indicated an abnormally small brain. This is despite the ECLAMC recommendation to use a threshold of −3 SD. Some of this discrepancy may relate to differences between the growth charts used (Intergrowth charts were not widely used in this period) and whether they explicitly show the −3 SD threshold measurements. Most readily available charts, including Intergrowth, showed only the third centile during this period,35414243 the third centile being equivalent to the lowest 3% of measurements of the reference population compared with 2.3% for −2 SD and 0.13% for −3 SD in a normal ...
A discussion of JND, JNNDs and the people and physical Laws behind these concepts that built the basis for audiometric assessment by threshold measurement.
Authors: van der Steen, F.A.M. Article Type: Research Article Abstract: A flight simulator was used for two experiments to determine the amplitude combinations of visual scene motion (with respect to the observer) and inertial body motion (with respect to an earth-fixed frame) that provide the perception of an earth-stationary visual scene and realistic simulated self-motion. In the first experiment, this range was determined for simulated self-motion about the longitudinal body axis, while in the second, self-motion about the vertical body axis was considered. Both the inertial and the visual motions consisted of 0.75 s accelerations, followed by 1.50 s decelerations, and 0.75 s accelerations. The visual scene acceleration amplitude, W, …was fixed at either 0, 2, 4, 8, or 12°/s2 while the inertial acceleration amplitude, I, was varied by a staircase procedure. Following the visual and inertial motions, the subjects pushed a button when they perceived the scene to be not earth-stationary. At ...
We introduce a new task for exploring the relationship between action and attention. In this interactive multiple object tracking (iMOT) task, implemented as an iPad app, participants were presented with a display of multiple, visually identical disks which moved independently. The task was to prevent any collisions during a fixed duration. Participants could perturb object trajectories via the touchscreen. In Experiment 1, we used a staircase procedure to measure the ability to control moving objects. Object speed was set to 1°/s. On average participants could control 8.4 items without collision. Individual control strategies were quite variable, but did not predict overall performance. In Experiment 2, we compared iMOT with standard MOT performance using identical displays. Object speed was set to 2°/s. Participants could reliably control more objects (M = 6.6) than they could track (M = 4.0), but performance in the two tasks was positively correlated. In Experiment 3, we used a dual-task design.
Applicable model listAll products with BMC functionalDescriptionThis guide should also be helpful for user with sensor threshold problems...
The time to the first spike after stimulus onset typically varies with the stimulation intensity. Experimental evidence suggests that neural systems use such response latency to encode information about the stimulus. We investigate the decoding accuracy of the latency code in relation to the level of noise in the form of presynaptic spontaneous activity. Paradoxically, the optimal performance is achieved at a nonzero level of noise and suprathreshold stimulus intensities. We argue that this phenomenon results from the influence of the spontaneous activity on the stabilization of the membrane potential in the absence of stimulation. The reported decoding accuracy improvement represents a novel manifestation of the noise-aided signal enhancement.. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
In article ,2k61tf$p90 at news.u.washington.edu,, wcalvin at u.washington.edu (William Calvin) writes: ,, kisley at spot.Colorado.EDU (Michael Kisley) writes: ,, ,, ,I am seeking references regarding spike-accomodation in pyramidal cells ,, ,(or any other cell types) in the hippocampal formation. I am primarily ,, ,speaking of the tendency for decreased spiking response to non-novel ,, ,stimulation. Nevertheless, Id likely be interested in looking at any paper ,, ,, What you are looking for is generally called adaptation in spiking; ,, accommodation is generally reserved for threshold changes to a slow ,, depolarization. Actually, the tendency to ignore non-novel stimuli can also be a form of accommodation since it can occur as a function of threshold modification. See; AV Hill (1936) Excitation and Accommodation in Nerve. Proc. Royal Soc. London, B, 119:305:355 and some variation on the theme to include spiking behavior: BR Parnas and ER Lewis (1993) A computationally efficient spike ...
16. An investigator places an isolated neuron in a calcium-free medium, gives the neuron a suprathreshold stimulus and then performs an assay to test whether neurotransmitter is released into the medium. Which of the following outcomes would you predict? ...
Unscramble staircases, Unscramble letters staircases, Point value for staircases, Word Decoder for staircases, Word generator using the letters staircases, Word Solver staircases, Possible Scrabble words with staircases, Anagram of staircases
These are actually different calculations. Binarization performs a comparison for each class ID independently (i.e. the prediction for each class is compared separately against the thresholds provided). In this case it is possible for two or more classes to all indicate that they matched the prediction because their predicted value was greater than the threshold (this will be even more apparant at lower thresholds). In the case of the multiclass confusion matrix, there is still only one true predicted value and it either matches the actual value or it doesnt. The threshold is only used to force a prediction to match no class if it is less than the threshold. The higher the threshold the harder for a binarized classs prediction to match. Likewise the lower the threshold the easier it is for a binarized classs predictions to match. The means that at thresholds , 0.5 the binarized values and the multiclass matrix values will be closer aligned and at thresholds , 0.5 they will be farther ...
Since the introduction of steroid eluting electrodes, the incidence of an early massive rise in the capture threshold that either exceeds or threatens to exceed the programmed output of the pacemaker has declined but has not totally disappeared1 If a persistent or massive threshold rise is encountered in the days to months post-implant, one consideration is microinstability of the lead. In this setting, there may be a change in the morphology of the pacemaker evoked depolarization on the ECG or a change in the physical location of the lead as assessed with a chest x-ray. Another marker is fluctuations in the capture threshold on repeated assessments at the same office or clinic visit. The options for this problem include an operative procedure to reposition or replace the lead or to closely observe the patient hoping that the lead settles into a secure location. Another potential totally reversible cause is the introduction of an new medication or herb. If the possible explanations for threshold ...
The primary benefit of Zone 2 training is that it builds aerobic base and endurance. Increased aerobic capacity enhances your ability to sustain a sub-threshold pace for a longer period of time. In conjunction with higher intensity efforts, Zone 2 is the foundation from which to begin to build threshold fitness. Strong aerobic capacity also allows you to recover more quickly between those higher intensity efforts as you progress into your season. For example, with strong aerobic fitness, you may ultimately be able to perform intervals with a shorter rest in between, or be able to perform a higher volume of intervals at the same pace ...
He still is the regulatory download natural gushing in most pandemic beds: how to stop and risk with the main whole or mankind to be you to your practitioners. Ringo on parents and Robert and Dean DeLeo from Stone Temple Pilots on threshold and example. As a variation this multiple
The DuoMAG Quadropulse System (QPS) combines four DuoMAG MP stimulators to provide a fully configurable quadropulse TMS stimulator. This combination allows individual control of the amplitude of all stimulators as well as the capability of setting inter-stimulus interval (ISI) and delivering the defined quadropulse stimulation through a single coil. The quadropulse functionality allows users to deliver precise sub- and supra-threshold conditioning and test pulses which is a vital component when studying Inter- and Intra-Cortical Inhibition and Facilitation. The inter stimulus interval for the four pulses is adjustable either in the supplied control software or external control via TTL inputs, offering the ultimate flexibility in ISI control. DuoMAG QPS allows users to combine the two stimulator pulses into a single pulse providing a pulse amplitude that equates to 140% of a single DuoMAG MP output. The DuoMAG QPS can also be used with four separate coils to carryout interhemispheric ...
Grand means of evoked potentials in selected peripheral leads which illustrate short-latency effects produced by (A) sub-threshold (−12 dB re VT) and (B) sup
Nociceptor hypersensitivity often outlasts the original injury. Untreated, it can even become permanent. Recent pre-clinical peer-reviewed research published by Dr. Ted Price and Dr. Greg Dussor suggests that the ingredients in Teds Pain Cream appear over time to reset the sensitivity threshold of nociceptors to their
Bar graphs indicate the probability of selected flight category element. The color represents the difference (using 10% thresholds between categories) between the probability and the threshold required to make a categorical forecast. Solid black lines indicate the threshold value at each hour ...
Bar graphs indicate the probability of selected flight category element. The color represents the difference (using 10% thresholds between categories) between the probability and the threshold required to make a categorical forecast. Solid black lines indicate the threshold value at each hour ...
Contrast discrimination is an important type of information for establishing image quality metrics based on human vision. We used a dual-masking paradigm to study how contrast discrimination can be influenced by the presence of adjacent stimuli. In a dual masking paradigm, the observers task is to detect a target superimposed on a pedestal in the presence of flankers. The flankers (1) reduce the target threshold at zero pedestal contrast; (2) reduce the size of pedestal facilitation at low pedestal contrasts; and (3) shift the TvC (Target threshold vs. pedestal contrast) function horizontally to the left on a log-log plot at high pedestal contrasts. The horizontal shift at high pedestal contrasts suggests that the flanker effect is a multiplicative factor that cannot be explained by previous models of contrast discrimination. We extended a divisive inhibition model of contrast discrimination by implementing the flanker effect as a multiplicative sensitivity modulation factor that account for ...
The observed shift in the contrast gain function is consistent with previous measures of spatial vision loss with age. For instance, Sloane, Owsley, and Jackson (1988) measured contrast sensitivity for young and old observers with spatial frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 8 c/deg and luminance levels ranging from mesopic to photopic. At a low temporal frequency, the slope of the sensitivity function (inverse of the threshold function) spanning the range of luminance was steeper for older than younger observers at spatial frequencies below 4 c/deg. This means that older observers required more contrast at low luminance levels to detect a sine-wave grating than their younger counterparts. This pattern of contrast sensitivity loss is consistent with a reduction in the contrast gain slope of the underlying mechanism at low spatial frequencies. In addition, suprathreshold measures of spatial vision performance also support a reduction in contrast gain within one (or both) of the pathways. Losses in ...
The observed shift in the contrast gain function is consistent with previous measures of spatial vision loss with age. For instance, Sloane, Owsley, and Jackson (1988) measured contrast sensitivity for young and old observers with spatial frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 8 c/deg and luminance levels ranging from mesopic to photopic. At a low temporal frequency, the slope of the sensitivity function (inverse of the threshold function) spanning the range of luminance was steeper for older than younger observers at spatial frequencies below 4 c/deg. This means that older observers required more contrast at low luminance levels to detect a sine-wave grating than their younger counterparts. This pattern of contrast sensitivity loss is consistent with a reduction in the contrast gain slope of the underlying mechanism at low spatial frequencies. In addition, suprathreshold measures of spatial vision performance also support a reduction in contrast gain within one (or both) of the pathways. Losses in ...
A classification method of ultrasonic liver image is studied based on threshold segmentation.Under the condition of minimizing the false-negative probabilityt,he confidence intervals of gray levels which are normal distributions in normal and fatty liver images can be obtained by minimizing the false-positive rate.Then classify the images by comparing the seg-mented images with the interval thresholds.The experimental results show that the classification rate of normal livers reaches to 100% for testing or training datat,he classification rate of fatty livers reaches to 96.3% for testing or training data.Com-pared with the Back Propagation Neural Network(BP NN) methodt,he method costs less time than BP NN method when they have the same performance.
Effects of bilateral kindling or bilateral sub-threshold stimulation of the amygdala or septum on muricide, ranacide, intraspecific aggression and passive avoidance in the rat Academic Article ...
Auditory fatigue is now known as Temporary Threshold Shift (subsequently abbreviated to TTS). It has been defined as the temporary elevation in the absolute threshold of hearing for a given test sound resulting from preceding auditory stimulation by a given stimulus sound (see Hirsh, 1952, page 177). Associated with the phenomenon there are six physical variables which sub-divide themselves into stimulus, test and recovery factors. In IMS study each of the latter factors was systematically Investigated using four groups of six undergraduate subjects. Thresholds were measured using the Bek6sy (1947) technique of threshold measurement. Control experiments were carried out to verify that TTS results from the application of the stimulus tone, to study the mechanisms involved in the Bekesy technique of threshold measurement and the effects of this technique on the measurement of TTS, to investigate any additive effects of TTS and to study the possibility of any measurement errors resulting from the ...
0079] In another example implementation, electrical sensing module 86 and capture detection module 90 determine whether capture has occurred based on the LVP-RVS conduction times, as described above, as well as the evoked response in the LV. In particular, electrical sensing module 86 and evoked response detection module 94 of capture detection module 90 determine whether there has been an evoked response by measuring the amplitude of the response in the LV as well as time between the LVP and the evoked response in the LV. In order for capture to have occurred, the time between the LVP and the evoked response in the LV should be within a prescribed window, and the amplitude of the response should be greater than some threshold value. Processor 80 may retrieve the previously stored threshold value from memory 82 and capture detection module 90 may compare the measured amplitude of the response to the threshold value. In addition, for each vector tested at each particular voltage, processor 80 may ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spike-Threshold Adaptation Predicted by Membrane Potential Dynamics In Vivo. AU - Fontaine, Bertrand. AU - Peña, José Luis. AU - Brette, Romain. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2014 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2014/4. Y1 - 2014/4. N2 - Neurons encode information in sequences of spikes, which are triggered when their membrane potential crosses a threshold. In vivo, the spiking threshold displays large variability suggesting that threshold dynamics have a profound influence on how the combined input of a neuron is encoded in the spiking. Threshold variability could be explained by adaptation to the membrane potential. However, it could also be the case that most threshold variability reflects noise and processes other than threshold adaptation. Here, we investigated threshold variation in auditory neurons responses recorded in vivo in barn owls. We found that spike threshold is quantitatively predicted by a model in which the threshold adapts, tracking the membrane ...
Functions reliably describing perception of motion in depth have been established experimentally by using psychophysical methods of size and distance estimations and threshold measurements. The stimuli were generated with a new hybrid technique yielding a. ...
a) Micro-purchase threshold. The threshold increases when the head of the agency determines the supplies or services are to be used to facilitate defense against or recovery from cyber, nuclear, biological, chemical, or radiological attack; to facilitate provision of international disaster assistance; or to support response to an emergency or major disaster. (See 2.101.). (b) Simplified acquisition threshold. The threshold increases when the head of the agency determines the supplies or services are to be used to facilitate defense against or recovery from cyber, nuclear, biological, chemical, or radiological attack; to facilitate provision of international disaster assistance; or to support response to an emergency or major disaster. (See 2.101.). (c) Treating certain items as commercial. Contracting officers may treat any acquisition of supplies or services as an acquisition of commercial items if the head of the agency determines the acquisition is to be used to facilitate the defense against ...
See pricing info, deals and product reviews for TRU RED™ File Pockets, 5.25 Expansion, Letter Size, Assorted Colors, 5/Pack (TR765503) at Quill.com. Order online today and get fast, free shipping for your business.
Colored Paper - 50-Count 8.5 x 11 Letter Size Card Stock Paper for Brochure, Invitation, Craft, Menu, Laser Printers Compatible, 67lb, 200GSM, Pink COLORED OFFSET PAPER: Includes 50 sheets of heavyweight printing paper that are perfect for printing for business and personal uses. SUPERIOR QUALITY: Each paper is made from high-quality 200 gsm paper that is both elegant and durable. MULTI PURPOSE: Perfect for presentations, school projects, party invitations, kids craft ideas.
See pricing info, deals and product reviews for Smead Hanging File Folder Frames, Letter Size, Gray, 2/Pack (64870) at Quill.com. Order online today and get fast, free shipping for your business.
misc{71171638-c472-49a9-84cf-124384b2c492, author = {Hellman, Johan and Sikström, Sverker}, keyword = {Memory,Signal Detection Theory,ROC curve,Attention}, language = {eng}, title = {The Generalized Signal Detection Theory}, year = {2012 ...
At high contrast, performance of both patients and controls deteriorated as the stimulus size increased (F(2,27) = 38; p , 0.001) (Fig. 3, right panel). This pattern of results can be construed as an indicator of the presence of antagonistic center-surround interactions (Tadin et al., 2003). At high contrast, no main effects of group were found (F(1,28) = 1.76; p = 0.19). The only observed deficit was in a condition in which patients discriminated a small (1°) high-contrast motion (t(28) = 2.29; p = 0.03). The magnitude of the observed deficit was comparable with the threshold increases observed for low-contrast moving stimuli (Fig. 3). Importantly, as the stimulus size increased, the difference between patient and control data were eliminated. The interaction, however, was not significant (F(2,27) = 1.72; p = 0.19). This pattern of results might indicate that patients are selectively impaired in perceiving small moving objects. However, we find no evidence for such selective impairment in the ...
Auditory function declines with age, with reductions in threshold sensitivity and speech discrimination, particularly in noise, commonly observed (Working Group on Speech Understanding, Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics, 1988; Goŕdon-Salant, 2005). Understanding of the cellular changes that lead to these outcomes remains fragmentary, and clinical assessments provide an incomplete picture of the sites of involvement and the perceptual impacts of auditory aging.. The loss of threshold sensitivity that accompanies auditory aging is primarily peripheral in origin, and often sensory (i.e., related to hair cell damage or loss) in nature. Much experimental effort has focused on correlating such age-related threshold shifts with hair cell loss, and therapeutic interventions have concentrated on improving audibility through amplification. However, threshold sensitivity loss is not the only, and arguably not the primary, handicapping dysfunction of auditory aging. Aging listeners ...
Safe and proven testing patterns developed at the Mayo Clinic® assist in the assessment of sensory abnormalities due to neurologic disease, help in the determination of type of dysfunctional fibers, and quantitatively verify the effectiveness of small and large unmyelinated nerve fibers.. The CASE IV QST lab utilizes two stimulators to determine sensory threshold. Patient responses to safe, effective stimuli are used to generate a sensory threshold level which are then compared to reference data available with the WR TestWorks software.. The CASE IV QST lab includes stimulators, patient instruction cards for clear, concise, and standardized instruction, a patient supply kit, an equipment cart, and a computer running the WR TestWorks software with printer. Get more functionality from your lab by adding a Q-Sweat or Cardiac system. On-site installation and training is included for all labs in the United States and Canada. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The relationship and precision of four methods for measuring the low-contrast detail detectability in fluoroscopic imaging were studied. These included the physical measurement of the accumulation rate of the square of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNRrate2), two-alternative forced-choice (2-AFC) experiments, sixteen-alternative forced-choice (16-AFC) experiments and subjective determination of the threshold contrast. The precision and sensitivity of the threshold contrast measurement were seen to be modest in the constancy testing of fluoroscopic equipment: only large changes in system performance could be reliably detected by that method. The measurement of the SNRrate2 is suggested instead. The relationship between the results of the various methods were studied, and it was found that human performance can be related to SNRrate2 by introducing the concept of the effective image information integration time (teff). When measured for an unlimited observation time, it depicts the saturation of ...
A heart monitor is disclosed. The monitor computes ST segment deviations and stores the results in heart rate based histograms. Periodically, the monitor analyzes the histogram data to determine a normal range of ST deviation for a particular heart rate range. The monitor computes heart rate dependent ischemia detection thresholds based on the upper and lower boundaries of the normal range. A current threshold for a heart rate range is set as a weighted average of the prior threshold and a provisional threshold based on recent data, thereby limiting the amount the actual detection threshold changes from period to period.
Cosmo Laboratory Equipment, Ambala Cantt, India - Vernier Microscopes India, Vernier Microscopes Manufacturers, Vernier Microscopes, Vernier Microscopes Suppliers, Vernier Microscopes Exporters,
Aims We investigated the applicability of the Ventricular Capture Control (VCC) and Atrial Capture Control (ACC) algorithms for automatic management of cardiac stimulation featured by Biotronik pacemakers in a broad, unselected population of pacemaker recipients. Methods and results Ventricular Capture Control and Atrial Capture Control were programmed to work at a maximum adapted output voltage as 4.8 V in consecutive recipients of Biotronik pacemakers. Ambulatory threshold measurements were made 1 and 12 months after pacemaker implant/replacement in all possible pacing/sensing configurations, and were compared with manual measurements. Among 542 patients aged 80 (73-85) years, 382 had a pacemaker implant and 160 a pacemaker replacement. Ventricular Capture Control could work at long term in 97% of patients irrespectively of pacing indication, lead type, and lead service life, performance being superior with discordant pacing/sensing configurations. Atrial Capture Control could work in 93% of ...
Since Ive just broken the anime taboo, I figured Id illustrate my second law of psychology. Every person has a perceptual ceiling. If they are stimulated beyond this, their rational mind will disengage to reduce anxiety. Pupil dilation and contraction generally adjusts to ambient light. However, it also corresponds to the rate at which your…
Many frameworks, such as the socioecological model and the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), highlight the importance of considering intrapersonal variables alongside context. The SD model of thresholds for clinical decision-making proposes specific mechanisms to describe the relationship between the individual and his or her setting. For a wide range of parameter values, the assumption that screening directly increases accuracy while having an ambiguous effect on thresholds yields predictions that are broadly consistent with implementation trials of developmental-behavioral screening, including that not all positive screens will be referred and that changes in referral rates attributable to the implementation of screening may range widely depending on context and even decline in some circumstances. The key insight is that depending on the perspective of the decision-maker, increased accuracy may reduce FP errors and FN errors to different degrees. If only the former, ...
The COLENBRANDER DIOPTER RULER. The ruler shows inches and centimeters. Most important, however, is the center scale, which. shows DIOPTERS. Recording the reading distance in diopters (the reciprocal of the distance in meters) greatly simplifies calculations and comparisons. It replaces the use of a visual acuity fraction. (V = m / M = distance in meters / letter size) with a multiplication (1/V = M.x.D = letter size x. distance in diopters).. Measuring the reading distance in diopters provides a simple check on the power of the. reading add.. The diamonds on the ruler represent steps that are equivalent to the print sample steps. For. each diamond that the print is brought closer, the patient should be able to read one print size smaller, provided that the reading add is adjusted accordingly.. The short end of the ruler provides an M-unit scale to measure the size of unknown print. samples.. ...
Absolute amplitude threshold can be set in the Positive threshold field. This means that SIGVIEW will only consider amplitudes over that value as possible peak candidates. The default value will be set to 75% of the maximal signal amplitude. • If you would also like to detect negative peaks, enable the Detect negative peaks check-box and set the corresponding threshold in the Negative threshold field. The value should be entered as absolute amplitude, so you do not need a minus sign. • Minimal peak width can be defined in samples or signal units (for example, Hz, or seconds). Setting this property to a higher value will prevent detection of very small peaks where only few values cross the threshold limit. • Allow multiple peaks inside one threshold crossing option allows SIGVIEW to detect local peaks inside one threshold crossing. Turning this option on will usually result in an increase of detected peak count. ...
At this level, the finger will not move at all. However, the action of mind upon the finger will continue. You will continue the action of mind by willing the finger to push into the table - but at a force incapable of actually moving it. This is concentration.. Mental thought to physical action is a spectrum. Thoughts cross a point on the spectrum and become physical actions. Most people usually leap from thought to physical action in a binary step. However, as the exercise just now showed, you can in fact approach the point where a thought becomes a physical action, and stay just beneath it - creating a continuing action of mind which is sub-threshold for creating an actual physical action. You can continue to create this action of mind for long periods. This is concentration.. This action of mind will still cause nerves to fire in the finger, despite its not moving. These nerve impulses can be perceived as a tingling sensation in the chest and neck where the nerves supplying the finger ...
We hypothesized that currents are grouped into distinct modules that shape specific neuronal characteristics or signatures, such as resting potential, sub-threshold oscillations, and spiking waveforms, for several classes of neurons. For such a grouping to occur, the currents within one module should have minimal functional interference with currents belonging to other modules. This condition is satisfied if the gating functions of currents in the same module are grouped together on the voltage axis; in contrast, such functions are segregated along the voltage axis for currents belonging to different modules. We tested this hypothesis using four published example case models and found it to be valid for these classes of neurons ...
Abstract: Detection thresholds for auditory stimuli, specified in terms of their amplitude or level, depend on the stimulus temporal envelope and decrease with increasing stimulus duration. The neural mechanisms underlying these fundamental across-species observations are not fully understood. Here, we present a ``continuous look model, according to which the stimulus gives rise to stochastic neural detection events whose probability of occurrence is proportional to the 3rd power of the low-pass filtered, time-varying stimulus amplitude. Threshold is reached when a criterion number of events have occurred (probability summation). No long-term integration is required. We apply the model to an extensive set of thresholds measured in humans for tones of different envelopes and durations and find it to fit well. Subtle differences at long durations may be due to limited attention resources. We confirm the probabilistic nature of the detection events by analyses of simple reaction times and verify ...
This operator finds the threshold for given prediction confidences of soft classified predictions in order to turn it into a crisp classification. The optimization step is based on ROC analysis. ROC is discussed at the end of this description.. The Find Threshold operator finds the threshold of a labeled ExampleSet to map a soft prediction to crisp values. The threshold is delivered through the threshold port. Mostly the Apply Threshold operator is used for applying a threshold after it has been delivered by the Find Threshold operator. If the confidence for the second class is greater than the given threshold the prediction is set to this class otherwise it is set to the other class. This can be easily understood by studying the attached Example Process. Among various classification methods, there are two main groups of methods: soft and hard classification. In particular, a soft classification rule generally estimates the class conditional probabilities explicitly and then makes the class ...
Power/performance characteristics of FD-SOI will be 30% to 40% superior to bulk HKMG CMOS at 20nm. Analog porting of FD-SOI will be easier than with the other options because of the superior sub-threshold characteristics.. Today, FD-SOI is the only technology that can operate safely in the 0.6V to 0.7V range at 28nm. While there is some reduction in performance, operating power is reduced, giving a very compelling performance-power advantage against other technologies.. Although the real competition is likely to be between FinFETs and FD-SOI at 20nm, FinFETs are a new technology (from a high-volume production perspective), with significant cost penalties even in Q1/2016.. Bulk HKMG CMOS will have low parametric yields at 20nm. A major source of yield loss for bulk CMOS is that of random dopant fluctuations from transistor implants. These implants are not required for FD-SOI. ~20nm FinFET structures will be high-cost to manufacture, and parametric yields will be low.. The time to reach defect ...
The CyberPower Smart App Sinewave PR1000LCD uninterruptible power supply (UPS) with LCD Control Panel and Active PFC compatible pure sine wave output safeguards mission-critical servers, telecom equip
I was posting under the handle ummmm earlier in the thread. I have never actually run a marathon, but have used equivalent performance charts to see where I would be at. The reason I use marathon pace as a baseline is from the Lydiard books I have read. His 3/4 effort runs were sub-threshold or marathon pace and were run (if I remember right) for 10 miles twice a week. I use this as a guideline, BUT my high end aerobic runs are whatever feels right for the day. A strong, floating feeling that I know I can hold for a while is my high end aerobic pace for the day. Sometimes its a bit slower than marathon pace, sometimes a little faster. ...
EasyPower provides the option of showing a warning when the short-circuit duty percent is above a user defined safety margin threshold but below the violation level. Short-circuit on any bus results in voltage drop shorh other near buses in the system. You can set a voltage sensitivity threshold in the options such that any bus with voltage below this value will be highlighted red in the single line view and shown in the voltage sensitivity report.. The short-circuit calculation provides the phase angle of the branch currents and the bus voltages at various equipment. The phase angles displayed are relative to the applied equivalent voltage source being at zero angle. Transformers having different winding configurations, such as a delta connection on one side and a star wye connection on the other side, have a designated shift in the phase angles of currents and voltages.. For remote buses and branches across transformers, a phase angle shift is applied accordingly by the short circuit ...
Current range: 0~5A,10A,20A,30A,50A optional; Support Relay ouput,Transistor open-collector output or 12/24V ouput; Alarm Threshold: when current|230mA,relay active,contact get through;When input current|200mA,relay and contact open.The input threshold can be set according to users request in factory. Relay capacity:AC250V/1A, DC30V/1A;Transistor open-collector output capacity:30V/50mA; Active output capacity:20mA. Working Power: 12V or 24V DC. Used for monitoring the equipment running status.
How different must the comparison be from the standard for a person to distinguish the two stimuli? By distinguish, we mean the participant can reliably pick out the odd stimulus when presented two examples of the standard and one of the comparison (or vice versa). There are at least two strategies. (i) With single-cue estimators, estimates could be made independently of each other (without combination). Once the difference between either estimate, ΔS 1 or ΔS 2, reached its own discrimination threshold, ±T 1 or ±T 2, the participant would be able to identify the odd stimulus. The predicted set of thresholds would, therefore, be horizontal and vertical lines (Fig. 1B, left; red lines) whose distance from the origin was determined by the discrimination threshold of the single-cue estimators (13). Comparison stimuli within the rectangle would be indistinguishable from the standard. Performance would be no better in one quadrant than in any other. (ii) With a mandatory combined estimator, only ...
Both foveae of light-adapted subjects were stimulated at the same time with monocularly presented lights of increasing or decreasing luminance. Combinations judged just detectable violated predictions of the energy summation and the probability summation hypotheses of binocular interaction. Rather, the results can be explained by independent central neural mechanisms that signal the sum or the difference of stimuli to two eyes. ...
Once it has detected an overheating state, Hmonitor can perform a number of tasks. First, it can sound an audio alarm, then shut down the system or optionally execute any selected application (i.e. sending E-mail alert messages to system administrator). It can also log information each minute to a file on your hard drive. From the settings dialog, Hmonitor enables you to set yellow zone and red zone temperatures for the motherboard and CPU. You can also set minimum fan RPM before a warning is issued. In addition, nominal values and thresholds can be adjusted for voltage parameters ...
You must not use this form if the payments exceed NOK 60,000. If the payments exceed this threshold, you must submit an ordinary a-melding (A02 or A01). If you have already used this form (A04) and it becomes apparent that you are above the thresholds, you must use form A04 for the rest of the year. Childminding and care of children with special care needs (regardless of age) is excluded from this threshold on NOK 60,000.. You do not need to submit an a-melding if payments do not exceed NOK 6,000 per employee during the year.. ...
The eye is made up of critical structures that work together to provide clear, high contrast vision. These include: Cornea Lens Retina At only 8/1000 of an inch thickness, the macular portion of the retina is exquisitely thin. And yet it provides the ability to see visual details for a lifetime.
Professional manufacture of Indoor Themometer company, we can produce various sizes of Others according to your request.We have specialized personnel provide fast,reliable, 24 hour on-line service.
Video created by University of Washington for the course Computational Neuroscience. In this module, we turn the question of neural encoding around and ask: can we estimate what the brain is seeing, intending, or experiencing just from its ...
There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience. ...
For immediate lesson plan template needs, get this instantly downloadable Blank Lesson Plan template availabe in A4 and US letter sizes. The template contains standard fonts and license and is ready to print anytime. Quickly and easily edit with any versions of MS Word or Pages application.
The Rainbow Pack Papers is a set of digital paper that includes 12 different designs. Great for rainbow party printables and invitations! You will get 12 jpg files in 300 dpi resolution, watermark-free. Formats: 300 dpi JPG files. U.S. LETTER SIZE (8.5 x 11) License Information: Commerical Credit Required: You must g
Parts of the Caliper The Vernier Caliper The vernier caliper has two main parts which has the scales that the measurements are read from. The main beam:this is the non moving part of the unit and contains the main scales,...
... increases the sensory threshold. In other words, sleeping persons perceive fewer stimuli, but can generally still respond ... Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory ... the forebrain then creates a story in an attempt to reconcile and make sense of the nonsensical sensory information presented ... to loud noises and other salient sensory events.[8][6] During slow-wave sleep, humans secrete bursts of growth hormone. All ...
Sensory processing is often affected, especially the vestibular system. A high pain threshold is often observed.[4] If speech ...
The human external sensory and perceptual system[1][4] Physical stimulus Sensory organ Sensory receptor Sensory system Cranial ... Thresholds[edit]. Absolute threshold[edit]. Main article: Absolute threshold. Each sense organ (eyes or nose, for instance) ... in sensory organs transduct sensory information from sensory organs towards the central nervous system, to the sensory cortices ... Sensory modalities[edit]. Main article: Sensory modalities. Sensory modality refers to the way that information is encoded, ...
Nervous and sensory systems. The nervous system is basically the same as in other vertebrates, with a central brain, a spinal ... Specific events are dependent on threshold values for different tissues.[76] Because most embryonic development is outside the ... Various parts of the cerebrum process sensory input, such as smell in the olfactory lobe and sight in the optic lobe, and it is ... By the age of about ten months they have developed a pointed head with sensory tentacles near the mouth and lost their eyes, ...
Type II: (medium) Low threshold, rapidly adapting in dynamic settings. *Type III: (large) High threshold, slowly adapting in ... A mechanoreceptor, also called mechanoceptor, is a sensory cell that responds to mechanical pressure or distortion. There are ... Once threshold is reached, the magnitude of the stimulus is encoded in the frequency of impulses generated in the neuron. So ... The impulses travel along the sensory axon to the spinal cord where they form several kinds of synapses: *Some of the branches ...
... with their sensory threshold and common sensory descriptors: *4-ethylphenol (,140 μg/L): Band-aids, barnyard, horse stable, ... The sensory threshold for acetaldehyde is 100-125 mg/L. Beyond this level it imparts a sherry type character to the wine which ... Mercaptans have a very low sensory threshold, around 1.5 μg/L,[6] with levels above causing onion, rubber, and skunk type ... The compound responsible is 2-ethoxyhexa-3,5-diene, which has a low sensory threshold concentration of 1 ng/L.[12] In wine it ...
Smolewska et al. (2006): Aesthetic Sensitivity (AES, having greater awareness of beauty), Low Sensory Threshold (LST, easily ... wrote that sensory processing here refers not to the sense organs themselves, but to what occurs as sensory information is ... Sensory processing sensitivity (SPS) is a temperamental or personality trait involving "an increased sensitivity of the central ... From "... A Review... " (2012): SPS is "unrelated to Sensory Processing Disorder". *From "The Clinical Implications of Jung's ...
2008). Sensory Evolution on the Threshold: Adaptations in Secondarily Aquatic Vertebrates. Berkeley: University of California ... "Sex-specific peptides from exocrine glands stimulate mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons". Nature 437 (7060): 898-901. Bibcode: ... "Use it or lose it: molecular evolution of sensory signaling in primates" (PDF). Pflugers Arch. 453 (2): 125-131. PMID 16897042 ...
2008). Sensory Evolution on the Threshold: Adaptations in Secondarily Aquatic Vertebrates. Berkeley: University of California ... Sensory neuronsEdit. Vomeronasal sensory neurons are extremely sensitive and fire action potentials at currents as low as 1 pA ... The vomeronasal organ's sensory neurons act on a different signaling pathway than that of the main olfactory system's sensory ... sensory epithelium. The receptor neurons possess apical microvilli, to which are localized the sensory receptors, G-protein- ...
Hearing is an important sensory system for most species of fish. Hearing threshold and the ability to localize sound sources ... Vision is an important sensory system for most species of fish. Fish eyes are similar to those of terrestrial vertebrates like ... A Critique of the paper: "Do fish have nociceptors: Evidence for the evolution of a vertebrate sensory system"" (PDF). Archived ... ISBN 978-0-08-096136-1. Hara TJ and Zielinski B (2006) Fish Physiology: Sensory Systems Neuroscience Academic Press. ISBN 978-0 ...
... effects on thermal sensory and pain thresholds". Neuroscience Letters. 363 (2): 157-162. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2004.03.069. PMID ...
Tomi K, Mashimo T, Tashiro C, Yagi M, Pak M, Nishimura S, Nishimura M, Yoshiya I (1993). "Alterations in pain threshold and ... Tomlin PJ, Jones BC, Edwards R, Robin PE (1973). "Subjective and objective sensory responses to inhalation of nitrous oxide and ...
... and psychological states influence the threshold for signal detection.[14] Some phantom vibration experiences may be a type of ... the cerebral cortex may misinterpret other sensory input (such as muscle contractions, pressure from clothing, or music) as a ...
... and nerve sensory thresholds in experimental diabetic neuropathic rats.[25][26] ...
The recognition odor threshold is usually a factor of 2 to 5 times higher than the detection threshold.[19] ... As a result, odor sensory methods, instead of instrumental methods, are normally used to measure such odor. Odor sensory ... To measure odor sensation, an odor is diluted to a detection or recognition threshold. The detection threshold is the ... It is standardized in CEN EN 13725:2003.[20] The method is based on dilution of an odor sample to the odor threshold. The ...
An electrical stimulus below threshold strength fails to elicit a propagated spike potential. If it is of threshold strength or ... Adrian isolated and stimulated one sensory fibre. The impulses externally on the fibre were uniform: "as simple as the dots in ... As long as the stimulus reaches the threshold, the full response would be given. Larger stimulus does not result in a larger ... If a nerve trunk is stimulated, then as the exciting stimulus is progressively increased above a threshold, a larger number of ...
Sensory and psychodynamics of human hearing[edit]. Cocktail party effect[edit]. Understanding speech[edit]. Non-linearity[edit] ... Main article: Absolute threshold of hearing. Audiometric testing[edit]. *objectives: integrity, structure, function, freedom ... This stimulates the sensory cells of the organ of Corti, atop the basilar membrane, to send nerve impulses to the central ... The most commonly used assessment of hearing is the determination of the threshold of audibility, i.e. the level of sound ...
... a factor which led to the concept of a defect in sensory peripheral neural mechanisms.[10] Changes in the oral environment, ... so it has been suggested that it is a disorder of reduced pain threshold and increased sensitivity. Often people with BMS have ...
... and research on sensory psychology and sensory physiology laid the groundwork for accepting experimental psychology as a field ... The two-point threshold, the smallest distance between two points where a person determines that it is two points and not one, ... Two-point Threshold Technique: helped map sensitivity and touch acuity on the body using compass technique. Points of a compass ... In a book titled De Tactu, which translates to "Concerning touch" in English, he decided that there was a threshold of ...
The aroma can be very potent, detectable at a sensory threshold as low as 1.6 parts per billion (µg/l). The exact compound ... Martineau, B., Acree, T.E. and Henick-Kling, T "Effect of wine type on the detection threshold for diacetyl" Food Research ... At an odor detection threshold of 0.2 mg/l in white wines and 2.8 mg/l in red wines, it can be perceived as slightly buttery or ... The primary role of malolactic fermentation is to deacidify wine.[6] It can also affect the sensory aspects of a wine, making ...
Sensory overload[edit]. When exposed to a multitude of sounds from several different sources, sensory overload may occur. This ... Temporary threshold shifts can result in different types of fatigue. Short-term fatigue[edit]. Recovery from temporary ... Finneran, J. J., Schlundt, C.E. (2013). Effects of fatiguing tone frequency on temporary threshold shift in bottlenose dolphins ... Temporary threshold shifts[edit]. When exposed to noise, the human ear's sensitivity to sound is decreased, corresponding to an ...
E.H. Weber built upon Herbart's work and tried to prove the existence of a psychological threshold, saying that a minimum ... Today these differences, such as sensory and motor functioning (reaction time, visual acuity, and physical strength) are ... stimulus was necessary to activate a sensory system. After Weber, G.T. Fechner expanded upon the knowledge he gleaned from ... by the British Association for the Advancement of Science to investigate the possibility of quantitatively estimating sensory ...
The state of the reflex system is dependent on both a conscious signal from the brain and the firing rate of sensory fibers ... After transection of the brain stem just above the pons, the threshold is lowered and less bladder filling is required to ... Action potentials carried by sensory neurons from stretch receptors in the urinary bladder wall travel to the sacral segments ... stretch receptors in the bladder wall initiate a reflex contraction that has a lower threshold than the inherent contractile ...
This correlation can be seen especially in adults who have low neurological thresholds (sensory sensitivity and sensory ... Sensory craving/seeking.. Sensory-based motor disorder (SBMD)[edit]. Sensory-based motor disorder shows motor output that is ... Sensory processing disorders are classified into three categories: sensory modulation disorder, sensory-based motor disorders ... Sensory processing model[edit]. In Miller's nosology "sensory integration dysfunction" was renamed into "Sensory processing ...
... degree of eventual sensory hearing loss). In addition, the assumption that the pressure of perilymph is equal to ICP does not ... physiological variability of the reflex threshold, functional integrity of the cochlear and facial nerves, ...
Nerve stimulation and sensory responses are now often performed during the surgery to confirm function of the sensory nerves.[ ... a medical device used to measure sensitivity thresholds. Values were recorded. The authors note that there are no control data ... with 9 undergoing extended vibratory sensory testing. The initial tests were performed on the inner thigh, labia majora, labia ...
... high threshold (HT), and low threshold (LT).[6] These classifications are based on their responses to mechanical stimuli.[6] ... C fibers are one class of nerve fiber found in the nerves of the somatic sensory system.[1] They are afferent fibers, conveying ... includes CT fibres, also known as C low-threshold mechanoreceptors (CLTM), which are unmyelinated afferents found in human ... has a higher threshold of activation regarding heat of about 52 °C and also responds to capsaicin and low pH.[1] Both types of ...
... increased sensory threshold), the adoption of a typical posture, and the occupation of a sheltered site, all of which is ... characterized by passivity and increased thresholds for sensory stimuli as well as changes in the EEG pattern, markedly ...
Regardless of the sensory domain, there are three main areas of investigation: absolute thresholds, discrimination thresholds ... Absolute threshold is also often referred to as detection threshold. Several different methods are used for measuring absolute ... For 'absolute thresholds' again the subject reports whether they are able to detect the stimulus. For 'difference thresholds' ... A threshold is estimated from the mean midpoint of all runs. This estimate approaches, asymptotically, the correct threshold. ...
T units have low thresholds and narrow tuning. The separate processing of information continues passed the primary sensory ... Barlow HB (1961). "Possible principles underlying the transformation of sensory messages". Sensory communication. Cambridge, MA ... rather than faithful copying of the sensory world onto a sensory map in the brain. For example, in the visual system, they ... Early in the sensory pathway feature detectors tend to have simple properties; later they become more and more complex as the ...
The complex also contributes to integrating modulatory and sensory inputs which feed its larger network with the capacity to ... which allows neurons to intrinsically fire action potentials at sub-threshold membrane potentials. Studies have shown that the ... the pre-Bötzinger complex is also capable of integrating sensory information from changes in the biochemical environment, ...
Quantitative sensory testing can be used to determine pain thresholds (decreased pain threshold indicates allodynia) and ... Sensory neurons produce antinociceptive effects in inflammatory pain: involvement of inflammatory mediators" (PDF). J. Neurosci ... "Methylprednisolone and Ketorolac rapidly reduce hyperalgesia around a skin burn injury and increase pressure pain thresholds". ...
The state of the reflex system is dependent on both a conscious signal from the brain and the firing rate of sensory fibers ... After transection of the brain stem just above the pons, the threshold is lowered and less bladder filling is required to ... Action potentials carried by sensory neurons from stretch receptors in the urinary bladder wall travel to the sacral segments ... stretch receptors in the bladder wall initiate a reflex contraction that has a lower threshold than the inherent contractile ...
Sensory information arriving at the lateral aspect of the amygdala is processed and conveyed to the amygdala's central nucleus ... posits that the accumulation of stressors across a lifespan can enhance the development of psychopathology once a threshold is ...
The olfactory system, or sense of smell, is the sensory system used for smelling (olfaction). Olfaction is one of the special ... "Olfactory threshold in Parkinson's disease". Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 50 (1): 88-89. doi:10.1136/jnnp. ... Olfactory sensory neurons in the epithelium detect odor molecules dissolved in the mucus and transmit information about the ... "Sniffing out the Contributions of the Olfactory Tubercle to the Sense of Smell: Hedonics, Sensory Integration, and More?" ...
A liability threshold model for ALS proposes that cellular damage accumulates over time due to genetic factors present at birth ... Sensory nerves and the autonomic nervous system are generally unaffected, meaning the majority of people with ALS maintain ...
Smolewska et al. (2006): Aesthetic Sensitivity (AES, having greater awareness of beauty), Low Sensory Threshold (LST, easily ... wrote that sensory processing here refers not to the sense organs themselves, but to what occurs as sensory information is ... Sensory processing sensitivity (SPS) is a temperamental or personality trait involving "an increased sensitivity of the central ... From "... A Review... " (2012): SPS is "unrelated to Sensory Processing Disorder". *From "The Clinical Implications of Jung's ...
This threshold reference dose for foods (such as cow's milk, egg, peanut and other proteins) will provide food manufacturers ... Histamine also causes itchiness by acting on sensory nerve terminals. The most common antihistamine given for food allergies is ... threshold quantities below which labeling may be of no purpose, and validation of allergen detection methods to test and ...
O'Mahony, Michael (1986). Sensory Evaluation of Food: Statistical Methods and Procedures. CRC Press. p. 487. ISBN 0-82477337-3 ... If the calculated p-value is below the threshold chosen for statistical significance (usually the 0.10, the 0.05, or 0.01 level ...
A Arenz; E Bracey; T Margrie (2009). "Sensory representations in cerebellar granule cells". Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 19 ... Local Spine Boost and Global Low-Threshold Spike". The Journal of Neuroscience. 25 (14): 3521-3530. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4746- ... This allows the granule cells to regulate the processing of the sensory input in the olfactory bulb.[20] The olfactory bulb ... altering motor behaviour based on the nature of the sensory input. ...
... dark-adapted visual thresholds, vascular diameters, pupillometry, electroretinography (ERG), multifocal ERG and optical ... "Sensory Reception: Human Vision: Structure and function of the Human Eye" vol. 27, Encyclopædia Britannica, 1987 ...
Upper line: average hearing thresholds. Lower long line: LDLs of this group. Lower short line: LDLs of a reference group with ... which can lead to temporary dysfunction and even to death of the sensory cells, which in turn can cause the typical symptoms of ... but fully developed EH may mechanically and chemically interfere with the sensory cells for balance and hearing, ...
... gating an orienting response towards a sensory stimulus. The anuran striatum is homologous to a portion of the amniote basal ... and then commits itself to snapping by reducing the thresholds for subsequent prey-catching responses. Even when the prey ... neurons that respond selectively to specific features of a sensory stimulus. Results showed that there were no "worm-detectors ...
If the threshold is taken as 14 Hz, then the slowest beta wave has about the same duration as the longest spike (70 ms), which ... Displays during cross-modal sensory processing (perception that combines two different senses, such as sound and sight)[75][76] ... A simple approach to deal with artifacts is to simply remove epochs of data that exceed a certain threshold of contamination, ... Beck placed electrodes directly on the surface of the brain to test for sensory stimulation. His observation of fluctuating ...
Sensory biasEdit. The sensory bias hypothesis states that the preference for a trait evolves in a non-mating context, and is ... Polyandry thresholdEdit. There also seems to be a "polyandry threshold" where males may do better by agreeing to share a female ... Another example of sensory exploitation is in the water mite Neumania papillator, an ambush predator that hunts copepods (small ... Other examples for the sensory bias mechanism include traits in auklets,[23] wolf spiders,[24] and manakins.[25] Further ...
... or they may be blind and rely on other sensory inputs. A number of deep sea creatures are bioluminescent; this serves a variety ...
detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of bitter taste. • signal transduction. • response to stimulus. • ... It appears that while TAS2R38 genotypes determine a threshold of PROP tasting abilities, the genotypes cannot account for the ... differences in tasting amongst each threshold group. For example, some PAV/PAV homozygotes perceive PROP to be more bitter than ...
Sensory. LSD causes an animated sensory experience of senses, emotions, memories, time, and awareness for 6 to 20 hours, ... Threshold effects can be felt with as little as 25 micrograms of LSD.[90][91] Dosages of LSD are measured in micrograms (µg), ... Some sensory effects may include an experience of radiant or more vibrant colors, objects and surfaces appearing to ripple, " ... He said this would be a threshold dose based on the dosages of other ergot alkaloids. Hofmann found the effects to be much ...
Feed efficiency, carcass characteristics, and sensory quality of lambs, with or without prolific ancestry, fed diets with ...
Prey animals make use of a variety of mechanisms including camouflage and mimicry to misdirect the visual sensory mechanisms of ...
Words of low threshold, higher level of meaning and importance, such as one's name and "watch out", redirects one's attention ... A brain simply cannot process all sensory information that is occurring in an environment so only the most relevant and ... Treisman also suggests that a threshold mechanism exists in selective auditory attention in which words from the unattended ... Deutsch's model theorizes that all information and sensory input are attended to and processed for meaning.[11] Later in the ...
The olfactory system, or sense of smell, is the part of the sensory system used for smelling (olfaction). Most mammals and ... Quinn, N P; Rossor, M N; Marsden, C D (1 January 1987). "Olfactory threshold in Parkinson's disease". Journal of Neurology, ... "Sniffing out the Contributions of the Olfactory Tubercle to the Sense of Smell: Hedonics, Sensory Integration, and More?" ... integrates auditory and olfactory sensory info to complete the aforementioned tasks, and plays a role in transmitting positive ...
Measuring and Testing Sensory Thresholds Defining and measuring sensory thresholds requires setting the sensitivity limit such ... Several different sensory thresholds have been defined; Absolute threshold: the lowest level at which a stimulus can be ... In measuring sensory threshold, noise must be accounted for. Signal noise is defined as the presence of extra, unwanted energy ... When related to motion in any of the possible six degrees of freedom (6-DoF), the fact that sensory thresholds exist is why it ...
Plants, Perception and the Practice of Gardening: Lowering the Sensory Threshold. By seattlepi.com staff on November 12, 2010 ... The garden, with its combination of scenic and sensory effects, is a work of art that represents the designers idea of order. ...
... Coverage decision. L&I does not cover sensory nerve conduction ... Sensory Nerve Conduction Threshold (sNCT) testing evaluates a variety of sensory neuropathological conditions, including ... threshold testing. The evidence does not substantially demonstrate the use of sNCT to diagnose sensory neuropathies. ... The test is intended to detect and quantify sensory neurophathies by assessing the conduction of all three major sub- ...
Chronic phantom limb pain: the effects of calcitonin, ketamine, and their combination on pain and sensory thresholds.. ... Pain thresholds were unaffected by calcitonin. The analgesic effect of the combination of calcitonin and ketamine was ... Pain thresholds after electrical, thermal, and pressure stimulation were recorded before and during each infusion. ... Sensory assessments indicated that peripheral mechanisms are unlikely important determinants of phantom limb pain. Ketamine, ...
Our results show that thermal sensory thresholds measured with the two devices are comparable. However, our data suggest that, ... In order to analyze whether this noise could influence the thermal threshold measurements we compared the thresholds obtained ... of intrinsic noise generated by a thermotesting device on thermal sensory detection and thermal pain detection thresholds.. ... At each session, heat, heat pain, cold, and cold pain thresholds were determined with three measurements. Bland-Altman analysis ...
Chiral Terpenes - Quantitation, Threshold Determination and Sensory Impact on Aromatic White Wines. AVF Proj. ID: 567 / Year ... Threshold Determination and Sensory Impact on Aromatic White Wines. ... Cat.: Enology, Sensory Aldehydes Primary Investigator(s): Elizabeth Tomasinoby AVF. Objective 1 - Development of methodology ... Once quantitation of enantiomers is achieved the impact of the enantiomers will be investigated through a series of sensory ...
Lab report on Sensory Threshold In this lab the purpose is to test the sensory threshold of a human body. To say it in terms ... Lab report on Sensory Threshold In this lab the purpose is to test the sensory threshold of a human body. To say it in terms ... Lab Report On Sensory Threshold. Essay by PaperNerd Contributor, College, Undergraduate, November 2001 ... "Lab Report On Sensory Threshold," WriteWork.com, https://www.writework.com/essay/lab-report-sensory-threshold (accessed January ...
Cutaneous sensory detection thresholds were lower for stimuli presented at R+300 ms than R+0 ms or R+600 ms. The finding that ... Sensory detection thresholds are modulated across the cardiac cycle: evidence that cutaneous sensibility is greatest for ... Sensory detection thresholds are modulated across the cardiac cycle: evidence that cutaneous sensibility is greatest for ... Sensory detection thresholds are modulated across the cardiac cycle: evidence that cutaneous sensibility is greatest for ...
Recent initiatives have developed novel protocols for quantitative sensory testing (QST). Application of these methods led to ... intriguing findings, such as the presence lower pain-thresholds in healthy children compared to healthy adolescents. In this ... Overcoming pain thresholds with multilevel models-an example using quantitative sensory testing (QST) data. Gerrit Hirschfeld​1 ... Pain, Thresholds, Signal detection theory, Sensitivity, Multilevel models, Quantitative sensory testing Copyright. © 2015 ...
Thermal Sensory Limen (TSL) and Mechanical Detection Threshold (MDT). The only unchanged sensory detection threshold was ... were observed for the following sensory detection thresholds: Cold Detection Threshold (CDT), Warm Detection Threshold (WDT), ... but not pain threshold changes. We thus conclude that a relaxation suggestion has no genuine effect on sensory pain thresholds ... No significant changes were observed for the determined pain detection thresholds (Cold Pain Thresholds, Heat Pain Thresholds, ...
Sensory thresholds are ill-defined in theory (Lawless and Heymann 1998; Morrison 1982).A good determination requires hundreds of ... doubts even the existence of a sensory threshold. A. first reaction is that it is futile to invest time and money in threshold ... Sensory thresholds are ill-defined in theory (Lawless and Heymann 1998; Morrison 1982). ... Burke 1988). Published group thresholds (Fazzalari 1978; Van Gemert and Nettenbreijer. 1984; Devos et al. 1990) vary by a ...
A compression/ischemia-induced (differential) nerve block in conjunction with repeated quantitative sensory testing of A-delta ... The aim was to investigate if DMA and SMA could be assessed at perception threshold level using short or longer lasting usually ... Implications Techniques to quantify the different allodynias at perception threshold level deserve further attention as ... using cold and warm stimuli was used to assess which nerve fibre population that contributes to pain at perception threshold ...
5C). Inflammatory mediators that enhance pain through effects on the thresholds of activation of sensory neurons had little or ... The conditional null mice were healthy with a normal number of sensory neurons and normal acute pain thresholds. Behavioral ... However, the majority of Dicer-null, mutant-derived Nav1.8+ sensory neurons showed normal thresholds of activation. Nineteen of ... although hundreds were expressed at higher levels than those in normal sensory neurons (Fig. 6B). Surprisingly, many sensory ...
... an effort to more fully understand the results of long term exposures to impulse noise as they relate to asymptotic threshold ... NIOSH-Grant; Noise-induced-hearing-loss; Noise-exposure; Laboratory-animals; Hearing-threshold; Sensory-thresholds ... Threshold shift at 8kHz had reached an asymptotic level within 1 hour from the start of the exposure while threshold shift at ... Maximum permanent threshold shift was at 2 and 2.8kHz with median PTS of 17 and 13dB, respectively. The cochleas were examined ...
The temporary threshold shift (TTS) caused by repeated short duration noise bursts lasting less than 1 second was studied. ... NIOSH-Grant; Noise-induced-hearing-loss; Noise-exposure; Impulse-noise; Hearing-threshold; Sensory-thresholds; Humans ... The temporary threshold shift (TTS) caused by repeated short duration noise bursts lasting less than 1 second was studied. ... http://journals.lww.com/ear-hearing/Abstract/1975/07000/Temporary_Threshold_Shift_From_Short_Duration.2.aspx ...
... applying electrical stimulation to a target neural region at an initial current level that approximates a typical threshold- ... Methods for preventing/treating damage to sensory hair cells and cochlear neurons. ... threshold to be defined with reference to the first minimum stimulus threshold and the second minimum stimulus threshold. For ... infra-threshold process 400 begins at block 402. At block 404 the initial stimulus current level is set to a level which is as ...
II congenital sensory neuropathy. *III familial dysautonomia. *IV congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis ... The threshold of pain or pain threshold is the point along a curve of increasing perception of a stimulus at which pain begins ... People who have been exposed to more noise/music usually have a higher threshold pressure.[3] Threshold shift can also cause ... Different values for pain threshold pressure level and pain threshold pressure are found in the literature:[5][6][4] ...
Thermal Quantitative Sensory Thresholds. Tests were performed using Somedic SENSELab MSA II equipment with a handheld ... Three secondary composite variables that reflected thermal detection thresholds, pain thresholds, and nerve conduction measures ... quantitative sensory thresholds, and for the NCS. Data were assessed for normality and transformed with power or logarithmic ... The glycemic thresholds for counterregulatory responses, generation of symptoms, and cognitive impairment are reset at lower ...
Sensory perception testing. Patient characteristics by average resting hot pain threshold are shown in Table 2. Compared with ... Sensory perception testing. Results from the Marstock test of cutaneous sensory perception were obtained at baseline after the ... The solid linerefers to patients with hot pain threshold ≥41°C, and the broken linerefers to patients with hot pain threshold , ... Patients were divided into two groups: 1) average hot pain threshold ,41°C; and 2) average hot pain threshold ≥41°C. Previous ...
Quantitative testing of sensory thresholds. Tactile thresholds.. To quantitatively assess tactile thresholds and deficits of ... Thermal thresholds.. Heat pain threshold, cold pain threshold, warm detection threshold, and innocuous cool detection threshold ... Previous studies using sensory testing indicate that pain thresholds are elevated after lesions involving the posterior insula ... 1, Table 1). A group of 14 healthy older adults was recruited to assess differences in pain perception, sensory thresholds, and ...
Rectal Heat Thresholds: A Novel Test of the Sensory Afferent Pathway. Chan, Christopher L. H.; Scott, Mark S.; Birch, Malcolm J ...
Sensory System Agents. Peripheral Nervous System Agents. Adjuvants, Anesthesia. Anesthetics, Intravenous. Anesthetics, General ... Fentanyl Ultra Low Doses Effects on the Nociceptive Threshold (FENTANULD). The safety and scientific validity of this study is ... Nociceptive threshold evaluated with sternal electronical Von Frey mechanical stimulation. The stimulation will increase until ... Fentanyl Ultra Low Doses Effects on Human Volunteers Nociceptive Threshold. Towards a Simple Pharmacological Test Able to ...
S Sensory and Nutritive Qualities of Food - Determination of Sensory Thresholds of Selected Calcium Salts and Formulation of ... S Sensory and Nutritive Qualities of Food - Determination of Sensory Thresholds of Selected Calcium Salts and Formulation of ... S Sensory and Nutritive Qualities of Food - Effect of Sensory Characteristics and Non-sensory Factors on Consumer Liking of ... Determination of Sensory Thresholds of Selected Calcium Salts and Formulation of Calcium‐fortified Pocket‐type Flat Bread ...
We present for the first time, a framework to simulate PNS thresholds for realistic coil geometries to directly address PNS in ... With this model, we were able to reproduce measured PNS thresholds of two leg/arm solenoid coils with good agreement. ... mainly through using the size of the linear region as a proxy for PNS thresholds or by conducting human experiments after ... Recoskie, B. J., Scholl, T. J., Zinke-Allmang, M. & Chronik, B. A. Sensory and motor stimulation thresholds of the ulnar nerve ...
Quantitative sensory threshold testing. We have had an immediate response from one of our readers (SS) who has found 5 articles ... thereby providing a measurement of genital sensory threshold. This is different to nerve conduction studies which also use ... Quantitative sensory testing is the collective term for a group of tests that are used to assess skin sensation. Devices which ... Thermal thresholds are assessed by placing a probe onto the body part being investigated. The temperature of the probe then ...
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response. ... Summary of "Physiological Thresholds in the Context of Marine Mammal Conservation.". There is growing evidence of the adverse ... Physiological Thresholds in the Context of Marine Mammal Conservation.. 07:00 EST 1st January 2019 , BioPortfolio ... Metabolic Thresholds and Fat Utilization Points Correlation. To examine existence of connection between fat utilization points ...
Although vestibular sensory detection thresholds were similar in PLV and control groups, mechanical and cold pain thresholds ... Reduced forearm pain thresholds in these patients suggest altered sensory processing at extrapelvic sites, although it is ... Our report of normal vestibular thermal sensory detection thresholds combined with reduced thermal (cold and heat) and ... Sutton KS, Pukall CF, Chamberlain S. Pain ratings, sensory thresholds, and psychosocial functioning in women with provoked ...
Quantitative Sensory Testing and Current Perception Threshold Testing in Patients With Chronic Pain Following Lower Extremity ... Quantitative Sensory Testing and Current Perception Threshold Testing in Patients With Chronic Pain Following Lower Extremity ... Quantitative Sensory Testing and Current Perception Threshold Testing in Patients With Chronic Pain Following Lower Extremity ... title = "Quantitative Sensory Testing and Current Perception Threshold Testing in Patients With Chronic Pain Following Lower ...
The butanol threshold test involves a forced-choice test using an aqueous concentration of butyl alcohol in one sniff bottle ... Age-Related Sensory Impairments and Risk of Cognitive Impairment. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2016 Oct. 64 (10):1981-7. [Medline]. [Full ... The butanol threshold test involves a forced-choice test using an aqueous concentration of butyl alcohol in one sniff bottle ... The detection threshold is recorded as the concentration at which the patient correctly identifies the butanol on 5 consecutive ...
In Sensory Biology of Aquatic Animals (ed. Atema, J., Fay, R. R., Popper, A. N. and Tavolga, W. N.), pp. 131-149. New York, NY ... compare particle acceleration thresholds to pressure thresholds to better separate each aspect of underwater sound for acoustic ... 2004). Evolution of sensory hair cells. In Evolution of the Vertebrate Auditory System (ed. Manley, G. A., Popper, A. N. and ... Hearing thresholds for all fish species were similar at 400, 600 and 800 Hz, ranging from −30 to −15 dB re. 1 m s−2. More ...
  • Weber was able to define absolute and difference threshold statistically which led to the establishment of Weber's Law and the concept of just noticeable difference to describe threshold perception of stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are three common methods used to determine sensory thresholds: Method of Limits: In the first step, the subject is stimulated by strong, easily detectable stimuli that are decreased stepwise (descending sequence) until they cannot detect the stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intensities involve stimuli which are surely subthreshold and stimuli which are surely supra-threshold. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cutaneous sensory detection thresholds were lower for stimuli presented at R+300 ms than R+0 ms or R+600 ms. The finding that cutaneous sensibility was greater when stimulated during systole than diastole may be accounted for by a modified afferent feedback hypothesis. (lboro.ac.uk)
  • The absolute threshold can be compared to the difference threshold , which is the measure of how different two stimuli must be for the subject to notice that they are not the same. (wikipedia.org)
  • A compression/ischemia-induced (differential) nerve block in conjunction with repeated quantitative sensory testing of A-delta and C-fibre function using cold and warm stimuli was used to assess which nerve fibre population that contributes to pain at perception threshold level using 1 s (vF1) and 10 s (vF10) von Frey filament stimulation of the skin. (degruyter.com)
  • Detection and pain thresholds to thermal (cold and heat) and mechanical (pressure) stimuli were measured. (jaoa.org)
  • The smallest difference which can be discriminated between two stimuli or one which is barely above the threshold. (harvard.edu)
  • This study explores the relationships among anxiety, sensitivity to sensory stimuli, and picky eating (PE). (bioportfolio.com)
  • Sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are the primary responders to stimuli inducing feelings of touch, pain, temperature, vibration, pressure and muscle tension. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The ability of the BRAIN to suppress neuronal responses to external sensory inputs, such as auditory and visual stimuli. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Sensory filtering (or gating) allows humans to block out irrelevant, meaningless, or redundant stimuli. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Peroperative recordings of 2012 single units revealed an overwhelming unresponsiveness (99%) to sensory stimuli or motor activation. (sonimodul.ch)
  • The specific stimuli have to be integrated, detected and transmitted to the brain in order to reach sensory consciousness. (wikibooks.org)
  • Optogenetics and optical neurophysiology reveal efficient sensory encoding of both favorable (warming) and unfavorable (cooling) stimuli for distinct components of thermotactic strategy by this one set of neurons. (pnas.org)
  • Psychophysics is the study of physical stimuli and their relation to sensory reactions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The temporal discrimination threshold (TDT) is the shortest time interval at which an observer can discriminate two sequential stimuli as being asynchronous (typically 30-50 ms). It has been shown to be abnormal (prolonged) in neurological disorders, including cervical dystonia, a phenotype of adult onset idiopathic isolated focal dystonia. (jove.com)
  • The temporal discrimination threshold (TDT) is the shortest time interval at which an individual can perceive that two sequential sensory stimuli are asynchronous. (jove.com)
  • The TDT is a simple, objective measure believed to represent the processing of visual (and other sensory stimuli) in the superficial layers of the superior colliculus. (jove.com)
  • Timelige diskriminering terskelen (TDT) er det korteste tidsintervallet som observatør kan diskriminere to sekvensiell stimuli som asynkrone (vanligvis 30-50 ms). Det har vist seg å være unormalt (lengre) i nevrologiske lidelser, inkludert cervical Dystoni, en fenotypen av voksen utbruddet idiopatisk isolert fokal Dystoni. (jove.com)
  • Timelige diskriminering terskelen (TDT) er det korteste tidsintervallet der en person kan oppfatte at to sekvensiell sensoriske stimuli er asynkron. (jove.com)
  • Overlegen colliculus, en sensorimotor struktur i dorsal mellomhjernen, er viktig for rask påvisning av miljømessige stimuli under skjult attentional orientere 2 , 11 , 12 . (jove.com)
  • In other words, sleeping persons perceive fewer stimuli, but can generally still respond to loud noises and other salient sensory events. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through sensory nerves, the receptors relay the taste sensation information to the brain. (scientificamerican.com)
  • That's again because the sensory receptors in your [ear], they become desensitized. (khanacademy.org)
  • Which areas of the skin have more sensory receptors? (utah.edu)
  • Which areas of the skin have more temperature-sensitive sensory receptors? (utah.edu)
  • The evolution of the accessory structures (e.g. lenses in the eye), peripheral receptors and regions of the central nervous system that together form sensory systems is often viewed solely in terms of the benefits they provide to an animal, i.e. information about the animal's internal and external environments. (biologists.org)
  • Extracting germane information from internal and external environments requires sensory receptors (with their accessory structures) to sample these environments and central circuits to analyse and interpret the incoming information. (biologists.org)
  • In this science activity, you (and maybe some friends or family) will find out by exploring your taste thresholds for sweetness, saltiness and sourness. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Taste thresholds of further eighteen compounds and their correlation with P.T.C. thresholds. (springer.com)
  • Human taste thresholds for sucrose octaacetate. (springer.com)
  • Measuring and Testing Sensory Thresholds Defining and measuring sensory thresholds requires setting the sensitivity limit such that the perception observations lead to the absolute threshold. (wikipedia.org)
  • The level of sensitivity is usually assumed to be constant in determining the threshold limit. (wikipedia.org)
  • No significant changes were observed for the determined pain detection thresholds (Cold Pain Thresholds, Heat Pain Thresholds, Mechanical Pain Sensitivity, Dynamic Mechanical Allodynia, Wind-up Ratio and Pressure Pain Threshold). (biomedcentral.com)
  • As the name implies what sensory adaptation is is a change in the sensitivity of your perception of a sensation. (khanacademy.org)
  • A common feature of ASD is over or under sensitivity to the environment and difficulty putting sensory information together in an orderly way, referred to here as sensory issues. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Sensory sensitivity mediates the relationship between anxiety and picky eating in children/ adolescents ages 8-17, and in college undergraduates: A replication and age-upward extension. (bioportfolio.com)
  • As a measure of each preparation's greatest sensitivity to 5HT, we first determined the lowest 5HT concentration that produced increased excitability in the SNs ('threshold' 5HT). (elsevier.com)
  • Background Testing of vibration perception threshold (VPT) at the fingertips as a quantitative measure of tactile sensitivity is a commonly used tool in diagnosing hand-arm vibration syndrome. (bmj.com)
  • For the similarly-named personality trait distinct from the disorder, see Sensory processing sensitivity . (wikipedia.org)
  • The problem of sensitivity involves the determination of the smallest detectable intensity of a stimulus (called the absolute threshold), often as a function of another stimulus dimension, such as wavelength, frequency, duration, or areal extent. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Sensitivity is also subject to systematic variation, either of the permanent kind encountered in aging or in pathology of the sensory tissues, or of a temporary kind observed, for example, in the relatively rapid decline of visual sensitivity under exposure to light (light adaptation) and the subsequent gradual recovery of sensitivity in the dark (dark adaptation). (encyclopedia.com)
  • These and many other systematic changes in sensitivity are frequently expressed as alterations of the absolute threshold. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The study of absolute thresholds reveals the exquisite sensitivity of the sense organs under optimal conditions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Pain thresholds after electrical, thermal, and pressure stimulation were recorded before and during each infusion. (nih.gov)
  • Separate interleaving up-down staircases were used to determine the 50% detection threshold for each R-wave to stimulation interval. (lboro.ac.uk)
  • By including estimates for the probability of an average photon being absorbed by an average rod cell, the threshold stimulation for the rods is approximately one photon absorption per second per 5000 rods. (wikipedia.org)
  • The minimum magnetic field modulation strength dB switched at rise time dt is a commonly used measure of the PNS stimulation thresholds (note that dt determines the pulse duration of the electric field). (nature.com)
  • Other studies have reviewed dB/dt at threshold for body MRI gradients noting that the dB/dt at stimulation ranged from 12.4 T/s to 54 T/s 6 . (nature.com)
  • The current paper posits that peripheral sensory stimulation paradigm, which has been shown to be efficacious in improving several neurological conditions, could be an important therapeutic strategy in OSA also. (hindawi.com)
  • Tooth pain thresholds (PT) were measured before and after stimulation with a computerized electrical pulp tester. (ocom.edu)
  • Effects of thermal agents on electrical sensory threshold and current tolerance when applied prior to neuromuscular electrical stimulation. (physiospot.com)
  • This study's goal was to examine the effects of thermal agents on electrical sensory threshold and current tolerance when applied immediately before neuromuscular electrical stimulation. (physiospot.com)
  • Various factors can influence thermal perception threshold measurements and contribute significantly to unwanted variability of the tests. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of this human study was to measure the underlying excitability modulation of small cutaneous nerve fibers using a novel and fast perception threshold tracking (PTT) technique. (aau.dk)
  • The aim was to investigate if DMA and SMA could be assessed at perception threshold level using short or longer lasting usually non-painful von Frey filament prodding of the neuropathic skin. (degruyter.com)
  • Method: This was a cross-sectional study where quantitative sensory testing and current perception threshold testing were conducted on the injured and noninjured legs of cases and both legs of controls. (elsevier.com)
  • This is the first study to examine peripheral sensory nerve function at the site of injury in patients with chronic pain following lower extremity fractures using quantitative sensory testing and current perception threshold testing. (elsevier.com)
  • A Neurometer device is an electrical nerve stimulator used to determine the current perception threshold (CPT) evoked by stimulating A-beta fibers at 2,000 Hz, A-delta fibers at 250 Hz and C fibers at 5 Hz. (europeanspinejournal.org)
  • Gregersen G (1968) Vibratory perception threshold and motor conduction velocity in diabetics and non-diabetics. (springer.com)
  • We assessed the characteristics of sensory perception and processing in PD patients using current perception threshold (CPT). (kagawa-u.ac.jp)
  • 16 showed that balance (measured by a reduction in the anterior-posterior sway) was strongly associated with the ability to detect small movements (motion-detection thresholds). (arvojournals.org)
  • Methods have been developed to measure thresholds in any of the senses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods: Small sensory fibers were selectively blocked by 120-minute topical application of LP and confirmed by quantitative sensory testing. (aau.dk)
  • Application of these methods led to intriguing findings, such as the presence lower pain-thresholds in healthy children compared to healthy adolescents. (peerj.com)
  • Fortunately, there are other methods of investigating sensory issues. (rxisk.org)
  • Here, we compared the particle acceleration and pressure auditory thresholds of three species of fish with differing hearing specialisations, goldfish ( Carassius auratus , weberian ossicles), bigeye ( Pempheris adspersus , ligamentous hearing specialisation) and a third species with no swim bladder, the common triplefin ( Forstergyian lappillum ), using three different methods of determining particle acceleration. (biologists.org)
  • Direction-recognition thresholds were measured using standard methods. (frontiersin.org)
  • Because it fluctuates, the threshold is difficult to measure, and the various methods that have been tried do not always yield the same value. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Methods for the measurement and analysis of the temporal discrimination threshold are presented, and its application to the study of the pathogenesis of cervical dystonia are discussed. (jove.com)
  • The conditional null mice were healthy with a normal number of sensory neurons and normal acute pain thresholds. (jneurosci.org)
  • Inflammatory mediators failed to enhance excitability of Nav1.8 + sensory neurons from null mutant mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • MicroRNA microarray and deep sequencing identified known and novel nociceptor microRNAs in mouse Nav1.8 + sensory neurons that may regulate nociceptor gene expression. (jneurosci.org)
  • Sensory neurons are essential for pain perception, and alterations in neuronal excitability contribute to inflammatory pain. (jneurosci.org)
  • Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 1. The modulatory actions produced by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5HT) in Aplysia sensory neurons (SNs) can be distinguished on the basis of their concentration requirement for 5HT, their activation and recovery kinetics, and their dependence on the relative contribution of different second messenger pathways. (elsevier.com)
  • Emptage, NJ, Mauelshagen, J & Carew, TJ 1996, ' Threshold serotonin concentration required to produce synaptic facilitation differs for depressed and nondepressed synapses in Aplysia sensory neurons ', Journal of neurophysiology , vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 843-854. (elsevier.com)
  • In the case of the very simplest organisms, the entire machinery for sensing the environment and acting upon it is found within the same cell, whereas at their most elaborate, for example the mammalian visual system, peripheral sensory structures may consist of millions of neurons, with even greater numbers of neurons involved in processing the information they obtain within the central nervous system. (biologists.org)
  • In psychophysics, sensory threshold is the weakest stimulus that an organism can detect. (wikipedia.org)
  • In neuroscience and psychophysics , an absolute threshold was originally defined as the lowest level of a stimulus - light, sound, touch, etc. - that an organism could detect. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study was designed to evaluate the effects of hypnotic relaxation suggestion on different somatosensory detection and pain thresholds. (biomedcentral.com)
  • During hypnosis significantly changed somatosensory thresholds (reduced function) were observed for the following sensory detection thresholds: Cold Detection Threshold (CDT), Warm Detection Threshold (WDT), Thermal Sensory Limen (TSL) and Mechanical Detection Threshold (MDT). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Purpose: To quantify and compare peripheral somatosensory function and sensory nerve activation thresholds in persons with chronic pain following lower extremity fractures with a cohort of persons with no history of lower extremity fractures. (elsevier.com)
  • To evaluate vestibular and peripheral experimental pain thresholds in patients with PLV to further define the somatosensory profile of these patients. (jaoa.org)
  • Quantitative sensory testing results demonstrated that vestibular cold allodynia may be a somatosensory feature of PLV. (jaoa.org)
  • Vuralli D, Evren Boran H, Cengiz B, Coskun O, Bolay H. Chronic Migraine Is Associated With Sustained Elevation of Somatosensory Temporal Discrimination Thresholds. (harvard.edu)
  • People with non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP) and central sensitisation (CS) exhibit sensory processing alterations, somatosensory hypersensitivity and differences in the brain's emotional n. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Edwards AEE, Kopple JD, Kornfeld CM (1973) Vibrotactile threshold in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. (springer.com)
  • Vibrotactile thresholds (VTs) of the index and small fingers of both hands were measured before and after exercise using a Vibraton-II instrument. (cdc.gov)
  • Vibrotactile threshold abnormalities occurred much more often in the lower extremities. (cdc.gov)
  • Absolute threshold: the lowest level at which a stimulus can be detected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recognition threshold: the level at which a stimulus can not only be detected but also recognised. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differential threshold: the level at which an increase in a detected stimulus can be perceived. (wikipedia.org)
  • Terminal threshold: the level beyond which a stimulus is no longer detected. (wikipedia.org)
  • The strength of the stimulus, perceived in more than half of the presentations will be taken as the threshold. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under the influence of signal detection theory , absolute threshold has been redefined as the level at which a stimulus will be detected a specified percentage (often 50%) of the time. (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] The absolute threshold can be influenced by several different factors, such as the subject's motivations and expectations, cognitive processes, and whether the subject is adapted to the stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • locally establishing threshold-NRT (T-NRT) at a finer stimulus resolution. (google.ca)
  • The threshold of pain or pain threshold is the point along a curve of increasing perception of a stimulus at which pain begins to be felt. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traditionally the threshold has often been defined, as we defined it formerly, as the least stimulus intensity at which a subject perceives pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intensity at which a stimulus (e.g., heat, pressure) begins to evoke pain is thus called by a separate term, threshold intensity . (wikipedia.org)
  • The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The threshold may be defined as the stimulus value that is perceived on half the presentations. (encyclopedia.com)
  • L&I does not cover sensory nerve conduction threshold testing. (wa.gov)
  • Sensory Nerve Conduction Threshold (sNCT) testing evaluates a variety of sensory neuropathological conditions, including sensory nerve dysfunction. (wa.gov)
  • Despite the importance of PNS as the practical limitation to use these imaging modalities in humans, we are not able to fully incorporate PNS thresholds directly into the system design optimization. (nature.com)
  • We measured vestibular perceptual thresholds in 105 healthy humans (54F/51M) ranging from 18 to 80 years of age. (frontiersin.org)
  • Auditory thresholds were measured before exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • 2) Like other threshold measures (e.g., auditory thresholds), vestibular thresholds have direct functional relevance. (frontiersin.org)
  • The study found that warm thermal thresholds at the glans produced the best results. (rxisk.org)
  • Thermal thresholds are assessed by placing a probe onto the body part being investigated. (rxisk.org)
  • PPT and thermal thresholds probably give comparable information on small fibre dysfunction in diabetic patients with symptomatic neuropathy. (northampton.ac.uk)
  • Our modeling approach represents an important advancement, because it allows for a more general and accurate description of perceptual thresholds for simple and complex translational motions. (nih.gov)
  • Principles of Sensory Evaluation of Food covers the concepts of sensory physiology and the psychology of perception. (elsevier.com)
  • After providing a brief introduction to problems related to sensory evaluation in food industry, this book goes on examining the physiology and psychology of the senses. (elsevier.com)
  • We'll also identify and describe flavor groups of wine and discuss sensory physiology including the visual, olfactory, textural, and taste aspects of various wines. (coursera.org)
  • Superficial tactile sensibility was tested using the Pressure Specified Sensory Device (PSSD) which allows the determination of the cutaneous pressure threshold (static and moving). (usp.br)
  • A avaliação da sensibilidade tátil foi realizada com o Pressure Specified Sensory Device(TM) (PSSD(TM)), aparelho que quantifica a pressão aplicada à pele, estática ou em movimento. (usp.br)
  • We assessed "stress-arousal symptoms", compliance, sensation thresholds, sensation ratings averaged over four levels of distension, fasting and postprandial colonic tone, and phasic motility index (MI). (physiology.org)
  • Pregabalin did not significantly affect colonic compliance, sensation thresholds, colonic fasting tone, and MI. (physiology.org)
  • Quantitative sensory testing is the collective term for a group of tests that are used to assess skin sensation. (rxisk.org)
  • The pinprick sensory threshold (PPT) is the lightest weighted needle which consistently elicits a sharp sensation. (northampton.ac.uk)
  • This minimum level of sensation is called the threshold. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Our secondary aim was to improve our understanding of the mechanisms of action of the investigated drugs using quantitative sensory testing. (nih.gov)
  • Recent initiatives have developed novel protocols for quantitative sensory testing (QST). (peerj.com)
  • Quantitative sensory testing (QST) measurements were performed before and during hypnosis in twenty-three healthy subjects on the dorsum of the right hand. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clinical and laboratory evaluations included extensive autonomic function testing, peripheral nerve conduction studies, and quantitative sensory testing. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We discussed several tests that can be used to investigate this condition including skin biopsy, corneal confocal microscopy and quantitative sensory testing. (rxisk.org)
  • The interesting point about quantitative sensory testing is that in addition to investigating conditions like small fibre neuropathy, it is sometimes also used in urology if a patient is experiencing genital numbness, or if they have erectile dysfunction that is suspected to involve a neuropathy. (rxisk.org)
  • After informed consent was provided, eligible participants completed a questionnaire and underwent quantitative sensory testing at the forearm and posterior vestibule. (jaoa.org)
  • Chronic phantom limb pain: the effects of calcitonin, ketamine, and their combination on pain and sensory thresholds. (nih.gov)
  • There was no difference in basal pain thresholds between the amputated and contralateral side except for pressure pain. (nih.gov)
  • Pain thresholds were unaffected by calcitonin. (nih.gov)
  • Sensory assessments indicated that peripheral mechanisms are unlikely important determinants of phantom limb pain. (nih.gov)
  • Influence of intrinsic noise generated by a thermotesting device on thermal sensory detection and thermal pain detection thresholds. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, the intrasubject variability of the thresholds for heat, heat pain, and cold pain detection was significantly lower with the silent device. (nih.gov)
  • Bin saif GA, Alajroush A, Mcmichael A, Yosipovitch G. Healthy scalp has a reduced sensory thresholds to temperature, pain, itch and neurogenic inflammation response. (edu.sa)
  • Hypnotic relaxation without a specific analgesic suggestion results in thermal and mechanical detection, but not pain threshold changes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We thus conclude that a relaxation suggestion has no genuine effect on sensory pain thresholds. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These findings suggest that the insula may be well positioned to use cognitive information to modulate connected brain areas involved in processing of sensory-discriminative, affective, and cognitive-evaluative components of pain. (jneurosci.org)
  • To investigate the role that the insula plays in pain processing and modulation, sensory testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments were used to examine two patients who suffered from large left middle cerebral artery (MCA) ischemic strokes with lesions encompassing the insular cortex. (jneurosci.org)
  • [1] So, if a hotplate on a person's skin begins to hurt at 42 °C (107 °F), that is the pain threshold temperature for that bit of skin at that time. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is not the pain threshold (which is internal/subjective) but the temperature at which the pain threshold was crossed (which is external/objective). (wikipedia.org)
  • The temperature at which heat becomes painful for a recipient is called the heat pain threshold for that person at that time. (wikipedia.org)
  • One study showed that morning oriented people have higher pain threshold for heat as compared to evening oriented individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • the threshold for pain is between 120 and 140 dB SPL. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to test whether cutaneous thermal pain thresholds are related to anginal pain perception. (onlinejacc.org)
  • symptoms have been related to pain perception thresholds. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Occurrence of angina and timing of angina onset on an exercise test are related to overall hot pain sensory perception. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Symptoms have been variously reported to be related to levels of circulating opioid peptides or pain perception thresholds, presence or absence of neurologic disease, personality variables and the physical or mental stressors associated with a particular ischemic episode (5-11) . (onlinejacc.org)
  • Principal Objective : 'Evaluate fentanyl 'ultra low doses' effects on human volunteer's nociceptive threshold depending on their prior pain and opioid experience. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 28 mmHg), in whom pregabalin treatment increased pain threshold (suggesting a visceral analgesic effect) and concomitantly increased rectal compliance although there was a limited range of intrarectal balloon distention pressures tested. (physiology.org)
  • Reduced forearm pain thresholds in these patients suggest altered sensory processing at extrapelvic sites, although it is unclear whether these measurements are related to central sensitization. (jaoa.org)
  • electric pain threshold at the teeth. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We hypothesized that cognitive factors would be related to LRJT performance of hands and feet and that sensory, motor, and pain related factors would be related to LRJT in the affected hand of participants with wrist/hand pain. (hindawi.com)
  • In an observational cross-sectional study, sixty-one participants with wrist/hand pain participated in a study assessing motor imagery ability, cognitive (Stroop test), sensory (Two-Point Orientation Discrimination, pressure pain thresholds), motor (grip strength, Purdue Pegboard Test), and pain related measures (West Haven Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory) as well as disability (Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand). (hindawi.com)
  • Trait anxiety and sensory processing profile characteristics in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain and central sensitisation - A pilot observational study. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Voiceover: In this video we're going to talk about something known as sensory adaptation. (khanacademy.org)
  • We're going to look at a couple of different examples of sensory adaptation. (khanacademy.org)
  • There's this sensory adaptation that can occur for your sense of proprioception as well. (khanacademy.org)
  • Another sense that undergoes sensory adaptation is your sense of sight. (khanacademy.org)
  • As the measurements come closer to the absolute threshold, the variability of the noise increases causing the threshold to be obscured. (wikipedia.org)
  • A universal absolute threshold is difficult to define a standard because of the variability of the measurements. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to analyze whether this noise could influence the thermal threshold measurements we compared the thresholds obtained with a silent thermotesting device to those obtained with a commercially available device. (nih.gov)
  • Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess agreement in measurements obtained with different devices and it was shown that the intersubject variability of the thresholds obtained with the two devices was comparable for all four thresholds tested. (nih.gov)
  • selecting the initial current level to insure safety while minimizing a quantity of measurements required to determine the threshold-NRT (T-NRT) level of the target neural region. (google.ca)
  • In this paper, we present measurements that reveal differences in thresholds depending not only on the duration of the profile, but also on the actual time course of the acceleration. (nih.gov)
  • The measurements are further explained by a model based on a transfer function, which is able to predict direction detection thresholds for all types of acceleration profiles. (nih.gov)
  • In practice, it is most important when making VPT measurements to take into account the age and sex of the subject and possibly also to allow for thresholds slightly higher than usual with subjects engaged in physical work. (springer.com)
  • This may be because experimental studies describe participants' responses exclusively in terms of thresholds that conflate several aspects of the response. (peerj.com)
  • The glycemic thresholds for counterregulatory responses, generation of symptoms, and cognitive impairment are reset at lower levels of blood glucose in people who have developed IAH ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The Psychophysiological Investigations of Myocardial Ischemia (PIMI) study, a multicenter study of patients with documented coronary artery disease, has multiple objectives (12) , including examination of the relations between symptoms associated with myocardial ischemia and somatic sensory threshold, autonomic reflexive control of the heart and beta-endorphin responses. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Food acceptance and preference depend on human sensory responses. (elsevier.com)
  • Devices that help people with impaired sensory responses. (bioportfolio.com)
  • also known as sensory integration dysfunction ) is a condition where multisensory integration is not adequately processed in order to provide appropriate responses to the demands of the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The only unchanged sensory detection threshold was Vibration Detection Threshold (VDT). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The detection threshold is recorded as the concentration at which the patient correctly identifies the butanol on 5 consecutive trials. (medscape.com)
  • WDT, warm detection threshold. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, the relationship between motion-detection threshold and an unsuccessful stand was stronger for the most difficult stand on one foot (the soleo stand) ( P = 0.02). (arvojournals.org)
  • The test is intended to detect and quantify sensory neurophathies by assessing the conduction of all three major sub-populations of sensory nerve fibers. (wa.gov)
  • The study group consisted of 119 volunteers, 238 hands, who were divided into three groups according to the presence or absence of CTS symptoms and abnormalities in sensory nerve conduction as measured by standard electrophysiological techniques. (cdc.gov)
  • This study is the first to examine the effects of naturally occurring variations in baroreceptor activity across the cardiac cycle on cutaneous sensory detection thresholds. (lboro.ac.uk)
  • The Marstock test of cutaneous sensory perception was administered at baseline after 30 min of rest on two days and after exercise and mental stress. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Subjective sensory experiences are constructed by the integration of afferent sensory information with information about the uniquely personal internal cognitive state. (jneurosci.org)
  • Unfortunately, snoring vibrations, pharyngeal suction collapse, negative pressure, and hypoxia cause pathological perturbations including dysfunctional UA afferent sensory activity. (hindawi.com)
  • This pathway involves the afferent sensory limb to the brain and the motor nerve limb to the muscle. (hindawi.com)
  • That's because the sensory nerves in your hand that are sensitive to temperature, as soon as they go off, they become saturated. (khanacademy.org)
  • Additional features include on/off logic control, low power consumption, small package sizes and ±0.5°C typical threshold temperature accuracy. (microchip.com)
  • In this study, the sensory disturbance of the lower-extremity was quantitatively analyzed using CPT testing before and after lumbar discectomy. (europeanspinejournal.org)
  • CPT measured by a Neurometer is very useful in assessing lower-extremity sensory functions before and after surgery for lumbar disc herniation. (europeanspinejournal.org)
  • Common physiopathology for sensory, motor and limbic positive symptoms. (sonimodul.ch)
  • Around 69-95% of children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder are known to have sensory processing abnormalities .Tackling these problems would help in better quality of life, both for the pa. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Probably the oldest sensory system in the nature, the olfactory system concerns the sense of smell. (wikibooks.org)
  • Similar to other sensory modalities, olfactory information must be transmitted from peripheral olfactory structures, like the olfactory epithelium, to more central structures, meaning the olfactory bulb and cortex. (wikibooks.org)
  • Due to phylogeny, olfactory sensory activity is transferred directly from the olfactory bulb to the olfactory cortex, without a thalamic relay. (wikibooks.org)
  • By soft manual palpation of the craniosacral and fascia system sensory, motor, cognitive, and emotional processes can be influenced. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The results suggest that the LRJT is a complex mental task that involves cognitive, sensory, motor, and behavioural processes. (hindawi.com)
  • To examine potential mechanisms within sensory cortex that may contribute to cognitive functions, here we describe nicotinic actions in primary auditory cortex, where well-characterized neural "filters"-frequency receptive fields-can be exploited to examine nicotinic regulation of cortical processing. (frontiersin.org)
  • Similar effects across sensory and non-sensory cortical circuits could contribute to nicotinic enhancement of cognitive functions. (frontiersin.org)
  • The authors explicitly note that no studies were found that measured sensory abilities, and also note that findings of cognitive improvement sometimes were small in magnitude and contradicted by other results. (frontiersin.org)
  • [27] After sensory information passes through these centers, it is then routed to brain regions responsible for emotions, memory, and higher level cognitive functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The influence of hypnotic susceptibility was evaluated by calculating correlation coefficients for threshold changes and hypnotic susceptibility (Harvard group scale). (biomedcentral.com)
  • No correlation of hypnotic susceptibility and threshold changes were detected. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Even taking age and other factors into consideration, we found a significant correlation of balance test failures with increasing roll-tilt thresholds. (frontiersin.org)
  • Threshold measures for contact detection, two-point discrimination and two-point perception were obtained on the chin before and 1, 3 and 6 months and 1 and 2 years after surgery. (elsevier.com)
  • Sensory discrimination problems , that might manifest themselves in behaviors such as things constantly dropped. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2011. Regionally specific human GABA concentration correlates with tactile discrimination thresholds . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • The remaining chapters describe the relationship between sensory characteristics and various physical and chemical properties of foods. (elsevier.com)
  • Passiflora setacea D.C is a passion fruit species native from Brazilian savannah characterized by naturally sweet sensory characteristics. (bioportfolio.com)
  • What is the role of butanol threshold test in the diagnosis of taste and smell disorders? (medscape.com)
  • Goldberg JM, Lindblom U (1979) Standardised method of determining vibratory perception thresholds for diagnosis and screening in neurological investigation. (springer.com)
  • These findings suggest that CPT testing might contribute to diagnosis of PD, as well as the understanding of sensory processing involving peripheral deafferentation. (kagawa-u.ac.jp)
  • [22] Dr. Catherine Lord, a leading autism expert and the director of the Center for Autism and the Developing Brain at New York-Presbyterian Hospital, argues that sensory issues are an important concern, but not a diagnosis in themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of this analysis was to examine the effect of sensory retraining on sensory function after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO). (elsevier.com)
  • We aimed to quantify effects of pregabalin on colonic sensory and motor functions and assess relationships between sensory effects and colonic compliance. (physiology.org)
  • Complex animal behaviors are built from dynamical relationships between sensory inputs, neuronal activity, and motor outputs in patterns with strategic value. (pnas.org)
  • The first systematic studies to determine sensory thresholds were conducted by Ernst Heinrich Weber, a physiologist and pioneer of experimental psychology at the Leipzig University. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stability of the ATS produced by impulse noise and the consistency across the five animals suggest that the phenomenon may be useful in the systematic study of both temporary threshold shift and noise induced permanent threshold shift. (cdc.gov)
  • The investigators will conduct a systematic study of the sensory perception of a diverse set of commonly used pediatric liquid medications and excipients in tandem with an equally complete. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells. (bioportfolio.com)
  • the heteromultimeric voltage-sensitive calcium (Ca 2 + ) channel is involved in the function of excitable tissues including sensory nerves. (physiology.org)
  • We chose to measure vestibular thresholds for a variety of reasons. (frontiersin.org)
  • 3) Thresholds have been shown to be a sensitive measure of vestibular function that has been shown to identify specific peripheral vestibular deficits ( 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Examples are taken from a wide range of sensory modalities in both vertebrates and invertebrates. (biologists.org)
  • These mechanisms play an important role in adapting the operation of central networks to external demands and thus help optimize sensory-motor integration [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Studying sensory processing means focusing on the rules and mechanisms that the brain uses to make sense of the world. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Since basic cortical circuitry and nAChR distributions are similar across neocortex, these findings may generalize to neural processing in other sensory regions, and to non-sensory regions where afferent inputs are more difficult to manipulate experimentally. (frontiersin.org)
  • Sensory processing issues represent a feature of a number of disorders, including anxiety problems, ADHD, [14] food intolerances, behavioral disorders, and particularly, autism spectrum disorders . (wikipedia.org)