Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
Small sensory organs which contain gustatory receptor cells, basal cells, and supporting cells. Taste buds in humans are found in the epithelia of the tongue, palate, and pharynx. They are innervated by the CHORDA TYMPANI NERVE (a branch of the facial nerve) and the GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE.
Innervated clusters of NEUROEPITHELIAL CELLS found in the LUNGS. They act as airway OXYGEN sensors, releasing regulatory PEPTIDES and SEROTONIN in response to HYPOXIA.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.
The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.
Stretch receptors found in the bronchi and bronchioles. Pulmonary stretch receptors are sensors for a reflex which stops inspiration. In humans, the reflex is protective and is probably not activated during normal respiration.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
A branch of the facial (7th cranial) nerve which passes through the middle ear and continues through the petrotympanic fissure. The chorda tympani nerve carries taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and conveys parasympathetic efferents to the salivary glands.
Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.
That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.
A genus of the Proteidae family with five recognized species, which inhabit the Atlantic and Gulf drainages.
A neotenic aquatic species of mudpuppy (Necturus) occurring from Manitoba to Louisiana and Texas.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The minimum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived.
A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that mediates the light activation signal from photolyzed rhodopsin to cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and is pivotal in the visual excitation process. Activation of rhodopsin on the outer membrane of rod and cone cells causes GTP to bind to transducin followed by dissociation of the alpha subunit-GTP complex from the beta/gamma subunits of transducin. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to 5'-GMP. This leads to closure of the sodium and calcium channels and therefore hyperpolarization of the rod cells. EC 3.6.1.-.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.
The process by which the nature and meaning of gustatory stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain. The four basic classes of taste perception are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour.
A species of the family Ranidae which occurs primarily in Europe and is used widely in biomedical research.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
One of the FLAVORING AGENTS used to impart a meat-like flavor.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.
Family of large marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA. These are called clawed lobsters because they bear pincers on the first three pairs of legs. The American lobster and Cape lobster in the genus Homarus are commonly used for food.
A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.
An alcohol produced from mint oils or prepared synthetically.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
A genus of European newts in the Salamandridae family. The two species of this genus are Salamandra salamandra (European "fire" salamander) and Salamandra atra (European alpine salamander).
The sensory ganglion of the facial (7th cranial) nerve. The geniculate ganglion cells send central processes to the brain stem and peripheral processes to the taste buds in the anterior tongue, the soft palate, and the skin of the external auditory meatus and the mastoid process.
Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.
Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).
An edible species of the family Ranidae, occurring in Europe and used extensively in biomedical research. Commonly referred to as "edible frog".
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after melastatin protein. They have the TRP domain but lack ANKYRIN repeats. Enzyme domains in the C-terminus leads to them being called chanzymes.
Biological actions and events that constitute the functions of the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception. Taste disorders are frequently associated with OLFACTION DISORDERS. Additional potential etiologies include METABOLIC DISEASES; DRUG TOXICITY; and taste pathway disorders (e.g., TASTE BUD diseases; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE DISEASES; and BRAIN STEM diseases).
Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.
A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.

Neural mapping of direction and frequency in the cricket cercal sensory system. (1/2472)

Primary mechanosensory receptors and interneurons in the cricket cercal sensory system are sensitive to the direction and frequency of air current stimuli. Receptors innervating long mechanoreceptor hairs (>1000 microm) are most sensitive to low-frequency air currents (<150 Hz); receptors innervating medium-length hairs (900-500 microm) are most sensitive to higher frequency ranges (150-400 Hz). Previous studies demonstrated that the projection pattern of the synaptic arborizations of long hair receptor afferents form a continuous map of air current direction within the terminal abdominal ganglion (). We demonstrate here that the projection pattern of the medium-length hair afferents also forms a continuous map of stimulus direction. However, the afferents from the long and medium-length hair afferents show very little spatial segregation with respect to their frequency sensitivity. The possible functional significance of this small degree of spatial segregation was investigated, by calculating the relative overlap between the long and medium-length hair afferents with the dendrites of two interneurons that are known to have different frequency sensitivities. Both interneurons were shown to have nearly equal anatomical overlap with long and medium hair afferents. Thus, the differential overlap of these interneurons with the two different classes of afferents was not adequate to explain the observed frequency selectivity of the interneurons. Other mechanisms such as selective connectivity between subsets of afferents and interneurons and/or differences in interneuron biophysical properties must play a role in establishing the frequency selectivities of these interneurons.  (+info)

Morphology of intraepithelial corpuscular nerve endings in the nasal respiratory mucosa of the dog. (2/2472)

Corpuscular nerve endings in the nasal respiratory mucosa of the dog were investigated by immunohistochemical staining specific for protein gene product 9.5 by light and electron microscopy. In the nasal respiratory mucosa, complex corpuscular endings, which displayed bulbous, laminar and varicose expansions, were distributed on the dorsal elevated part of the nasal septum and on the dorsal nasal concha. The endings were 300-500 microm long and 100-250 microm wide. Some axons gave rise to a single ending while others branched into 2 endings. Cryostat sections revealed that the corpuscular endings were located within the nasal respiratory epithelium. On electron microscopy, immunoreactive nerve terminals that contained organelles, including mitochondria and neurofilaments, were observed within the epithelial layer near the lumen of the nasal cavity. Some terminals contacted the goblet cell. Such terminal regions were covered by the cytoplasmic process of ciliated cells and were never exposed to the lumen of the nasal cavity. These nerve endings are probably activated by pressure changes.  (+info)

Putative mammalian taste receptors: a class of taste-specific GPCRs with distinct topographic selectivity. (3/2472)

Taste represents a major form of sensory input in the animal kingdom. In mammals, taste perception begins with the recognition of tastant molecules by unknown membrane receptors localized on the apical surface of receptor cells of the tongue and palate epithelium. We report the cloning and characterization of two novel seven-transmembrane domain proteins expressed in topographically distinct subpopulations of taste receptor cells and taste buds. These proteins are specifically localized to the taste pore and are members of a new group of G protein-coupled receptors distantly related to putative mammalian pheromone receptors. We propose that these genes encode taste receptors.  (+info)

A novel family of divergent seven-transmembrane proteins: candidate odorant receptors in Drosophila. (4/2472)

Although insects have proven to be valuable models for exploring the function, organization, and development of the olfactory system, the receptor molecules that bind odors have not been identified in any insect. We have developed a novel search algorithm, used it to search the Drosophila genomic sequence database, and identified a large multigene family encoding seven transmembrane domain proteins that are expressed in olfactory organs. We show that expression is restricted to subsets of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) for a number of these genes. Different members of the family initiate expression at different times during antennal development. Some of the genes are not expressed in a mutant of the Acj6 POU-domain transcription factor, a mutant in which a subset of ORNs show abnormal odorant specificities.  (+info)

The odor specificities of a subset of olfactory receptor neurons are governed by Acj6, a POU-domain transcription factor. (5/2472)

Little is known about how the odor specificities of olfactory neurons are generated, a process essential to olfactory coding. We have found that neuronal identity relies on the abnormal chemosensory jump 6 (acj6) gene, originally identified by a defect in olfactory behavior. Physiological analysis of individual olfactory neurons shows that in acj6 mutants, a subset of neurons acquires a different odorant response profile. Certain other neurons do not respond to any tested odors in acj6. Molecular analysis of acj6 shows that it encodes a POU-domain transcription factor expressed in olfactory neurons. Our data suggest that the odor response spectrum of an olfactory neuron, and perhaps the choice of receptor genes, is determined through a process requiring the action of Acj6.  (+info)

The thermal sensitivity of the polymodal nociceptors in the monkey. (6/2472)

1. The static and dynamic sensitivities to thermal and mechanical stimuli of polymodal nociceptors in hairy skin of the anaesthetized monkey have been investigated by recording activity in their primary nerve fibres. 2. Polymodal nociceptors responded to skin pricking, pinching and heating to temperatures higher than 40 degrees C. They did not respond to touch, stretch or cold. The conduction velocity of their axons was from 0.6 to 1.1 m/sec. 3. Three types of cutaneous receptive fields have been observed: single spot-like areas of 1-2 mm2; multiple spot-like areas of 1-2 mm2; and larger areas up to 25 mm2 with heterogeneous sensitivity. 4. Polymodal nociceptors were subjected to heat stimuli that commenced from a 33 or 37 degrees C adapting temperature. A series consisted of heating their receptive fields to 43, 45, 47 and 50 degrees C from one or the other adapting temperatures at a constant rate of 0.2 degrees C/sec. Each heat stimulus intensity was maintained for 4 min after which the skin was returned to the adapting temperature. Immediately after the first series the identical series was repeated in order to determine the effect of prior heating upon the dynamic responses to re-heating. The dynamic responses were characterized by three phases: an initiation of a discharge at a threshold level of skin temperature; a dynamic discharge during the suprathreshold change, that reached a peak frequency when the temperature reached its maximum; and an adaptation phase while the temperature remained at the high intensity. Adaptation was rapid initially, and then slowed during the final minutes at the high intensity. 5. Adapting the receptive field to either 33 degrees C or to 37 degrees C before the heat stimuli did not affect the sensitivity and the discharge pattern of the polymodal nocicpetors. 6. During the first series of stimulations, the threshold at which the individual polymodal nociceptors began to discharge to heat stimuli varied from 40 to 46.5 degrees C. The mean threshold of the population was 42.5 degrees C. 7. No change in the threshold was observed when responses to 0.2 and 1.5 degrees C/sec rates of heating were compared...  (+info)

Electric organ discharges and electric images during electrolocation. (7/2472)

Weakly electric fish use active electrolocation - the generation and detection of electric currents - to explore their surroundings. Although electrosensory systems include some of the most extensively understood circuits in the vertebrate central nervous system, relatively little is known quantitatively about how fish electrolocate objects. We believe a prerequisite to understanding electrolocation and its underlying neural substrates is to quantify and visualize the peripheral electrosensory information measured by the electroreceptors. We have therefore focused on reconstructing both the electric organ discharges (EODs) and the electric images resulting from nearby objects and the fish's exploratory behaviors. Here, we review results from a combination of techniques, including field measurements, numerical and semi-analytical simulations, and video imaging of behaviors. EOD maps are presented and interpreted for six gymnotiform species. They reveal diverse electric field patterns that have significant implications for both the electrosensory and electromotor systems. Our simulations generated predictions of the electric images from nearby objects as well as sequences of electric images during exploratory behaviors. These methods are leading to the identification of image features and computational algorithms that could reliably encode electrosensory information and may help guide electrophysiological experiments exploring the neural basis of electrolocation.  (+info)

Mechanisms for generating temporal filters in the electrosensory system. (8/2472)

Temporal patterns of sensory information are important cues in behaviors ranging from spatial analyses to communication. Neural representations of the temporal structure of sensory signals include fluctuations in the discharge rate of neurons over time (peripheral nervous system) and the differential level of activity in neurons tuned to particular temporal features (temporal filters in the central nervous system). This paper presents our current understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the transformations between these representations in electric fish of the genus Eigenmannia. The roles of passive and active membrane properties of neurons, and frequency-dependent gain-control mechanisms are discussed.  (+info)

Get Sensory Receptor essential facts. View Videos or join the Sensory Receptor discussion. Add Sensory Receptor to your PopFlock.com topic list or share. Sensory Receptor at popflock.com
Receptors are sensitive to discrete stimuli and are often classified by both the systemic function and the location of the receptor.. Sensory receptors are found throughout our bodies, and sensory receptors that share a common location often share a common function. For example, sensory receptors in the retina are almost entirely photoreceptors. Our skin includes touch and temperature receptors, and our inner ears contain sensory mechanoreceptors designed for detecting vibrations caused by sound or used to maintain balance.. Force -sensitive mechanoreceptors provide an example of how the placement of a sensory receptor plays a role in how our brains process sensory inputs. While the cutaneous touch receptors found in the dermis and epidermis of our skin and the muscle spindles that detect stretch in skeletal muscle are both mechanoreceptors, they serve discrete functions.. In both cases, the mechanoreceptors detect physical forces that result from the movement of the local tissue, cutaneous ...
Although all sensory circuits ascend to raised brain areas where stimuli are represented in sparse stimulus-specific activity patterns fairly little is well known about sensory coding in the descending side CL 316243 disodium salt of neural circuits being a network converges. 19 of 22 cell types (Fig. expanded and CL 316243 disodium salt 1c Data Figs. 1 and ?and2;2; find Methods). Body 1 Overview of olfactory tuning patterns in MBONs Body 2 Change of inhabitants representations from KCs to MBONs In keeping with high convergence at this time from the circuit7 8 MBONs had been generally broadly tuned to smells as seen in various other pests10-12 although there have been a few exclusions (e.g. α2p3p β′1 and MB-CP1 neurons; Prolonged Data Fig. 3). In the MBONs with axonal projections in the MB lobes (β1 γ1pedc and γ4 neurons) we noticed prolonged rise moments ( Expanded Data Fig. 4). Among the important factors regulating the stimulus-specificity of population-level representations is ...
Vol 9: Peripheral Glia Have a Pivotal Role in the Initial Response to Axon Degeneration of Peripheral Sensory Neurons in Zebrafish.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The part of the eye that contains the sensory receptors for sight is the retina. The sensory receptors are located in the outermost layer of the retina, which means that light must travel through...
Sensory Circuits. We will begin each day with a sensory circuit to prepare them for their learning. Students will complete sessions throughout the day to help students remain settled and focused. Students complete an alerting, organising and calming activities.. Please ask if you would like any further information.. ...
The somatic nervous system is traditionally considered a division within the peripheral nervous system. However, this misses an important point: somatic refers to a functional division, whereas peripheral refers to an anatomic division. The somatic nervous system is responsible for our conscious perception of the environment and for our voluntary responses to that perception by means of skeletal muscles. Peripheral sensory neurons receive input from environmental stimuli, but the neurons that produce motor responses originate in the central nervous system.. The distinction between the structures (i.e., anatomy) of the peripheral and central nervous systems and functions (i.e., physiology) of the somatic and autonomic systems can most easily be demonstrated through a simple reflex action. When you touch a hot stove, you pull your hand away. Sensory receptors in the skin sense extreme temperature and the early signs of tissue damage. This triggers an action potential, which travels along the ...
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click Continue well assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you wont see this message again. Click Find out more for information on how to change your cookie settings ...
2) The body has lots of sensory receptors, which can detect a change in your environment (a stimulus) . Different sensory receptors detect different stimuli. For example, receptors in your eyes detect light, and receptors in your skin detect touch (pressure) and temperature change ...
Successive periods of investigation have produced anatomic, physiological, and psychological phases in our understanding of skin sensation. Each phase has been the result of technological...
Restless Brain Even while youre snoozing, your brain constantly transmits information through motor circuits that send information to your muscles and glands, while receiving information from sensory circuits located throughout your body. It is only when your brain ceases to send these signals that you really have something to worry about. Looking for a good night of sleep? Shannons Sleep ...
Sensory Neurons that convey info from autonomic sensory receptors, like those in organs to the CNS, and motor neurons that carry responses to smooth and cardiac muscle, and to glands. Involuntary. ...
Humans perceive physical information about the surrounding environment through their senses. This physical information is registered by a collection of highly evolved and finely tuned molecular sensory receptors. A multitude of bioactive, structurally diverse ligands have evolved in nature that bind these mo Chemical signaling at the eukaryotic/prokaryotic interface
Humans perceive physical information about the surrounding environment through their senses. This physical information is registered by a collection of highly evolved and finely tuned molecular sensory receptors. A multitude of bioactive, structurally diverse ligands have evolved in nature that bind these mo Chemical signaling at the eukaryotic/prokaryotic interface
Nervous system, organized group of cells specialized for the conduction of electrochemical stimuli from sensory receptors through a network to the site at which a response occurs.
Garcia-Morales, Carla, Liu, Chiung-Hui, Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad, Hajihosseini, Mohammad K. and Wheeler, Grant N. (2009) Frizzled-10 promotes sensory neuron development in Xenopus embryos. Developmental Biology, 335 (1). pp. 143-155. ISSN 1095-564X Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
Bcl11a is expressed in both presynaptic sensory neurons and postsynaptic spinal target neurons (Fig. 1). We next asked whether Bcl11a is required for correct wiring, and if so, on which site. Central axons of sensory neurons were labeled at E16.5 with DiI. In the superficial dorsal horns of Brn4-Cre;Bcl11a mutants, the density of DiI-positive fibers was greatly reduced and the remaining fibers appeared disorganized. Only a few axons crossing the midline or located in a dorsolateral region of the dorsal horn were detectable by DiI labeling in mutants (Fig. 5A,B). TrkA (Ntrk1 - Mouse Genome Informatics) -positive nociceptive fibers preferentially terminate in the superficial dorsal horn. Immunohistological analysis with antibodies against TrkA or aquaporin 1, a water channel protein that is expressed by small-diameter nociceptive fibers (Oshio et al., 2006), invariably revealed almost complete loss of such fibers in the dorsal horn of Brn4-Cre;Bcl11a mutants (Fig. 5C-F). Similar results were ...
Kemp SWP, Szynkaruk M, Stanoulis KN, Wood MD, Liu EH, Willand MP, Morlock L, Naidoo J, Williams NS, Ready JM, Mangano TJ, Beggs S, Salter MW, Gordon T, Pieper AA, Borschel GH. Pharmacologic rescue of motor and sensory function by the neuroprotective compound P7C3 following neonatal nerve injury. Neuroscience. 2015 Jan 22; 284:202-216 ...
Thank you for sharing this Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics article.. NOTE: We request your email address only to inform the recipient that it was you who recommended this article, and that it is not junk mail. We do not retain these email addresses.. ...
Thank you for sharing this Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics article.. NOTE: We request your email address only to inform the recipient that it was you who recommended this article, and that it is not junk mail. We do not retain these email addresses.. ...
It is commonly observed that schooling fish are particularly in danger of being eaten if they are separated from the school.[4] Several anti-predator functions of fish schools have been proposed. One potential method by which fish schools might thwart predators is the predator confusion effect proposed and demonstrated by Milinski and Heller (1978).[25] This theory is based on the idea that it becomes difficult for predators to pick out individual prey from groups because the many moving targets create a sensory overload of the predators visual channel. Milinski and Hellers findings have been corroborated both in experiment[26][27] and computer simulations.[28][29] Shoaling fish are the same size and silvery, so it is difficult for a visually oriented predator to pick an individual out of a mass of twisting, flashing fish and then have enough time to grab its prey before it disappears into the shoal.[4] Schooling behaviour confuses the lateral line organ (LLO) as well as the electrosensory ...
Precise pattering of dendrites as well as axons is essential for correct wiring and function of neural circuits. In addition, dendrites from certain mature neurons change their shape in response to changes in the environment. We combine fly/mice genetics, imaging, and biochemical approaches to investigate the interplay between genetic and epigenetic control of dendrite morphogenesis in vivo, and deduce the functional importance of these regulatory systems in disease etiology. In particular, we focus our researches on the genetic and molecular regulation of dendrite pattering and plasticity in the Drosophila sensory circuits. In this talk, I first present how intrinsic and extrinsic cues instruct Drosophila sensory neurons to establish their unique dendritic fields on the body wall. In the latter part, I present two novel mechanisms, dendrite pruning and reshaping, that critically regulate dendrite plasticity in metamorphosis.. ...
Precise pattering of dendrites as well as axons is essential for correct wiring and function of neural circuits. In addition, dendrites from certain mature neurons change their shape in response to changes in the environment. We combine fly/mice genetics, imaging, and biochemical approaches to investigate the interplay between genetic and epigenetic control of dendrite morphogenesis in vivo, and deduce the functional importance of these regulatory systems in disease etiology. In particular, we focus our researches on the genetic and molecular regulation of dendrite pattering and plasticity in the Drosophila sensory circuits. In this talk, I first present how intrinsic and extrinsic cues instruct Drosophila sensory neurons to establish their unique dendritic fields on the body wall. In the latter part, I present two novel mechanisms, dendrite pruning and reshaping, that critically regulate dendrite plasticity in metamorphosis.. ...
is the effector organ? The effector organ is one of the five basic components of a reflex arc. The other four components are motor neuron, the sensory receptor, the sensory neuron, and the interneurons. The motor neuron organizes the action. The sensory receptor recognizes the stimulus and sends it to the sensory neuron. The interneurons, on the other hand, lie between two neurons and ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Adrianna Kalous, Matthew R Nangle, Agustin Anastasia, Barbara L Hempstead, Janet R Keast].
neurons stimulated by low-frequency sounds, and those stimulated by highfrequency sounds, project their axons to different regions of the cochlear nucleus ...
Please help me to pick out 6 lines from the poem Invictus of William Ernest Henley that used sensory images and identify the sense used for each line.I also need to pick out one line that used onomatopoeia. I only Have one answer Black ...
Yesterday, CIRM-funded scientists at UCLA published an interesting study that sheds light on the development of sensory neurons, a type of nerve cell that is damaged in patients with spinal cord injury. Their early-stage findings could potentially, down the road, lead to the development of stem cell-based treatments that rebuild the sensory nervous system in…
The domain favoured the hem in overlying the column of the bone is magnified to rejoice in the features in the significant cavity. If the workload exceeds material ca- pacities of a segregate procedure, multiple servers or blades exigency to be installed pro dis- tribution of work to complete optimal processing behavior. Low-dose Cortef solution attenuates the systemic inflammatory reception syndrome ,a href=http://www.dinamicbrain.com/wp-content/content/group2/levitra_extra_dosage_100_mg_60_mg_40_mg_proven_levitra_extra_dosage/,buy levitra extra dosage 40 mg overnight delivery,/a, erectile dysfunction trimix. It consists of five components: (1) sensory receptors in or associated with a sensory neuron (detects stimulus); (2) sensory neuron (conducts afferent will impulses to the CNS); (3) an integration center (single or more synapses in the CNS); (4) a motor neuron (conducts efferent nerve impulses from integration center to an effector cubicle; and (5) an effector cell (responds to the ...
The nervous system has three broad functions: sensory input, information processing, and motor output. In the PNS, sensory receptor neurons respond to physical stimuli in our environment, like touch or temperature, and send signals that inform the CNS of the state of the body and the external environment. ...
The Senses. Chapter 29. Sensory Input. All senses trigger the same type of action potential The part of the brain that is activated discriminates between the types of stimuli The brain detects sensations and interprets them Action potentials from sensory receptors Slideshow 1722623 by norm
The nervous system is involved in some way in nearly every body function. All the sensations, actions, and emotions are made possible by the nervous system, which consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors.
Nervous system, organized group of cells specialized for the conduction of electrochemical stimuli from sensory receptors. The nervous system allows for the almost instantaneous transmission of electrical impulses from one region of the body to another. Learn about the nervous systems of different living organisms.
Vision is one of the most important senses supplying information to the brain. The sensory receptors for light stimuli are located within the eyes (or eyeballs)…
Fruit flies and mosquitoes have analogous sensory receptors allowing them to differentiate among innumerable sensory cues while searching for food or try to avoid danger.
PubMed journal article: The influence of milk intake on the lead toxicity to the sensory nervous system in lead workers. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Cancer-associated pain is a major cause of poor quality of life in cancer patients and is frequently resistant to conventional therapy. Recent studies indicate that some hematopoietic growth factors, namely granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF) and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF), are abundantly released in the tumor microenvironment and play a key role in regulating tumor-nerve interactions and tumor-associated pain by activating receptors on dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Moreover, these hematopoietic factors have been highly implicated in postsurgical pain, inflammatory pain and osteoarthritic pain. However, the molecular mechanisms via which G-/GMCSF bring about nociceptive sensitization and elicit pain are not known. In order to elucidate G-/GMCSF mediated transcriptional changes in the sensory neurons, we performed a comprehensive, genome-wide analysis of changes in the transcriptome of DRG neurons brought about by exposure to GMCSF or GCSF. We present complete
TY - JOUR. T1 - The sensory nerve terminals of the mesentery. AU - Vajda, J.. AU - Fehér, Elisabeth. AU - Csányi, K.. PY - 1973. Y1 - 1973. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84940807126&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84940807126&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1159/000144093. DO - 10.1159/000144093. M3 - Article. C2 - 4793083. AN - SCOPUS:84940807126. VL - 85. SP - 514. EP - 532. JO - Cells Tissues Organs. JF - Cells Tissues Organs. SN - 1422-6405. IS - 4. ER - ...
Pipids are highly aquatic frogs that rarely if ever venture out of water. They have several adaptations to aquatic life, including the loss of the tongue (tongues are not generally useful for feeding in water), and the presence of lateral line organs, which are used to detect wave motion in water (these are present in most groups of fishes). The group is sometimes called the Aglossa.. Pipid frogs are found in Africa, South America, and just get into Panama. Some species in South America, such as the Surinam Toad (Pipa pipa) are extremely flattened and look like roadkills. Females of the genus Pipa have an elaborate mating behavior, in which eggs are deposited on the back of the female, and the skin swells up around the eggs to encase them in pockets in which the embryos develop. In some species the eggs hatch out as tadpoles, but in others fully formed froglets emerge from the mothers back.. Tadpoles (when present) lack beaks and denticles, and have paired spiracles (if spiracles are present). ...
healthy.. The nervous system is the bodys inner communication system and is made up of the bodys many nerve cells.. It is these nerve cells that take information from the bodys five senses: touch, taste, smell, sound and sight! The brain is then able to react to these senses and interact with the environment.. The human nervous system is made up of the central nervous system (CNS) which is the brain and the spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system which is made from nerve cells that carry information to and from the CNS.. When a sensory receptor detects a stimulus, the information is passed along neurones. Neurones are a special type of cell. They are found in groups/bundles of many hundreds of neurones known as nerves.. Looking in a little more detail we can see how the nervous system works: A stimulus is detected by a sensory receptor in the body. The receptor sends this information (via electrical impulses) along sensory neurones to the central nervous system (CNS). It is these ...
They are considered axons. Pseudounipolar cells have a bit of an odd morphology.. The reason you consider the entire length an axon is because it all grows from a single process from the soma which then branches. Terminology is just terminology, so rules are often made to be broken in biology: yes, an axon typically carries information away from the soma, but thats not the case here for neurons where the information sort of bypasses the soma.. Besides the developmental origin from a single process, the initiation site for an action potential is out in the distal end of the axon, rather than at an axon hillock connected to the soma, and if you had a section of axon on either side of the soma it wouldnt be apparent which end you were looking at.. ...
Learning Objectives State the functions of sensory pathways. Define sensory receptors and describe the 5 general categories of sensory receptors. Describe the human eye and its function. Compare the rods and cones of retina. Explain myopia, hyperopia, presbyopia and astigmatism. List the structure of ear in the order in which they participate in hearing. Explain how body position and movement are sense in the ear. Discuss how odor and taste receptors function.
In the present study we showed increased TRPV1 activity after prestimulation of TRPA1, both in HEK cells and DRG neurons. This was dependent on calcium, AC, and PKA. Mutation of the putative phosphorylation site serine 116 in TRPV1 also abolished increased TRPV1 activity after TRPA1 stimulation. Together, our findings suggest that TRPA1 activation causes an influx of calcium and increases calcium-sensitive AC activity, cAMP accumulation, and subsequent PKA activation. This results in phosphorylation and sensitization of TRPV1.. Although some studies showed direct activation of TRPV1 by MO at high concentrations (Ohta et al., 2007; Everaerts et al., 2011; Gees et al., 2013), our control experiments and other studies showed that MO at a concentration of 20 µM did not directly activate TRPV1 (Fig. 2D; Jordt et al., 2004; Everaerts et al., 2011).. Approximately 30% to 50% of TRPV1-expressing small- to medium-sized peripheral sensory neurons coexpress TRPA1, and almost all TRPA1-positive neurons ...
Keywords: Vestibular, type II locks cell, morphology, mammal, synapse, JAX:000654, JAX:000664, RGD: 737903, Abdominal_10013626, Abdominal_10015251, Abdominal_2282417, Abdominal_2068506, Abdominal_2068336, Abdominal_477329, Abdominal_177520, Abdominal_10175616, Abdominal_2113875, Abdominal_399431, Abdominal_2079751, Abdominal_2286684 Intro In mammals, five vestibular body organs INO-1001 in the internal hearing encode motions of the mind and therefore regulate look, body motions, and body alignment. The saccule and utricle possess a toned physical epithelium known as a macula, and they respond to linear mind speeding and mind tilt. The anterior, posterior, and horizontal ampullae possess a even more complexly formed physical epithelium known as a crista, and they identify mind rotation in a range of aeroplanes. Locks cells are the physical mechanoreceptors in these body organs. Directional deflections of lengthy microvilli (stereocilia) on the areas of locks cells travel actions possibilities in ...
We heard the fantastic news late last year that Matt was awarded an ERC Consolidator Grant! This is an amazing opportunity for us to push forward our work, and will allow us to do a whole heap of experiments that just wouldnt be possible with other types of funding. Well use it to focus on adult-generated neurons in the olfactory bulb, and how their elevated potential for plasticity might contribute to information processing in sensory circuits. In practical terms that means lots of slice physiology, as always, but well also now have the ability to monitor and control neuronal activity in vivo too, and thats incredibly exciting. Its a 5-year award starting later this year, so lets hope the UK Government sticks to its promise to underwrite all European funding obtained while were still part of the EU… If youd like to know more, you can find more detail on the award from the KCL IoPPN newsletter, and also in the ERCs own press release.. Weve also taken some of our own advice recently, ...
ruffini-s-corpuscle definition: Noun (plural Ruffinis corpuscles) 1. The synaptic ending of the sensory nervous system which are encapsulated and respond to stretch and torque. These responses are propagated back to dorsal root ganglia in the form of an action p...
Muscle sensory neurons are involved in proprioceptor signaling and also report on metabolic state and injury related events. We...
Nervous coordination in animals tutorial all along with the key concepts of Divisions of Nervous System, Brain, Spinal cord, Functions of spinal cord, Peripheral Nervous System, Structure of Neuron, Reflex Action and Sensory Receptors
LGD-4033 is a picky androgen sensory receptor modulator, related to assist you to since SARMS in the exact same time. Subsequently after a lot of our https://jvcoffee.info/ligandrol/ Ligandrol (LGD 4033) receive, I used Testogen in order to rise up a lot of our test out concentrations spine, therefore functioned like a new charm. Next day of the actual pattern The actual, beginning Renascence PCT regarding 4 to 8 weeks. Each and every span you need to do have LGD 4033 you will discover that you acquire most of the perks you receive all time period you have testo-sterone and its quite acquire also. Now you can investigation discovered at this specific SARM determined intimately, including insurance matter to bear in mind any time including LGD-4033 right into your own routine. Selective The latest Prevailing estimation about technological eating plan plus metabolic consideration 12.3 (2009): 232-240.. Firms highly very few documented secondary effects, for every precious time to make sure that ...
Ligandrol, named LGD-4033 otherwise, happens to be a fabulous discerning androgen sensory receptor moduIator (SARM) that has extremely ultra powerful muscle-building conseq Diet regime Excess Becoming Shredded : Processed bass is usually a fabulous very good way to jig angling keel at use many of the omega-3 fats that established tó greatly reduce exercise-induced muscular […]
In this video, youll learn about sensory neurons and how they give rise to your five senses. Also, youll explore the brains role in processing...
ইন্দ্রিয় তন্ত্র (ইংরেজি: Sensory system) বলতে স্নায়ুতন্ত্রের একটি অংশকে বোঝায় , যেটি নানাবিধ ইন্দ্রিয়জাত তথ্য প্রক্রিয়া করে । একটি ইন্দ্রিয়তন্ত্র ইন্দ্রিয় সংগ্রহক , স্নায়বিক পথ এবং মস্তিষ্কের যেসব অংশ ইন্দ্রিয় সংগ্রহণের সাথে জড়িত , সেগুলি নিয়ে গঠিত । সাধারণভাবে স্বীকৃত ইন্দ্রিয় তন্ত্রগুলির মধ্যে আছে দর্শন, শ্রবণ, স্পর্শ, স্বাদ ও ঘ্রাণের সাথে সম্পর্কিত ইন্দ্রিয়সমূহ। কোন ...

No FAQ available that match "sensory receptor cells"