Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
Small sensory organs which contain gustatory receptor cells, basal cells, and supporting cells. Taste buds in humans are found in the epithelia of the tongue, palate, and pharynx. They are innervated by the CHORDA TYMPANI NERVE (a branch of the facial nerve) and the GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE.
Innervated clusters of NEUROEPITHELIAL CELLS found in the LUNGS. They act as airway OXYGEN sensors, releasing regulatory PEPTIDES and SEROTONIN in response to HYPOXIA.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.
The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.
Stretch receptors found in the bronchi and bronchioles. Pulmonary stretch receptors are sensors for a reflex which stops inspiration. In humans, the reflex is protective and is probably not activated during normal respiration.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
A branch of the facial (7th cranial) nerve which passes through the middle ear and continues through the petrotympanic fissure. The chorda tympani nerve carries taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and conveys parasympathetic efferents to the salivary glands.
Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.
That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.
A genus of the Proteidae family with five recognized species, which inhabit the Atlantic and Gulf drainages.
A neotenic aquatic species of mudpuppy (Necturus) occurring from Manitoba to Louisiana and Texas.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The minimum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived.
A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that mediates the light activation signal from photolyzed rhodopsin to cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and is pivotal in the visual excitation process. Activation of rhodopsin on the outer membrane of rod and cone cells causes GTP to bind to transducin followed by dissociation of the alpha subunit-GTP complex from the beta/gamma subunits of transducin. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to 5'-GMP. This leads to closure of the sodium and calcium channels and therefore hyperpolarization of the rod cells. EC 3.6.1.-.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).
Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.
The process by which the nature and meaning of gustatory stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain. The four basic classes of taste perception are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour.
A species of the family Ranidae which occurs primarily in Europe and is used widely in biomedical research.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
One of the FLAVORING AGENTS used to impart a meat-like flavor.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.
Family of large marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA. These are called clawed lobsters because they bear pincers on the first three pairs of legs. The American lobster and Cape lobster in the genus Homarus are commonly used for food.
A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.
An alcohol produced from mint oils or prepared synthetically.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
A genus of European newts in the Salamandridae family. The two species of this genus are Salamandra salamandra (European "fire" salamander) and Salamandra atra (European alpine salamander).
The sensory ganglion of the facial (7th cranial) nerve. The geniculate ganglion cells send central processes to the brain stem and peripheral processes to the taste buds in the anterior tongue, the soft palate, and the skin of the external auditory meatus and the mastoid process.
Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.
Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).
An edible species of the family Ranidae, occurring in Europe and used extensively in biomedical research. Commonly referred to as "edible frog".
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after melastatin protein. They have the TRP domain but lack ANKYRIN repeats. Enzyme domains in the C-terminus leads to them being called chanzymes.
Biological actions and events that constitute the functions of the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception. Taste disorders are frequently associated with OLFACTION DISORDERS. Additional potential etiologies include METABOLIC DISEASES; DRUG TOXICITY; and taste pathway disorders (e.g., TASTE BUD diseases; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE DISEASES; and BRAIN STEM diseases).
Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.
A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.

Neural mapping of direction and frequency in the cricket cercal sensory system. (1/2472)

Primary mechanosensory receptors and interneurons in the cricket cercal sensory system are sensitive to the direction and frequency of air current stimuli. Receptors innervating long mechanoreceptor hairs (>1000 microm) are most sensitive to low-frequency air currents (<150 Hz); receptors innervating medium-length hairs (900-500 microm) are most sensitive to higher frequency ranges (150-400 Hz). Previous studies demonstrated that the projection pattern of the synaptic arborizations of long hair receptor afferents form a continuous map of air current direction within the terminal abdominal ganglion (). We demonstrate here that the projection pattern of the medium-length hair afferents also forms a continuous map of stimulus direction. However, the afferents from the long and medium-length hair afferents show very little spatial segregation with respect to their frequency sensitivity. The possible functional significance of this small degree of spatial segregation was investigated, by calculating the relative overlap between the long and medium-length hair afferents with the dendrites of two interneurons that are known to have different frequency sensitivities. Both interneurons were shown to have nearly equal anatomical overlap with long and medium hair afferents. Thus, the differential overlap of these interneurons with the two different classes of afferents was not adequate to explain the observed frequency selectivity of the interneurons. Other mechanisms such as selective connectivity between subsets of afferents and interneurons and/or differences in interneuron biophysical properties must play a role in establishing the frequency selectivities of these interneurons.  (+info)

Morphology of intraepithelial corpuscular nerve endings in the nasal respiratory mucosa of the dog. (2/2472)

Corpuscular nerve endings in the nasal respiratory mucosa of the dog were investigated by immunohistochemical staining specific for protein gene product 9.5 by light and electron microscopy. In the nasal respiratory mucosa, complex corpuscular endings, which displayed bulbous, laminar and varicose expansions, were distributed on the dorsal elevated part of the nasal septum and on the dorsal nasal concha. The endings were 300-500 microm long and 100-250 microm wide. Some axons gave rise to a single ending while others branched into 2 endings. Cryostat sections revealed that the corpuscular endings were located within the nasal respiratory epithelium. On electron microscopy, immunoreactive nerve terminals that contained organelles, including mitochondria and neurofilaments, were observed within the epithelial layer near the lumen of the nasal cavity. Some terminals contacted the goblet cell. Such terminal regions were covered by the cytoplasmic process of ciliated cells and were never exposed to the lumen of the nasal cavity. These nerve endings are probably activated by pressure changes.  (+info)

Putative mammalian taste receptors: a class of taste-specific GPCRs with distinct topographic selectivity. (3/2472)

Taste represents a major form of sensory input in the animal kingdom. In mammals, taste perception begins with the recognition of tastant molecules by unknown membrane receptors localized on the apical surface of receptor cells of the tongue and palate epithelium. We report the cloning and characterization of two novel seven-transmembrane domain proteins expressed in topographically distinct subpopulations of taste receptor cells and taste buds. These proteins are specifically localized to the taste pore and are members of a new group of G protein-coupled receptors distantly related to putative mammalian pheromone receptors. We propose that these genes encode taste receptors.  (+info)

A novel family of divergent seven-transmembrane proteins: candidate odorant receptors in Drosophila. (4/2472)

Although insects have proven to be valuable models for exploring the function, organization, and development of the olfactory system, the receptor molecules that bind odors have not been identified in any insect. We have developed a novel search algorithm, used it to search the Drosophila genomic sequence database, and identified a large multigene family encoding seven transmembrane domain proteins that are expressed in olfactory organs. We show that expression is restricted to subsets of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) for a number of these genes. Different members of the family initiate expression at different times during antennal development. Some of the genes are not expressed in a mutant of the Acj6 POU-domain transcription factor, a mutant in which a subset of ORNs show abnormal odorant specificities.  (+info)

The odor specificities of a subset of olfactory receptor neurons are governed by Acj6, a POU-domain transcription factor. (5/2472)

Little is known about how the odor specificities of olfactory neurons are generated, a process essential to olfactory coding. We have found that neuronal identity relies on the abnormal chemosensory jump 6 (acj6) gene, originally identified by a defect in olfactory behavior. Physiological analysis of individual olfactory neurons shows that in acj6 mutants, a subset of neurons acquires a different odorant response profile. Certain other neurons do not respond to any tested odors in acj6. Molecular analysis of acj6 shows that it encodes a POU-domain transcription factor expressed in olfactory neurons. Our data suggest that the odor response spectrum of an olfactory neuron, and perhaps the choice of receptor genes, is determined through a process requiring the action of Acj6.  (+info)

The thermal sensitivity of the polymodal nociceptors in the monkey. (6/2472)

1. The static and dynamic sensitivities to thermal and mechanical stimuli of polymodal nociceptors in hairy skin of the anaesthetized monkey have been investigated by recording activity in their primary nerve fibres. 2. Polymodal nociceptors responded to skin pricking, pinching and heating to temperatures higher than 40 degrees C. They did not respond to touch, stretch or cold. The conduction velocity of their axons was from 0.6 to 1.1 m/sec. 3. Three types of cutaneous receptive fields have been observed: single spot-like areas of 1-2 mm2; multiple spot-like areas of 1-2 mm2; and larger areas up to 25 mm2 with heterogeneous sensitivity. 4. Polymodal nociceptors were subjected to heat stimuli that commenced from a 33 or 37 degrees C adapting temperature. A series consisted of heating their receptive fields to 43, 45, 47 and 50 degrees C from one or the other adapting temperatures at a constant rate of 0.2 degrees C/sec. Each heat stimulus intensity was maintained for 4 min after which the skin was returned to the adapting temperature. Immediately after the first series the identical series was repeated in order to determine the effect of prior heating upon the dynamic responses to re-heating. The dynamic responses were characterized by three phases: an initiation of a discharge at a threshold level of skin temperature; a dynamic discharge during the suprathreshold change, that reached a peak frequency when the temperature reached its maximum; and an adaptation phase while the temperature remained at the high intensity. Adaptation was rapid initially, and then slowed during the final minutes at the high intensity. 5. Adapting the receptive field to either 33 degrees C or to 37 degrees C before the heat stimuli did not affect the sensitivity and the discharge pattern of the polymodal nocicpetors. 6. During the first series of stimulations, the threshold at which the individual polymodal nociceptors began to discharge to heat stimuli varied from 40 to 46.5 degrees C. The mean threshold of the population was 42.5 degrees C. 7. No change in the threshold was observed when responses to 0.2 and 1.5 degrees C/sec rates of heating were compared...  (+info)

Electric organ discharges and electric images during electrolocation. (7/2472)

Weakly electric fish use active electrolocation - the generation and detection of electric currents - to explore their surroundings. Although electrosensory systems include some of the most extensively understood circuits in the vertebrate central nervous system, relatively little is known quantitatively about how fish electrolocate objects. We believe a prerequisite to understanding electrolocation and its underlying neural substrates is to quantify and visualize the peripheral electrosensory information measured by the electroreceptors. We have therefore focused on reconstructing both the electric organ discharges (EODs) and the electric images resulting from nearby objects and the fish's exploratory behaviors. Here, we review results from a combination of techniques, including field measurements, numerical and semi-analytical simulations, and video imaging of behaviors. EOD maps are presented and interpreted for six gymnotiform species. They reveal diverse electric field patterns that have significant implications for both the electrosensory and electromotor systems. Our simulations generated predictions of the electric images from nearby objects as well as sequences of electric images during exploratory behaviors. These methods are leading to the identification of image features and computational algorithms that could reliably encode electrosensory information and may help guide electrophysiological experiments exploring the neural basis of electrolocation.  (+info)

Mechanisms for generating temporal filters in the electrosensory system. (8/2472)

Temporal patterns of sensory information are important cues in behaviors ranging from spatial analyses to communication. Neural representations of the temporal structure of sensory signals include fluctuations in the discharge rate of neurons over time (peripheral nervous system) and the differential level of activity in neurons tuned to particular temporal features (temporal filters in the central nervous system). This paper presents our current understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the transformations between these representations in electric fish of the genus Eigenmannia. The roles of passive and active membrane properties of neurons, and frequency-dependent gain-control mechanisms are discussed.  (+info)

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Receptors are sensitive to discrete stimuli and are often classified by both the systemic function and the location of the receptor.. Sensory receptors are found throughout our bodies, and sensory receptors that share a common location often share a common function. For example, sensory receptors in the retina are almost entirely photoreceptors. Our skin includes touch and temperature receptors, and our inner ears contain sensory mechanoreceptors designed for detecting vibrations caused by sound or used to maintain balance.. Force -sensitive mechanoreceptors provide an example of how the placement of a sensory receptor plays a role in how our brains process sensory inputs. While the cutaneous touch receptors found in the dermis and epidermis of our skin and the muscle spindles that detect stretch in skeletal muscle are both mechanoreceptors, they serve discrete functions.. In both cases, the mechanoreceptors detect physical forces that result from the movement of the local tissue, cutaneous ...
Although all sensory circuits ascend to raised brain areas where stimuli are represented in sparse stimulus-specific activity patterns fairly little is well known about sensory coding in the descending side CL 316243 disodium salt of neural circuits being a network converges. 19 of 22 cell types (Fig. expanded and CL 316243 disodium salt 1c Data Figs. 1 and ?and2;2; find Methods). Body 1 Overview of olfactory tuning patterns in MBONs Body 2 Change of inhabitants representations from KCs to MBONs In keeping with high convergence at this time from the circuit7 8 MBONs had been generally broadly tuned to smells as seen in various other pests10-12 although there have been a few exclusions (e.g. α2p3p β′1 and MB-CP1 neurons; Prolonged Data Fig. 3). In the MBONs with axonal projections in the MB lobes (β1 γ1pedc and γ4 neurons) we noticed prolonged rise moments ( Expanded Data Fig. 4). Among the important factors regulating the stimulus-specificity of population-level representations is ...
Vol 9: Peripheral Glia Have a Pivotal Role in the Initial Response to Axon Degeneration of Peripheral Sensory Neurons in Zebrafish.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The part of the eye that contains the sensory receptors for sight is the retina. The sensory receptors are located in the outermost layer of the retina, which means that light must travel through...
Sensory Circuits. We will begin each day with a sensory circuit to prepare them for their learning. Students will complete sessions throughout the day to help students remain settled and focused. Students complete an alerting, organising and calming activities.. Please ask if you would like any further information.. ...
The somatic nervous system is traditionally considered a division within the peripheral nervous system. However, this misses an important point: somatic refers to a functional division, whereas peripheral refers to an anatomic division. The somatic nervous system is responsible for our conscious perception of the environment and for our voluntary responses to that perception by means of skeletal muscles. Peripheral sensory neurons receive input from environmental stimuli, but the neurons that produce motor responses originate in the central nervous system.. The distinction between the structures (i.e., anatomy) of the peripheral and central nervous systems and functions (i.e., physiology) of the somatic and autonomic systems can most easily be demonstrated through a simple reflex action. When you touch a hot stove, you pull your hand away. Sensory receptors in the skin sense extreme temperature and the early signs of tissue damage. This triggers an action potential, which travels along the ...
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2) The body has lots of sensory receptors, which can detect a change in your environment (a stimulus) . Different sensory receptors detect different stimuli. For example, receptors in your eyes detect light, and receptors in your skin detect touch (pressure) and temperature change ...
Successive periods of investigation have produced anatomic, physiological, and psychological phases in our understanding of skin sensation. Each phase has been the result of technological...
Restless Brain Even while youre snoozing, your brain constantly transmits information through motor circuits that send information to your muscles and glands, while receiving information from sensory circuits located throughout your body. It is only when your brain ceases to send these signals that you really have something to worry about. Looking for a good night of sleep? Shannons Sleep ...
Humans perceive physical information about the surrounding environment through their senses. This physical information is registered by a collection of highly evolved and finely tuned molecular sensory receptors. A multitude of bioactive, structurally diverse ligands have evolved in nature that bind these mo Chemical signaling at the eukaryotic/prokaryotic interface
Humans perceive physical information about the surrounding environment through their senses. This physical information is registered by a collection of highly evolved and finely tuned molecular sensory receptors. A multitude of bioactive, structurally diverse ligands have evolved in nature that bind these mo Chemical signaling at the eukaryotic/prokaryotic interface
Nervous system, organized group of cells specialized for the conduction of electrochemical stimuli from sensory receptors through a network to the site at which a response occurs.
Garcia-Morales, Carla, Liu, Chiung-Hui, Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad, Hajihosseini, Mohammad K. and Wheeler, Grant N. (2009) Frizzled-10 promotes sensory neuron development in Xenopus embryos. Developmental Biology, 335 (1). pp. 143-155. ISSN 1095-564X Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
Bcl11a is expressed in both presynaptic sensory neurons and postsynaptic spinal target neurons (Fig. 1). We next asked whether Bcl11a is required for correct wiring, and if so, on which site. Central axons of sensory neurons were labeled at E16.5 with DiI. In the superficial dorsal horns of Brn4-Cre;Bcl11a mutants, the density of DiI-positive fibers was greatly reduced and the remaining fibers appeared disorganized. Only a few axons crossing the midline or located in a dorsolateral region of the dorsal horn were detectable by DiI labeling in mutants (Fig. 5A,B). TrkA (Ntrk1 - Mouse Genome Informatics) -positive nociceptive fibers preferentially terminate in the superficial dorsal horn. Immunohistological analysis with antibodies against TrkA or aquaporin 1, a water channel protein that is expressed by small-diameter nociceptive fibers (Oshio et al., 2006), invariably revealed almost complete loss of such fibers in the dorsal horn of Brn4-Cre;Bcl11a mutants (Fig. 5C-F). Similar results were ...
Kemp SWP, Szynkaruk M, Stanoulis KN, Wood MD, Liu EH, Willand MP, Morlock L, Naidoo J, Williams NS, Ready JM, Mangano TJ, Beggs S, Salter MW, Gordon T, Pieper AA, Borschel GH. Pharmacologic rescue of motor and sensory function by the neuroprotective compound P7C3 following neonatal nerve injury. Neuroscience. 2015 Jan 22; 284:202-216 ...
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It is commonly observed that schooling fish are particularly in danger of being eaten if they are separated from the school.[4] Several anti-predator functions of fish schools have been proposed. One potential method by which fish schools might thwart predators is the predator confusion effect proposed and demonstrated by Milinski and Heller (1978).[25] This theory is based on the idea that it becomes difficult for predators to pick out individual prey from groups because the many moving targets create a sensory overload of the predators visual channel. Milinski and Hellers findings have been corroborated both in experiment[26][27] and computer simulations.[28][29] Shoaling fish are the same size and silvery, so it is difficult for a visually oriented predator to pick an individual out of a mass of twisting, flashing fish and then have enough time to grab its prey before it disappears into the shoal.[4] Schooling behaviour confuses the lateral line organ (LLO) as well as the electrosensory ...
Precise pattering of dendrites as well as axons is essential for correct wiring and function of neural circuits. In addition, dendrites from certain mature neurons change their shape in response to changes in the environment. We combine fly/mice genetics, imaging, and biochemical approaches to investigate the interplay between genetic and epigenetic control of dendrite morphogenesis in vivo, and deduce the functional importance of these regulatory systems in disease etiology. In particular, we focus our researches on the genetic and molecular regulation of dendrite pattering and plasticity in the Drosophila sensory circuits. In this talk, I first present how intrinsic and extrinsic cues instruct Drosophila sensory neurons to establish their unique dendritic fields on the body wall. In the latter part, I present two novel mechanisms, dendrite pruning and reshaping, that critically regulate dendrite plasticity in metamorphosis.. ...
Precise pattering of dendrites as well as axons is essential for correct wiring and function of neural circuits. In addition, dendrites from certain mature neurons change their shape in response to changes in the environment. We combine fly/mice genetics, imaging, and biochemical approaches to investigate the interplay between genetic and epigenetic control of dendrite morphogenesis in vivo, and deduce the functional importance of these regulatory systems in disease etiology. In particular, we focus our researches on the genetic and molecular regulation of dendrite pattering and plasticity in the Drosophila sensory circuits. In this talk, I first present how intrinsic and extrinsic cues instruct Drosophila sensory neurons to establish their unique dendritic fields on the body wall. In the latter part, I present two novel mechanisms, dendrite pruning and reshaping, that critically regulate dendrite plasticity in metamorphosis.. ...
is the effector organ? The effector organ is one of the five basic components of a reflex arc. The other four components are motor neuron, the sensory receptor, the sensory neuron, and the interneurons. The motor neuron organizes the action. The sensory receptor recognizes the stimulus and sends it to the sensory neuron. The interneurons, on the other hand, lie between two neurons and ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Adrianna Kalous, Matthew R Nangle, Agustin Anastasia, Barbara L Hempstead, Janet R Keast].
neurons stimulated by low-frequency sounds, and those stimulated by highfrequency sounds, project their axons to different regions of the cochlear nucleus ...
Please help me to pick out 6 lines from the poem Invictus of William Ernest Henley that used sensory images and identify the sense used for each line.I also need to pick out one line that used onomatopoeia. I only Have one answer Black ...
Yesterday, CIRM-funded scientists at UCLA published an interesting study that sheds light on the development of sensory neurons, a type of nerve cell that is damaged in patients with spinal cord injury. Their early-stage findings could potentially, down the road, lead to the development of stem cell-based treatments that rebuild the sensory nervous system in…
The domain favoured the hem in overlying the column of the bone is magnified to rejoice in the features in the significant cavity. If the workload exceeds material ca- pacities of a segregate procedure, multiple servers or blades exigency to be installed pro dis- tribution of work to complete optimal processing behavior. Low-dose Cortef solution attenuates the systemic inflammatory reception syndrome ,a href=http://www.dinamicbrain.com/wp-content/content/group2/levitra_extra_dosage_100_mg_60_mg_40_mg_proven_levitra_extra_dosage/,buy levitra extra dosage 40 mg overnight delivery,/a, erectile dysfunction trimix. It consists of five components: (1) sensory receptors in or associated with a sensory neuron (detects stimulus); (2) sensory neuron (conducts afferent will impulses to the CNS); (3) an integration center (single or more synapses in the CNS); (4) a motor neuron (conducts efferent nerve impulses from integration center to an effector cubicle; and (5) an effector cell (responds to the ...
The nervous system has three broad functions: sensory input, information processing, and motor output. In the PNS, sensory receptor neurons respond to physical stimuli in our environment, like touch or temperature, and send signals that inform the CNS of the state of the body and the external environment. ...
The Senses. Chapter 29. Sensory Input. All senses trigger the same type of action potential The part of the brain that is activated discriminates between the types of stimuli The brain detects sensations and interprets them Action potentials from sensory receptors Slideshow 1722623 by norm
The nervous system is involved in some way in nearly every body function. All the sensations, actions, and emotions are made possible by the nervous system, which consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors.
Nervous system, organized group of cells specialized for the conduction of electrochemical stimuli from sensory receptors. The nervous system allows for the almost instantaneous transmission of electrical impulses from one region of the body to another. Learn about the nervous systems of different living organisms.
Vision is one of the most important senses supplying information to the brain. The sensory receptors for light stimuli are located within the eyes (or eyeballs)…
Fruit flies and mosquitoes have analogous sensory receptors allowing them to differentiate among innumerable sensory cues while searching for food or try to avoid danger.
PubMed journal article: The influence of milk intake on the lead toxicity to the sensory nervous system in lead workers. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Cancer-associated pain is a major cause of poor quality of life in cancer patients and is frequently resistant to conventional therapy. Recent studies indicate that some hematopoietic growth factors, namely granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF) and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF), are abundantly released in the tumor microenvironment and play a key role in regulating tumor-nerve interactions and tumor-associated pain by activating receptors on dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Moreover, these hematopoietic factors have been highly implicated in postsurgical pain, inflammatory pain and osteoarthritic pain. However, the molecular mechanisms via which G-/GMCSF bring about nociceptive sensitization and elicit pain are not known. In order to elucidate G-/GMCSF mediated transcriptional changes in the sensory neurons, we performed a comprehensive, genome-wide analysis of changes in the transcriptome of DRG neurons brought about by exposure to GMCSF or GCSF. We present complete
TY - JOUR. T1 - The sensory nerve terminals of the mesentery. AU - Vajda, J.. AU - Fehér, Elisabeth. AU - Csányi, K.. PY - 1973. Y1 - 1973. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84940807126&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84940807126&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1159/000144093. DO - 10.1159/000144093. M3 - Article. C2 - 4793083. AN - SCOPUS:84940807126. VL - 85. SP - 514. EP - 532. JO - Cells Tissues Organs. JF - Cells Tissues Organs. SN - 1422-6405. IS - 4. ER - ...
Pipids are highly aquatic frogs that rarely if ever venture out of water. They have several adaptations to aquatic life, including the loss of the tongue (tongues are not generally useful for feeding in water), and the presence of lateral line organs, which are used to detect wave motion in water (these are present in most groups of fishes). The group is sometimes called the Aglossa.. Pipid frogs are found in Africa, South America, and just get into Panama. Some species in South America, such as the Surinam Toad (Pipa pipa) are extremely flattened and look like roadkills. Females of the genus Pipa have an elaborate mating behavior, in which eggs are deposited on the back of the female, and the skin swells up around the eggs to encase them in pockets in which the embryos develop. In some species the eggs hatch out as tadpoles, but in others fully formed froglets emerge from the mothers back.. Tadpoles (when present) lack beaks and denticles, and have paired spiracles (if spiracles are present). ...
healthy.. The nervous system is the bodys inner communication system and is made up of the bodys many nerve cells.. It is these nerve cells that take information from the bodys five senses: touch, taste, smell, sound and sight! The brain is then able to react to these senses and interact with the environment.. The human nervous system is made up of the central nervous system (CNS) which is the brain and the spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system which is made from nerve cells that carry information to and from the CNS.. When a sensory receptor detects a stimulus, the information is passed along neurones. Neurones are a special type of cell. They are found in groups/bundles of many hundreds of neurones known as nerves.. Looking in a little more detail we can see how the nervous system works: A stimulus is detected by a sensory receptor in the body. The receptor sends this information (via electrical impulses) along sensory neurones to the central nervous system (CNS). It is these ...
They are considered axons. Pseudounipolar cells have a bit of an odd morphology.. The reason you consider the entire length an axon is because it all grows from a single process from the soma which then branches. Terminology is just terminology, so rules are often made to be broken in biology: yes, an axon typically carries information away from the soma, but thats not the case here for neurons where the information sort of bypasses the soma.. Besides the developmental origin from a single process, the initiation site for an action potential is out in the distal end of the axon, rather than at an axon hillock connected to the soma, and if you had a section of axon on either side of the soma it wouldnt be apparent which end you were looking at.. ...
Learning Objectives State the functions of sensory pathways. Define sensory receptors and describe the 5 general categories of sensory receptors. Describe the human eye and its function. Compare the rods and cones of retina. Explain myopia, hyperopia, presbyopia and astigmatism. List the structure of ear in the order in which they participate in hearing. Explain how body position and movement are sense in the ear. Discuss how odor and taste receptors function.
In the present study we showed increased TRPV1 activity after prestimulation of TRPA1, both in HEK cells and DRG neurons. This was dependent on calcium, AC, and PKA. Mutation of the putative phosphorylation site serine 116 in TRPV1 also abolished increased TRPV1 activity after TRPA1 stimulation. Together, our findings suggest that TRPA1 activation causes an influx of calcium and increases calcium-sensitive AC activity, cAMP accumulation, and subsequent PKA activation. This results in phosphorylation and sensitization of TRPV1.. Although some studies showed direct activation of TRPV1 by MO at high concentrations (Ohta et al., 2007; Everaerts et al., 2011; Gees et al., 2013), our control experiments and other studies showed that MO at a concentration of 20 µM did not directly activate TRPV1 (Fig. 2D; Jordt et al., 2004; Everaerts et al., 2011).. Approximately 30% to 50% of TRPV1-expressing small- to medium-sized peripheral sensory neurons coexpress TRPA1, and almost all TRPA1-positive neurons ...
Keywords: Vestibular, type II locks cell, morphology, mammal, synapse, JAX:000654, JAX:000664, RGD: 737903, Abdominal_10013626, Abdominal_10015251, Abdominal_2282417, Abdominal_2068506, Abdominal_2068336, Abdominal_477329, Abdominal_177520, Abdominal_10175616, Abdominal_2113875, Abdominal_399431, Abdominal_2079751, Abdominal_2286684 Intro In mammals, five vestibular body organs INO-1001 in the internal hearing encode motions of the mind and therefore regulate look, body motions, and body alignment. The saccule and utricle possess a toned physical epithelium known as a macula, and they respond to linear mind speeding and mind tilt. The anterior, posterior, and horizontal ampullae possess a even more complexly formed physical epithelium known as a crista, and they identify mind rotation in a range of aeroplanes. Locks cells are the physical mechanoreceptors in these body organs. Directional deflections of lengthy microvilli (stereocilia) on the areas of locks cells travel actions possibilities in ...
We heard the fantastic news late last year that Matt was awarded an ERC Consolidator Grant! This is an amazing opportunity for us to push forward our work, and will allow us to do a whole heap of experiments that just wouldnt be possible with other types of funding. Well use it to focus on adult-generated neurons in the olfactory bulb, and how their elevated potential for plasticity might contribute to information processing in sensory circuits. In practical terms that means lots of slice physiology, as always, but well also now have the ability to monitor and control neuronal activity in vivo too, and thats incredibly exciting. Its a 5-year award starting later this year, so lets hope the UK Government sticks to its promise to underwrite all European funding obtained while were still part of the EU… If youd like to know more, you can find more detail on the award from the KCL IoPPN newsletter, and also in the ERCs own press release.. Weve also taken some of our own advice recently, ...
ruffini-s-corpuscle definition: Noun (plural Ruffinis corpuscles) 1. The synaptic ending of the sensory nervous system which are encapsulated and respond to stretch and torque. These responses are propagated back to dorsal root ganglia in the form of an action p...
Muscle sensory neurons are involved in proprioceptor signaling and also report on metabolic state and injury related events. We...
Nervous coordination in animals tutorial all along with the key concepts of Divisions of Nervous System, Brain, Spinal cord, Functions of spinal cord, Peripheral Nervous System, Structure of Neuron, Reflex Action and Sensory Receptors
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In this video, youll learn about sensory neurons and how they give rise to your five senses. Also, youll explore the brains role in processing...
ইন্দ্রিয় তন্ত্র (ইংরেজি: Sensory system) বলতে স্নায়ুতন্ত্রের একটি অংশকে বোঝায় , যেটি নানাবিধ ইন্দ্রিয়জাত তথ্য প্রক্রিয়া করে । একটি ইন্দ্রিয়তন্ত্র ইন্দ্রিয় সংগ্রহক , স্নায়বিক পথ এবং মস্তিষ্কের যেসব অংশ ইন্দ্রিয় সংগ্রহণের সাথে জড়িত , সেগুলি নিয়ে গঠিত । সাধারণভাবে স্বীকৃত ইন্দ্রিয় তন্ত্রগুলির মধ্যে আছে দর্শন, শ্রবণ, স্পর্শ, স্বাদ ও ঘ্রাণের সাথে সম্পর্কিত ইন্দ্রিয়সমূহ। কোন ...
Receptors[edit]. Main article: Sensory receptor. Sensory receptors are the cells or structures that detect sensations. Stimuli ... The human external sensory and perceptual system[1][4] Physical stimulus Sensory organ Sensory receptor Sensory system Cranial ... the different types of sensory receptor cells (mechanoreceptors, photoreceptors, chemoreceptors, thermoreceptors) in sensory ... Different types of stimuli are sensed by different types of receptor cells. Receptor cells can be classified into types on the ...
There are millions of olfactory receptor neurons that act as sensory signaling cells. Each neuron has cilia in direct contact ... The olfactory receptor (OR) cells are neurons present in the olfactory epithelium, which is a small patch of tissue at the back ... As a result, odor sensory methods, instead of instrumental methods, are normally used to measure such odor. Odor sensory ... A single odorant is usually recognized by many receptors. Different odorants are recognized by combinations of receptors. The ...
Finally, this receptor potential leads to action potential fired by sensory cells. Electric fish carry a variety of sensitive ... For electric fish, receptive organs are groups of sensory cells rooted in epidermal pits, which look like small spots on the ... Current flow due to such potential difference further results in a receptor potential that is presynaptic to the sensory fibers ... In each receptive organ, there are sensory cells embedded in the bottom of the opened "pit" that faces outside. ...
The ENS contains sensory receptors, primary afferent neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. The events that are controlled, ... Stach, W (1979). "Differentiated vascularization of Dogiel's cell types and the preferred vascularization of type I/2 cells ... The taste receptor TAS1R3 and the taste G protein gustducin are two of the most common. These receptors sense "sweetness" on ... One receptor that has been targeted for therapeutic reasons has been the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT4) receptor. Activating this ...
For the sensory receptors within the belly of a muscle, see Muscle spindle. ... Cartoon of a normal pyramidal cell (left) compared to a spindle cell (right). ... All of the primates examined had more spindle cells in the fronto-insula of the right hemisphere than in the left. In contrast ... Spindle cells are also found in the brains of a number of cetaceans,[2][3][4] African and Asian elephants,[5] and to a lesser ...
U Proske, J E Gregory, A Iggo: 'Sensory receptors in monotremes.' Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 353, (1998): 1187-1198.. ... With improved histological techniques, a second touch receptor type, Merkel cell-neurite complexes, was found in the stratum ... Eimer's organ, therefore, forms a receptor complex, integrating pain receptors as well as three fundamentally different types ... Eimer's organs are sensory organs in which the epidermis is modified to form bulbous papillae. First isolated by Theodor Eimer ...
"Neuromedin U Receptor 2-Deficient Mice Display Differential Responses in Sensory Perception, Stress, and Feeding". Mol. Cell. ... as NmU and its receptor are localized predominantly in cancer cells. Although NmU exerts no effect on cancer cell proliferation ... NmU and its receptors are also abundantly expressed in nociceptive sensory pathways, including the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), ... Both receptors are examples of Class A G-protein coupled receptors (or GPCRs) with a distinct distributional pattern. NmUR1 is ...
Epithelial cells form a loose plug over the sensory receptors, allowing capacity-coupled current to pass from the external ... environment to the sensory receptor. Knollenorgans lack the jelly filled canal leading from sensory receptor cells to the ... The receptor cells lie buried in the deeper layers of the epidermis where they expand into a pocket in the superficial layers ... Besides these, there are also supporting cells, and a sensory neuron which projects to the nucleus of the electrosensory ...
Sustentacular cells have many ACE2 receptors on their surfaces, while olfactory sensory neurons do not. Loss of smell may also ... it is believed that these symptoms are caused by infection of sustentacular cells that support and provide nutrients to sensory ... As of September 2020, it was unclear whether these symptoms were due to direct infection of brain cells, or of overstimulation ...
"Atypical expansion in mice of the sensory neuron-specific Mrg G protein-coupled receptor family". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 100 ... "A diverse family of GPCRs expressed in specific subsets of nociceptive sensory neurons". Cell. 106 (5): 619-32. doi:10.1016/ ... Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MRGPRD gene. MAS1 oncogene GRCh38 ... 2002). "Identification of G protein-coupled receptor genes from the human genome sequence". FEBS Lett. 520 (1-3): 97-101. doi: ...
... each olfactory receptor neuron expresses only one functional odor receptor.[51] Odor receptor nerve cells function like a key- ... Mitral cells, located in the inner layer of the olfactory bulb, form synapses with the axons of the sensory neurons within ... Mitral cells also project to periglomerular cells and granular cells that inhibit the mitral cells surrounding it (lateral ... 1: Olfactory bulb 2: Mitral cells 3: Bone 4: Nasal epithelium 5: Glomerulus 6: Olfactory receptor neurons ...
Loss of sensory receptors in the cochlea, vestibules, and retina result in ganglion degeneration and transneuronal degeneration ... a long survival period for those affected cells. The degeneration led to cell shrinkage and cell death, and these symptoms were ... Loss of Betz cells is a variable effect of this disease but the loss of these cells in this disease demonstrates the "dying- ... Some cells are then phagocytosed by astrocytes and microglia. This study showed that the most cells affected by the necrosis ...
Cells expressing a given receptor in the olfactory epithelium are randomly dispersed within 1 of 4 broad zones. Sensory neurons ... Nevertheless, taste ganglion cells must distribute peripheral fibers to particular receptor cell types and disseminate impulses ... However, the olfactory sensory neurons to which olfactory bulb neurons are connected are also distributed across the receptor ... 2000). "An Olfactory Sensory Map in the Fly Brain". Cell. 102 (2): 147-159. doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(00)00021-0. PMID 10943836. ...
... supporting cells, basal cells, and brush cells. There are approximately 6 million bipolar sensory receptor neurons whose cell ... Basal stem cells give rise to both neurons and non-neuronal cells and allow for constant regeneration of receptor cells and its ... Supporting cells, called sustentacular cells, provide metabolic and physical support to the receptors by insulating the cell ... Less than 500 receptors are functional in the nasal epithelium. Each receptor neuron is a single type of olfactory receptor and ...
... the otolith presses on the sensory hair cell receptors. This pushes the hair cell processes down and prevents them from moving ... the weight of the membrane bends the stereocilia and stimulates the hair cells. Hair cells send signals down sensory nerve ... Wolff, Heinz G. (1973). "Multi-directional sensitivity of statocyst receptor cells of the opisthobranch gastropod Aplysia ... The inertia of these small particles causes them to stimulate hair cells when the head moves. The hair cells are made up of 40 ...
Sensory receptors are the cells or structures that detect sensations. Stimuli in the environment activate specialized receptor ... Different types of stimuli are sensed by different types of receptor cells. Receptor cells can be classified into types on the ... the different types of sensory receptor cells (mechanoreceptors, photoreceptors, chemoreceptors, thermoreceptors) in sensory ... In organisms, a sensory organ consists of a group of interrelated sensory cells that respond to a specific type of physical ...
... various receptor cells. These sensory receptor cells are activated by different stimuli such as heat and nociception, giving a ... Merkel and bulbous cells - slow-response - are myelinated; the rest - fast-response - are not. All of these receptors are ... Sensory receptors are found all over the body including the skin, epithelial tissues, muscles, bones and joints, internal ... It consists both of sensory receptors and afferent neurons in the periphery (skin, muscle and organs for example), to deeper ...
... sensory receptors take in the information and travel into the spinal cord. The cell bodies of these primary neurons are located ... Treatments need to focus on limiting post-injury cell death, promoting cell regeneration, and replacing lost cells. ... Likewise, sensory nerve rootlets form off right and left dorsal lateral sulci and form sensory nerve roots. The ventral (motor ... "Spinal Cord-Development and Stem Cells". Stem Cell Development Compendium. Retrieved 2 Dec 2015. Than-Trong, Emmanuel; Bally- ...
... mechanoreceptors present in skin sensory cell). The sensation response is affected mainly by the stretch, snug, loose, heavy, ... Pressure comfort is the response towards clothing by the human body's pressure receptors ( ... The spinning solution is pumped into a cylindrical spinning cell where it is cured and converted into fibers. In this cell, the ... As the strands pass through the cell, they are heated in the presence of a nitrogen and solvent gas. This process causes the ...
This is sometimes referred to as a Merkel cell-neurite complex, or a Merkel disc receptor. A single afferent nerve fibre ... Merkel nerve endings are mechanoreceptors, a type of sensory receptor, that are found in the basal epidermis and hair follicles ... Merkel+cells at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) "Merkel cell" at Dorland's Medical ... Like the cells responsible for the mechanotransduction in hearing, Merkel cells transduce mechanical forces into excitatory ...
These receptors have a loose plug of epithelial cells which capacitively couples the sensory receptor cells to the external ... These receptors have a jelly-filled canal leading from the sensory receptors to the skin surface. Mormyrid electric fish from ... Proske, U.; Gregory, J. E.; Iggo, A. (1998). "Sensory receptors in monotremes". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society ... They consist of electroreceptor cells connected to the seawater by pores on their snouts and other zones of the head. A problem ...
The cell bodies of sensory neurons known as first-order neurons are located in the dorsal root ganglia. The axons of dorsal ... Proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptors are expressed by DRG sensory neurons and might play a role in acid-induced ... The nerve endings of dorsal root ganglion neurons have a variety of sensory receptors that are activated by mechanical, thermal ... These channels are found predominantly in smaller sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglion cells and are activated by higher ...
Olfactory receptors are cell-membrane receptors on the surface of sensory neurons in the olfactory system that detect airborne ... In mammals, olfactory receptors are expressed on the surface of the olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavity. In 2005-06, ... Substituted pyrazines Animals that are capable of smell detect aroma compounds with their olfactory receptors. ... Journal Fragrances of the World Foodpairing Odor Odor detection threshold Olfaction Olfactory system Olfactory receptor ...
The sensory receptors are concentrated in the tips and can detect odours. Taste receptors are located on the palps and on the ... Simple photoreceptor cells located at the genitals are important for this and other adult behaviours.[33] The male passes a ... The surface of both butterflies and moths is covered by scales, each of which is an outgrowth from a single epidermal cell. The ... The first and second maxillae bear palps which function as sensory organs. Some species have a reduced proboscis or maxillary ...
Odorants, which are mostly small lipophilic molecules, enter the mucus flow and reach the odorant receptors on sensory neurons ... which could be provided by biotransformation of the odorant in the epithelial supporting cells. Xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes ...
Neuromedin U receptor 2-deficient mice display differential responses in sensory perception, stress, and feeding". Mol. Cell. ... Mice genetically deficient in neuromedin U receptor 2, but not neuromedin U receptor 1, have impaired nociceptive responses". ... Brighton PJ, Wise A, Dass NB, Willars GB (2008). „Paradoxical behavior of neuromedin U in isolated smooth muscle cells and ... Iwai T, Iinuma Y, Kodani R, Oka J (2008). „Neuromedin U inhibits inflammation-mediated memory impairment and neuronal cell- ...
The form of phosphatidylinositol comprising the isomer muco-inositol acts as a sensory receptor in the taste function of the ... Typically phosphatidylinositols form a minor component on the cytosolic side of eukaryotic cell membranes. The phosphate group ... The specific fatty acids of PtdIns, and their conformation, employed in the sensory neurons has not been elucidated. ... cell signaling and membrane trafficking. The inositol ring can be phosphorylated by a variety of kinases on the three, four and ...
If many sensory receptors all form synapses with a single cell further up, they collectively form the receptive field of that ... classified receptive fields of cells in the visual cortex into simple cells, complex cells, and hypercomplex cells. Simple cell ... all the rods and cones from one eye that are connected to this particular ganglion cell via bipolar cells, horizontal cells, ... to lateral geniculate nucleus cells, to visual cortex cells, to extrastriate cortical cells. However, because the activities of ...
Sensory hearing loss often occurs as a consequence of damaged or deficient cochlear hair cells.[disputed - discuss] Hair cells ... The fundamental role of the OHCs and the IHCs is to function as sensory receptors. The main function of the IHCs is to transmit ... Sensory hearing loss is caused by abnormal structure or function of the hair cells of the organ of Corti in the cochlea.[ ... Wichmann C, Moser T (July 2015). "Relating structure and function of inner hair cell ribbon synapses". Cell and Tissue Research ...
Signals and noise in sensory receptors, which allow organisms to encode information based on their senses, set a limit on a ... This is important in cells that receive and integrate thousands of synaptic inputs. These cells can often require numerous ... This phenomenon has led to the question of how sensory receptors can lower synaptic noise effectively while amplifying the ... In sensory neurons that receive redundant and structured signals, sensory processing can differentiate the signal from noise. ...
... current and the several types of calcium currents.These currents depolarize the cell further enough to activate NMDA receptors ... The complex also contributes to integrating modulatory and sensory inputs which feed its larger network with the capacity to ... Adenosine modulates the preBötC output via activation of the A1 and A2A receptor subtypes. An adenosine A1 receptor agonist has ... The suppression of muscarinic receptors and the activation of nicotinic receptors due to prenatal exposure to nicotine have ...
Its receptor - the neurokinin type 1 - is distributed over cytoplasmic and nuclear membranes of many cell types (neurons, glia ... Substance P and other sensory neuropeptides can be released from the peripheral terminals of sensory nerve fibers in the skin, ... ReceptorEdit. The endogenous receptor for substance P is neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1-receptor, NK1R).[8] It belongs to the ... Elevation of serum, plasma, or tissue SP and/or its receptor (NK1R) has been associated with many diseases: sickle cell crisis; ...
One major pathway being through stimulation of the nociceptin receptor,[8][9][10] and blocking this receptor may therefore be a ... Sensory neurons produce antinociceptive effects in inflammatory pain: involvement of inflammatory mediators" (PDF). J. Neurosci ... This seems to occur via immune cells interacting with the peripheral nervous system and releasing pain-producing chemicals ( ... Quantitative sensory testing can be used to determine pain thresholds (decreased pain threshold indicates allodynia) and ...
G protein-coupled receptor. *Sensory system. *Photosensitive. *Photosensitive ganglion cell. *Horizontal cell ... However, the effect of glutamate differs in the bipolar cells, depending upon the type of receptor imbedded in that cell's ... Further complexity arises from the various interconnections among bipolar cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells in the ... ON bipolar cells or inhibit (hyperpolarize) OFF bipolar cells. Thus, it is at the photoreceptor-bipolar cell synapse where ...
The spirochetes may also induce host cells to secrete quinolinic acid, which stimulates the NMDA receptor on nerve cells, which ... French physicians Garin and Bujadoux described a farmer with a painful sensory radiculitis accompanied by mild meningitis ... Within the tick midgut, the Borrelia's outer surface protein A (OspA) binds to the tick receptor for OspA, known as TROSPA. ... However, PCR tests are susceptible to false positive results, e.g. by detection of debris of dead Borrelia cells or specimen ...
In Drosophila, each olfactory sensory neuron generally expresses a single olfactory receptor gene,[5] and the neurons ... "An olfactory sensory map in the fly brain" (PDF). Cell. 102 (2): 147-159. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)00021-0. PMID 10943836 ... The antennal lobe is the deutocerebral neuropil of insects which receives the input from the olfactory sensory neurons on the ... In insects, the olfactory pathway starts at the antennae (though in some insects like Drosophila there are olfactory sensory ...
Action potentials carried by sensory neurons from stretch receptors in the urinary bladder wall travel to the sacral segments ... When the bladder is fully distended the superficial cells become squamous (flat) and the stratification of the cuboidal cells ... The state of the reflex system is dependent on both a conscious signal from the brain and the firing rate of sensory fibers ... transitional epithelium which contains a superficial layer of dome-like cells and multiple layers of stratified cuboidal cells ...
In the brain, cortisol acts on two types of receptor - mineralocorticoid receptors and glucocorticoid receptors, and these are ... There, CRH and vasopressin act synergistically to stimulate the secretion of stored ACTH from corticotrope cells. ACTH is ... Sensory information arriving at the lateral aspect of the amygdala is processed and conveyed to the amygdala's central nucleus ... The drug LY354740 (also known as Eglumegad, an agonist of the metabotropic glutamate receptors 2 and 3) has been shown to ...
The spindle is a stretch receptor with its own motor supply consisting of several intrafusal muscle fibres. The sensory endings ... The muscle spindle has both sensory and motor components. *Sensory information conveyed by primary type Ia sensory fibers which ... Muscle spindles are stretch receptors within the body of a muscle that primarily detect changes in the length of the muscle. ... Secondary type II sensory fibers (medium diameter) end adjacent to the central regions of the static bag and chain fibres.[2] ...
Normally the child's sensory experiences are not readily coded into language and this may cause them to store phrases and ... For example, the Canadian currency tactile feature is a system of raised dots in one corner, based on Braille cells but not ... Leber's Congenital Amaurosis damages the light receptors in the retina and usually begins affecting sight in early childhood, ... Experimental approaches in sensory substitution are beginning to provide access to arbitrary live views from a camera. ...
This idea, that electrical synapses couple groups of cells into functional units, lead to Bullock's lifelong interest in field ... is an excellent example of how motor programs are integrated with incoming sensory information when generating a behavior ... potentials, which are generated by the summated electrical activity of millions of brain cells. Bullock was a respected teacher ...
detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of smell. • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. ... "Specific repertoire of olfactory receptor genes in the male germ cells of several mammalian species". Genomics. 39 (3): 239-46 ... G-protein coupled receptor activity. • olfactory receptor activity. • signal transducer activity. Cellular component. • ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ...
... s affect distant cells bi bindin tae speceefic receptor proteins in the target cell resultin in a chynge in cell ... sensory perception, sleep, excretion, lactation, stress, growthe an development, muivement, reproduction, an muid.[1][2] ... The term hormone is whiles extendit tae include chemicals produced bi cells that affect the same cell (autocrine or intracrine ... Whan a hormone binds tae the receptor, it results in the activation o a seegnal transduction pathwey that teepically activates ...
Other mechanoreceptors than cutaneous ones include the hair cells, which are sensory receptors in the vestibular system of the ... A mechanoreceptor, also called mechanoceptor, is a sensory cell that responds to mechanical pressure or distortion. There are ... Receptors that adapt quickly (i.e. quickly return to a normal pulse rate) are referred to as "phasic". Those receptors that are ... and the hair cells in the receptors of primates like rhesus monkeys and other mammals are similar to those of humans and also ...
positive regulation of receptor binding. • regulation of protein localization to cell surface. • regulation of receptor ... "A BDNF autocrine loop in adult sensory neurons prevents cell death". Nature. 374 (6521): 450-53. Bibcode:1995Natur.374..450A. ... cell-cell signaling. • positive regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor signaling pathway. • collateral ... The TrkB receptor is encoded by the NTRK2 gene and is member of a receptor family of tyrosine kinases that includes TrkA and ...
"CD46 on glial cells can function as a receptor for viral glycoprotein-mediated cell-cell fusion". Glia. 52 (3): 252-8. doi: ... Traumatic spinal cord damage causes a permanent loss of motor and sensory functions in the central nervous system, termed ... be rejected by the body and biological functions such as cell adhesion and growth will be enhanced through cell-cell and cell- ... Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), also known as olfactory ensheathing glia or olfactory ensheathing glial cells, are a type ...
A cell membrane isolates the inside of the cell from its environment. Neurons do not communicate via direct cytoplasm to ... Altanserin a compound that binds to a serotonin receptor. When labeled with the isotope fluorine-18 it is used as a radioligand ... that are the reliable and repeatable results of a certain specific sensory, cognitive, or motor event. These are also called a ... Every neuron has a nucleus, which is the trophic center of the cell (The part which must have access to nutrition). If the cell ...
The function of NMDA receptors varies according to the subregion of the hippocampus. NMDA receptors are required in the CA3 of ... Place cells are also found in the hippocampus. The parietal cortex encodes spatial information using an egocentric frame of ... Spatial memories are said to form after a person has already gathered and processed sensory information about her or his ... Spatial learning requires both NMDA and AMPA receptors, consolidation requires NMDA receptors, and the retrieval of spatial ...
Prion-like propagation of misfolded proteins from cell to cell may explain why ALS starts in one area and spreads to others.[27 ... Sensory nerves and the autonomic nervous system are generally unaffected, meaning the majority of people with ALS maintain ... the AMPA receptor) that is more permeable to calcium. In ALS, there are decreased levels of excitatory amino acid transporter 2 ... One 2016 review of stem-cell therapy trials found tentative evidence that intraspinal stem cell implantation was relatively ...
The adrenal medulla consists of irregularly shaped cells grouped around blood vessels. These cells are intimately connected ... and receptors for catecholamines are widely distributed throughout the body. ... that the adrenal medulla may receive input from higher-order cognitive centers in the prefrontal cortex as well as the sensory ... Chromaffin cells are derived from the embryonic neural crest, and are modified postganglionic sympathetic neurons.[1] They are ...
... and the CB2 receptor (Ki = 24 nM[20]), mainly expressed in cells of the immune system.[21] The psychoactive effects of THC are ... High concentrations are reached in neocortical, limbic, sensory and motor areas.. *^ Huestis MA (August 2007). "Human ... In populations of low cannabinoid receptor density, THC may act to antagonize endogenous agonists that possess greater receptor ... The actions of THC result from its partial agonist activity at the cannabinoid receptor CB1 (Ki = 10 nM[20]), located mainly in ...
Peripheral nervous system (PNS) diseases may be further categorized by the type of nerve cell (motor, sensory, or both) ... dopamine 2 receptor, and Penk1 - preproenkephalin).[84] For both late- and early-onset Huntington's, the H3 and H4 core ... Neurodegenerative diseases of sensory neurons can cause degeneration of sensory neurons involved in transmitting sensory ... The main group of sensory neuron diseases are hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) such as HSAN I, HSAN II, and ...
fat cell differentiation. • signal transduction. • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • detection of chemical ... stimulus involved in sensory perception of taste. • positive regulation of cold-induced thermogenesis. ... taste receptor activity. • fatty acid binding. • lipid binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. ... "Cell. 142 (5): 687-698. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.07.041. PMC 2956412. PMID 20813258.. ...
The olfactory receptors are located on cell surfaces in the nose which bind to chemicals enabling the detection of smells. It ... The tongue is a fleshy and muscular sensory organ, and the first sensory information is received via the taste buds in the ... These include the various cells of the gastric glands, taste cells, pancreatic duct cells, enterocytes and microfold cells. ... 194: Sensory Nerves, Brendan J. Canning, Domenico Spina. Springer. Page 341. *^ Costa, M; Brookes, S J H; Hennig, G W (2000). " ...
... voids between cells where chemicals are released from the axon terminal of one cell to specialized chemical receptors on the ... Sensory neurons carry information from tissues and organs into the central nervous system. ... They do not undergo cell division. In most cases, neurons are generated by special types of stem cells. A type of glial cell, ... Neurons have a cell body (soma or cyton), dendrites and an axon.[1] Dendrites and axons are nerve fibers. There are about 86 ...
... a kind of Fc receptor called FcεRI) on the surface of other kinds of immune cells called mast cells and basophils, which are ... Histamine also causes itchiness by acting on sensory nerve terminals. The most common antihistamine given for food allergies is ... 3 - FcεRI receptor. 4 - preformed mediators (histamine, proteases, chemokines, heparin). 5 - granules. 6 - mast cell. 7 - newly ... Cross-linking of the IgE and Fc receptors occurs when more than one IgE-receptor complex interacts with the same allergenic ...
Sensory receptors. *Meissner's corpuscle. *Merkel nerve ending. *Pacinian corpuscle. *Ruffini ending. *Muscle spindle ... Myelination: Schwann cell *Neurilemma. *Myelin incisure. *Node of Ranvier. *Internodal segment. *Satellite glial cell ...
Opsins are prototypical G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs).[13] Bovine rhodopsin, the opsin of the rod cells of cattle, was ... In cone cells the disks are defined by the cell's plasma membrane so that the N-terminus head extends outside of the cell. ... In rod cells the opsin molecules are embedded in the membranes of the disks which are entirely inside of the cell. The N- ... "Cell. 134 (6): 921-31. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.09.002. PMC 2632951. PMID 18805086.. ...
positive regulation of receptor binding. • regulation of protein localization to cell surface. • regulation of receptor ... "A BDNF autocrine loop in adult sensory neurons prevents cell death". Nature. 374 (6521): 450-53. Bibcode:1995Natur.374..450A. ... cell-cell signaling. • positive regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor signaling pathway. • collateral ... receptor binding. • neurotrophin TRKB receptor binding. • growth factor activity. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • ...
"Sensory receptors in monotremes". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 353 (1372): 1187-98. doi:10.1098/ ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.02.024. PMID 16530039.. *^ Hughes, R. L.; Hall, L. S. (28 July 1998). "Early development and embryology ... This causes the cells at the edge of the yolk to be cytoplasmically continuous with the egg's cytoplasm. This allows the yolk, ... Watson, J.M.; Graves, J.A.M. (1988). "Monotreme Cell-Cycles and the Evolution of Homeothermy". Australian Journal of Zoology. ...
Adult sensory neurons that are cultured on nogo-a/b deficient Schwann cells form significantly fewer axonal branches versus ... Adult sensory neurons that are cultured on nogo-a/b deficient Schwann cells form significantly fewer axonal branches versus ... Moreover, we show that blocking the Nogo-B specific receptor NgBR, which we find expressed on sensory neurons and to interact ... Moreover, we show that blocking the Nogo-B specific receptor NgBR, which we find expressed on sensory neurons and to interact ...
"Sensory Receptor Cells" by people in this website by year, and whether "Sensory Receptor Cells" was a major or minor topic of ... "Sensory Receptor Cells" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Sensory Receptor Cells*Sensory Receptor Cells. *Receptor Cell, Sensory. *Receptor Cells, Sensory ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Sensory Receptor Cells" by people in Profiles. ...
Conscious and unconscious sensory inflows allow effective control of the functions of the human brain and heart at the initial ... The authors of the present article based their assumption on the concept that the sensory systems are the windows to the brain ... Odontoblasts are dentin-secreting cells that survive for the whole life of a healthy tooth. Once teeth are completely erupted, ... Sensory innervation of the nonspecialized connective tissues in the low back of the rat. ...
Collectively, these data show that FLS cells are able to induce an upregulation of pain-related receptors in sensory neurones ... cells and sensory neurones by establishing a co-culture system of FLS cells and DRG neurones. The proportion of DRG neurones ... During inflammation in the joint, sensory fibres show changes in the expression of receptors that are important for the ... Addition of indomethacin to co-cultures inhibited the effect of FLS cells from acutely inflamed joints on neurokinin 1 receptor ...
... receptor messenger ribonucleic acid is focally expressed in sympathetic and sensory neurons and renal distal tubule cells. In: ... Insulin receptor-related receptor messenger ribonucleic acid is focally expressed in sympathetic and sensory neurons and renal ... Insulin receptor-related receptor messenger ribonucleic acid is focally expressed in sympathetic and sensory neurons and renal ... Insulin receptor-related receptor messenger ribonucleic acid is focally expressed in sympathetic and sensory neurons and renal ...
Are the processes on afferent neurons that go from the sensory receptor to the cell body considered axons or dendrites?. Ask ... How many consecutive cell divisions are required to form the adult human body from the single cell zygote? ... Pseudounipolar cells have a bit of an odd morphology.. The reason you consider the entire length an axon is because it all ... Can you consider a human as alive, or is it the cells on the body that are alive? ...
... forms of hereditary hearing loss and how these impairments can be studied in diverse animal models or patient-derived cells ... forms of hereditary hearing loss and how these impairments can be studied in diverse animal models or patient-derived cells ... Within the hearing organ, the cochlea, most of the genetic forms of hearing loss involve defects in sensory detection and to ... Within the hearing organ, the cochlea, most of the genetic forms of hearing loss involve defects in sensory detection and to ...
Development of the sensory receptor cells in the utricular macula. / Van De Water, T. R.; Wersäll, J.; Anniko, M.; Nordeman, H. ... Van De Water TR, Wersäll J, Anniko M, Nordeman H. Development of the sensory receptor cells in the utricular macula. ... Van De Water, TR, Wersäll, J, Anniko, M & Nordeman, H 1978, Development of the sensory receptor cells in the utricular macula. ... Van De Water, T. R. ; Wersäll, J. ; Anniko, M. ; Nordeman, H. / Development of the sensory receptor cells in the utricular ...
... receptors; sensory cells; tubulin ... and receptor systems. Most notable Euplokamis-specific features ... The described lineage-specific innovations can be used for future single-cell atlases of ctenophores and analyses of neuronal ... Beroe; Ctenophora; F-actin; Mnemiopsis; Pleurobrachia; Stereocilia; apical organ; cell atlas; cilia; development; evolution; ... nerves directly coordinate the rapid escape response bypassing the central integrative structure known as the aboral sensory ...
H2O2 evoked an increase in [Ca2+]i in TRPA1-expressing CHO cells but not in untransfected CHO cells or in cells expressing ... Transient Receptor Potential A1 Is a Sensory Receptor for Multiple Products of Oxidative Stress. David A. Andersson, Clive ... Cell culture. Untransfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and CHO cells expressing mouse TRPA1, mouse TRPM8, rat TRPV4, or ... Transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) is expressed in a subset of nociceptive sensory neurons where it acts as a sensor for ...
... *Spontaneous network activity in development and ... Sensory organ and receptor cell diversification in development and evolution * Spontaneous network activity in development and ... containing hair cells - like vestibular inner ear hair cells - that respond to local water movement ("touch at a distance"), ... The PhD objectives are to identify molecular mechanisms important for neuromast/hair cell versus ampullary organ/ ...
Muscle Sensory Receptors.. Muscle, Skeletal.. Musculoskeletal Cell Mechanics.. Myoelectric Control of Powered Upper Limb ...
The aggression-promoting effect of synthetic cVA requires olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) expressing the receptor Or67d4,5,6, ... their cognate receptors and corresponding sensory neurons been identified. Here we show that 11-cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA), a ... their receptors and corresponding sensory neurons been identified. Here, 11-cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA), a volatile pheromone ... is shown to promote male-to-male aggression through the activation of olfactory sensory neurons expressing the receptor Or67d. ...
Endosome-mediated retrograde axonal transport of P2X3 receptor signals in primary sensory neurons *Xu-Qiao Chen ... Cell Research 22 , 677-696 Rights & permissionsfor article Endosome-mediated retrograde axonal transport of P2X,sub,3,/sub, ... Cell Death & Disease 10 , 1-17 Rights & permissionsfor article Alternative splicing-derived intersectin1-L and intersectin1-S ...
Sensory neurons; Spinal ganglia; Sensory receptor cells; Neuronal imaging; Pain-sensing neurons; Genetic studies; Molecular ... The laboratory also is investigating the molecular mechanism of how skin mast cells sensitize sensory nerves under inflammatory ... Dong serves on the faculty of the Johns Hopkins Institute for Basic Biomedical Sciences and the Center for Sensory Biology, as ... Dong identified a nearly 50-member family of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCRs) called Mrgs. ...
1998) Cell type and pathway dependence of synaptic AMPA receptor number and variability in the hippocampus. Neuron 21:545-559. ... 1999) Immunogold localization of AMPA and NMDA receptors in somatic sensory cortex of albino rat. J Comp Neurol 412:292-302. ... 1995) Developmental expression of alpha 7 neuronal nicotinic receptor messenger RNA in rat sensory cortex and thalamus. ... 1996) Agrin acts via a MuSK receptor complex. Cell 85:513-523. ... Alpha-AMPA and kainate receptors. J Comp Neurol 386:29-45.. ...
Primary sensory neurons regulate Toll-like receptor-4-dependent activity of glial cells in dorsal root ganglia. / Tse, K. H.; ... title = "Primary sensory neurons regulate Toll-like receptor-4-dependent activity of glial cells in dorsal root ganglia", ... T1 - Primary sensory neurons regulate Toll-like receptor-4-dependent activity of glial cells in dorsal root ganglia ... Primary sensory neurons regulate Toll-like receptor-4-dependent activity of glial cells in dorsal root ganglia. ...
Receptors[edit]. Main article: Sensory receptor. Sensory receptors are the cells or structures that detect sensations. Stimuli ... The human external sensory and perceptual system[1][4] Physical stimulus Sensory organ Sensory receptor Sensory system Cranial ... the different types of sensory receptor cells (mechanoreceptors, photoreceptors, chemoreceptors, thermoreceptors) in sensory ... Different types of stimuli are sensed by different types of receptor cells. Receptor cells can be classified into types on the ...
Cell and molecular biophysics:. *Pbio/Neuro 550: Biophysics of Calcium Signaling. *Pbio/Neuro 555: Sensory Receptors ...
Cell Tissue Res. 1983;232(1):111-9. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... Cell Tissue Res. 1983;232(1):111-9.. Sensory receptors associated with the stylets and cibarium of the rice brown planthopper, ... Gustatory receptors are located in the small passageway leading from the food duct to the cibarium. The receptors are in two ... The ultrastructure of the sensory innervation of the stylets is described. Each maxilla possesses five neurones which extend to ...
Sensory Receptor Cells / metabolism * Serotonin / metabolism * Synapses / metabolism * mRNA Cleavage and Polyadenylation ... Aplysia CPEB can form prion-like multimers in sensory neurons that contribute to long-term facilitation Cell. 2010 Feb 5;140(3 ... DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2010.01.008 Abstract Prions are proteins that can assume at least two distinct conformational states, one ... 421-35. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2010.01.008. Authors Kausik Si 1 , Yun-Beom Choi, Erica White-Grindley, Amitabha Majumdar, Eric R ...
... their relationship with other cells and structures and the receptors and ion channels that they express on their nerve ... Ageing and Gastrointestinal Sensory Function Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;891:71-4. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-27592-5_8. ... These sensory deficits may contribute to altered bowel habits with age and the prevalence of incontinence in the elderly. ... In recent studies we have sought to identify how sensory mechanisms are influenced as part of the normal ageing process. ...
Agonists of the Mas-related gene (Mrgs) orphan receptors as novel mediators of mast cell-sensory nerve interactions. ... orphan receptors as novel mediators of mast cell-sensory nerve interactions. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Sort ...
Sensory receptors in the vestibular system (hair cells) encode head actions. Posted on November 3, 2017. by Jose Wallace ... Sensory receptors in the vestibular system (hair cells) encode head actions and get central engine reflexes that control gaze, ... Research of locks cell regeneration in older rats recommend type II locks cells may end up being the main cell type that is ... Main cilia start forming within the G1 stage of the cell * Peripheral T cells in mice are categorized into two main ...
... clinicaltrials.gov The purpose of this study is to learn more about how patients with Tourette Syndrome deal with sensory ... Sensory Receptor Cells. Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be ... Ganglia, Sensory. Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve ... Plasticity of population coding in primary sensory cortex.. That experience shapes sensory tuning in primary sensory cortex is ...
What Sensory Receptors Do Outside of Sense Organs. By Sandeep Ravindran , September 1, 2016 ... Immune Cell-Stem Cell Cooperation. By Waleed Rahmani, Sarthak Sinha, and Jeff Biernaskie , July 1, 2016 ... Single-cell genome analyses reveal the amount of mutations a human brain cell will collect from its fetal beginnings until ... Understanding interactions between the immune system and stem cells could pave the way for successful stem cell-based ...
... two acoustic sensory receptors, called A cells. From the central end of each A cell, an axon passes within the sensillum to the ... Other articles where A cell is discussed: nervous system: Arthropods: … ... two acoustic sensory receptors, called A cells. From the central end of each A cell, an axon passes within the sensillum to the ...
very sensitive tonic touch receptors. Dendrites closely associated with large epithelial cells. Very small fields ... L10 Sensory Receptors Sensory Pathways and Peripheral Sensation Flashcards Preview Physiology , L10 Sensory Receptors Sensory ... Flashcards in L10 Sensory Receptors Sensory Pathways and Peripheral Sensation Deck (31): ... Receptors in central region with sensory afferents, contractile regions either end with ɣ motor fibres ...
Sensory Receptor Cells / physiology*. Stimulation, Chemical. Tears / secretion*. Tomography, Optical Coherence. Young Adult. ... Central mechanical corneal stimulation is the most effective stimulus-position pairing and appears to be the major sensory ... 22072098 - Polarization dependent solar cell conversion efficiency at oblique incident angles and .... 16771798 - The speed of ...
2H). These data suggest an independent lineage for GnRH-1 neurons and VNO sensory neurons (pheromone receptors). Cells positive ... cells. E, Sustentacular cells Sus4+/YFP+ intermingled with Sus4+/YFP− cells. F, YFP+/Sox2+ cells in the RE. G, H, GBCs positive ... Olfactory ensheathing cells arise from NC cells. A, D-I, Sections from Wnt1Cre/RLacZ PN1 mice. A, β-gal+ cells surrounding ... Cell counts. Labeled GnRH-1 cells in vivo.. The number of GnRH-1+/βGal+ cells were counted at 20× on a brightfield microscope ...
  • Adult sensory neurons that are cultured on nogo-a/b deficient Schwann cells form significantly fewer axonal branches vs. those on wildtype Schwann cells, while their maximal axonal extension is unaffected. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, we show that blocking the Nogo-B specific receptor NgBR, which we find expressed on sensory neurons and to interact with Schwann cell expressed Nogo-B, produces the same branching phenotype as observed after deletion of Nogo-B. These data provide evidence for a novel function of the nogo gene that is implemented by the Nogo-B isoform. (frontiersin.org)
  • Genetic deletion of Nogo-B in Schwann cells reduces axonal branching, but not long-distance growth, of co-cultured adult sensory neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. (sickkids.ca)
  • Retrograde labeling of regenerating motor and sensory neurons using silicone caps. (sickkids.ca)
  • From embryonic days 15-20, IRR mRNA is most abundant in sensory neurons of the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia and, to a lesser extent, neurons of the autonomic system. (elsevier.com)
  • IRR gene expression diminishes in the majority of sensory neurons postnatally, but remains abundant in a subpopulation of adult rat trigeminal and dorsal root ganglion neurons. (elsevier.com)
  • This study showed that IRR, IR, and IGFR mRNAs were colocalized in some sensory neurons, suggesting the possibility for hybrid receptor formation in these cells. (elsevier.com)
  • In summary, IRR gene expression is focally localized in sensory and autonomic neurons and renal distal tubule cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Are the processes on afferent neurons that go from the sensory receptor to the cell body considered axons or dendrites? (stackexchange.com)
  • Loss of neuronal contacts or synapses with hair cells can eventually result in the death of some of the neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • Transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) is expressed in a subset of nociceptive sensory neurons where it acts as a sensor for environmental irritants, including acrolein, and some pungent plant ingredients such as allyl isothiocyanate and cinnamaldehyde. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • H 2 O 2 and the naturally occurring alkenyl aldehydes and 15d-PGJ 2 acted on a subset of isolated rat and mouse sensory neurons [~25% of rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and ~50% of nodose ganglion neurons] to evoke a depolarizing inward current and an increase in [Ca 2+ ] i in TRPA1 expressing neurons. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These data demonstrate that multiple agents produced during episodes of oxidative stress can activate TRPA1 expressed in sensory neurons. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) channel is a nonselective cation channel expressed by a subset of primary afferent nociceptive neurons where it acts as a sensory receptor for some pungent chemicals found in plants, including allyl isothiocyanate (from mustard and wasabi), cinnamaldehyde (from cinnamon), and allicin (in garlic). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • For these studies we have studied the responsiveness of heterologously expressed TRPA1 channels and sensory neurons from wild-type rats and mice and TRPA1-null mice as well as the pain behaviors of TRPA1-null mice. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, in no system have aggression pheromones, their cognate receptors and corresponding sensory neurons been identified. (nature.com)
  • Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) has been identified in primary sensory neurons, both in vivo and in vitro, but is reportedly absent from satellite glial cells (SGCs). (edu.hk)
  • Thus, TLR4 mRNA and protein is strongly up-regulated in isolated DRG glial cells in the absence of neurons. (edu.hk)
  • Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increased cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) mRNA expression with greater efficacy in DRG glial cell cultures than in mixed DRG cell cultures containing TLR4-positive neurons. (edu.hk)
  • Using an insert co-culture system, we have shown that neuronal inhibition of glial cell TLR4 is likely to be dependent on cell-cell contact rather than diffusible factors from neurons. (edu.hk)
  • In addition to LPS, conditioned medium from heat-shocked DRG neurons also increased COX-2 mRNA expression in DRG glial cells in a partially TLR4-dependent manner. (edu.hk)
  • and umami , all of which are based on different chemicals binding to sensory neurons . (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we find that, when exogenously expressed in sensory neurons, ApCPEB can form an amyloidogenic self-sustaining multimer, consistent with it being a prion-like protein. (nih.gov)
  • Sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are the primary responders to stimuli inducing feelings of touch, pain, temperature, vibration, pressure and muscle tension. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. (bioportfolio.com)
  • From guiding branching neurons in the developing brain to maintaining a healthy heartbeat, there seems to be no job that the immune cells can't tackle. (the-scientist.com)
  • Once thought only to attack neurons, immune cells turn out to be vital for central nervous system function. (the-scientist.com)
  • Using these lines we prove that the NC give rise to the olfactory ensheathing cells and subpopulations of GnRH-1 neurons, olfactory and vomeronasal cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • At early developmental stages, pluripotent NC cells migrate throughout the organism and give rise to many derivates including neurons and glia of the peripheral nervous system, bone and cartilage of the skull, and melanocytes ( Bronner-Fraser, 1995 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • By using two complementary mouse models, we demonstrate the NC origin of the OECs and an NC contribution to subsets of GnRH-1 neurons and cells of the olfactory epithelium (OE) and vomeronasal organ (VNO). (jneurosci.org)
  • Members of the mas-related receptor family (also known as oncogene-like MAS and mas-related G-protein coupled receptor MRG) have been implicated in the development, regulation and function of nociceptive neurons, specifically in the modulation of pain. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • MRGs are expressed predominantly in small diameter sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia, where there is emerging evidence that they may be mediators of histamine-independent itch [ PMID: 20004959 , PMID: 21460831 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In both vertebrates and invertebrates, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) respond to several odors. (biologists.org)
  • For example in vertebrates, presynaptic Ca 2+ stores relying on either the ryanodine receptor (RyR) or the inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate receptor (InsP 3 R) have been reported to participate in synaptic transmission, in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, and in basket cell-Purkinje cell synapses. (biologists.org)
  • However, in invertebrates, especially in sensory neurons such as ORNs, similar mechanisms have not yet been detected. (biologists.org)
  • In Drosophila , olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), with their cell bodies and dendrites located in the antennae, detect odors and transmit olfactory information to the antennal lobes. (biologists.org)
  • The following section examines the biochemical pathways that are linked to the action ofneurotransmitters and that can alter the cellular properties of neurons or sensory cells that transduce information from the outside world into the electrical code used by neurons. (indigo.ca)
  • The firing rates of neurons in the grasshopper auditory system are surprisingly robust to changes in temperature, and cell-intrinsic mechanisms are sufficient to explain this temperature insensitivity. (elifesciences.org)
  • In addition to the olfactory neurons, the epithelium is composed of supporting cells, Bowman glands and ducts unique to the olfactory epithelium, and basal cells that allow for the regeneration of the epithelium, including the olfactory sensory neurons. (medscape.com)
  • Neurons in the brain transfer sensory information through short electrical impulses known as spikes. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Clinical significance of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) on peripheral small-fiber sensory neurons is unknown today. (harvard.edu)
  • Gut-Innervating Nociceptor Neurons Regulate Peyer's Patch Microfold Cells and SFB Levels to Mediate Salmonella Host Defense. (harvard.edu)
  • Olfactory Receptor Neurons" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. (harvard.edu)
  • These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Olfactory Receptor Neurons" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Olfactory Receptor Neurons" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Olfactory Receptor Neurons" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • These neurons connect to the thalamus, and from that, to the respective sensory areas of the cortex. (bio.net)
  • Activation of kappa opioid receptors (KORs) expressed by peripheral sensory neurons that respond to noxious stimuli (nociceptors) can reduce neurotransmission of pain stimuli from the periphery to the central nervous system. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Collectively, these data demonstrate the functional selectivity of KOR ligands for signaling in peripheral sensory neurons, which results in differential effects on behavioral responses in vivo. (aspetjournals.org)
  • An axon, or nerve fiber, is a long slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that conducts electrical impulses away from the neurons cell body or soma. (statemaster.com)
  • It is innervated by a diverse array of primary sensory neurons, including a heterogeneous subset of unmyelinated afferents called C fibers. (sciencemag.org)
  • Humans have between 10 and 20 million olfactory receptor neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, we found that dendrite branch refinement in sensory neurons relies on α-tubulin K40. (biologists.org)
  • Neurons (also known as neurones and nerve cells ) are electrically excitable cells in the nervous system that process and transmit information. (wikidoc.org)
  • Neurons are usually amitotic, but some, such as the olfactory sensory neurons, undergo adult neurogenesis . (wikidoc.org)
  • The majority of vertebrate neurons receive input on the cell body and dendritic tree, and transmit output via the axon. (wikidoc.org)
  • [4] Cajal proposed that neurons were discrete cells that communicated with each other via specialized junctions, or spaces, between cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • [4] The Golgi stain is an extremely useful method for neuroanatomical investigations because, for reasons unknown, it stains a very small percentage of cells in a tissue, so one is able to see the complete microstructure of individual neurons without much overlap from other cells in the densely packed brain. (wikidoc.org)
  • Many neurons have only one axon, but this axon may - and usually will - undergo extensive branching, enabling communication with many target cells. (wikidoc.org)
  • α1, β1, γ, δ and ε subunits are only expressed in skeletal muscle, whereas the other subunits are found mainly in neurons (hence "neuronal nicotinic receptors") but also in other cell types. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • CPS stimulates a receptor found in sensory neurons, creating the heat sensation and subsequent reactions like redness and sweating. (redorbit.com)
  • Sensory Neurons Co-opt Classical Immune Signaling Pathways to Mediate Chronic Itch. (medscape.com)
  • Drosophila and other insects have gustatory sensory neurons that mediate the recognition of external water sources, but little is known about the underlying molecular mechanism for water taste detection. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, ectopic expression of ppk28 confers water sensitivity to bitter-sensing gustatory neurons in the fly and sensitivity to hypo-osmotic solutions when expressed in heterologous cells. (nih.gov)
  • These recordings monitor the responses of the four gustatory neurons in a bristle, including water cells and sugar cells3. (nih.gov)
  • Although VR1 has been localized only on sensory neurons and within the central nervous system, recent evidence suggests a functional VR1 is expressed in human skin and epidermal cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The olfactory receptor (OR) cells are neurons present in the olfactory epithelium , which is a small patch of tissue at the back of the nasal cavity . (wikipedia.org)
  • There are millions of olfactory receptor neurons that act as sensory signaling cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons in the cochlear efferent system communicate with the sensory hair cells by releasing the chemical acetylcholine. (webwire.com)
  • Odontoblasts are also critically involved in the transmission of sensory stimuli from the dentin-pulp complex and in the cellular defense against pathogens. (isharonline.org)
  • Sensation is the physical process during which sensory systems respond to stimuli and provide data for perception . (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] Sensation is often differentiated from the related and dependent concept of perception , which processes and integrates sensory information in order to give meaning to and understand detected stimuli, giving rise to subjective perceptual experience, or qualia . (wikipedia.org)
  • This study explores the relationships among anxiety, sensitivity to sensory stimuli, and picky eating (PE). (bioportfolio.com)
  • The ability of the BRAIN to suppress neuronal responses to external sensory inputs, such as auditory and visual stimuli. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Sensory filtering (or gating) allows humans to block out irrelevant, meaningless, or redundant stimuli. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Metabolic and thermal stimuli control K2P2.1 (TREK-1) through modular sensory and gating domains. (yale.edu)
  • Although it has been reported in invertebrates that almost all sensory systems (including olfactory) adapt to stimuli variations and display synaptic plasticity, similarly to mammals, the cellular and molecular mechanisms, and more particularly, the involvement of the internal Ca 2+ stores remain relatively unexplored. (biologists.org)
  • Phasic receptors respond quickly to stimuli, while tonic receptors adapt more s. (reference.com)
  • biology ) Any specialized cell or structure that responds to sensory stimuli . (wiktionary.org)
  • In addition, activation of PAR2 elicits thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia by sensitizing transient receptor potential (TRP) channels such as TRPV1 or TRPA1 that directly recognize various painful stimuli ( Fig. 1 ) ( 8 - 11 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Specialized cell that produces an electrical signal in response to specific stimuli. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • This is the detection of stimuli by receptors in the nose. (wikipedia.org)
  • SoxB1 Activity Regulates Sensory Neuron Regeneration, Maintenance, and Function in Planarians. (sickkids.ca)
  • Similar to the sensory endings, the somata of these neurones express ion channels and receptors that are important for the activation and/or sensitization of these neurones, and they thus seem to represent the total primary afferent neuron in this respect [ 18 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Direct conversion of C. elegans germ cells into specific neuron types. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Through the ectopic expression of single Caenorhabditis elegans transcription factors, we found that the identity of mitotic germ cells can be directly converted into that of specific neuron types: glutamatergic, cholinergic, or GABAergic. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our findings illustrate the ability of germ cells to be directly converted into individual, terminally differentiated neuron types and demonstrate that a specific chromatin factor provides a barrier for cellular reprogramming. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Sensory neuron-specific GPCR Mrgprs are itch receptors mediating chloroquine-induced pruritus. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The Fourth Edition of The Neuron provides a comprehensive first course in the cell and molecular biology of nerve cells. (indigo.ca)
  • Each olfactory receptor cell is a primary sensory bipolar neuron. (medscape.com)
  • Transcriptional Reprogramming of Distinct Peripheral Sensory Neuron Subtypes after Axonal Injury. (harvard.edu)
  • The major significance of epigenetics is really within an individual organism, being responsible for differentiating cells into different types (e.g., to make a neuron different from a skin cell), and more subtly modulating their functions in response to environmental factors. (metafilter.com)
  • New data indicate that specific pruritic ligands carrying both itch and pain information are selectively recognized by different G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), and this information may be transduced through different intracellular circuits in the same neuron. (sciencemag.org)
  • An olfactory receptor neuron (ORN), also called an olfactory sensory neuron (OSN), is a sensory neuron within the olfactory system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The olfactory receptor neuron has a fast working negative feedback response upon depolarization. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the neuron is depolarizing, the CNG ion channel is open allowing sodium and calcium to rush into the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although detailed molecular mechanisms have yet to be established, studies investigating TRPV1-dependent nociception or hyperalgesia have demonstrated that the activation of TRPV1 receptors increased the miniature excitatory postsynaptic potentials in a brain slice obtained from the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray neuron through the selective potentiation of glutamatergic N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA) neurotransmission ( 77 ). (physiology.org)
  • There is even anendoneurium around each neuron, which acts as an extra layer of protection, even in thepresence of Schwann cells (see The Nervous System ). (infoplease.com)
  • A) Denotes Purkinje cells , an example of a bipolar neuron. (wikidoc.org)
  • diffusion from a neuron across a narrow space (synaptic cleft) to a cell bearing receptors. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • A sensory neuron-expressed IL-31 receptor mediates T helper cell-dependent itch: Involvement of TRPV1 and TRPA1. (medscape.com)
  • Via cranial and spinal nerves , the different types of sensory receptor cells ( mechanoreceptors , photoreceptors , chemoreceptors , thermoreceptors ) in sensory organs transduct sensory information from sensory organs towards the central nervous system , to the sensory cortices in the brain , where sensory signals are further processed and interpreted (perceived). (wikipedia.org)
  • Locks cells are the physical mechanoreceptors in these body organs. (stopvivisection.info)
  • this organ has little hair cells (mechanoreceptors). (armoredpenguin.com)
  • Our laboratory uses a multidisciplinary approach to study the molecular basis of sensory physiology, with a focus on mechano- and temperature-sensitivity. (yale.edu)
  • Epigenetic inheritance at the level of organisms rather than cells provides a mechanism for the life experiences of one generation to impact the physiology of the next generation. (metafilter.com)
  • But effective neural population codes depend on more than just sensory tuning. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The NC is an embryonic cell type unique to vertebrates that arises at the junction between the neural tube and epidermis. (jneurosci.org)
  • AmphiTrk is expressed during amphioxus embryogenesis in sensory neural precursors in the epidermis, which possesses single migratory cells. (biologists.org)
  • Activating a Reserve Neural Stem Cell Population In Vitro Enables Engraftment and Multipotency after Transplantation. (harvard.edu)
  • is processed by specific neural cells, called sensory receptors. (bio.net)
  • Thus, it was thought that differentiation between itch and pain messages was likely to depend on cell types that are specialized as parts of neural circuits segregated for mediating itch or pain responses ( 3 , 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The associated neural networks of these different sensory cells help to integrate the signal from many receptors to determine the degree of the KS and thereby produce an appropriate level of response. (sparknotes.com)
  • Recently, phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in the NR2 subunit of NMDA receptors, which defines the properties essential for spinal neural plasticity, has been shown to be an important determinant for the induction of NMDA-dependent postinflammatory hyperalgesia ( 13 , 27 ). (physiology.org)
  • Neural-mediated cross-organ interaction in the pelvic cavity, which results from the convergence of sensory pathways within the spinal cord, is necessary for the normal regulation of sexual, bladder, and bowel functions ( 3 , 4 ). (physiology.org)
  • Tiny hair cells in the cochlea of the inner ear transform the mechanical vibrations of sound into neural impulses that travel to the auditory center of the brain. (webwire.com)
  • Further, in older mice and rodents, antibodies to the calcium-binding proteins calretinin preferentially label type II locks cells in all locations of the vestibular areas (Dechesne et al. (stopvivisection.info)
  • Barden JA, Cottee LJ, Bennett MR (1999) Vesicle-associated proteins and P2X receptor clusters at single sympathetic varicosities in mouse vas deferens. (springer.com)
  • Illustration of a lipid bilayer A cell membrane, plasma membrane or plasmalemma is a selectively permeable lipid bilayer coated by proteins which comprises the outer layer of a cell. (statemaster.com)
  • Odorous molecules bind to receptor proteins extending from cilia and act as a chemical stimulus, initiating electric signals that travel along the olfactory nerve's axons to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The receptor cells look different from one another, and they exhibit different receptor proteins. (webwire.com)
  • To be more specific, photoreceptor proteins in the cell absorb photons, triggering a change in the cell's membrane potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • The different responses of the three types of cone cells are determined by the likelihoods that their respective photoreceptor proteins will absorb photons of different wavelengths. (wikipedia.org)
  • We demonstrate that this effect of Nogo-B on neuronal morphology is restricted to undifferentiated Schwann cells and is mediated by direct physical contact between these two cell types. (frontiersin.org)
  • Schwann cell expressed Nogo-B interacts with neuronal NgBR. (frontiersin.org)
  • Despite the functional cross-talk between the inflammatory process and neurones, the mechanistic analysis of interactions between non-neuronal inflammatory cells and neurones has not been carried out in great detail. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The described lineage-specific innovations can be used for future single-cell atlases of ctenophores and analyses of neuronal evolution in basal metazoans. (nih.gov)
  • Under conditions where DRG neuronal viability is compromised, DRG glial cells become responsive to PAMPs (pathogen-associated molecular patterns) and DAMPs (danger-associated molecular patterns) and generate a range of classical inflammatory responses. (edu.hk)
  • Directional deflections of lengthy microvilli (stereocilia) on the areas of locks cells travel actions possibilities in 8th cranial (vestibular) nerve afferents, which qualified prospects to neuronal activity in many human brain INO-1001 locations. (stopvivisection.info)
  • Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Neuronal, stromal, and T-regulatory cell crosstalk in murine skeletal muscle. (harvard.edu)
  • Non-myelinating Schwann cells are involved in maintenance of axons and are crucial for neuronal survival. (statemaster.com)
  • In addition, the expression of the transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) receptor, which is involved in inflammation-evoked thermal hyperalgesia, was mainly upregulated by co-culturing DRG neurones with FLS cells from chronically inflamed joints. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Capsaicin-sensitive afferent fibers arising from the viscera and peripheral tissues express the transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1) ( 8 , 9 ). (physiology.org)
  • The inflammatory response in organs is produced by numerous inflammatory cell types. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fundamental questions in biology include how different organs and cell types are specified during development, for which the lateral line system of fishes and aquatic amphibians provides an excellent model. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Ancestrally within jawed vertebrates, the lateral line system comprises lines of mechanosensory 'neuromasts', containing hair cells - like vestibular inner ear hair cells - that respond to local water movement ("touch at a distance"), flanked on the head by electrosensory 'ampullary organs', containing electroreceptors that respond to weak bioelectric fields (primarily used for hunting). (cam.ac.uk)
  • Hence, the lateral line is a superb model for understanding the mechanisms underlying the diversification of different types of sensory organs. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Human external sensation is based on the sensory organs of the eyes , ears , skin , inner ear , nose , and mouth . (wikipedia.org)
  • Emphasizes structure and function i.e. how are the various organs designed to achieve the sensory needs of the organism? (oup.com)
  • Although this process, called sensory transduction, began to be understood only relatively recently, so much progress has been made that it is now possible to say at least in outline (but in most cases in remarkable detail) how transduction occurs for all of the major sense organs of the body. (oup.com)
  • This study reveals the presence of putative variant Ionotropic Receptors (IRs) which are differentially expressed in the olfactory organs of COTS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Based on their differential expression within the olfactory organs and presence in multiple tissues, it is possible that several of these receptor types have expanded within the Echinoderm lineage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These sensory organs help fish to sense electric fields in the water. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • Small sensory organs which contain gustatory receptor cells, basal cells, and supporting cells. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Plasticity of population coding in primary sensory cortex. (bioportfolio.com)
  • That experience shapes sensory tuning in primary sensory cortex is well understood. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Comprehension of the fundamental mechanisms of the optimization of the sensory systems, brain, and cardiac functions has increased based on the prolonged sensory flows using conscious and unconscious aromatherapy and multimodal sensory activation. (isharonline.org)
  • In this study, we begin to address mechanisms of the interaction between fibroblast-like synovial (FLS) cells and sensory neurones by establishing a co-culture system of FLS cells and DRG neurones. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The PhD objectives are to identify molecular mechanisms important for neuromast/hair cell versus ampullary organ/electroreceptor development , and test whether they are conserved or lineage-specific. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Receptors and Transduction Mechanisms I: Receptors Coupled Directly to Ion Channels12. (indigo.ca)
  • Receptors and Transduction Mechanisms II: Indirectly Coupled Receptor/Ion Channel Systems13. (indigo.ca)
  • Lecture 8 - Sensory Mechanisms Sensory Pathways Convey. (coursehero.com)
  • Enhancement of facial nerve motoneuron regeneration through cross-face nerve grafts by adding end-to-side sensory axons. (sickkids.ca)
  • References on pain fibers say impulses move along axons to the CNS, but I thought that by definition axons carry impulses away from the cell body. (stackexchange.com)
  • and olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) that provide essential growth and guidance for OSN axons ( Su and He, 2010 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Named after the German physiologist Theodor Schwann , Schwann cells are a variety of neuroglia that mainly provide myelin insulation to axons in the peripheral nervous system of jawed vertebrates. (statemaster.com)
  • The axons of olfactory receptor cells which express the same OR converge to form glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. (wikipedia.org)
  • Think about the sensory nerves, which have dendrites from the receptors, and axons up to the brain. (infoplease.com)
  • The axons of ganglion cells form the two optic nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Orphan G protein-coupled receptors MrgA1 and MrgC11 are distinctively activated by RF-amide-related peptides through the Galpha q/11 pathway. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Several other types of G protein-coupled receptors such as adrenergic, metabotropic glutamate, cholecystokinin, trace-amine associated, GRL101 and GPCR52 receptors have also been identified. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Olfactory receptors (ORs) are typically G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), however, many species also utilise other receptor types for chemosensory signalling. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The sensation of itch is initiated by the activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in unmyelinated cutaneous C fibers emanating from cells located in the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). (sciencemag.org)
  • s work further defines the specificity of the Mas-related G protein-coupled receptors (Mrgprs), an emerging family of GPCRs found in the DRGs and involved in the detection of different classes of pruritic ligands. (sciencemag.org)
  • Sensory modality refers to the way that information is encoded, which is similar to the idea of transduction . (wikipedia.org)
  • What are the four basic receptor types classified according to transduction mechanism? (brainscape.com)
  • While performing this sensory transduction process, the inner ear analyzes a sound stimulus in terms of its frequency, intensity, and temporal properties, and it transmits this information to the CNS for further processing and interpretation. (medscape.com)
  • Sensory Transduction is written for advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and researchers in neurophysiology and sensory neuroscience. (oup.com)
  • The electrophysiological tests using several species of umami substances revealed the involvement of the coactivation of mGIuR4 and one or more types of glutamate receptors in umami taste reception Moreover, G protein was found to function in umami transduction and the umami receptor might possibly be a metabotropic glutamate receptor with an IMP-modulated site. (nii.ac.jp)
  • These nerves directly coordinate the rapid escape response bypassing the central integrative structure known as the aboral sensory organ. (nih.gov)
  • The laboratory also is investigating the molecular mechanism of how skin mast cells sensitize sensory nerves under inflammatory states. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Purinergic P2X receptors associated with the parasympathetic nerves supplying human bladder smooth muscle (detrusor) are implicated in control of detrusor contractility. (springer.com)
  • The relative abundance of all seven subtypes colocalised with synaptic vesicles on parasympathetic nerves was examined in specimens from normal adult bladder and in adults with the urodynamics findings of sensory urgency (SU) to determine how receptor distribution varied in patients with a small bladder capacity. (springer.com)
  • The same loss was recorded from the sensory nerves in the surrounding lamina propria. (springer.com)
  • These observations support the idea that acetylcholine receptors can aid in activating glutamatergic synapses and work together with AMPA receptors to mediate postsynaptic excitation throughout life. (jneurosci.org)
  • Although developmental studies have focused on muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, recent knowledge regarding central nicotinic receptors, particularly the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit (α7nAChR), indicates that these too are important for synaptic plasticity. (jneurosci.org)
  • Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) constitute a family of ligand-gated channels, originally classified on the basis of their activation by the alkaloid nicotine, with acetylcholine (ACh) being the endogenous ligand. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • When triggered, the acetylcholine receptors swing open to allow calcium to flow into the cell, thereby triggering changes in membrane resting potential. (webwire.com)
  • In further studies, Elgoyhen and her colleagues are comparing the structure of the acetylcholine receptors in mammals and non-mammals, such as chickens, to understand differences in the properties of the receptor in diverse animals. (webwire.com)
  • There are three pathways for sensory information, from the ventral ramus and dorsal ramus (ramus = branch, plural = rami ) of the spinal nerve, or from the sympathetic nerve. (infoplease.com)
  • The cellular pathways by which acute keratinocyte damage induces production and release of inflammatory mediators from epidermal cells are largely unresolved, but may involve calcium signaling. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Although this suggests that some of the direct or indirect effects of nicotine occur via postsynaptic glutamate receptors, morphology alone cannot reveal the glutamate receptor subtypes at these α7nAChR-immunopositive synapses. (jneurosci.org)
  • This study is the first to describe the presence of variant Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors in any Echinoderm, and is only the second study to investigate chemosensory receptors in any starfish or marine pest. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Closest to the visual field (and farthest from the brain) is the axon terminal, which releases a neurotransmitter called glutamate to bipolar cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Department of Molecular and Cell Biology and Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, CA, USA. (nih.gov)
  • 1988). For example, type I locks cells possess been defined as flask-shaped and are covered by customized afferent nerve endings known as calyces. (stopvivisection.info)
  • Human sensory reception - Human sensory reception - Nerve function: Microscopic examination of the skin reveals a variety of nerve terminals including free nerve endings (which are most common), Ruffini endings, and encapsulated endings, such Pacinian corpuscles, Meissner's corpuscles, and Krause end bulbs. (reference.com)
  • A rounded globular mass of cells, such as the pressure receptor on certain nerve endings. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The thousands of nerve endings in the human foot supply sensory feedback to the central nervous system, according to the Canadian Federation of Podiatric Medicine. (reference.com)
  • 2a receptors in damaged cells at the nerve endings. (newscientist.com)
  • Can signals travel "backwards" in the sensory pathway? (stackexchange.com)
  • The most common form of hearing impairment is sensorineural hearing loss, that is, damage or loss of the hair cells in the inner ear that are responsible for converting sound vibration into electrical signals in the attached auditory-nerve fibers. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Sound waves are converted into vibrations in a fluid in the inner ear, and these vibrations indirectly move the hair cells, which then send electrical signals to the brain. (washington.edu)
  • Each olfactory receptor cell expresses only one type of olfactory receptor (OR), but many separate olfactory receptor cells express ORs which bind the same set of odors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inner ear functions as the sensorineural receptor organ of the auditory system, converting an acoustic waveform into an electrochemical stimulus that can be transmitted to the CNS. (medscape.com)
  • However, nerve impulses can also travel in reverse, from the auditory center to specific types of hair cells called outer hair cells that fine-tune the machinery of the inner ear. (webwire.com)
  • abstract = "The insulin receptor-related receptor (IRR) demonstrates striking structural homology to the insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGFR), suggesting that IRR is a member of the IR family. (elsevier.com)
  • Modelling the Dorsal Root Ganglia using Human Pluripotent Stem Cells: A Platform to Study Peripheral Neuropathies. (bioportfolio.com)
  • From the central end of each A cell , an axon passes within the sensillum to the skeletal support and then in the tympanic nerve to the thoracic ganglia of the moth. (britannica.com)
  • Characterization of an orphan G protein-coupled receptor localized in the dorsal root ganglia reveals adenine as a signaling molecule. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. (harvard.edu)
  • This gray horn contains sensory cell bodies not found in the dorsal root ganglia. (infoplease.com)
  • Sensory nerve cell bodies go in the dorsal root ganglia , and motor nerve cell bodies go in the sympathetic ganglia , which sit anterior to the ventral root, but branch off of the spinal nerve itself. (infoplease.com)
  • areas of type II vestibular locks cells, and they recommend type II locks cells may straight communicate with each additional, which offers not really been referred to in vertebrates. (stopvivisection.info)
  • A look at the spinal cord, our bridge to the PNS, shows that the sensory and motor tracts occupy areas of the cord. (infoplease.com)
  • Other cell bodies can be found in the gray horns of the spinal cord. (infoplease.com)
  • From birth to maturity, IRR mRNA is abundant in renal epithelial cells focally localized in the distal tubule in both rat and human kidney. (elsevier.com)
  • Hassall's corpuscles spherical or ovoid bodies found in the medulla of the thymus, composed of concentric arrays of epithelial cells which contain keratohyalin and bundles of cytoplasmic filaments. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For example, it has been reported that the α7 subunit is transiently expressed in skeletal muscle during development and in activated macrophages, whereas other subunits are also expressed by various epithelial and endothelial cell types. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This correlated with an increase in epithelial tight junction sealing, also observed in Caco-2 cells exposed to 10 nM BPA. (pnas.org)
  • To explore the role of the alpha-10 subunit in vivo, Elgoyhen and her colleagues knocked out the gene for the subunit in mice and studied the effects on the structure and function of hair cells. (webwire.com)
  • With these experiments, we have demonstrated that the receptor really needs the alpha-10 subunit to drive inhibition of outer hair cell activity. (webwire.com)
  • Other than Nogo-A in oligodendrocytes, Nogo-B does not localize to the myelin sheath but is detected in the ER and the plasma membrane of Schwann cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Nogo-B is prominently expressed in Schwann cells and localizes to the ER and plasma membrane. (frontiersin.org)
  • NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation requires concurrent membrane depolarization, and glutamatergic synapses lacking AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are often considered "silent" in the absence of another source of membrane depolarization. (jneurosci.org)
  • Other experiments showed that CC2D2A is part of structures called subdistal appendages, which help anchor the basal body at the cell membrane to stabilize cilia and allow them to form. (nih.gov)
  • The basic principles of this local control are illustrated in the images below and are outlined as follows: First, an anatomic barrier exists between perilymph and endolymph, and it consists of Reissner membrane, the stria vascularis, and the reticular lamina formed by tight junctions between the apices of hair cells and the adjacent supporting cells (see the image above). (medscape.com)
  • A. A schematic view of an idealized action potential illustrates its various phases as the action potential passes a point on a cell membrane. (statemaster.com)
  • The activated OR in turn activates the intracellular G-protein, GOLF (GNAL), adenylate cyclase and production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) opens ion channels in the cell membrane, resulting in an influx of sodium and calcium ions into the cell, and an efflux of chloride ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • 12. Which of the following is not found in the cell membrane? (wikibooks.org)
  • little mechanical hair receptors that are embedded in the tectorial membrane. (armoredpenguin.com)
  • The developmental characteristics of the utricular macula sensory epithelium is described on an ultrastructural level from the 15th to the 19th day of gestation (approximate day of birth). (elsevier.com)
  • In rats, the two locks cell types are present in very similar quantities, and they are discovered in all specific zones of the vestibular physical epithelium (Desai et al. (stopvivisection.info)
  • The cell bodies of the ORNs are distributed among all three of the stratified layers of the olfactory epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many tiny hair-like cilia protrude from the olfactory receptor cell's dendrite into the mucus covering the surface of the olfactory epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • This review focuses on peripheral forms of hereditary hearing loss and how these impairments can be studied in diverse animal models or patient-derived cells with the ultimate goal of using the knowledge gained to understand the underlying biology and treat hearing loss. (frontiersin.org)
  • Dr. Dong serves on the faculty of the Johns Hopkins Institute for Basic Biomedical Sciences and the Center for Sensory Biology, as well as on the Neurosurgery Pain Research Institute's scientific advisory board. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • 1. (Biology) any cell or similar minute body that is suspended in a fluid, esp any of the red blood corpuscles (erythrocytes) or white blood corpuscles (see leucocytes). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • During the second postnatal week, NMDA currents can be enhanced in rat auditory cortex through activation of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR). (jneurosci.org)
  • Specific receptors on the hair cells, known as the nicotinic cholinergic receptors, recognize acetylcholine. (webwire.com)
  • In earlier studies, researchers found that two main subunits, alpha-9 and alpha-10, make up the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of hair cells. (webwire.com)
  • Detrusor nerve varicosities from SU patients revealed general loss of all presynaptic P2X subtypes with the proportion containing receptors reducing to only 0.5-5% depending on P2X subtype. (springer.com)
  • We show here that the related isoform Nogo-B is abundantly expressed in Schwann cells in the PNS. (frontiersin.org)
  • It distributes to the external cytoplasmic compartment of Schwann cells in vivo , but is absent from the myelin sheath. (frontiersin.org)
  • These data demonstrate that Schwann cells and olfactory ensheathing cells share a common developmental origin. (jneurosci.org)
  • Schwann cells are the peripheral nervous system's analogues of the central nervous system oligodendrocytes . (statemaster.com)
  • Schwann cells begin to form the myelin sheath in mammals during fetal development and work by spiraling around the axon, sometimes with as many as 100 revolutions. (statemaster.com)
  • A well-developed Schwann cell is shaped like a rolled-up sheet of paper, with layers of myelin in between each coil. (statemaster.com)
  • Since each Schwann cell can cover about a millimeter (0.04 inches ) along the axon, hundreds and often thousands are needed to completely cover an axon, which can sometimes span the length of a body. (statemaster.com)
  • The gaps between the Schwann cell covered segments are the Nodes of Ranvier , important sites of ionic and other exchanges of the axon with the extracellular liquid. (statemaster.com)
  • Unlike oligodendrocytes , myelinating Schwann cells provide insulation to only one axon (see image). (statemaster.com)
  • studying the role of microRNAs in Schwann cell (SC) differentiation. (northwestern.edu)
  • The variability of postsynaptic α7nAChR labeling density was greater at postnatal day (PD) 7 than in adulthood, and PD 7 neuropil contained a subset of small AMPA receptor-negative synapses with a high density of α7nAChR immunoreactivity. (jneurosci.org)
  • The researchers also saw abnormalities in the structure of the efferent synapses to the cochlea that hinted that these receptors may help ensure that synapses develop normally, she said. (webwire.com)
  • Within the hearing organ, the cochlea, most of the genetic forms of hearing loss involve defects in sensory detection and to some extent, signaling to the brain via the auditory cranial nerve. (frontiersin.org)
  • Barden JA, Sluyter R, Gu BJ, Wiley JS (2003) Specific detection of non-functional P2X 7 receptors in HEK293 cells and B-lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • Like olfactory cells that detect odors, auditory receptor cells (also called hair cells) are recessed from the surface of the body. (washington.edu)
  • For hearing the cells responsible for collecting the auditory information are the hair cells (or auditory receptor cells). (bio.net)
  • People with non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP) and central sensitisation (CS) exhibit sensory processing alterations, somatosensory hypersensitivity and differences in the brain's emotional n. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Pacinian corpuscles are rapidly adapting receptors that detect gross pressure changes and vibrations in the skin. (reference.com)
  • Other articles where Pacinian corpuscle is discussed: human sensory reception: Nerve function: , Pacinian corpuscles) respond only to mechanical deformation. (reference.com)
  • The investigators will conduct a systematic study of the sensory perception of a diverse set of commonly used pediatric liquid medications and excipients in tandem with an equally complete. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), a family of nuclear receptors, had transcription activation abil … More ity and were induced by fatty acids. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The main sensory modalities can be described on the basis of how each is transduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Listing all the different sensory modalities, which can number as many as 17, involves separating the major senses into more specific categories, or submodalities, of the larger sense. (wikipedia.org)
  • Critics argued that the methodology used for the estimation was fundamentally flawed, showing that applying the same argument for better-understood sensory modalities, such as vision or audition, leads to wrong conclusions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Auditory-nerve fibers can detach from hair cells, leading to so-called 'hidden' hearing loss that cannot be detected by the standard pure-tone audiometry. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Upregulation of neurokinin 1 receptors but not of bradykinin 2 and TRPV1 receptors was also observed when only the supernatant of FLS cells from acutely inflamed joint was added to DRG neurones. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The authors of the present article based their assumption on the concept that the sensory systems are the 'windows to the brain' through which various functions of the human organism can be controlled. (isharonline.org)
  • What triggers programmed cell death in humans (from outside the cell)? (stackexchange.com)
  • Hereditary hearing loss is one of the most common sensory deficits in humans affecting one out every 500 newborns ( Sheffield and Smith, 2019 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Humans have a multitude of sensory systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many internal sensory and perceptual systems exist in humans, including proprioception (body position) and nociception (pain) . (wikipedia.org)
  • Some animal species lack one or more human sensory system analogues, some have sensory systems that are not found in humans, while others process and interpret the same sensory information in very different ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, there are three different types of cone cell, distinguished by their pattern of response to light of different wavelengths. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, a first report appeared on the influence of neurones in the central nervous system on T cells and the potential role of neurone-T cell interactions on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis [ 17 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neurotrophins (Nt) and their tyrosine kinase Trk receptors play an essential role in the development and maintenance of the complex vertebrate nervous system. (biologists.org)
  • Although hearing begins with the ear flap or pinna, the receptor cells that change sound energy into the electrical currency of the nervous system lie deep inside the temporal bone of the skull. (washington.edu)
  • However, there are several serious adverse effects associated with opioid pharmacotherapy (e.g., respiratory depression, addiction, euphoria, and sedation), many of which are due to opioid actions at receptors located within the central nervous system (CNS). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Dr. Dong identified a nearly 50-member family of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCRs) called Mrgs. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • We recently reported that both neurokinin 1 receptors and bradykinin 2 receptors are upregulated in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones (the cell bodies of sensory fibres) in the course of acute and chronic antigen-induced arthritis in the rat. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Researchers gained insights into a key protein involved in forming cilia-hair-like extensions found on cells throughout the body. (nih.gov)
  • Liver cells from wild-type embryos (left) and embryos lacking Cc2d2a (right) show cilia in green (arrowheads point to examples). (nih.gov)
  • Some single-celled creatures have structures called motile cilia that beat rhythmically to allow the cells to move. (nih.gov)
  • For example, motile cilia are on cells that line the trachea, where their coordinated wave-like motions carry mucus-along with the inhaled dust, bacteria, and other small particles it contains-toward the mouth to be coughed or sneezed out of the body. (nih.gov)
  • These cilia are responsible for cell communication. (nih.gov)
  • Without this support, cilia are prevented from anchoring in the cell," Swaroop says. (nih.gov)
  • The surface of these cilia is covered with olfactory receptors, a type of G protein-coupled receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Odorants can also be perceived by entering the nose posteriorly through the nasopharynx to reach the olfactory receptor via retronasal olfaction. (medscape.com)
  • Odorants diffuse into the mucous and are transported to the olfactory receptor. (medscape.com)
  • Different odorants are recognized by combinations of receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activation of nociceptive sensory afferent fibres ('pain fibres') evokes pain, a major symptom of inflammatory diseases [ 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clarifying the developmental lineage of specific cell populations is fundamental to understanding syndromic diseases and to unravel the molecular etiology and relationship between various phenotypic outcomes. (jneurosci.org)
  • We report the isolation, molecular characterisation and expression of the single amphioxus Trk receptor, AmphiTrk. (biologists.org)
  • Now scientists in the US have identified the molecular changes in damaged nerve cells that may be responsible. (newscientist.com)
  • Molecular and clinical rationale for therapeutic targeting of interleukin-5 and its receptor. (medscape.com)
  • These data have established the importance of both cell-cell contacts and mediators for the production of the inflammatory activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gustatory receptors are located in the small passageway leading from the food duct to the cibarium. (nih.gov)
  • The reactivity was specifically localized in the apical part of taste bud cells, possibly gustatory cells, in circumvallate papillae. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The transcriptional control of FAT/CD36 by PPARs in adipocytes and macrophages, which are most active cells in fatty acid metabolism. (nii.ac.jp)
  • My lab's research in this area has mainly been focused on understanding how signaling systems participate in feedback regulation of stem and progenitor cells and the effects of such feedback on morphogenesis, patterning, and regulated growth of different tissues. (uci.edu)
  • Pheromone receptors and their corresponding ligands are often differentially expressed in specific tissues between the males and females of the same species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The α9 and α10 subunits have a restricted distribution, limited to sensory tissues (principally cochlear hair cells). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This gray horn is further divided into somatic sensory , which receives information from the muscles and skin, and visceral sensory , which receives information from the internal viscera. (infoplease.com)
  • To stimulate the olfactory receptors, airborne molecules must pass through the nasal cavity with relatively turbulent air currents and contact the receptors. (medscape.com)
  • For example, Drosophila were the first organisms discovered to utilise Ionotropic Receptors (IRs) for olfaction [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Inside the cochlea, aging typically leads to loss of the sensory receptors for sound known as hair cells owing to a tuft of "hairs" or microvilli-like protrusions at the apical surface. (frontiersin.org)
  • Validation of a variety of candidate genes revealed close developmental and evolutionary links between electroreceptors and hair cells (Modrell et al. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Sensory receptors in the vestibular system (hair cells) encode head actions and get central engine reflexes that control gaze, body motions, and body orientation. (stopvivisection.info)
  • It does this through specialised sensory receptor cells known as hair cells. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Unlike olfactory or taste receptors, however, hair cells are not renewed when they die or are damaged. (washington.edu)
  • 1 The waves of fluid move the sensory receptors of the ears, which are known as hair cells. (bu.edu)
  • 1 Like the hairs on your head, hair cells are easily broken. (bu.edu)
  • If the waves are too strong or intense, (like from very loud music), the hair cells can be permanently damaged. (bu.edu)
  • 1 As the number of hair cells decrease, so does your ability to hear. (bu.edu)
  • Central mechanical corneal stimulation is the most effective stimulus-position pairing and appears to be the major sensory driving force for reflex tear secretion by the lacrimal functional unit. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The sense of smell is mediated through stimulation of the olfactory receptor cells by volatile chemicals. (medscape.com)
  • The recently cloned vanilloid receptor-1 (VR1) is a polymodal receptor, responding to thermal, pH, or vanilloids such as capsaicin stimulation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Odor, taste, and light receptors are present in many different parts of the body, and they have surprisingly diverse functions. (the-scientist.com)
  • Although taste and olfactory cells interact directly with molecules in the environment , auditory receptors are quite far removed from the phenomena they detect. (washington.edu)
  • What are the sensory receptors for taste and smell and where are they located? (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Impact of bitter taste receptor phenotype upon clinical presentation in chronic rhinosinusitis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Genetic variation of the bitter taste receptor T2R38 has been associated with recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). (bioportfolio.com)
  • MSG induced three different responses in mouse taste cells under whole-cell voltage-clamp in Na+ free Ringer solution. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Innervation of the joint with thinly myelinated and unmyelinated sensory nerve fibres is crucial for the occurrence of joint pain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The ultrastructure of the sensory innervation of the stylets is described. (nih.gov)