Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.Periosteum: Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neurofilament Proteins: Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sural Nerve: A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.Median Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Optic Nerve Diseases: Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Radial Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Optic Disk: The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Diabetic Neuropathies: Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)Adrenergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Ubiquitin Thiolesterase: A thioester hydrolase which acts on esters formed between thiols such as DITHIOTHREITOL or GLUTATHIONE and the C-terminal glycine residue of UBIQUITIN.Glossopharyngeal Nerve: The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Facial Nerve: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Ophthalmic Nerve: A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Nerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Mineral Fibers: Long, pliable, cohesive natural or manufactured filaments of various lengths. They form the structure of some minerals. The medical significance lies in their potential ability to cause various types of PNEUMOCONIOSIS (e.g., ASBESTOSIS) after occupational or environmental exposure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p708)Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cranial Nerves: Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)TRPV Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Nerve Tissue: Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.Cotton Fiber: A TEXTILE fiber obtained from the pappus (outside the SEEDS) of cotton plant (GOSSYPIUM). Inhalation of cotton fiber dust over a prolonged period can result in BYSSINOSIS.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Polyneuropathies: Diseases of multiple peripheral nerves simultaneously. Polyneuropathies usually are characterized by symmetrical, bilateral distal motor and sensory impairment with a graded increase in severity distally. The pathological processes affecting peripheral nerves include degeneration of the axon, myelin or both. The various forms of polyneuropathy are categorized by the type of nerve affected (e.g., sensory, motor, or autonomic), by the distribution of nerve injury (e.g., distal vs. proximal), by nerve component primarily affected (e.g., demyelinating vs. axonal), by etiology, or by pattern of inheritance.Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.Autonomic Pathways: Nerves and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system. The central nervous system structures which regulate the autonomic nervous system are not included.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Ganglia, Sensory: Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.Phrenic Nerve: The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.Peripheral Nervous System: The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.Receptors, Neurokinin-1: A class of cell surface receptors for TACHYKININS with a preference for SUBSTANCE P. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors have been cloned and are members of the G protein coupled receptor superfamily. They are found on many cell types including central and peripheral neurons, smooth muscle cells, acinar cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells.Electrodiagnosis: Diagnosis of disease states by recording the spontaneous electrical activity of tissues or organs or by the response to stimulation of electrically excitable tissue.Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of NEUROKININ-1 RECEPTORS.Peroneal Nerve: The lateral of the two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve. The peroneal (or fibular) nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to parts of the leg and foot.Tachykinins: A family of biologically active peptides sharing a common conserved C-terminal sequence, -Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2, where X is either an aromatic or a branched aliphatic amino acid. Members of this family have been found in mammals, amphibians, and mollusks. Tachykinins have diverse pharmacological actions in the central nervous system and the cardiovascular, genitourinary, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems, as well as in glandular tissues. This diversity of activity is due to the existence of three or more subtypes of tachykinin receptors.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Neuroma: A tumor made up of nerve cells and nerve fibers. (Dorland, 27th ed)Vestibulocochlear Nerve: The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibers of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS). The fibers of the vestibular nerve arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI.Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Kidney Pelvis: The flattened, funnel-shaped expansion connecting the URETER to the KIDNEY CALICES.Birefringence: The property of nonisotropic media, such as crystals, whereby a single incident beam of light traverses the medium as two beams, each plane-polarized, the planes being at right angles to each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Ranvier's Nodes: Regularly spaced gaps in the myelin sheaths of peripheral axons. Ranvier's nodes allow saltatory conduction, that is, jumping of impulses from node to node, which is faster and more energetically favorable than continuous conduction.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Isoindoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number two carbon, in contrast to INDOLES which have the nitrogen adjacent to the six-membered ring.Neurogenic Inflammation: Inflammation caused by an injurious stimulus of peripheral neurons and resulting in release of neuropeptides which affect vascular permeability and help initiate proinflammatory and immune reactions at the site of injury.Olfactory Nerve: The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.QuinuclidinesNeuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.Visual Field Tests: Method of measuring and mapping the scope of vision, from central to peripheral of each eye.Ophthalmoscopy: Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.Ganglia: Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neuritis: A general term indicating inflammation of a peripheral or cranial nerve. Clinical manifestation may include PAIN; PARESTHESIAS; PARESIS; or HYPESTHESIA.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Stress Fibers: Bundles of actin filaments (ACTIN CYTOSKELETON) and myosin-II that span across the cell attaching to the cell membrane at FOCAL ADHESIONS and to the network of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS that surrounds the nucleus.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Optic Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.Schwann Cells: Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Nerve Tissue ProteinsPain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Scanning Laser Polarimetry: A technique of diagnostic imaging of RETINA or CORNEA of the human eye involving the measurement and interpretation of polarizing ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES such as radio or light waves. It is helpful in the diagnosis of GLAUCOMA; MACULAR DEGENERATION; and other retinal disorders.Nodose Ganglion: The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.Sympathectomy, Chemical: Sympathectomy using chemicals (e.g., 6-hydroxydopamine or guanethidine) which selectively and reversibly destroy adrenergic nerve endings while leaving cholinergic nerve endings intact.Purkinje Fibers: Modified cardiac muscle fibers composing the terminal portion of the heart conduction system.Splanchnic Nerves: The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.Paresthesia: Subjective cutaneous sensations (e.g., cold, warmth, tingling, pressure, etc.) that are experienced spontaneously in the absence of stimulation.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Lingual Nerve: A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.Accessory Nerve: The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Thermosensing: The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth as detected by THERMORECEPTORS.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Neurokinin A: A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ B with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the BRONCHI.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Entrapment of the MEDIAN NERVE in the carpal tunnel, which is formed by the flexor retinaculum and the CARPAL BONES. This syndrome may be associated with repetitive occupational trauma (CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS); wrist injuries; AMYLOID NEUROPATHIES; rheumatoid arthritis (see ARTHRITIS, RHEUMATOID); ACROMEGALY; PREGNANCY; and other conditions. Symptoms include burning pain and paresthesias involving the ventral surface of the hand and fingers which may radiate proximally. Impairment of sensation in the distribution of the median nerve and thenar muscle atrophy may occur. (Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p45)Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Glaucoma, Open-Angle: Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.Sensation Disorders: Disorders of the special senses (i.e., VISION; HEARING; TASTE; and SMELL) or somatosensory system (i.e., afferent components of the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM).Chorda Tympani Nerve: A branch of the facial (7th cranial) nerve which passes through the middle ear and continues through the petrotympanic fissure. The chorda tympani nerve carries taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and conveys parasympathetic efferents to the salivary glands.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Thiolester HydrolasesDisease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Oculomotor Nerve: The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Antitussive Agents: Agents that suppress cough. They act centrally on the medullary cough center. EXPECTORANTS, also used in the treatment of cough, act locally.Sensory System Agents: Drugs that act on neuronal sensory receptors resulting in an increase, decrease, or modification of afferent nerve activity. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p367)Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Mossy Fibers, Hippocampal: Axons of certain cells in the DENTATE GYRUS. They project to the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus and to the proximal dendrites of PYRAMIDAL CELLS of the HIPPOCAMPUS. These mossy fibers should not be confused with mossy fibers that are cerebellar afferents (see NERVE FIBERS).Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Retinal Neurons: Nerve cells of the RETINA in the pathway of transmitting light signals to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include the outer layer of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS, the intermediate layer of RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS and AMACRINE CELLS, and the internal layer of RETINAL GANGLION CELLS.Thoracic Nerves: The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.Cochlear Nucleus: The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Transient Receptor Potential Channels: A broad group of eukaryotic six-transmembrane cation channels that are classified by sequence homology because their functional involvement with SENSATION is varied. They have only weak voltage sensitivity and ion selectivity. They are named after a DROSOPHILA mutant that displayed transient receptor potentials in response to light. A 25-amino-acid motif containing a TRP box (EWKFAR) just C-terminal to S6 is found in TRPC, TRPV and TRPM subgroups. ANKYRIN repeats are found in TRPC, TRPV & TRPN subgroups. Some are functionally associated with TYROSINE KINASE or TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES.Receptors, Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Cell surface proteins that bind CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED PEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. CGRP receptors are present in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the periphery. They are formed via the heterodimerization of the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN and RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 1.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Pruritus: An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Abducens Nerve: The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.Cholinergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.Muscle Denervation: The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Laryngeal Nerves: Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Bradykinin: A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.Muscle Spindles: Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.Hypesthesia: Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve: Branches of the vagus (tenth cranial) nerve. The recurrent laryngeal nerves originate more caudally than the superior laryngeal nerves and follow different paths on the right and left sides. They carry efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid and carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.Facial Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.AcroleinSciatic Neuropathy: Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363)Skin Temperature: The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.Receptors, Drug: Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Tomography: Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.Cranial Nerve Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Facial Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Nerve Transfer: Surgical reinnervation of a denervated peripheral target using a healthy donor nerve and/or its proximal stump. The direct connection is usually made to a healthy postlesional distal portion of a non-functioning nerve or implanted directly into denervated muscle or insensitive skin. Nerve sprouts will grow from the transferred nerve into the denervated elements and establish contact between them and the neurons that formerly controlled another area.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Trigeminal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. It may result in extreme pain, abnormal sensation in the areas the nerve innervates on face, jaw, gums and tongue and can cause difficulties with speech and chewing. It is sometimes associated with various dental treatments.Vibration: A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Acetylcholinesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 22.214.171.124.Demyelinating Diseases: Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Mice, Inbred C57BLStaining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.Ocular Hypertension: A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.
Quite to the left of the figure a sensory nerve fiber is shown. Cell body layers are labeled on the left, and fiber layers are ... Sensory areas. The sensory areas are the cortical areas that receive and process information from the senses. Parts of ... The organization of sensory maps in the cortex reflects that of the corresponding sensing organ, in what is known as a ... Cauller L (1995). "Layer I of primary sensory neocortex: where top-down converges upon bottom-up". Behav Brain Res. 71 (1-2): ...
These sensory fibers form the vestibular branch of the cranial nerve VIII. In general, cellular response to stimuli is defined ... Nerves in the peripheral nervous system spread out to various parts of the body, including muscle fibers. A muscle fiber and ... Two main types of nociceptors exist, A-fiber nociceptors and C-fiber nociceptors. A-fiber receptors are myelinated and conduct ... In response to stimuli, the sensory receptor initiates sensory transduction by creating graded potentials or action potentials ...
Proprioceptive insult hypothesis: focuses on articular alterations causing hyperactivity of the sensory nerve fibers. ... Thus, nerves carry impulses outward and sensations inward. The activity of these nerves, or rather their fibers, may become ... In 1910, D.D. Palmer, the founder of chiropractic, wrote: "Physiologists divide nerve-fibers, which form the nerves, into two ... Efferent nerve-fibers carry impulses out from the center to their endings. Most of these go to muscles and are therefore called ...
The reflex utilizes sensory and motor fibers from two different nerves. When the inner thigh is stroked, sensory fibers of the ... These activate the motor fibers of the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve which causes the cremaster muscle to contract ... It can also occur if the ilioinguinal nerve has accidentally been cut during a hernia repair. The cremasteric reflex can be ...
Sensory nerve fibers are more sensitive to the effects of the local anaesthetics than motor nerve fibers. This means that an ... A high insertion level may result in sparing of nerve function in the lower spinal nerves. For example, a thoracic epidural may ... since sensory innervation for the head arises directly from the brain via cranial nerves rather than from the spinal cord via ... The epidural space is more difficult and risky to access as one ascends the spine (because the spinal cord gains more nerves as ...
Afferent nerve fibers responsible for sensory stimulus detection and feedback are especially sensitive to stimulation. This ... Afferent nerve endings without mechanoreceptor cells are called free nerve endings. They are less sensitive than the ... Piezo2 is expressed in sensory neurons of the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia indicating that it may play a role in touch ... Sound waves are able to bend the stereocilia and open up ion channels leading to the creation of nerve impulses. These channels ...
Headache and meningismus are often signs of inflammation relayed via trigeminal sensory nerve fibers within the pia mater. ... Sensory. Ventral root afferents are unmyelinated sensory axons located within the pia mater. These ventral root afferents ... The symptoms often include headaches and seizures due to the force the tumor creates on sensory receptors. The treatments ... relay sensory information from the pia mater and allow for the transmission of pain from disc herniation and other spinal ...
In the initial stages, small sensory and autonomic nerve fibers in a person with Leproy's skin are damaged. This damage ... Most leprosy complications are the result of nerve damage. The nerve damage occurs due to direct invasion by the M leprae ... Approximately 30% of people affected with leprosy experience nerve damage. The nerve damage sustained is reversible when ... Infection can lead to damage of the nerves, respiratory tract, skin, and eyes. This nerve damage may result in a lack of ...
... slow and fast fibers) are innervated by alpha motoneurons. Nerve fiber Type Ia sensory fiber Type II sensory fiber Williams & ... Beta motor neurons innervate intrafusal fibers of muscle spindles with collaterals to extrafusal fibers - a type of slow twitch ... The dynamic type innervates nuclear bag fibers of muscle spindles, with collaterals to extrafusal muscle fibers. Gamma motor ... These motor neurons innervate nuclear chain fibers of muscle spindles, with collaterals to extrafusal muscle fibers. Dynamic ...
Each efferent limb has nerve fibers running along the oculomotor nerve (CN III). The afferent limb carries sensory input. ... Segments 1 and 2 each includes both the retina and the optic nerve (cranial Nerve #2). Segments 3 and 4 are nerve fibers that ... The afferent limb has nerve fibers running within the optic nerve (CN II). ... Postganglionic nerve fibers leave the ciliary ganglion to innervate the ciliary sphincter. Each afferent limb has two ...
This stimulates the sensory fibers of the ilioinguinal nerve, which enters the spinal cord at L1. The sensory fibers stimulate ... the motor fibers of the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve (also at spinal level L1), which provides innervation to the ... The cremaster muscle is innervated from the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve. It receives distinctly different ...
Hair cells send signals down sensory nerve fibers, which are interpreted by the brain as motion. The brain interprets the ... The hair cells are made up of 40 to 70 stereocilia and one kinocilium, which is connected to an afferent nerve. When the body ... When the head is in a normal upright position, the otolith presses on the sensory hair cell receptors. This pushes the hair ...
... sweat testing and epidermal sensory nerve fiber density test (which is an objective test for small fiber sensory neuropathy). ... There is severe burning pain (in the small fiber sensory nerves) and skin redness. The attacks are periodic and are commonly ... Tests done at universities include quantitative sensory nerve testing, laser evoked potentials, ... special studies show a decrease in small nerve fiber density". J Am Acad Dermatol. 55 (3): 519-22. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2006.04. ...
Endings of sensory nerve fibers which form a plexus around a hair follicle in hairy skin. They are mechanoreceptors conveying ... A hair plexus or root hair plexus is a special group of nerve fiber endings and serves as a very sensitive mechanoreceptor for ... Each hair plexus forms a network around a hair follicle and is a receptor, which means it sends and receives nerve impulses to ...
Attached inside the cap is the tip of a dendritic projection (or sensory nerve fiber). The outer segment of the dendritic ... Sensory inputs from five sensory fields located at the base of the haltere all converge onto one nerve, the haltere nerve. How ... Their sensory nerve endings attach between two internal points and when those points are stretched, the difference in length is ... Sensory inputs detected by halteres not only determine the position of the body, but also, the position of the head, which can ...
Each muscle spindle consists of sensory nerve endings wrapped around special muscle fibers called spindle fibers (also called ... They are all innervated by Aβ fibers, except the mechanorecepting free nerve endings, which are innervated by Aδ fibers. ... Mechanosensory free nerve endings detect touch, pressure, and stretching. Baroreceptors are a type of mechanoreceptor sensory ... intrafusal fibers). Stretching a spindle fiber initiates a volley of impulses in the sensory neuron (a I-a neuron) attached to ...
Sensorineural hearing loss Hearing loss caused by damage to the sensory cells and/or nerve fibers of the inner ear. Sign ... Auditory nerve Eighth cranial nerve that connects the inner ear to the brainstem and is responsible for hearing and balance. ... Group of inherited disorders in which noncancerous tumors grow on several nerves that may include the hearing nerve. The ... Group of inherited disorders in which noncancerous tumors grow on several nerves that usually include the hearing nerve. The ...
He did extensive studies of the elementary physiological processes that take place in muscle tissue, nerve fibers and sensory ...
In the upper respiratory system the SCCs are contacted by the sensory endings of trigeminal nerve fibers (SubP and CGRP ... Hansen A. Unconventional sensory cells in the nasal epithelia of rodents and humans. Chem Senses 2006b; 31:E4. Höfer D, ... Identification and characterization of a specific sensory epithelium in the rat larynx. J Comp Neurol 2004a; 475:188-201. ...
Because nerves often carry both sensory and motor fibers, motor impairment is a possible side effect of neurectomy. A common ... the thin protective layer around the nerve fiber, the basal lamina, is preserved so that, as a damaged fiber regrows, it ... Surgically cutting a nerve severs these basal lamina tubes, and without them to channel the regrowing fibers to their lost ... or compression of sensory nerves. Often, low doses are adequate to produce analgesia, thought to be due to reduction in ...
Because nerves often carry both sensory and motor fibers, motor impairment is a possible side effect of neurectomy. A common ... Transmission occurs when the energy has been converted and the nerve impulses travel along the nerve fibers into the spinal ... the thin protective layer around the nerve fiber, the basal lamina, is preserved so that, as a damaged fiber regrows, it ... Surgically cutting a nerve severs these basal lamina tubes, and without them to channel the regrowing fibers to their lost ...
Another review in 2011 identified several putative biomarkers upon biopsy, including findings of small sensory nerve fibers or ... Nerve fibres and blood vessels are thought to grow into endometriosis lesions by a process known as neuroangiogenesis. About a ... For women with extreme pain, a presacral neurectomy may be very rarely performed where the nerves to the uterus are cut. ... Also, endometriotic lesions can develop their own nerve supply, thereby creating a direct and two-way interaction between ...
... and other sensory neuropeptides can be released from the peripheral terminals of sensory nerve fibers in the skin, ... Substance P and other sensory neuropeptides can be released from the peripheral terminals of sensory nerve fibers in the skin, ... Substance P is released from the terminals of specific sensory nerves. It is found in the brain and spinal cord and is ... The sensory function of substance P is thought to be related to the transmission of pain information into the central nervous ...
... to this gene was detected in spindle-shaped cells located along nerve fibers between the auditory ganglion and sensory ...
... embedded in connective tissue particularly rich in nerve fibers and sensory receptors. Close relations exist between epthelial ... cells and nerve endings. Histochemically, the parenchyma displays a characteristic pattern of various enzymes. Sporadically, ...
... and other sensory neuropeptides can be released from the peripheral terminals of sensory nerve fibers in the skin, ... Substance P and other sensory neuropeptides can be released from the peripheral terminals of sensory nerve fibers in the skin, ... with an amidation at the C-terminus. Substance P is released from the terminals of specific sensory nerves. It is found in ... The sensory function of substance P is thought to be related to the transmission of pain information into the central nervous ...
In skin, expressed in cutaneous sensory nerve fibers, mast cells, epidermal keratinocytes, dermal blood vessels, the inner root ... "Expression of vanilloid receptor subtype 1 in cutaneous sensory nerve fibers, mast cells, and epithelial cells of appendage ... detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of pain Source: Ensembl ... detection of temperature stimulus involved in sensory perception of pain Source: Ensembl ...
Although topical capsaicin did not produce remote degeneration of nerve fibers in the nerve trunk or of sensory neurons in the ... Nerve fibers immunoreactive for CGRP also reappeared 3-4 weeks after capsaicin (Fig. 4). These CGRP-immunoreactive nerve fibers ... the mechanisms by which capsaicin produces local degeneration of nerve fibers, and (3) the function of epidermal nerve fibers ... A few nerve fibers were found in at least some of the subjects at all times examined after capsaicin. These fibers were ...
Purpose : To define the time course and magnitude of remodeling of corneal cold sensory nerve fibers of adult mice in vivo. ... The number of nerve terminals given by each sub-basal nerve fiber was also counted. ... REMODELING OF CORNEAL COLD SENSORY NERVE FIBERS IN THE ADULT LIVING MOUSE ... REMODELING OF CORNEAL COLD SENSORY NERVE FIBERS IN THE ADULT LIVING MOUSE ...
... is a validated predictor of HIV sensory neuropathy (SN) risk. We assessed how ENFD is impacted by initiation of first-time ... Distal leg epidermal nerve fiber density (ENFD) is commonly accepted as a useful predictor of small unmyelinated nerve fiber ... Distal leg epidermal nerve fiber density (ENFD) is a validated predictor of HIV sensory neuropathy (SN) risk. We assessed how ... Distal leg epidermal nerve fiber density as a surrogate marker of HIV-associated sensory neuropathy risk: risk factors and ...
... large-fiber sensory neuropathies (LFSN), small-fiber sensory neuropathies (SFSN), and mixed (large- and small-fiber) sensory ... The sural sensory response has served as an electrophysiologic gold standard for the assessment of large-fiber sensory ... However, patients labeled as having small-fiber sensory neuropathies on the basis of a normal sural response frequently have ... The surface-recorded medial plantar potential has shown promise as a more sensitive indicator of large-fiber sensory ...
Home , Papers , Breast Cancer-Induced Bone Remodeling, Skeletal Pain and Sprouting of Sensory Nerve Fibers. ... Breast Cancer-Induced Bone Remodeling, Skeletal Pain and Sprouting of Sensory Nerve Fibers.. ... Breast Cancer-Induced Bone Remodeling, Skeletal Pain and Sprouting of Sensory Nerve Fibers. ... Cell type-specific modulation of sensory and affective components of itch in the periaqueductal gray. ...
Optogenetic Activation of Non-Nociceptive Aβ Fibers Induces Neuropathic Pain-Like Sensory and Emotional Behaviors after Nerve ... Optogenetic Activation of Non-Nociceptive Aβ Fibers Induces Neuropathic Pain-Like Sensory and Emotional Behaviors after Nerve ... Optogenetic Activation of Non-Nociceptive Aβ Fibers Induces Neuropathic Pain-Like Sensory and Emotional Behaviors after Nerve ... Building sensory axons: Delivery and distribution of Na1.7 channels and effects of inflammatory mediators. ...
DECREASED SENSORY RECEPTORS P2X 3 AND TRPV1 IN SUBUROTHELIAL NERVE FIBERS FOLLOWING INTRADETRUSOR INJECTIONS OF BOTULINUM TOXIN ... DECREASED SENSORY RECEPTORS P2X 3 AND TRPV1 IN SUBUROTHELIAL NERVE FIBERS FOLLOWING INTRADETRUSOR INJECTIONS OF BOTULINUM TOXIN ... DECREASED SENSORY RECEPTORS P2X 3 AND TRPV1 IN SUBUROTHELIAL NERVE FIBERS FOLLOWING INTRADETRUSOR INJECTIONS OF BOTULINUM TOXIN ...
... the density of nociceptive sensory nerve fibers was significantly higher relative to sympathetic nerve fibers. This was ... the knee after TKA demonstrate a preponderance of profibrotic sensory nerve fibers over antifibrotic sympathetic nerve fibers. ... which was also true for the density of sensory nerve fibers in the medial and lateral recesses. In synovial tissue of the ... In all compartments (anterior, medial, and lateral recesses), the density of synovial sympathetic nerve fibers was ...
In normal corneas, sensory nerve regeneration is robust, starting near the limbus with newly formed sensory nerve fibers and ... For sensory nerve regeneration, NRP2 blockade in wounded DM corneas resulted in a decrease of regenerating nerve fibers in ... Diabetes also causes defects in sensory nerves, including decreases in the density of nerve endings in the subbasal nerve ... they have opposing effects in sensory nerve regeneration, with NRP2 enhancing sensory nerve regeneration while NRP1 attenuates ...
Preliminary data indicates that a unique PRD (nPRD) can be produced by depolarizing sensory nerves fibers via non-noxious ... The area under the curve (AUC) of the nPRD reflects nerve fiber sensitivity and the amplitude correlates with pain self-report ... These results indicate that the nPRD method is able to detect modulation of nerve fiber sensitivity. ... In an ischemic environment, AŒ≤ fibers are not activated and thus no suppression of C-fiber transmission occurs. We ...
Near-nerve needle sensory nerve conduction of plantar nerves in 100 patients with distal sensory neuropathy with normal routine ... Large-fiber neuropathy in distal sensory neuropathy with normal routine nerve conduction. Academic Article ... Absent or diminished reflexes were a reliable indicator for large fiber neuropathy (LFN). This near-nerve needle plantar nerve ... nerve conduction (DSN-NNC) found the definite neuropathy pattern (abnormality in more than three of six tested nerves) in 65%, ...
We performed teased fiber recordings on single cutaneous fibers from the spared sural nerve using ex vivo skin-nerve ... Here we investigated the role of cutaneous sensory fibers in the maintenance of mechanical hyperalgesia in mice post-SNI. SNI ... To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating the contribution of primary afferent fibers in the SNI model. These data ... Aδ-mechanoreceptors (AM) and C fibers, many of which are nociceptors, from SNI mice fired significantly more action potentials ...
Choline Acetyltransferase for Differentiation between Human Motor and Sensory Nerve Fibers. Engel, J.; Ganel, A.; Melamed, R.; ... Giant Cell Tumor Compression of the Deep Branch of the Ulnar Nerve. Milberg, Paul; Kleinert, Harold E. ...
Reduced intraepidermal nerve fiber density in HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. M. Polydefkis, C. T. Yiannoutsos, B. A. Cohen ... Reduced intraepidermal nerve fiber density in HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. / Polydefkis, M.; Yiannoutsos, C. T.; Cohen, B ... title = "Reduced intraepidermal nerve fiber density in HIV-associated sensory neuropathy",. abstract = "Objective: To explore ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Reduced intraepidermal nerve fiber density in HIV-associated sensory neuropathy ...
... is different in structure in sensory nerve fibers compared to the motor nerves which would potentially make the motor fibers ... Why is MMN purely motor? Why are the sensory nerve fibers spared? ... of the anatomy and electrophysiologic properties of the nerve fibers that are different between motor and sensory nerves. This ... MMN is a disorder only of the lower motor nerve fibers, the axons that originate in the motor neurons- but the cell bodies ...
Detection of different biomarkers of the invention are also diagnostic of the degree of severity of nerve injury, the cell(s) ... The present invention identifies biomarkers that are diagnostic of nerve cell injury and/or neuronal disorders. ... Peripherial nerve fiber (sensory+motor): Peripherin, Peripheral myelin protein 22 (AAH91499); Other Neuron-specific proteins: ... severance of nerves or nerve damage; severance of the cerebrospinal nerve cord (CNS) and any damage to brain or nerve cells; ...
These fibers appeared to be newly sprouted sensory nerves. In axotomized AA rats, the synovia were supplied with no CGRP- ... Involvement of sensory nerves and immune cells in osteophyte formation in the ankle joint of adjuvant arthritic rats.. Wu Z1, ... The present findings suggest that the sensory nerves and the macrophages may be involved in osteophyte formation in the ankle ... In sham-operated AA rats, dense plexuses of CGRP-positive fibers were observed in the inflamed synovia close to the osteophytes ...
Intraepidermal nerve fiber density reduction as a marker of preclinical asymptomatic small-fiber sensory neuropathy in ... Intraepidermal nerve fiber density reduction as a marker of preclinical asymptomatic small-fiber sensory neuropathy in ... A nerve conduction study was performed. Skin biopsy was carried out from the skin of upper thigh and distal leg. Nerve fiber ... A nerve conduction study was performed. Skin biopsy was carried out from the skin of upper thigh and distal leg. Nerve fiber ...
The effect of aging on the density of the sensory nerve fiber innervation of bone and acute skeletal pain. In: Neurobiology of ... The effect of aging on the density of the sensory nerve fiber innervation of bone and acute skeletal pain. Neurobiology of ... The effect of aging on the density of the sensory nerve fiber innervation of bone and acute skeletal pain. / Jimenez-Andrade, ... Thus, while bone mass, quality, and strength undergo a significant decline with age, the density of sensory nerve fibers that ...
Use of quantitative sensory testing. Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache 30 (2) , pp. 87-98. 10.11607/ofph.1531 ... The detection of small-fiber neuropathies in burning mouth syndrome and latrogenic lingual nerve injuries: Use of quantitative ... The detection of small-fiber neuropathies in burning mouth syndrome and latrogenic lingual nerve injuries: ... AIMS: To assess thermal pain perception in patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS) and lingual nerve injury (LNI) by using a ...
Keiichi Torimitsu, et al.; "Selective Growth of Sensory Nerve Fibers on Metal Oxide Pattern in Culture 1990"; Developmental ... Keiichi Torimitsu, et al.; Selective Growth of Sensory Nerve Fibers on Metal Oxide Pattern in Culture 1990 ; Developmental ... Takushi Hirono, et al.; "Recognition of Artificial Microstructures by Sensory Nerve Fibers in Culture"; 1988; Brain Research; ... Takushi Hirono, et al.; Recognition of Artificial Microstructures by Sensory Nerve Fibers in Culture ; 1988; Brain Research; ...
... any of a series of paired nerves that originate in the nerve roots of the spinal cord and emerge from the vertebrae on both ... The spinal nerves contain both sensory and motor nerve fibers. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves in the human body.. ... spinal nerve in Medicine Expand. spinal nerve n. Any of 31 pairs of nerves emerging from the spinal cord, each attached to the ... spinal nerve in Science Expand. spinal nerve Any of the nerves that arise in pairs from the spinal cord and form an important ...
Degenerated Lumbar Intervertebral Disc is Innervated Primarily by Peptide-Containing Sensory Nerve Fibers. Ozawa T, et al. The ... Degenerated Lumbar Intervertebral Disc is Innervated Primarily by Peptide-Containing Sensory Nerve Fibers in Humans. Spine 1 ... Objective: To determine the type of sensory fibers innervating human degenerated lumbar intervertebral discs. Summary of ... Elastic Fiber Network of the Human Lumbar Intervertebral Disc. (From the July 2009 "The Scope" By: Steven T. Tanaka, DC) Smith ...
NERVE FIBERS CLASSIFICATION OF NERVE FIBERS GENERAL SENSORY NERVECLASSIFICATION CLASSIFICATION * 53. GENERAL CLASSIFICATION ... SENSORY NERVE CLASSIFICATION TYPE I TYPE II TYPE III TYPE IVIA fibers IB fibers ... CNS -Neurons and -Supporting cells neuroglia GREY White Matter Matter Nerve cell bodies Nerve fibers Embeded in Axons, ... Nerves Involuntary Voluntary Spinal cord Cranial nerves Spinal nerves Ganglion Sympathetic Parasympathetic Dorsal Root.Gang ...
NeuronsAxonsSympathetic nerve fibersStimulationEndingsPairs of spinal nervesImpulsesInnervateSomaticPostganglionic sympatCornealEpidermal nerve fibersNociceptorsNeuronPrimary afferent fibersAfferentsConduction studiesStimuliContain both sensoryNociceptiveParasympatheticSmall-fiberNeuropathiesPolyneuropathyPosteriorPlexusPeripheral nervouEmergeOrgansPatientsPainRegeneration in diabetic corneasVisceralMusclesDiabeticNucleusDilateDorsalDemyelination
- The ability of capsaicin to excite and subsequently to desensitize a select group of small sensory neurons has made it a useful tool to study their function. (jneurosci.org)
- Capsaicin, the active pungent ingredient in hot peppers, is a unique tool used to study the functions of a subset of sensory neurons, including nociceptive neurons. (jneurosci.org)
- MMN is a disorder only of the lower motor nerve fibers, the axons that originate in the motor neurons- but the cell bodies themselves (motor neurons) are not affected by the disease. (gbs-cidp.org)
- And it's precisely those thin fibers that are nociceptors - the sensory neurons that cause pain. (innovations-report.com)
- Therefore, VR1 has been considered a molecular integrator of noxious stimuli in the peripheral terminals of primary sensory neurons involved in pain signaling. (pnas.org)
- Receives input from sensory neurons. (slideshare.net)
- specializes structures associated with the peripheral ends of sensory neurons specific to detecting a particular sensation and triggering nerve impulses in response which are transmitted to the central nervous system. (armoredpenguin.com)
- Dendrites of neurons receive and process synaptic or sensory inputs. (bioportfolio.com)
- The first sensory neurons (pseodounipolar ganglionic cells) are located in the trigeminal, or the Gassepovov, site (ganglion trigeminale) - form, homologous spinal site. (scribd.com)
- The central processes of these neurons are part of tegmentum of pons and terminate in the sensory nuclei of trigeminal nerve: nucleus tractus n. trigemini (pain, temperatura), the zone which applies to cervical segments of the spinal cord, and nucleus sensorius superior (tactile sensitivity). (scribd.com)
- First, sensory neurons, or nerve fibers, in bone "detect the acidic environment and signal it as pain. (cancer.gov)
- contains axons/fibers for sensory and motor neurons. (brainscape.com)
- The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of sensory denervation with capsaicin at the first vaginal opening (FVO) on follicular development and the expression of TRPV1 receptors in ovary cells as well as in the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and lumbar dorsal spinal cord neurons of guinea pigs. (scirp.org)
- The DRGs and lumbar dorsal spinal cord neurons serve as a nerve connection from the ovaries to the CNS. (scirp.org)
- Sensory neurons in human muscles provide important information used for the perception and control of movement. (medicalxpress.com)
- Carries information from sensory neurons to motor neurons. (studyblue.com)
- At POD7, tonic GABA currents also increased in VPm neurons, which had multiple lemniscal fibers by the transection of ION. (nii.ac.jp)
- Building sensory axons: Delivery and distribution of Na1.7 channels and effects of inflammatory mediators. (painresearchforum.org)
- Furthermore, SNI involves minimal co-mingling of intact and injured axons distal to the lesion [ 1 ], thereby allowing investigators to specifically target non-directly-injured nerve fibers. (biomedcentral.com)
- A bundle of nerve fibers (axons) wrapped in fibrous connective tissue. (studystack.com)
- a nerve that consists of motor neuron axons. (armoredpenguin.com)
- We observed that motor and sensory axons were both able to guide and lead the formation of the spinal nerves of the arms and legs," said Rosa-Eva Hüttl and Heidi Söllner, lead authors of the study and doctoral students in Dr. Andrea Huber Brösamle's research group. (healthcanal.com)
- spinal nerve will carry those axons peripherally to the skin, blood vessels, etc. (uams.edu)
- dorsal root: contains only sensory axons. (brainscape.com)
- dorsal root ganglion: collection of cell bodies for sensory axons (GSA and GVA). (brainscape.com)
- GSA axons travel from the deep back muscles or skin overlying them through the dorsal ramus, through the spinal nerve, through the dorsal root and rootlets into the spinal cord. (brainscape.com)
- GSA and GVA axons from the body travel through the ventral ramus into the spinal nerve, dorsal root ganglion, dorsal root and rootlets, and into the spinal cord. (brainscape.com)
- Receptors on GSA axons in the muscle spindle travel through the ventral ramus, spinal nerve, dorsal root ganglion, dorsal root and rootlets, and synapse on a single GSE neuron in the spinal cord. (brainscape.com)
- A fourth-degree injury results in a large area of scar at the site of nerve injury and precludes any axons from advancing distal to the level of nerve injury. (amazonaws.com)
- In all compartments (anterior, medial, and lateral recesses), the density of synovial sympathetic nerve fibers was significantly higher in OA compared to AF, which was also true for the density of sensory nerve fibers in the medial and lateral recesses. (biomedcentral.com)
- In synovial tissue of the anterior recess of patients with AF compared to OA, the density of nociceptive sensory nerve fibers was significantly higher relative to sympathetic nerve fibers. (biomedcentral.com)
- Similar as in many painful musculoskeletal diseases, this study indicates that patients with arthrofibrosis of the knee after TKA demonstrate a preponderance of profibrotic sensory nerve fibers over antifibrotic sympathetic nerve fibers. (biomedcentral.com)
- As shown on the left, in order to radiate heat from our skin when we are hot, activation of the sympathetic nerve fibers close the shunts so that oxygenated blood (red arrows) in the arterioles is forced into the capillaries and deoxygenated (blue arrows) blood returns to the venules. (science20.com)
- factor for sensory fibers, and Semaphorin3C (Sema3C) and Semaphorin3F (Sema3F) repulse sympathetic nerve fibers . (bartleby.com)
- Baseline nPRD measurements for each fiber type were assessed using perception intensity at a specific activating stimulation frequency (C fiber at 5 Hz, AŒ¥ at 250 Hz, and AŒ≤ at 2000 Hz). (gwu.edu)
- Aδ-mechanoreceptors (AM) and C fibers, many of which are nociceptors, from SNI mice fired significantly more action potentials in response to suprathreshold mechanical stimulation than did fibers from either sham or naïve control mice. (biomedcentral.com)
- stimulation level that must be exceeded to elicit a nerve impulse or a muscle contraction. (armoredpenguin.com)
- 23.10.18 - EPFL scientists have developed a miniaturized electronic platform for the stimulation and recording of peripheral nerve fibers on a chip. (epfl.ch)
- A potential contributor to lumbar back pain (LBP) is stimulation of sensory nerves in the annulus fibrosus by a) cellular pain mediators and/or b) biochemical pain mediators that accompany annular tears or disruption. (mdpi.com)
- The nucleus pulposus is comprised of material that can produce an autoimmune stimulation of the sensory nerves located in the annulus and epidural space leading to LBP. (mdpi.com)
- Stimulation of parasympathetic efferent fibers causes contraction of detrusor muscle leading to emptying of urinary bladder. (scribd.com)
- This stimulation triggers a nerve impulse to the brain. (seaworld.org)
- Two routine non-invasive electrophysiological techniques, before and after LILT, will be used for outcome measures: 1) antidromic sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) will be recorded from index finger in response to stimulation of the median nerve at the wrist and, 2) current perception threshold (CPT) testing of the index finger will be performed using the standard 2000 Hz, 250 Hz, and 5 Hz sinusoidal frequencies. (nova.edu)
- Methods and apparatus for testing of the efficacy of therapeutic stimulation of pelvic nerves or musculature to alleviate one of incontinence or sexual dysfunction are disclosed. (google.co.uk)
- 3 . The system of claim 1 , wherein the therapy delivery device comprises an implantable pulse generator and a medical electrical lead having a stimulation electrode adapted to be positioned in the patient's body in operative relation to a pelvic nerve or musculature. (google.co.uk)
- Diabetes also causes defects in sensory nerves, including decreases in the density of nerve endings in the subbasal nerve plexus and in the number of branches that innervate the epithelium ( 5 , 8 , 16 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Epithelial debridement wounds result in the loss of nerve endings and retraction of stroma nerve fibers. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In normal corneas, sensory nerve regeneration is robust, starting near the limbus with newly formed sensory nerve fibers and endings arranged in parallel and extending radially toward the center of the cornea ( 16 , 18 , 19 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Diabetic mouse corneas exhibit changes similar to those observed in diabetic human corneas, with fewer nerve insertion sites near the limbus, and severely delayed regeneration of sensory nerve endings that exhibit a tortuous, fragmented appearance ( 20 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Vanilloid receptor subunit 1 (VR1) appears to play a critical role in the transduction of noxious chemical and thermal stimuli by sensory nerve endings in peripheral tissues. (pnas.org)
- As Rice explains, "we analyzed the skin of a particularly interesting patient who lacked all the numerous varieties of sensory nerve endings in the skin that supposedly accounted for our highly sensitive and richly nuanced sense of touch. (science20.com)
- But, the only sensory endings we detected in his skin were those around the blood vessels. (science20.com)
- We previously thought that these nerve endings were only involved in regulating blood flow at a subconscious level, yet here we had evidence that the blood vessel endings could also contribute to our conscious sense of touch…and also pain. (science20.com)
- Knowing how these drugs were supposed to work on molecules in the brain," Albrecht added, "we had evidence that similar molecules were involved in the function of nerve endings on the blood vessels. (science20.com)
- Bending the hair stimulates the nerve endings allowing a person to feel that the hair has been moved. (medlineplus.gov)
- Yu and his research team discovered that in the diabetic mouse cornea, the density of sensory nerve fibers and their endings are drastically reduced, similar to patients with DPN. (medindia.net)
- The papers deal with questions of sensory specificity of peripheral nerve endings and of nerve fibers. (annals.org)
- It has been shown in AMAN that the target of the antibodies in AMAN are directed at a region of the axon that produces the fast transmission of impulses down the nerve- the Node of Ranvier. (gbs-cidp.org)
- Our brain sends and receives millions of nerve impulses, but we typically implant only about a dozen electrodes in patients. (innovations-report.com)
- A nerve that conducts afferent impulses from the periphery to the central nervous system. (thefreedictionary.com)
- An axon or nerve fiber is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body or soma. (medicalxpress.com)
- Sensory fibers in the pelvic nerve carry impulses from stretch receptors present on the wall of the urinary bladder to the spinal centre of micturition. (scribd.com)
- These trochlear nerves arise from the mid-brain and carry motor impulses to a pair of external eye muscles, called the superior obliques, which are not supplied by the oculomotor nerves, but aid in moving the muscles of the eye. (innerbody.com)
- The branches of the trigeminal nerve innervate fronto-parietal part of the head and face (sensitive innervations of skin of the back of the head is provided by upper cervical spinal nerve roots), mucosal membrane of the mouth, nose and sinuses, the front 2/3 of tongue, teeth and partially meninges. (scribd.com)
- The motor portion of the trigeminal n. exit with mandibular nerve and innervate m. masseter and some other muscles. (scribd.com)
- The motor fibers innervate particular muscles, while sensory fibers innervate particular areas of the skin. (peacefulmind.com)
- The nerves from each plexus innervate specific muscles and areas of skin in the body and are numbered according to the location in the spine from where they exit. (peacefulmind.com)
- The Lumbar and Sacral plexuses innervate the lower limbs and often the cause of a pinched nerve in the sacrum, the sciatic nerve and the legs or feet. (peacefulmind.com)
- Taken together, epithelium-expressed SEMA3C plays a role in corneal epithelial wound closure and sensory nerve regeneration. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Corneal reflex is explored by touching the cornea with a soft strip of paper or cotton wool, which normally causes closing of eyelid (facial nerve consists of its efferent part of the reflex). (scribd.com)
- Moreover, the regenerative capacity of corneal nerves following wounding is impaired in the corneas of diabetic patients compared to normal B6 mouse corneas. (medindia.net)
- There was nearly complete degeneration of epidermal nerve fibers and the subepidermal neural plexus in capsaicin-treated skin, as indicated by the loss of immunoreactivity for PGP 9.5 and CGRP. (jneurosci.org)
- Methods: Sixty-two of the 270 patients with HIV-SN who participated in the trial of rhNGF were included in a substudy examining epidermal nerve fibers. (elsevier.com)
- The hallmark of the disorder is the finding of "conduction block" on the nerve conduction studies. (gbs-cidp.org)
- The Physiological and Technical Basis of Electromyography aims to help the clinician involved in the study of diseases of the peripheral nervous system and muscle to better understand the pathophysiological basis for many of the observations derived from electromyography and nerve conduction studies. (elsevier.com)
- Traditionally, nerve conduction studies (NCSs) have been the most frequently used diagnostic tool for DSPN. (amazonaws.com)
- Preliminary data indicates that a unique PRD (nPRD) can be produced by depolarizing sensory nerves fibers via non-noxious neurospecific electrical stimuli at particular frequencies. (gwu.edu)
- Thus, the goal of this study was to determine whether intact cutaneous afferent fibers from the spared sural nerve are sensitized to mechanical stimuli and thereby, may contribute to the maintenance of mechanical hypersensitivity after SNI. (biomedcentral.com)
- Our data support the idea that through TRPV1 receptors, ovarian afferent fibers sense local stimuli that are sent to the CNS. (scirp.org)
- Introduction: It has been documented that mammalian ovaries receive sympathetic, parasympathetic and sensory nerve fibers. (scirp.org)
- Sympathetic fibers (for the large deep petrosal nerve) through communication with the carotid plexus The postganglionic parasympathetic fibers are then distributed via the auriculotemporal nerve (branch of the trigeminal nerve) to the parotid gland. (wikipedia.org)
- Antidromic sensory nerve conduction study of the digital branches of the medial plantar nerve: a novel method to detect early diabetic sensory axonal polyneuropathy. (semanticscholar.org)
- With over 1,500 patients in our PHN and painful HIV-distal sensory polyneuropathy (HIV-DSP) clinical studies to date, we believe that we are building a significant body of evidence in support of a potential new drug application (NDA) filing in the second half of 2008. (drugs.com)
- SAN MATEO, Calif., Feb. 27 /PRNewswire-FirstCall/ -- NeurogesX, Inc. (Nasdaq: NGSX), a biopharmaceutical company focused on developing and commercializing novel pain management therapies, today announced preliminary top-line results from study C119, its second Phase 3 clinical trial of NGX-4010, the Company's dermal patch drug candidate, in patients with HIV-distal sensory polyneuropathy (HIV-DSP). (fiercebiotech.com)
- Electromyography revealed sensorimotor polyneuropathy of left peroneal, sural, posterior tibial, and deep peroneal nerves and also of ulnar, radial, and median nerves of both upper limbs. (hindawi.com)
- Any of 31 pairs of nerves emerging from the spinal cord, each attached to the cord by two roots, anterior or ventral and posterior or dorsal, the latter provided with a spinal ganglion. (dictionary.com)
- After amputation, sural nerve, posterior tibial nerve, and the accompanying vasculature will be harvested from the amputated leg. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Underlying sural nerve and posterior tibial nerve will be also harvested for further ultra-structural study. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Whenever a nerve compression syndrome is suspected, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain should be performed, with particular attention to the posterior fossa. (aerzteblatt.de)
- These tiny sensory organs line your tongue. (healthline.com)
- In those organs, ion channels in the cell membrane of sensory nerve fibers expand as temperature increases. (indianexpress.com)
- Sensory nerves, which carry sensory information from peripheral organs, for example the skin, to the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
- Motor nerves, which carry the information from the central nervous system to peripheral organs, especially the muscles. (wikipedia.org)
- The protein/peptide profile in patients with damage to nerves and brain cells are distinguished from normal individuals using inexpensive techniques. (google.ca)
- AIMS: To assess thermal pain perception in patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS) and lingual nerve injury (LNI) by using a quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol. (cf.ac.uk)
- Fibromyalgia patients were found to have an excessive amount of sensory fibers around the shunts. (science20.com)
- When compression of the nervous tissue occurs, patients will report abnormal sensations other than pain and will report loosing strength in one arm (nerve root compression) or in both arms and legs (spinal cord compression). (healthcentral.com)
- As predicted, their results showed that alpha-synuclein was increased in the cutaneous nerves supplying the sweat glands and pilomotor muscles in the Parkinson's patients. (medindia.net)
- After bowel surgery, more than half of the patients suffer from irreparable nerve damage. (medicalxpress.com)
- Breast Cancer-Induced Bone Remodeling, Skeletal Pain and Sprouting of Sensory Nerve Fibers. (painresearchforum.org)
- The area under the curve (AUC) of the nPRD reflects nerve fiber sensitivity and the amplitude correlates with pain self-report. (gwu.edu)
- They may be able to restore amputees' sense of touch, help the paralyzed walk again by stimulating their spinal cords and silence the nerve activity of people suffering from chronic pain. (innovations-report.com)
- Conventional TENS stimulates large-diameter sensory fibers , while high-intensity TENS combined with analgesia may result in a longer duration of pain relief. (thefreedictionary.com)
- They are the same fibers that mediate the pain sensations. (rxlist.com)
- Area of innervations of the trigeminal nerve branches on the face, also at zone of segmental (nuclear) pain and temperature sensitivity on the face (zone Zeldera), is analogous to segmental innervations of the trunk and extremities (see Fig. 8, X, 3). (scribd.com)
- Pain and temperature sensitivity is checked from up to down (in the zones of the three branches of the nerve), and from the ear to the nose (in the zones of segmental innervations zone of Zeldera). (scribd.com)
- Determines if the pain is at the points of exit of trigeminal nerve. (scribd.com)
- Among mediators involved in OA pain, nerve growth factor (NGF) is in the focus because antibodies against NGF significantly reduce OA pain. (frontiersin.org)
- Using that mouse model, Dr. Mantyh's team found that tumors in bone stimulate the sprouting of pain-transmitting nerve fibers near the tumor. (cancer.gov)
- A potential new treatment for bone pain due to metastatic cancer is an antibody called tanezumab, which blocks the activity of a pain-signaling molecule called nerve growth factor (NGF). (cancer.gov)
- Dr. Mantyh's team showed, in mice, that tanezumab blocks nerve sprouting in bone and reduces the development of late-stage cancer pain . (cancer.gov)
- The same small paper cut on a less nerve-dense area, such as, say, your leg, won't send nearly as many pain signals to your brain. (mentalfloss.com)
- Without a blood clot to protect them, the nerves around the cut are exposed to air and other irritants, which can make the pain more noticeable and longer lasting. (mentalfloss.com)
- The principle etiology of leg pain (sciatica) from lumbar disc herniation is mechanical compression of the nerve root. (mdpi.com)
- In addition, sensory nerves in the annulus fibrosus and epidural space are not protected from topical interaction with pain mediators induced by decompression surgery. (mdpi.com)
- Sensitization of the nerve root results from a) mechanical compression, b) exposure to cellular pain mediators, and/or c) exposure to biochemical pain mediators. (mdpi.com)
- These observations are consistent with continued exposure of tissue in the epidural space, including the nerve root, to increased cellular and biochemical pain mediators following surgery. (mdpi.com)
- The sensory nerves of the annulus fibrosus and epidural space may be sensitized by topical exposure to cellular and biochemical pain mediators induced by lumbar surgery. (mdpi.com)
- Coverage of the annulus and adjacent structures in the epidural space by absorbable viscoelastic gels appears to reduce LBP following surgery by protecting sensory fibers from cellular and biochemical pain mediators. (mdpi.com)
- The ureters are well supplied with pain nerve fibers. (scribd.com)
- The pain may be coming from a muscle spasm or strain that's putting pressure on the nerve, so you can try relaxing your muscles. (peacefulmind.com)
- Although you may not feel like it, you may want to try simply keeping your body and joints moving to find relief from pinched nerve pain. (peacefulmind.com)
- A pinched nerve can result in severe pain and disability in the shoulder and upper arm. (peacefulmind.com)
- Most of these medications are aimed at managing pain, but some may actually help regenerate damaged nerves. (thebody.com)
- NRP1 neutralization, on the other hand, decreased epithelial wound closure but increased sensory nerve regeneration in diabetic corneas, suggesting a detrimental role in nerve regeneration. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The impairment of sensory nerve regeneration in diabetic corneas is due to decreased ciliary neurotrophic factor. (medindia.net)
- Yu said the impairment of sensory nerve regeneration in diabetic corneas is due to decreased ciliary neurotrophic factor, as evidenced by the fact that dendritic cells express ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in normal and healing corneas but decrease in diabetic corneas due to the reduced infiltration of dendritic cells. (medindia.net)
- Other nerves become involved in either arm or in the legs and muscles become atrophied and may have muscle twitching, called fasciculations. (gbs-cidp.org)
- Trigeminal nerve contains sensory fibers innervating the face, and motion fibers going to the masticatory muscles (Fig. 8). (scribd.com)
- Its main part consists of motor fibers (actual facial nerve) innervating mimetic muscles of the face: the frontal (i.e. frontalis), the circular muscle of the eye (i.e. orbicularis oculi), buccal (i.e. buccalis), circular muscle of the mouth (i.e. orbicularis oris) and some other muscles of the head and neck. (scribd.com)
- A group of muscles primarily innervated by the motor fibers of a single nerve root is known as a Myotome (muscle). (peacefulmind.com)
- They help to relieve pressure on the nerve, decrease inflammation and help to retrain the muscles area affected around the nerve. (peacefulmind.com)
- The diabetic cornea exhibits pathological alterations, such as delayed epithelial wound healing and nerve regeneration. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In animal models, NGF is depleted in diabetic nerves and NGF deprivation produces hypoalgesia. (nih.gov)
- Exogenous NGF can reverse some of the pathological changes in diabetic nerves and NGF excess leads to hyperalgesia. (nih.gov)
- Motor nerve conduction velocity is an independent predictor for the development of new foot ulcer in diabetic population. (clinicaltrials.gov)