Limb Buds: Distinct regions of mesenchymal outgrowth at both flanks of an embryo during the SOMITE period. Limb buds, covered by ECTODERM, give rise to forelimb, hindlimb, and eventual functional limb structures. Limb bud cultures are used to study CELL DIFFERENTIATION; ORGANOGENESIS; and MORPHOGENESIS.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Limb Salvage: An alternative to amputation in patients with neoplasms, ischemia, fractures, and other limb-threatening conditions. Generally, sophisticated surgical procedures such as vascular surgery and reconstruction are used to salvage diseased limbs.Limb Deformities, Congenital: Congenital structural deformities of the upper and lower extremities collectively or unspecified.Phantom Limb: Perception of painful and nonpainful phantom sensations that occur following the complete or partial loss of a limb. The majority of individuals with an amputated extremity will experience the impression that the limb is still present, and in many cases, painful. (From Neurol Clin 1998 Nov;16(4):919-36; Brain 1998 Sep;121(Pt 9):1603-30)Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Lower Extremity: The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Amputation: The removal of a limb or other appendage or outgrowth of the body. (Dorland, 28th ed)Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Loop of Henle: The U-shaped portion of the renal tubule in the KIDNEY MEDULLA, consisting of a descending limb and an ascending limb. It is situated between the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE and the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE.Upper Extremity: The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.Ambystoma mexicanum: A salamander found in Mexican mountain lakes and accounting for about 30 percent of the urodeles used in research. The axolotl remains in larval form throughout its life, a phenomenon known as neoteny.Polydactyly: A congenital anomaly of the hand or foot, marked by the presence of supernumerary digits.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.AmputeesBiomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Amputation Stumps: The part of a limb or tail following amputation that is proximal to the amputated section.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Leg Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Hedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Fibroblast Growth Factor 4: A HEPARIN binding fibroblast growth factor that may play a role in LIMB BUDS development.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Popliteal Artery: The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.Toes: Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Fibroblast Growth Factor 8: A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.Gait: Manner or style of walking.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Arm Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.Salamandridae: A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.Tibial Arteries: The anterior and posterior arteries created at the bifurcation of the popliteal artery. The anterior tibial artery begins at the lower border of the popliteus muscle and lies along the tibia at the distal part of the leg to surface superficially anterior to the ankle joint. Its branches are distributed throughout the leg, ankle, and foot. The posterior tibial artery begins at the lower border of the popliteus muscle, lies behind the tibia in the lower part of its course, and is found situated between the medial malleolus and the medial process of the calcaneal tuberosity. Its branches are distributed throughout the leg and foot.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Venous Insufficiency: Impaired venous blood flow or venous return (venous stasis), usually caused by inadequate venous valves. Venous insufficiency often occurs in the legs, and is associated with EDEMA and sometimes with VENOUS STASIS ULCERS at the ankle.Chemotherapy, Cancer, Regional Perfusion: Neoplasm drug therapy involving an extracorporeal circuit with temporary exclusion of the tumor-bearing area from the general circulation during which high concentrations of the drug are perfused to the isolated part.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Ectromelia: Gross hypo- or aplasia of one or more long bones of one or more limbs. The concept includes amelia, hemimelia, phocomelia, and sirenomelia.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Amputation, Traumatic: Loss of a limb or other bodily appendage by accidental injury.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Paresis: A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.Notophthalmus viridescens: A species of newt in the Salamandridae family in which the larvae transform into terrestrial eft stage and later into an aquatic adult. They occur from Canada to southern United States. Viridescens refers to the greenish color often found in this species.Bone Lengthening: Increase in the longest dimension of a bone to correct anatomical deficiencies, congenital, traumatic, or as a result of disease. The lengthening is not restricted to long bones. The usual surgical methods are internal fixation and distraction.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Peripheral Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.Gangrene: Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply.Varicose Veins: Enlarged and tortuous VEINS.Femoral Vein: The vein accompanying the femoral artery in the same sheath; it is a continuation of the popliteal vein and becomes the external iliac vein.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Leg Length Inequality: A condition in which one of a pair of legs fails to grow as long as the other, which could result from injury or surgery.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.WingSyndactyly: A congenital anomaly of the hand or foot, marked by the webbing between adjacent fingers or toes. Syndactylies are classified as complete or incomplete by the degree of joining. Syndactylies can also be simple or complex. Simple syndactyly indicates joining of only skin or soft tissue; complex syndactyly marks joining of bony elements.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Ambystoma: A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Intermittent Claudication: A symptom complex characterized by pain and weakness in SKELETAL MUSCLE group associated with exercise, such as leg pain and weakness brought on by walking. Such muscle limpness disappears after a brief rest and is often relates to arterial STENOSIS; muscle ISCHEMIA; and accumulation of LACTATE.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Hemiplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Tourniquets: Devices for the compression of a blood vessel by application around an extremity to control the circulation and prevent the flow of blood to or from the distal area. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Foot Deformities, Congenital: Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the foot occurring at or before birth.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Leg Ulcer: Ulceration of the skin and underlying structures of the lower extremity. About 90% of the cases are due to venous insufficiency (VARICOSE ULCER), 5% to arterial disease, and the remaining 5% to other causes.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Muscle Spasticity: A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)Lower Extremity Deformities, Congenital: Congenital structural abnormalities of the LOWER EXTREMITY.Popliteal Vein: The vein formed by the union of the anterior and posterior tibial veins; it courses through the popliteal space and becomes the femoral vein.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Proprioception: Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.Arteriosclerosis Obliterans: Common occlusive arterial disease which is caused by ATHEROSCLEROSIS. It is characterized by lesions in the innermost layer (ARTERIAL INTIMA) of arteries including the AORTA and its branches to the extremities. Risk factors include smoking, HYPERLIPIDEMIA, and HYPERTENSION.Avian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.Nocturnal Myoclonus Syndrome: Excessive periodic leg movements during sleep that cause micro-arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. This condition induces a state of relative sleep deprivation which manifests as excessive daytime hypersomnolence. The movements are characterized by repetitive contractions of the tibialis anterior muscle, extension of the toe, and intermittent flexion of the hip, knee and ankle. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p387)Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Lymphedema: Edema due to obstruction of lymph vessels or disorders of the lymph nodes.MSX1 Transcription Factor: A homeodomain protein that interacts with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. It represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES and plays a critical role in ODONTOGENESIS.Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Peripheral Arterial Disease: Lack of perfusion in the EXTREMITIES resulting from atherosclerosis. It is characterized by INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION, and an ANKLE BRACHIAL INDEX of 0.9 or less.Angioplasty, Balloon: Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Hand Deformities, Congenital: Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the hand occurring at or before birth.Urodela: An order of the Amphibia class which includes salamanders and newts. They are characterized by usually having slim bodies and tails, four limbs of about equal size (except in Sirenidae), and a reduction in skull bones.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Diabetic Foot: Common foot problems in persons with DIABETES MELLITUS, caused by any combination of factors such as DIABETIC NEUROPATHIES; PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASES; and INFECTION. With the loss of sensation and poor circulation, injuries and infections often lead to severe foot ulceration, GANGRENE and AMPUTATION.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Leg Bones: The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.Thigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Robotics: The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.Abnormalities, MultiplePlethysmography: Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Thromboangiitis Obliterans: A non-atherosclerotic, inflammatory thrombotic disease that commonly involves small and medium-sized arteries or veins in the extremities. It is characterized by occlusive THROMBOSIS and FIBROSIS in the vascular wall leading to digital and limb ISCHEMIA and ulcerations. Thromboangiitis obliterans is highly associated with tobacco smoking.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Elbow: Region of the body immediately surrounding and including the ELBOW JOINT.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Varicose Ulcer: Skin breakdown or ulceration caused by VARICOSE VEINS in which there is too much hydrostatic pressure in the superficial venous system of the leg. Venous hypertension leads to increased pressure in the capillary bed, transudation of fluid and proteins into the interstitial space, altering blood flow and supply of nutrients to the skin and subcutaneous tissues, and eventual ulceration.Muscular Dystrophies, Limb-Girdle: A heterogenous group of inherited muscular dystrophy that can be autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive. There are many forms (called LGMDs) involving genes encoding muscle membrane proteins such as the sarcoglycan (SARCOGLYCANS) complex that interacts with DYSTROPHIN. The disease is characterized by progressing wasting and weakness of the proximal muscles of arms and legs around the HIPS and SHOULDERS (the pelvic and shoulder girdles).Sodium-Potassium-Chloride Symporters: A subclass of symporters that specifically transport SODIUM CHLORIDE and/or POTASSIUM CHLORIDE across cellular membranes in a tightly coupled process.Teratogens: An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.Inguinal Canal: The tunnel in the lower anterior ABDOMINAL WALL through which the SPERMATIC CORD, in the male; ROUND LIGAMENT, in the female; nerves; and vessels pass. Its internal end is at the deep inguinal ring and its external end is at the superficial inguinal ring.Chondrogenesis: The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Ankle: The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.Tissue Transplantation: Transference of tissue within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Torque: The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.Cumulative Trauma Disorders: Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.Polytetrafluoroethylene: Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.Kinesthesis: Sense of movement of a part of the body, such as movement of fingers, elbows, knees, limbs, or weights.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Fibroblast Growth Factor 10: A fibroblast growth factor that is a mitogen for KERATINOCYTES. It activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B and is involved in LUNG and limb development.Quail: Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.Iliac Vein: A vein on either side of the body which is formed by the union of the external and internal iliac veins and passes upward to join with its fellow of the opposite side to form the inferior vena cava.Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Bones of Upper Extremity: The bones of the upper and lower ARM. They include the CLAVICLE and SCAPULA.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous: The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Somatosensory Disorders: Disorders of sensory information received from superficial and deep regions of the body. The somatosensory system conveys neural impulses which pertain to proprioception, tactile sensation, thermal sensation, pressure sensation, and pain. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and BRAIN DISEASES may be associated with impaired or abnormal somatic sensation.Torso: The central part of the body to which the neck and limbs are attached.Internal Capsule: WHITE MATTER pathway, flanked by nuclear masses, consisting of both afferent and efferent fibers projecting between the WHITE MATTER and the BRAINSTEM. It consists of three distinct parts: an anterior limb, posterior limb, and genu.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Pelvis: The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Critical Illness: A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.Lameness, Animal: A departure from the normal gait in animals.Graft Occlusion, Vascular: Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Tretinoin: An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Abnormalities, Drug-Induced: Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Nephrons: The functional units of the kidney, consisting of the glomerulus and the attached tubule.Running: An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.External Fixators: External devices which hold wires or pins that are placed through one or both cortices of bone in order to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment. These devices allow easy access to wounds, adjustment during the course of healing, and more functional use of the limbs involved.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Electric Stimulation Therapy: Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Reflex, Stretch: Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.T-Box Domain Proteins: Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber Syndrome: A congenital disorder that is characterized by a triad of capillary malformations (HEMANGIOMA), venous malformations (ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA), and soft tissue or bony hypertrophy of the limb. This syndrome is caused by mutations in the VG5Q gene which encodes a strong angiogenesis stimulator.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.Phlebography: Radiographic visualization or recording of a vein after the injection of contrast medium.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Neuromuscular Agents: Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.Shoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Triturus: A genus of aquatic newts in the Salamandridae family. During breeding season many Triturus males have a dorsal crest which also serves as an accessory respiratory organ. One of the common Triturus species is Triturus cristatus (crested newt).Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Somites: Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).Foot Ulcer: Lesion on the surface of the skin of the foot, usually accompanied by inflammation. The lesion may become infected or necrotic and is frequently associated with diabetes or leprosy.
From there, tertiary neurons ascend via the posterior limb of the internal capsule and end in the primary sensory cortex. The ... the pain/temperature sensory pathway). Both sensory pathways use three different neurons to get information from sensory ... Tertiary neuronal axons then travel to the primary sensory cortex via the posterior limb of the internal capsule. Some of the " ... Likewise, sensory nerve rootlets form off right and left dorsal lateral sulci and form sensory nerve roots. The ventral (motor ...
The sensory tract. (problem with this picture. Upper limb synapses with nucleus gracilis..) Upper part of medulla spinalis and ... Damage to either of these tracts can result in the permanent loss of sensation in the limbs. See Brown-Séquard syndrome. The ... The gracile fasiculus is one of many ascending tracts, which carry received sensory information to the brain via the spinal ... The gracile fasciculus provides conscious proprioception of the lower limbs and trunk to the brainstem. Additional functions of ...
This is not due to loss of motor or sensory functions. Limb-kinetic apraxia: voluntary movements of extremities are impaired. ... The Test to Measure Upper Limb Apraxia (TULIA) is one method of determining upper limb apraxia through the qualitative and ... Those with limb-kinetic and/or gait apraxia should avoid activities in which they might injure themselves or others. ... The nature of the brain damage determines the severity, and the absence of sensory loss or paralysis helps to explain the level ...
"Sensory feedback prosthesis reduces phantom limb pain: Proof of a principle". Neuroscience Letters. 507 (2): 97-100. doi: ... Sometimes amputees can experience pain from their phantom limbs; this is called phantom limb pain (PLP). Phantom limb pain is ... Remapping can occur in the sensory or motor system. The mechanism for each system may be quite different. Sensory system ... portion was able to promptly relay enhanced sensory signals to the motor cortex, which resulted in the remapping of sensory ...
Their sprawling limbs were also adapted for water. They would not move quickly or efficiently on land, although they may have ... First, they had lateral lines formed by the sensory sulci. These are useful for detecting changes in water pressure made by the ... The legs of Koskinonodon display a sprawling stance and short legs with 4-digits on the front and 5 on the back limbs. ...
Each efferent limb has nerve fibers running along the oculomotor nerve (CN III). The afferent limb carries sensory input. ... Each afferent limb has two efferent limbs, one ipsilateral and one contralateral. The ipsilateral efferent limb transmits nerve ... The pupillary light reflex neural pathway on each side has an afferent limb and two efferent limbs. The afferent limb has nerve ... Right afferent limb is intact, but left efferent limb, left CN III, is damaged.) For example, in a person with abnormal left ...
Weakness in the lower limb Difficulty Walking Sensory Disturbance Arms extended controlling balance. Propulsive: the posture is ... Any movement of the body is detected by the vestibular sensory neurons, and the sensory motor replies by counteracting the ... Thus, the reticulospinal tracts are involved in many aspects of motor control, including the integration of sensory input to ... This region is thought to be a comparator region, comparing actual with predicted sensory feedback. This experiment suggests ...
For example, in the columns, lower limb is medial, upper limb is more lateral. At the medial lemniscus, axons from the leg are ... The sensory neurons in this pathway are pseudounipolar, meaning that they have a single process emanating from the soma (also ... This crossing over is commonly referred to as the sensory decussation. At the medulla, the medial lemniscus is orientated ... Luria, V; Laufer, E (Jul 2, 2007). "Lateral motor column axons execute a ternary trajectory choice between limb and body ...
It includes sensory and motor nerves that innervate the upper limbs. The brachial plexus includes the last 4 cervical nerves ( ... A study has also shown that a sensory-motor deficit in the upper limbs after a brachial plexus injury can affect the corporal ... In a preganglionic lesion, the sensory fibre remain attached to the cell body of the sensory ganglion, thus there is no ... However, those who get this type of lesion has sensory loss over the affected nerve roots. In this case, surgical repair of the ...
Its limbs probably moved in sequence to produce a rippling motion. Although Canadaspis probably did not swim, this could have ... Its antennae served a sensory function. Spines on its head probably served to protect its vulnerable eyes from predators. ...
Athetosis can be secondary to sensory loss in the distal limbs; this is called pseudoathetosis in adults but is not yet proven ... In the 2nd century, Galen was the first to define tremor as "involuntary alternating up-and-down motion of the limbs." Further ... or sensory tricks), the awareness of the affected individual during the movement events, any urges to make the movements, and ... immobilization of limbs can induce dystonia, which is by definition known as peripherally induced dystonia. There are not many ...
This multi-sensory disintegration at the TPJ leads to OBEs. An electromagnetic stimulation to the right TPJ of an patient with ... So, if someone were to have a lesion in their rTPJ, then over time the awareness of the left limbs may fade without treatment. ... The brain integrates different sensory inputs to create a representation of one's body and its location in its surrounding. ... The author also states that these experiences are closely related to schizophrenia and phantom limb. Temporal order is the ...
Fidyka regained sensory and motor function in his lower limbs, notably on the side of the transplanted OEC's. Fidyka first ... If four limbs are affected by paralysis, tetraplegia or quadriplegia is the correct term. If only one limb is affected, the ... ASIA A being the complete loss of sensory function and motor skills below the injury. ASIA B is having some sensory function ... He is believed to be the first person in the world to recover sensory function from a complete severing of the spinal nerves. ...
2002). Sensory Abilities of Cetaceans: Laboratory and Field Evidence. 196. doi:10.1007/978-4899-0858-2. ISBN 978-1-4899-0860-5 ... Porpoises have a bulbous head, no external ear flaps, a non-flexible neck, a torpedo shaped body, limbs modified into flippers ... They have streamlined bodies and two limbs that are modified into flippers. Dall's porpoise is one of the fastest cetaceans ... Although porpoises do not possess fully developed hind limbs, they possess discrete rudimentary appendages, which may contain ...
The skeletal musculature is hypotonic due to destruction of the sensory limb of the spindle reflex. The deep tendon reflexes ... sensory modalities), tabetic gait (locomotor ataxia), progressive degeneration of the joints, loss of coordination, episodes of ...
... the sensory limb is mediated predominantly by CN IX (glossopharyngeal nerve) the motor limb by CN X (vagus nerve). The gag ... However, in that case, the sensory limb of the reflex is the CN V (trigeminal nerve). In very sensitive individuals, much more ... Generally a sensory receptor receives an environmental stimulus, in this case from objects reaching nerves in the back of the ... This is because the sensory component is intact on both sides, but only the motor nerves supplying one side of the soft ...
Sensory nerves are particularly sensitive to such damage; cases of persistent neuritis and compression neuropathy were reported ... the damage tends to be limited to upper limbs. Significant injury with erythema, blisters, pain, nerve damage and tissue ... Sensory nerves are particularly sensitive to microwave damage. Cases of persistent neuritis and compression neuropathy were ... A week later there was no paresthesia, motor weakness nor sensory deficit. An engineer replaced a woodpecker-damaged feed horn ...
Furthermore, sensory function of the hind limbs was present clinically and confirmed electrophysiologically. Further studies ...
On neurological examination during an attack, flaccid weakness of the limbs is noted; reflexes are usually diminished, but the ... sensory system is unaffected. Mental status is not affected. Attacks may be brought on by physical exertion, drinking alcohol, ... The weakness is usually symmetrical; the limb muscles closer to the trunk (proximal) are predominantly affected, and weakness ...
Furthermore, sensory function of the hind limbs was present clinically and confirmed electrophysiologically. Further studies. ...
Orthoses also help to improve the movement of ones joints, spine, or limbs. Sensory/Neurological adaptive equipment are used in ...
Sensory receptors in the stimulated body part send signals to the spinal cord along a sensory neuron. Within the spine a reflex ... There often is an opposite response of the opposite limb. Because this occurs automatically and independently in the spinal ...
Each of these three structures carries both sensory and motor information. Because each spinal nerve carries both sensory and ... The ventral rami supply the antero-lateral parts of the trunk and the limbs. They are mainly larger than the dorsal rami. ... One advantage to having plexuses is that damage to a single spinal nerve will not completely paralyze a limb. There are four ... This plexus innervates the pectoral girdle and upper limb. The lumbar plexus contains ventral rami from spinal nerves L1-L4. ...
Upper limb paralysis refers to the loss of function of the elbow and hand. When upper limb function is absent as a result of a ... The loss is usually sensory and motor, which means that both sensation and control are lost. Tetraparesis or quadriparesis, on ... Furthermore, the deficit in the limbs may not be the same on both sides of the body; either left or right side may be more ... The injury, which is known as a lesion, causes victims to lose partial or total function of all four limbs, meaning the arms ...
In phantom limb, the sensation is present in an amputated or absent limb, while dysesthesia refers to discomfort or pain in a ... It's typically seen in Dejerine-Roussy syndrome with hemi-sensory loss and severe dysesthesia of the affected area. Although ... It is caused by the improper innervation of the missing limbs by the nerves that would normally innervate the limb. Dysesthesia ... The dysesthetic tissue may also not be part of a limb, but part of the body, such as the abdomen. The majority of individuals ...
Such severed arms remain sensitive to stimuli and move away from unpleasant sensations.[100] Octopuses can replace lost limbs.[ ... The skin consists of a thin outer epidermis with mucous cells and sensory cells, and a connective tissue dermis consisting ... Octopuses offer many possibilities in biological research, including their ability to regenerate limbs, change the colour of ... also lacks tentacles but has sensory filaments.[113] ...
Lack of sense of touch is a fundamental problem for todays robotic prostheses. Considering that touch feedback plays a significant role in identifying con
Sensory Re-learning of the Upper Limb After Stroke. Official Title ICMJE SENSory Re-learning of the UPPer Limb After Stroke ( ... Sensory Re-learning of the Upper Limb After Stroke (SENSUPP). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... More than half of stroke survivors suffer from sensory impairments of their affected upper limb (UL), which can lead to long ... sensory impairments (≤5 points in Shape-Texture Identification test) of upper limb after stroke ...
Interventions for sensory impairment in the upper limb after stroke. Up to 80% of people who have a stroke experience sensory ... Sensory impairments significantly limit the ability to use the upper limb after stroke. However, little is known about the ... Interventions for sensory impairment in the upper limb after stroke. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 6. Art ... Outcome measures included 36 measures of sensory impairment and 13 measures of upper limb function. All but two studies had ...
Sensory feedback systems can improve gait performance of lower-limb amputees by providing information about the foot-ground ... Sensory Feedback System Lower Limb Amputation Stimulation Level Improve Gait Performance Correct Perception These keywords were ... Sensory feedback systems can improve gait performance of lower-limb amputees by providing information about the foot-ground ... A New Sensory Feedback System for Lower-Limb Amputees: Assessment of Discrete Vibrotactile Stimuli Perception During Walking. ...
Sensory Feedback for Touch and Proprioception With Prosthetic Limbs. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ...
Chronic phantom limb pain: the effects of calcitonin, ketamine, and their combination on pain and sensory thresholds.. ... Sensory assessments indicated that peripheral mechanisms are unlikely important determinants of phantom limb pain. Ketamine, ... Calcitonin was effective in a study of acute phantom limb pain, but it was not studied in the chronic phase. The overall ... Our results question the usefulness of calcitonin in chronic phantom limb pain and stress the potential interest of N-methyl-D- ...
... paresthesias and Emotional symptoms and Gait disorder and Variable sensory loss of lower limb, alternative diagnoses, rare ... Variable sensory loss of lower limb *Introduction: Variable sensory loss of lower limb *Variable sensory loss of lower limb: ... Variable sensory loss of lower limb*Introduction: Variable sensory loss of lower limb ... Variable sensory loss of lower limb: Remove a symptom Results: Causes of Back tingling/ paresthesias AND Emotional symptoms AND ...
Targeted muscle and sensory reinnervation (TMSR) is such an approach and consists of rerouting motor and sensory nerves from ... Functional connectivity in TMSR patients between upper limb maps in M1 and S1 was comparable with healthy controls, while being ... Moreover, they suggest that TMSR may counteract maladaptive cortical plasticity typically found after limb loss, in M1, ... We found that M1 maps of the amputated limb in TMSR patients were similar in terms of extent, strength, and topography to ...
2015/16 ICD-10-CM S44.50XA Injury of cutaneous sensory nerve at shoulder and upper arm level, unspecified arm, initial ... 2015/16 ICD-10-CM S54.30XA Injury of cutaneous sensory nerve at forearm level, unspecified arm, initial encounter ...
... News Feb 22, 2017 , Original Story From The ... Such systems however have limited precision due to the absence of sensory feedback from the artificial limb. Neuroscientists at ... A prosthetic limb directly controlled by brain activity can partially recover the lost motor function. This is achieved by ... "We wanted to test whether mice could learn to control a neural prosthesis by relying uniquely on an artificial sensory feedback ...
Exploring the factor on sensory motor function of upper limb associated with executive function in community-dwelling older ... adultsExploring the factor on sensory motor function of upper limb associated with executive function in community-dwelling ...
Relieving Phantom Limb Pain with Multimodal Sensory-Motor Training.. Relieving Phantom Limb Pain with Multimodal Sensory-Motor ... Transcriptional Reprogramming of Distinct Peripheral Sensory Neuron Subtypes after Axonal Injury. Renthal W, Tochitsky I, Yang ... Low-threshold mechanosensitive VGLUT3-lineage sensory neurons mediate spinal inhibition of itch by touch. ...
Subsequently, the patients right arm was amputated, and a phantom limb was experienced. Originally, stimuli applied to ... Sensory disorganization and perceptual plasticity after limb amputation: a follow-up study.. @article{Halligan1994SensoryDA, ... title={Sensory disorganization and perceptual plasticity after limb amputation: a follow-up study.}, author={Peter W. Halligan ... Phantom limb pain: a case of maladaptive CNS plasticity?. Herta Flor, Lone Nikolajsen, Troels Staehelin Jensen ...
NERI, Letícia Oliveira et al. Hind Limb Sensory Innervation in Rats: Comparison between Sural and Saphenous Nerve Morphometry. ... literature with information on the myelinated fibers morphometry from the two sensory nerves responsible for the rat hind limb ... Although numerous studies investigate sensory recovery of the hind paw of the rat after nerve damage, still no comprehensive ... better understanding of the possible contribution of collateral sprouting from the sural or saphenous nerves on the paw sensory ...
Reorganization in the primary sensorimotor cortex was found closely associated with phantom limb pain. Therefore, an approach ... known as phantom limb pain. Phantom pain can be extremely intractable and currently there are no effective, long-lasting ... Electrical Stimulation-Based Sensory Feedback in Phantom Limb Pain Treatment Author: Bo Geng, Center for Sensory-Motor ... Electrical Stimulation-Based Sensory Feedback in Phantom Limb Pain Treatment describes diverse features, existing treatments, ...
Neurotrophin-independent attraction of growing sensory and motor axons towards developing Xenopus limb buds in vitro ... Neurotrophin-independent attraction of growing sensory and motor axons towards developing Xenopus limb buds in vitro ...
PME aims to reactivate the original central and peripheral circuitry involved in motor control of the missing limb, along with ... PME aims to reactivate the original central and peripheral circuitry involved in motor control of the missing limb, along with ... Phantom limb pain (PLP) is a debilitating condition common after amputation that can considerably hinder patients quality of ... Phantom limb pain (PLP) is a debilitating condition common after amputation that can considerably hinder patients quality of ...
... such as a somatotopic sensory restitution scheme. We used transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) to induce referred ... sensory feedback is amongst the most important features lacking from commercial prostheses. Although restoration of touch by ... Sensory feedback in upper limb prosthetics. Expert review of medical devices 10, 45-54 (2013). ... Sensory stimulation enhances phantom limb perception and movement decoding *Luke E Osborn ...
Examination of sensory system of the lower limb ... Examination of sensory system of the lower limb) - ... Upper limb sensory system examination; Lower limb sensory system examination; ... Macleods Clinical Examination: With STUDENT ... GENERAL AND SYSTEMIC EXAMINATION ... upper limb and lower limb. 6.Reflex ... Examination Of Sensory System. 1.pain. 2.touch. 3. ... Examination of sensory system of the lower limb). Video Analysis for Macleods clinical examination(Examination of sensory ...
Epidural Spinal Cord Stimulation for Sensory Restoration and Phantom Limb Pain in Upper-Limb Amputees. *Phantom Limb ... Phantom Limb Pain: Efficacy of Non-invasive Sensory Feedback Through the Prosthesis. *Phantom Limb Pain ... Predicting Pain Response to Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Phantom Limb Pain in Limb Amputees. *Phantom Limb Pain ... Change from baseline of the phantom limb pain using a VAS. *Change from baseline of the Frequency of phantom limb pain episodes ...
People who have lost an arm or a leg often perceive the limb as though it were still there. Treating the pain of these ghostly ... This feeling could stem from the loss of sensory signaling from the limb to the neuromatrix. Without its usual sensory ... phantom limbs are a mystery only if we assume the body sends sensory messages to a passively receiving brain. Phantom limbs ... Their vivid sensory qualities and precise location in space--especially at first--make the limbs seem so lifelike that a ...
Progressive Lower Limb Weakness and Sensory Loss * Case Study by Rocio C. Garcia-Santibanez, MD, Radhika Sampat, DO, and Vita ... Sensory Neuronopathies * Journal Review by Kelly Graham Gwathmey, MD * Free Member CME! This Journal Review was featured as an ... Free CME for Members! - Dysferlin-deficient limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B, distal Miyoshi myopathy, are among a group ...
Sensory from chin, except angle of the jaw (C2-C3) • Innervates jaw muscles • Afferent and efferent limb of jaw jerk reflex ... Swallowing • Phonation and articulation • Efferent limb of gag reflex • Sensory from skin posterior to ear, external acoustic ... Primary sensory exam: peripheral sensory nerve tests (light touch, pain, temperature, vibration, proprioception) • Secondary ... CN IX is the afferent limb, CN X is the efferent limb of this reflex ǞǞ The gag reflex is normally only tested in patients with ...
Selective sensory response remains consistent in two upper-limb amputees for 1 and 2 years, the longest multi-contact sensory ... Stability and selectivity are important when restoring long-term, functional sensory feedback in individuals with limb-loss. ... clinical neural stimulation system for providing selective sensory response in two upper-limb amputees. ... Stability and selectivity of a chronic, multi-contact cuff electrode for sensory stimulation in human amputees.. Tan DW1, ...
Is expressed in several structures, including alimentary system; central nervous system; genitourinary system; limb; and ... sensory organ. Orthologous to human MEIS2 (Meis homeobox 2).. Go Annotations in Tabular Form (Text View) (GO Graph) Filter ...
  • We found that M1 maps of the amputated limb in TMSR patients were similar in terms of extent, strength, and topography to healthy controls and different from non-TMSR patients. (epfl.ch)
  • This unit covers the surface anatomy of the human brain, its internal structure, and the overall organization of sensory and motor systems in the brainstem and spinal cord. (coursera.org)
  • Here, we show that mice deleted for the tumour suppressor LKB1 (also called STK11 ) in the spinal cord, some parts of the brain and in the endocrine pancreas (βLKB1KO mice) develop hind-limb dysfunction and axon degeneration at about 7 weeks. (biologists.org)
  • Demyelination and macrophage infiltration are observed in the white matter of these mice, predominantly in the bilateral and anterior funiculi of the thoracic segment of the spinal cord, suggesting damage to the ascending sensory signalling pathway owing to LKB1 deletion in the brain. (biologists.org)
  • The gracile fasciculus (fasciculus gracilis or tract of Goll) is a bundle of axon fibers in the posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway of the spinal cord and carries information from the middle thoracic and lower limbs of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gracile fasiculus is one of many ascending tracts, which carry received sensory information to the brain via the spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • To identify the prevalence of diabetes-related lower-limb amputations and its regional variations in Australia. (mja.com.au)
  • Analysis of the National Hospital Morbidity Database of all hospital separations for the ICD codes 84.10-84.19 (lower-limb amputations) and 250.0-250.9 (diabetes and its complications) for the financial years 1995-96 to 1997-98. (mja.com.au)
  • Number of lower-limb amputations in people with diabetes mellitus in Australia, and in each State and Territory. (mja.com.au)
  • 7887 diabetes-related lower-limb amputations were reported during the study period, with a mean ± SD of 2629 ± 47 per year. (mja.com.au)
  • The National Diabetic Foot Disease Management Program, as part of the National Diabetes Strategy and Implementation Plan, 4 has called for a 50% reduction in lower-limb amputations by the year 2005. (mja.com.au)
  • 4 The aim of my study was to identify the prevalence of diabetes-related lower-limb amputations in Australia, as well as variations among States and Territories. (mja.com.au)
  • A total of 7887 diabetes-related lower-limb amputations (68.2% in men) were recorded as occurring in the three-year period, with an annual mean of 2629 ± 47 (SD) ( Box 1 ). (mja.com.au)
  • Now, EPFL scientists have used ultra-high field 7 Tesla fMRI to show how TMSR affects upper-limb representations in the brains of patients with amputations, in particular in primary motor cortex and the somatosensory cortex and regions processing more complex brain functions. (eurekalert.org)
  • The lab of Olaf Blanke at EPFL, in collaboration with Andrea Serino at the University Hospital of Lausanne and teams of clinicians and researchers in Switzerland and abroad have successfully mapped out these changes in the cortices of three patients with upper-limb amputations who had undergone TMSR and were proficient users of prosthetic limbs developed by Todd Kuiken and his group at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. (eurekalert.org)
  • we demonstrate here that LKB1 in certain brain areas is required for axon stability and normal hind-limb locomotor control. (biologists.org)
  • Therefore, replacing a lost limb with a robotic prosthesis is the subject of much research, yet successful outcomes are rare. (technologynetworks.com)
  • We wanted to test whether mice could learn to control a neural prosthesis by relying uniquely on an artificial sensory feedback signal", explains Mario Prsa, researcher at UNIGE and the first author of the study. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Little is known about how human perception is affected using an upper-limb prosthesis. (springer.com)
  • To shed light on this topic, we investigated how using an upper-limb prosthesis affects individuals' experience of object weight. (springer.com)
  • This may be, in part, because using an upper-limb prosthesis still leaves an amputee with impaired dexterity compared to preinjury levels (Cordella et al. (springer.com)
  • Despite the critical role that our hands play in this regard, almost no work has examined how the use of an upper-limb prosthesis might affect the hedonic perception of manually acquired properties such as object weight. (springer.com)
  • This sensory loss puts the arm at risk for injury and impacts functional use of the arm and the survivors' level of independence during daily activities. (cochrane.org)
  • Here we ask whether and how motor control and redirected somatosensory stimulation provided via TMSR affected the maps of the upper limb in primary motor (M1) and primary somatosensory (S1) cortex, as well as their functional connections. (epfl.ch)
  • To this aim, we tested three TMSR patients and investigated the extent, strength, and topographical organization of the missing limb and several control body regions in M1 and S1 at ultra high-field (7 T) functional magnetic resonance imaging. (epfl.ch)
  • Additionally, we analysed the functional connectivity between M1 and S1 and of both these regions with fronto-parietal regions, known to be important for multisensory upper limb processing. (epfl.ch)
  • Functional connectivity in TMSR patients between upper limb maps in M1 and S1 was comparable with healthy controls, while being reduced in non-TMSR patients. (epfl.ch)
  • Research shows that after a leg is amputated structural and functional changes occur in the part of the brain that previously supported the leg's motor and sensory functions. (dana.org)
  • Indeed, lower limb loss is associated with structural and functional brain changes. (dana.org)
  • The relative contribution of motor and sensory rehabilitation to overall functional recovery in chronic stroke needs further characterization in a larger, phase 2 study. (shu.ac.uk)
  • However, preservation of original mapping was again reduced in non-TMSR patients, showing that the TMSR procedure preserves strong functional connections between primary sensory and motor cortex. (eurekalert.org)
  • On follow up (7 months), the patient reflected on the motivating elements of the intervention that helped her to achieve a functional outcome in her upper limb. (austmta.org.au)
  • Early kinesiotherapy with stretching, active-free and active-assisted exercises for the upper limb (UL), helps preventing and managing pain symptoms, being indispensable tool to reestablish physical function and labor, social and functional reinsertion of these females 10,11 . (scielo.br)
  • Dynamic representational plasticity in sensory cortex. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Stability of Sensory Topographies in Adult Cortex. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Reorganization in the primary sensorimotor cortex was found closely associated with phantom limb pain. (riverpublishers.com)
  • In particular, we will focus on the connectivity patterns of the deprived sensorimotor cortex, the area that represents the residual (amputated) limb. (dana.org)
  • We would have to translate her neuronal activity into robot commands in just 300 milliseconds--the natural delay between the time Belle's motor cortex planned how she should move her limb and the moment it sent the instructions to her muscles. (rutgers.edu)
  • The approach was even able to identify maps of missing (phantom) fingers in the somatosensory cortex of the TMSR patients that were activated through the reinnervated skin regions from the chest or residual limb. (eurekalert.org)
  • The study also showed that TMSR is still in need of improvement: the connections between the primary sensory and motor cortex with the higher-level embodiment regions in fronto-parietal cortex were as weak in the TMSR patients as in the non-TMSR patients, and differed with respect to healthy subjects. (eurekalert.org)
  • Scientists do not yet know how connections between brain regions might change following limb loss, and how disruptions in the communication patterns between brain areas might relate to clinical outcomes. (dana.org)
  • Head past the break to watch videos documenting the clinical trials of both studies -- the arms in the clips aren't quite the life-like limbs DARPA promised back in 2006 , but they sure are mighty impressive. (engadget.com)
  • The results from these proof-of-concept cases provide the rationale for larger population studies investigating the clinical utility of neuroprostheses that restore sensory feedback. (nature.com)
  • The diagnosis of phantom limb is a clinical one. (encyclopedia.com)
  • There are no imaging or clinical tests useful in diagnosing phantom limb. (encyclopedia.com)
  • There are few controlled clinical studies on phantom limb treatment, and therefore no consensus on the best treatment. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This retrospective clinical case report will review the evidence with regard to FES and music therapy, outline the treatment protocol used and make recommendations for future research of "FES+ ThumbJam " in upper limb stroke rehabilitation. (austmta.org.au)
  • Next, we replicated this dissociation between real and illusory weight perception in a group of nonamputees who lifted the stimuli with an upper-limb myoelectric prosthetic simulator, again noting that the prosthetic users experienced illusory, but not real, weight differences as being weaker than controls. (springer.com)
  • Because the target users of the assistive-type lower extremity exoskeletons (ASLEEs) are those who suffer from lower limb disabilities, customized gait is adopted for the control of ASLEEs. (hindawi.com)
  • This unexpected result suggests that the two hemispheres of our brains are linked by previously unnoticed sensory pathways. (newscientist.com)
  • Ramachandran, however, argues that the new results show that there are connections between these sensory pathways that normally lie dormant. (newscientist.com)
  • One possibility is that they are among the many redundant neural connections which allow sensory information to be rerouted if the normal pathways are disrupted. (newscientist.com)
  • I have analysed these limb movements to define the ability of a locust to target stimulus sites correctly under a range of experimental conditions. (biologists.org)
  • The computation of limb trajectory takes into account the starting posture of the hindleg, so that different trajectories can be used to reach a common stimulus site from different starting postures. (biologists.org)
  • 2) Connections between the brain regions that support the lost limb and regions that are involved in self-oriented thoughts (called the "default mode network"), such as "How do I feel? (dana.org)
  • little is known regarding how lower limb loss impacts brain function and processing at the network level. (dana.org)
  • There is a whole population of autistic women over 40 who are encountering changes in their bodies, their metabolism, their sensory system, their hormones, and brain functioning. (hubpages.com)
  • If the brain of a living creature could accurately control two dissimilar robot arms--despite the signal noise and transmission delays inherent in our lab network and the error-prone Internet--perhaps it could someday control a mechanical device or actual limbs in ways that would be truly helpful to people. (rutgers.edu)
  • But how does the brain encode and integrate such artificial touch and movements of the prosthetic limb? (eurekalert.org)
  • Phantom limb is thought to be secondary to the brain plasticity and reorganization. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Neuroscience textbooks say that each half of the brain receives sensory input from just one side of the body-the left hemisphere handling information from the right half of the body, and vice versa. (newscientist.com)
  • The brain regions that receive sensory input from the hand are close to regions that receive information from the face, he notes. (newscientist.com)