An increased response to stimulation that is mediated by amplification of signaling in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS).
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A contact dermatitis due to allergic sensitization to various substances. These substances subsequently produce inflammatory reactions in the skin of those who have acquired hypersensitivity to them as a result of prior exposure.
A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
A type of acute or chronic skin reaction in which sensitivity is manifested by reactivity to materials or substances coming in contact with the skin. It may involve allergic or non-allergic mechanisms.
Allergic reaction to products containing processed natural rubber latex such as rubber gloves, condoms, catheters, dental dams, balloons, and sporting equipment. Both T-cell mediated (HYPERSENSITIVITY, DELAYED) and IgE antibody-mediated (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE) allergic responses are possible. Delayed hypersensitivity results from exposure to antioxidants present in the rubber; immediate hypersensitivity results from exposure to a latex protein.
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Skin tests in which the sensitizer is applied to a patch of cotton cloth or gauze held in place for approximately 48-72 hours. It is used for the elicitation of a contact hypersensitivity reaction.
Ground up seed of WHEAT.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.
Family of house dust mites, in the superfamily Analgoidea, order Astigmata. They include the genera Dermatophagoides and Euroglyphus.
Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.
Phthalic acid anhydrides. Can be substituted on any carbon atom. Used extensively in industry and as a reagent in the acylation of amino- and hydroxyl groups.
Pentacyclic triterpene saponins, biosynthesized from protoaescigenin and barringtogenol, occurring in the seeds of AESCULUS. It inhibits edema formation and decreases vascular fragility.
Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.
The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.
The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is an alternative method for the identification of chemicals that have the ability to cause skin sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis. Endpoints have been established so fewer animals are required and less painful procedures are used.
Beryllium. An element with the atomic symbol Be, atomic number 4, and atomic weight 9.01218. Short exposure to this element can lead to a type of poisoning known as BERYLLIOSIS.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Immunologic adjuvant and sensitizing agent.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
The caudal portion of the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), a nucleus involved with pain and temperature sensation.
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose similar to that found in hay fever except that symptoms persist throughout the year. The causes are usually air-borne allergens, particularly dusts, feathers, molds, animal fur, etc.
Skin tests in which the sensitizer is injected.
A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhaled rare metal BERYLLIUM or its soluble salts which are used in a wide variety of industry including alloys, ceramics, radiographic equipment, and vacuum tubes. Berylliosis is characterized by an acute inflammatory reaction in the upper airway leading to BRONCHIOLITIS; PULMONARY EDEMA; and pneumonia.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Allergic rhinitis that occurs at the same time every year. It is characterized by acute CONJUNCTIVITIS with lacrimation and ITCHING, and regarded as an allergic condition triggered by specific ALLERGENS.
Defense mechanisms involving approach and avoidance responses to threatening stimuli. The sensitizing process involves intellectualization in approaching or controlling the stimulus whereas repression involves unconscious denial in avoiding the stimulus.
Immunosuppression by the administration of increasing doses of antigen. Though the exact mechanism is not clear, the therapy results in an increase in serum levels of allergen-specific IMMUNOGLOBULIN G, suppression of specific IgE, and an increase in suppressor T-cell activity.
Irritants and reagents for labeling terminal amino acid groups.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The POLLEN is one cause of HAYFEVER.
A skin irritant that may cause dermatitis of both primary and allergic types. Contact sensitization with DNCB has been used as a measure of cellular immunity. DNCB is also used as a reagent for the detection and determination of pyridine compounds.
Allergic reaction to peanuts that is triggered by the immune system.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Substances found in PLANTS that have antigenic activity.
A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.
Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
A hapten that generates suppressor cells capable of down-regulating the efferent phase of trinitrophenol-specific contact hypersensitivity. (Arthritis Rheum 1991 Feb;34(2):180).
Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
Antigens from the house dust mites (DERMATOPHAGOIDES), mainly D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus. They are proteins, found in mite feces or mite extracts, that can cause ASTHMA and other allergic diseases such as perennial rhinitis (RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, PERENNIAL) and atopic dermatitis (DERMATITIS, ATOPIC). More than 11 groups of Dermatophagoides ALLERGENS have been defined. Group I allergens, such as Der f I and Der p I from the above two species, are among the strongest mite immunogens in humans.
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.
A pruritic papulovesicular dermatitis occurring as a reaction to many endogenous and exogenous agents (Dorland, 27th ed).
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Disorders related or resulting from use of amphetamines.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.
An in vitro allergen radioimmunoassay in which allergens are coupled to an immunosorbent. The coupled allergens bind the IgE in the sera of patients which in turn binds radioisotope-labeled anti-IMMUNOGLOBULIN E antibodies.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE. The tree has smooth, resinous, varicolored or white bark, marked by horizontal pores (lenticels), which usually peels horizontally in thin sheets.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.
Drugs that act on neuronal sensory receptors resulting in an increase, decrease, or modification of afferent nerve activity. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p367)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Sensing of noxious mechanical, thermal or chemical stimuli by NOCICEPTORS. It is the sensory component of visceral and tissue pain (NOCICEPTIVE PAIN).
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
A bundle of NERVE FIBERS connecting each posterior horn of the spinal cord to the opposite side of the THALAMUS, carrying information about pain, temperature, and touch. It is one of two major routes by which afferent spinal NERVE FIBERS carrying sensations of somaesthesis are transmitted to the THALAMUS.
A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
Tests or bioassays that measure the skin sensitization potential of various chemicals.
A transmembrane-protein belonging to the TNF family of intercellular signaling proteins. It is a widely expressed ligand that activates APOPTOSIS by binding to TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND RECEPTORS. The membrane-bound form of the protein can be cleaved by specific CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES to form a soluble ligand form.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D1-class receptor genes lack INTRONS, and the receptors stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
An evanescent cutaneous reaction occurring when antibody is injected into a local area on the skin and antigen is subsequently injected intravenously along with a dye. The dye makes the rapidly occurring capillary dilatation and increased vascular permeability readily visible by leakage into the reaction site. PCA is a sensitive reaction for detecting very small quantities of antibodies and is also a method for studying the mechanisms of immediate hypersensitivity.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A recurrent contact dermatitis caused by substances found in the work place.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE known for the edible nuts.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Species of European house dust mite, in the family PYROGLYPHIDAE. It is the most commonly found house dust mite.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
A plant family of the order Fagales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. They have simple, serrate, alternate leaves. Male flowers are borne in long, pendulous catkins; the female in shorter, pendulous or erect catkins. The fruit is usually a small nut or a short-winged samara.
Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.
A plant genus of the family URTICACEAE which is the most common cause of pollinosis in Mediterranean countries. It is the source of 'allergen Par o I' and of Pollinex used for DESENSITIZATION, IMMUNOLOGIC.
An acquired disorder characterized by recurrent symptoms, referable to multiple organ systems, occurring in response to demonstrable exposure to many chemically unrelated compounds at doses below those established in the general population to cause harmful effects. (Cullen MR. The worker with multiple chemical sensitivities: an overview. Occup Med 1987;2(4):655-61)
Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.
A phosphoprotein phosphatase that is specific for MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. It is composed of three subunits, which include a catalytic subunit, a myosin binding subunit, and a third subunit of unknown function.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Allergic reaction to tree nuts that is triggered by the immune system.
The outer part of the hearing system of the body. It includes the shell-like EAR AURICLE which collects sound, and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL, the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE, and the EXTERNAL EAR CARTILAGES.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Gloves, usually rubber, worn by surgeons, examining physicians, dentists, and other health personnel for the mutual protection of personnel and patient.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
A genus of nematodes of the superfamily ASCARIDOIDEA. Its organisms are found in the stomachs of marine animals and birds. Human infection occurs by ingestion of raw fish that contain larvae.
The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
Allergic reaction to milk (usually cow's milk) or milk products. MILK HYPERSENSITIVITY should be differentiated from LACTOSE INTOLERANCE, an intolerance to milk as a result of congenital deficiency of lactase.
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.
Recirculating, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells containing characteristic racket-shaped granules (Birbeck granules). They are found principally in the stratum spinosum of the EPIDERMIS and are rich in Class II MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecules. Langerhans cells were the first dendritic cell to be described and have been a model of study for other dendritic cells (DCs), especially other migrating DCs such as dermal DCs and INTERSTITIAL DENDRITIC CELLS.
Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.
A general term indicating inflammation of a peripheral or cranial nerve. Clinical manifestation may include PAIN; PARESTHESIAS; PARESIS; or HYPESTHESIA.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
The contamination of indoor air.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
Assistants to a veterinarian, biological or biomedical researcher, or other scientist who are engaged in the care and management of animals, and who are trained in basic principles of animal life processes and routine laboratory and animal health care procedures. (Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
A plant family of the order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta (conifers). They are mainly resinous, aromatic evergreen trees.
A condition associated with the use of certain medications and characterized by an internal sense of motor restlessness often described as an inability to resist the urge to move.
Chemical compounds derived from acids by the elimination of a molecule of water.
Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
A plant family of the order Lamiales. The leaves are usually opposite and the flowers usually have four sepals, four petals, two stamens, and two fused carpels that form a single superior ovary.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. It is divided cytoarchitectonically into three parts: oralis, caudalis (TRIGEMINAL CAUDAL NUCLEUS), and interpolaris.
Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.
A condition characterized by infiltration of the lung with EOSINOPHILS due to inflammation or other disease processes. Major eosinophilic lung diseases are the eosinophilic pneumonias caused by infections, allergens, or toxic agents.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
Sensitization[edit]. Sensitization can occur through the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract and possibly the skin.[30] ... Damage to the skin in conditions such as eczema has been proposed as a risk factor for sensitization.[31] An Institute of ... Medicine report says that food proteins contained in vaccines, such as gelatin, milk, or egg can cause sensitization ( ... "Atopic Dermatitis and Disease Severity Are the Main Risk Factors for Food Sensitization in Exclusively Breastfed Infants" ...
Central sensitization[edit]. After nerve damage or repeated stimulation, WDR (wide dynamic range) neurons experience a general ... Central sensitization of the dorsal horn neurons that is evoked from C fiber activity is responsible for temporal summation of ... C fibers cause central sensitization of the dorsal horn in the spinal cord in response to their hyperactivity.[5] The mechanism ... This abnormal central sensitization cycle results in increased pain (hyperalgesia) and pain responses from previously non- ...
Central sensitization[edit]. Central sensitization is a potential component of neuropathic pain. It refers to a change in ... Rr, Ji; T, Kohno; Ka, Moore; Cj, Woolf (December 2003). "Central Sensitization and LTP: Do Pain and Memory Share Similar ... "Central Sensitization: A Generator of Pain Hypersensitivity by Central Neural Plasticity". The Journal of Pain. 10 (9): 895- ...
Habituation and sensitization[edit]. Habituation and sensitisation are two simple, but widespread, forms of learning. ... A set of defensive behavior patterns in larval Manduca sexta is described and shown to undergo sensitization following noxious ... Sensitization is another form of learning in which the progressive amplification of a response follows repeated administrations ... Pinsker, H.M.; Hening, W.A.; Carew, T.J.; Kandel, E.R. (1973). "Long-term sensitization of a defensive withdrawal reflex in ...
cross-sensitization Yes. Not applicable. Yes. Yes. Attenuated. Attenuated. [1] Psychostimulant. self-administration ↑. ↑. ↓. ↓ ...
cross-sensitization Yes. Not applicable. Yes. Yes. Attenuated. Attenuated. [36] Psychostimulant. self-administration ↑. ↑. ↓. ↓ ... Cross-sensitization is also bidirectional, as a history of amphetamine administration facilitates sexual behavior and enhances ... the role of dopamine signaling in incentive-sensitization processes has recently been highlighted by the observation of a ...
van Ketel W, van den Berg W (1990). "Sensitization to povidone-iodine". Dermatol Clin. 8 (1): 107-9. doi:10.1016/S0733-8635(18) ...
Kagen, S; Kurup, V; Sohnle, P; Fink, J (1983). "Marijuana smoking and fungal sensitization". Journal of Allergy and Clinical ...
Cunliffe, W. J.; Burke, B. (1982-01-01). "Benzoyl peroxide: lack of sensitization". Acta Dermato-Venereologica. 62 (5): 458-459 ... Leyden, James J.; Kligman, Albert M. (1977), "Contact sensitization to benzoyl peroxide", Contact Dermatitis, 3 (5): 273-75, ... In a 1977 study using a human maximization test, 76% of subjects acquired a contact sensitization to benzoyl peroxide. ...
Second, the heightened sensitisation may also become chronic, persisting well beyond the tissues healing. This can mean that ... This means the sensitisation process is sometimes termed maladaptive. It is often suggested hyperalgesia and allodynia assist ... In the long-term, they also show heightened sensitisation at the site of the injury and a reduced threshold to showing escape ... Crook, R.J., Hanlon, R.T. and Walters, E.T. (2013). "Squid have nociceptors that display widespread long-term sensitization and ...
July 1979). "Human sensitization to Ganoderma antigen". J Allergy Clin Immunol. 64 (1): 43-49. doi:10.1016/0091-6749(79)90082-4 ... thus demonstrating the high incidence of fungal sensitisation in individuals with suspected allergies.[27] It has been found ...
They are sensitization, bewilderment and fear. She explained that so much nervous illness is no more than severe sensitization ...
No sensitization potential has been observed.[6] See also[edit]. *2-Pyrrolidone ...
Tom Kraft; David Kraft (2005). "Covert sensitization revisited: six case studies". Contemporary Hypnosis. 22 (4): 202-209. doi: ...
Many of the behaviorism programs use covert sensitization and/or odor aversion: both are forms of aversion therapy, which have ... International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, 2(2), 266-275 BAO Rea, J. (2003). Covert Sensitization. The ...
"Orphanet: Autoerythrocyte sensitization syndrome". www.orpha.net. Retrieved 21 April 2019. James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G ... synd/3229 at Who Named It? GARDNER FH, DIAMOND LK (July 1955). "Autoerythrocyte sensitization; a form of purpura producing ... Painful bruising syndrome (also known as "autoerythrocyte sensitization", "Gardner-Diamond syndrome", and "psychogenic purpura ... "Autoerythrocyte sensitization syndrome (Gardner-Diamond syndrome): review of the literature**". Journal of the European Academy ...
synd/3229 at Who Named It? GARDNER FH, DIAMOND LK (July 1955). "Autoerythrocyte sensitization; a form of purpura producing ...
Types of behavior therapy used to change sexual orientation include aversion therapy, covert sensitization and systematic ... Cautela, Joseph R. (1967). "Covert Sensitization". Psychology Report. 20 (2): 464-65. doi:10.2466/pr0.1967.20.2.459. PMID ... "Controlled Comparison of Aversive Therapy and Covert Sensitization in Compulsive Homosexuality". Behavior Response & Therapy. ...
Simpson A, Custovic A (2005). "Pets and the development of allergic sensitization". Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 5 (3): 212-20. doi ...
doi:10.1016/0272-7358(91)90119-F. Rea, J. (2003). Covert Sensitization (PDF). The Behavior Analyst Today. 4. pp. 192-204. ...
Gender Sensitization Cell • English Literacy Society • English Debating Society These societies were established with the ...
May cause sensitisation by inhalation R43. May cause sensitisation by skin contact ...
Sorg, Barbara A. (1999). "Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: Potential Role for Neural Sensitization". Critical Reviews in ...
The sensitization rate to the product is 0.7%.[17] Interactions[edit]. The iodine in PVP-I reacts with hydrogen peroxide, ... Niedner R (1997). "Cytotoxicity and sensitization of povidone-iodine and other frequently used anti-infective agents". ...
2007). "Novel mechanism of activation of NADPH oxidase 5. calcium sensitization via phosphorylation". J. Biol. Chem. 282 (9): ...
Sensitization and desensitization are more likely to occur with long-term exposure, although they may occur after only a single ... this is called sensitization. Conversely, overstimulation of receptors for a particular neurotransmitter may cause a decrease ...
I. Boileau; A. Dagher; M. Leyton; R. N. Gunn; G. B. Baker; M. Diksic; C. Benkelfat (2006). "Modeling Sensitization to ... "Behavioral sensitization in humans". J Addict Dis. 20 (3): 55-65. doi:10.1300/J069v20n03_06. PMID 11681593. ...
... is enacted through a process known as gender sensitization. Gender sensitization promotes equality for men ... 2019). Gender Sensitization: Raising Your Kids In A Gender-Neutral Environment. Retrieved from Business World Education. ... Therefore, teachers are in a position to teach children about gender sensitization through how they conduct their classroom and ... Retrieved from MEASURE Evaluation (USAID). Barodia, S. (2015). Gender Sensitization and Education. International Journal of ...
van Ketel WG, van den Berg WH (January 1990). "Sensitization to povidone-iodine". Dermatologic Clinics. 8 (1): 107-9. doi: ...
Cross-sensitization[edit]. Cross-sensitization is a phenomenon in which sensitization to a stimulus is generalized to a related ... reward sensitization to a particular addictive drug often results in reward cross-sensitization, which entails sensitization to ... After this sensitization, a light touch to the siphon alone produced a strong gill withdrawal response, and this sensitization ... For other uses, see Sensitization (disambiguation).. Sensitization is a non-associative learning process in which repeated ...
sensitization (sen-si-ty-*zay*-shŏn) n.* *1.* alteration of the responsiveness of the body to the presence of foreign ... sensitization (sen-si-ty-zay-shŏn) n. 1. alteration of the responsiveness of the body to the presence of foreign substances. In ... The phenomena of sensitization are due to the production of antibodies.. 2. (in behaviour therapy) a form of aversion therapy ... sensitization 1. (of a cell) The alteration of the integrity of a plasma membrane resulting from the reaction of specific ...
NIOSH also conducts genetic research on sensitization and CBD.. Final Document. NIOSH Alert: Preventing Sensitization and ... One of the major goals of this research is to prevent sensitization and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) by developing a better ... Draft NIOSH Alert, Preventing Chronic Beryllium Disease and Beryllium Sensitization; 02/01/08pdf icon [PDF - 6,146 KB] ...
The nervous system sensitization process is usually triggered by something that is perceived as a threat. The trigger can be an ... The sensitization process is usually triggered by something that is perceived as a threat. The trigger can be an accident, an ... Normally, this wind-up sensitization process is self-regulating. But sometimes the system goes haywire and the nervous system ... https://www.healthcentral.com/article/nervous-system-sensitization. Pain Management. Nervous System Sensitization. Christina ...
Topics: methomyl; Denmark; dermatitis; eczema; flower and perfume-plant growing; pesticides; plants; sensitization dermatitis; ...
sensitization synonyms, sensitization pronunciation, sensitization translation, English dictionary definition of sensitization ... sensitization - rendering an organism sensitive to a serum by a series of injections. sensitising, sensitizing, sensitisation ... sensitization - the state of being sensitive (as to an antigen). sensitisation. irritation - (pathology) abnormal sensitivity ... sensitization. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Idioms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. sen·si·tize. (sĕn′sĭ-tīz′). v. sen·si·tized ...
Upon sensitization with PN/CT, GF mice exhibit significantly increased levels of PN-specific IgE and IgG1 relative to mice ... 2014) The role of commensal bacteria in the regulation of sensitization to food allergens. FEBS Lett doi:10.1016/j.febslet. ... To assess sensitization to food, splenocytes harvested after allergen challenge were restimulated in vitro with anti-CD3 or PN ... Commensal bacteria protect against food allergen sensitization. Andrew T. Stefka, Taylor Feehley, Prabhanshu Tripathi, Ju Qiu, ...
Definition of autoerythrocyte sensitization syndrome. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical ... autoerythrocyte sensitization syndrome. Definition: a condition, usually occurring in women, in which the person bruises easily ...
... or solutions from beryllium-containing materials may develop beryllium sensitization or chronic beryllium disease, a ... Preventing Sensitization and Disease from Beryllium Exposurepdf icon [PDF 673.91 KB] ... or solutions from beryllium-containing materials may develop beryllium sensitization or chronic beryllium disease, a ...
... reward sensitization to a particular addictive drug often results in reward cross-sensitization, which entails sensitization to ... Cross-sensitization is a phenomenon in which sensitization to a stimulus is generalized to a related stimulus, resulting in the ... After this sensitization, a light touch to the siphon alone produced a strong gill withdrawal response, and this sensitization ... such as sensitization to the locomotor response of a stimulant resulting in cross-sensitization to the motor-activating effects ...
In brief, the etiology and subsequent development of PTSD is viewed as the result of the sensitization of fear/anxiety which is ... Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Sensitization Autonomic Conditioning Abuse and Neglect This is a preview of subscription content ... It argues that PTSD can be adequately accounted for by a process of emotional sensitization and that this is a more ...
We searched the related article on PubMed database and Cochrane database to discover central sensitization pathway in ... These mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia may be involved in the alleviation of central sensitization. ... thus modifying central sensitization. The possible mechanisms underlying the analgesic effects of acupuncture include segmental ... Pain can trigger central amplification called central sensitization, which ultimately results in hyperalgesia and/or allodynia ...
These properties of meningeal afferents (chemosensitivity and sensitization) may contribute to the intracranial mechanical ... One possible basis for such symptoms would be a sensitization of meningeal afferents to mechanical stimuli. Previous studies of ... Sensitization of meningeal sensory neurons and the origin of headaches. *A. M. Strassman1,2, ... Strassman, A., Raymond, S. & Burstein, R. Sensitization of meningeal sensory neurons and the origin of headaches. Nature 384, ...
Sensitization is an example of non-associative learning. Sensitization may also refer to: Sensitization (immunology), a concept ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Sensitization. If an internal link led you here, you may wish ... the creation of galvanic corrosion cells within the microstructure of an alloy Drug sensitization, also called Reverse ...
This immune system response is called Rh sensitization.. What causes Rh sensitization during pregnancy?. Rh sensitization can ... Who gets Rh sensitization during pregnancy?. Rh sensitization during pregnancy can only happen if a woman has Rh-negative blood ... What is Rh sensitization during pregnancy?. If you are Rh-negative, your red blood cells do not have a marker called Rh factor ... How is Rh sensitization prevented?. If you have Rh-negative blood but are not Rh-sensitized, your doctor will give you one or ...
Mechanisms of human insulin resistance and thiazolidinedione-mediated insulin sensitization. D. D. Sears, G. Hsiao, A. Hsiao, J ... Mechanisms of human insulin resistance and thiazolidinedione-mediated insulin sensitization. D. D. Sears, G. Hsiao, A. Hsiao, J ... TZD-induced insulin-sensitization (observed in IRd+ subjects but not IRd− subjects) correlated with normalization of these ... TZD-induced insulin sensitization in responder (IRd+) subjects was associated with improved insulin-regulated gene expression. ...
Background: Detection of specific IgE antibodies against food materials indicates allergic sensitization. Some very widely ... Garlic and onion sensitization among Saudi patients screened for food allergy: A hospital based study. *Almogren A ... Conclusion: The presence of garlic and onion specific IgE antibodies in a sizeable number of patients indicate sensitization ... Almogren, A., Shakoor, Z., & Adam, M. H. (2013). Garlic and onion sensitization among Saudi patients screened for food allergy ...
P. Y. Reddy, L. Giribabu, C. Lyness et al., "Efficient sensitization of nanocrystalline TiO. 2. films by a near-IR-absorbing ... J. He, G. Benko, F. Korodi et al., "Modified phthalocyanines for efficient near-IR sensitization of nanostructured TiO. 2. ... M. D. K. Nazeeruddin, R. Humphry-Baker, M. Grätzel, and B. A. Murrer, "Efficient near IR sensitization of nanocrystalline TiO. ... Bridged Phthalocyanine Systems for Sensitization of Nanocrystalline TiO2 Films. Gloria Zanotti,1 Nicola Angelini,2 Sara ...
A complex interplay of genetic predisposition and environmental influences results in the clinical picture of allergic asthma. This article addresses recently identified genetic markers and environmental factors that contribute to disease development in asthma. Focus is placed on aspects of the innate immune system, including inherent properties of allergens, the active role of airway epithelium, and the central importance of dendritic cells together with the pathophysiological processes in which these factors interact. Implications of these processes for asthma therapy, with a focus on anti-IgE treatment are also discussed ...
Im not sure I understand, though, what central sensitization means in terms of treatment. Does anyone know if central ... Does anyone know if central sensitization can be treated? I asked my doctor and he responded sort of vaguely that narcotics ... Im not sure I understand, though, what central sensitization means in terms of treatment. ...
Read our Rh Sensitization During Pregnancy encyclopedia resources online. ... This immune system response is called Rh sensitization.. What causes Rh sensitization during pregnancy?. Rh sensitization can ... Rh Sensitization During Pregnancy. Topic Overview. What is Rh sensitization during pregnancy?. If you are Rh-negative, your red ... Who gets Rh sensitization during pregnancy?. Rh sensitization during pregnancy can only happen if a woman has Rh-negative blood ...
... and skin exposure may be contribute to early sensitization, according to a study in mice led by Mount Sinai researchers... ... Sensitization through skin exposure may contribute to early risk for food allergies. Published on October 11, 2014 ... These findings suggest that skin exposure to food allergens contributes to sensitization to foods in early life. ... sensitization, which means the skin is reactive to an antigen, such as peanuts, especially by repeated exposure. ...
Allergen sensitization through the skin induces systemic allergic responses. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2000;106(5 suppl):S258- ... Epidermal barrier dysfunction and cutaneous sensitization in atopic diseases. Akiharu Kubo,1,2 Keisuke Nagao,1 and Masayuki ... Percutaneous sensitization through insufficient SC barrier. LC activation induced by SC barrier perturbation. In contrast to ... To induce epicutaneous sensitization to protein antigens in mice, the tough SC barrier needs to be mechanically impaired by ...
Sensitization to the alpha-Gal carbohydrate has been notoriously difficult to measure in patients, said Dr. Lakiea Wright, MD ... FDA Clears First Blood Test for Identifying a Novel Allergic Sensitization to Red Meat Thermo Fisher Scientifics ImmunoCAP ... Test results can aid specialists and other healthcare providers as they diagnose a patients sensitization to the alpha-Gal ... The condition can appear in patients who have tolerated meat for many years, with researchers believing that sensitization to ...
Mechanisms of Passive Sensitization. II. Presence of Receptors for IgE on Monkey Mast Cells. Hisao Tomioka and Kimishige ... E myeloma protein was injected intracutaneously into monkey skin to produce passive sensitization. The sensitized and ... and that E myeloma protein combines with the same cells upon passive sensitization. IgG was detected on neutrophil granulocytes ...
Kalyanasundaram K., Grätzel M. (1999) Efficient Photovoltaic Solar Cells Based on Dye Sensitization of Nanocrystalline Oxide ... Efficient Photovoltaic Solar Cells Based on Dye Sensitization of Nanocrystalline Oxide Films. ...
Reward sensitization: effects of repeated nicotine exposure and withdrawal in mice.. Hilario MR1, Turner JR, Blendy JA. ... Reward Sensitization: Effects of Repeated Nicotine Exposure and Withdrawal in Mice. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012 Nov;37(12): ... Reward Sensitization: Effects of Repeated Nicotine Exposure and Withdrawal in Mice. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012 Nov;37(12): ... Reward Sensitization: Effects of Repeated Nicotine Exposure and Withdrawal in Mice. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012 Nov;37(12): ...
The role of glutamate receptor redistribution in locomotor sensitization to cocaine.. Ferrario CR1, Li X, Wang X, Reimers JM, ... The magnitude of sensitization did not vary with changes in the level of AMPAR surface expression, nor was it significantly ... Locomotor sensitization is expressed at a time when AMPAR surface expression in the NAc has been decreased by earlier cocaine ... Locomotor sensitization is expressed on withdrawal day 14 (WD14), when AMPAR surface expression is enhanced in the NAc. Data ...
Ca2+ sensitization markedly changed the shape of ventricular action potentials, resulting in shorter effective refractory ... Thus, myofilament Ca2+ sensitization represents a heretofore unrecognized arrhythmia mechanism. The protective effect of ... the risk of developing ventricular tachycardia was directly proportional to the degree of Ca2+ sensitization caused by the ...
The aim of this study was to establish whether there is a risk of sensitization and allergy to chlorhexidine from this type of ... Is there a risk of sensitization and allergy to chlorhexidine in health care workers?. *Garvey L ...
  • Early in the process of developing an allergy, skin exposure to food allergens contributes to 'sensitization', which means the skin is reactive to an antigen, such as peanuts, especially by repeated exposure. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • We identify a bacterial community that protects against sensitization and describe the mechanism by which these bacteria regulate epithelial permeability to food allergens. (pnas.org)
  • In a collaboration among the Jaffe Food Allergy Institute, The Mindich Child Health and Development Institute, Immunology Institute, and Tisch Cancer Institute at The Mount Sinai Hospital, researchers exposed mice to peanut protein extract on the skin and observed that repeated topical exposure to peanut allergens led to sensitization and a severe, whole-body allergic reaction upon a second exposure. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • These findings suggest that skin exposure to food allergens contributes to sensitization to foods in early life. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The tests can help identify allergic sensitization to common environmental allergens - seasonal and perennial, outdoor and indoor- as well as common food allergens such as peanut, egg and milk. (prnewswire.com)
  • Logistic regression models, controlling for urine specific gravity, parental allergic disease, maternal education, and household income, were fitted for allergic sensitization (either skin prick test positivity or serum-specific IgE ≥ 0.35 kU/l to at least one of 15 evaluated inhalant and food allergens), current rhinitis, and current asthma (questionnaire and exercise challenge test). (ovid.com)
  • Triclosan concentrations were associated with allergic sensitization, especially inhalant and seasonal allergens, rather than food allergens. (ovid.com)
  • 10.5 months) was significantly directly associated with sensitization to food allergens. (aappublications.org)
  • In models that included all solid foods that were significantly related to the end points, eggs, oats, and wheat remained the most important foods related to sensitization to food allergens, whereas potatoes and fish were the most important foods associated with inhalant allergic sensitization. (aappublications.org)
  • Late introduction of solid foods was associated with increased risk of allergic sensitization to food and inhalant allergens. (aappublications.org)
  • Experimental in silico, in vitro, and rodent models for screening and predicting protein sensitizing potential are discussed, including whether there is evidence of new sensitizations and allergies since the introduction of genetically modified crops in 1996, the importance of linear versus conformational epitopes, and protein families that become allergens. (unl.edu)
  • The researchers found that GDF exposure correlated with a doubled risk of sensitization to mites, but not other allergens, after adjustment for confounders. (medicalxpress.com)
  • To assess whether the severity of asthma is associated with sensitisation to airborne moulds rather than to other seasonal or perennial allergens. (bmj.com)
  • Sensitisation to airborne allergens might be involved in the underlying mechanisms of severity. (bmj.com)
  • However, the associations between sensitisation to different allergens and the severity of asthma have been poorly explored. (bmj.com)
  • A more in-depth understanding on mechanistic details of the Adverse-Outcome-Pathway of skin sensitization could contribute key data for a robust conclusion on skin sensitization. (mdpi.com)
  • The DPRA (OECD 442C) is an in chemico assay that models the first key event in the skin sensitization Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) - skin, protein reactivity. (iivs.org)
  • KeratinoSens TM and LuSens are cell-based reporter gene assays that model the second key event in the Adverse Outcome Pathway for Dermal Sensitization, namely keratinocyte activation. (iivs.org)
  • More specifically, it addresses the activation of dendritic cells, which is one Key Event on the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) for Skin Sensitisation. (oecd.org)
  • Vienna, 22 August 2017) For patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), house dust mites (HDMs) may act as carriers for immunoglobulin E (IgE) sensitization to microbial antigens, according to a study published online July 25 in Allergy. (meduniwien.ac.at)
  • House dust mites as potential carriers for IgE sensitisation to bacterial antigens. (meduniwien.ac.at)
  • The antigen specificity of this oral tolerance could be demonstrated by the concomitant use of sensitization and challenge procedures for nickel and chromium. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to define the frequency and determinants of pregnancy-induced child-specific sensitization shortly after full-term delivery using sensitive single HLA-antigen beads (SAB) and high resolution HLA-typing of the mothers and their children (n = 301). (wiley.com)
  • These novel findings suggest that components of GDF may act as adjuvants that facilitate sensitization to mites, and that mite-sensitized individuals may be especially susceptible to inhalant occupational exposures," the authors write. (medicalxpress.com)
  • We searched the related article on PubMed database and Cochrane database to discover central sensitization pathway in acupuncture analgesia. (hindawi.com)
  • Previous studies of neuronal responses to meningeal stimulation have focused primarily on cells in the central portion of the trigeminal pathway, and have not investigated the possible occurrence of sensitization 4-12 . (nature.com)
  • His studies on the basic mechanisms involved in the development of inflammatory hyperalgesia led to the discovery that a select class of analgesics like metamizole, in contrast to the classical non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs, are able to counteract the ongoing sensitization of the primary sensory neuron via the stimulation of the arginine/nitric oxide pathway. (paperrater.com)
  • After sensitization, very little stimulation may be required to produce seizures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hyperalgesia (increased pain sensitivity) and allodynia (pain production induced by a nonnociceptive stimulation) are the two main characteristics of central sensitization [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Several examples of neural sensitization include: Electrical or chemical stimulation of the rat hippocampus causes strengthening of synaptic signals, a process known as long-term potentiation or LTP. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reduced severity of LIDs in the absence of subthalamic nucleus stimulation demonstrates that the sensitization phenomenon resulting from long-term intermittent levodopa administration is partially reversible. (nih.gov)
  • Indeed, the widespread use of strong electric shock to induce sensitization (an enhancement of withdrawal reflexes following noxious stimulation) is completely unnatural and leaves unanswered the question of whether this simple form of learning has any ecological relevance. (jneurosci.org)
  • Sensitization is a simple form of learning in which behavioral responses are enhanced following strong or biologically significant stimulation. (jneurosci.org)
  • NMDA sensitization and stimulation by peroxynitrite, nitric oxide, and organic solvents as the mechanism of chemical sensitivity in multiple chemical sensitivity. (ei-resource.org)
  • Effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation in Relation to Central Sensitization in Patients With Osteoarthritis of the Knee: a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Determination of skin sensitization potential is a critical toxicological endpoint in the safety assessment of new chemicals. (iivs.org)
  • Although the Guinea Pig Maximization Test (GPMT) and in vivo Local Lymph Node assay (LLNA) have traditionally been used to assess skin sensitization, recent activity has focused on the development of novel non-animal assays for this endpoint. (iivs.org)
  • Respiratory sensitisation gains increasing importance in EU regulations as an endpoint driving restrictive measures. (ecetoc.org)
  • The present Key Event based Test Guideline (TG) addresses the human health hazard endpoint skin sensitisation, following exposure to a test chemical. (oecd.org)
  • The researchers found that compared to AD patients without HDM sensitization, IgE-reactivity to bacterial antigens was significantly more frequent in AD patients sensitized to HDMs. (meduniwien.ac.at)
  • HDMs may serve as carriers of bacteria responsible for the induction of IgE sensitization to microbial antigens," the authors write. (meduniwien.ac.at)
  • Some mismatched paternal HLA-antigens led to a significantly higher rate of sensitization than the average (e.g. (wiley.com)
  • Sensitization may be produced by bacterial and viral antigens and toxins, by chemical substances (including many medicinal agents), and by industrial poisons. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In "central sensitization," nociceptive neurons in the dorsal horns of the spinal cord become sensitized by peripheral tissue damage or inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, central sensitization is due to a nociceptive input that results in a persistent increase in the excitability and synaptic effect of neurons in the nociceptive pathways of the CNS, and this phenomenon maintains a persistent state of heightened reactivity [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The lamina I and lamina V neurons of the spinal cord as well as the thalamus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex are involved in central sensitization [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore, central sensitization is due to a persistent state of high reactivity of nociceptive afferent neurons in the CNS. (hindawi.com)
  • Such sensitization involves changes in brain mesolimbic dopamine transmission, as well as a protein inside mesolimbic neurons called delta FosB. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nociceptor inputs can trigger a prolonged but reversible increase in the excitability and synaptic efficacy of neurons in central nociceptive pathways, the phenomenon of central sensitization. (painscience.com)
  • Sensitization of spinal cord nociceptive neurons with a conjugate of substance P and cholera toxin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • At higher doses (10 microg) peripheral sensitivity is suppressed suggesting that descending inhibitory pathways may be activated by the SP-CTA induced sensitization of spinal cord neurons. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Furthermore, these results demonstrate that SP-CTA can be used as a tool to study sensitization of central neurons in vivo in the absence of an injury. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This paper examines the hypothesis that they are at risk for latex sensitisation, and that part of the sharp increase of childhood asthma, eczema and anaphylaxis within the past thirty to forty years may be linked. (positivehealth.com)
  • Irrespective of mite sensitization, GDF was independently associated with eczema but not rhinitis. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Is there a risk of sensitization and allergy to chlorhexidine in health care workers? (mendeley.com)
  • The aim of this study was to establish whether there is a risk of sensitization and allergy to chlorhexidine from this type of exposure. (mendeley.com)
  • In this review, the relation between atopic sensitization as an indicator of allergy and asthma in childhood will be discussed. (frontiersin.org)
  • The period between the initial entry of an allergen into the body and the development of increased sensitivity to the allergen (this condition is called an allergy) is defined as the sensitization period. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • HealthDay)-Occupational exposure to gas, dust, and fumes (GDF) increases the risk of mite sensitization, and is associated with asthma and wheeze in those who are mite-sensitized, according to a study published online Jan. 30 in Allergy . (medicalxpress.com)
  • Sensitization has been implied as a causal or maintaining mechanism in a wide range of apparently unrelated pathologies including addiction, allergies, asthma, overactive bladder and some medically unexplained syndromes such as fibromyalgia and multiple chemical sensitivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The capacity to prevent new sensitizations, and to modify the evolution of the disease from the rhinitis to asthma are two important features of AIT. (intechopen.com)
  • Cross sectional studies, carried out in different countries, failed to show any firm correlation between asthma and atopic sensitization. (frontiersin.org)
  • Birth cohort mainly of infants at high risk for asthma and case-control studies showed that atopic sensitization was a risk factor for current asthma in children older than 6 years. (frontiersin.org)
  • How important is allergic sensitization as a cause of atopic asthma? (nii.ac.jp)
  • Severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS) is an increasingly common diagnosis which is seen in about 4-8% of adult asthmatics with a potential worldwide total among children and adults of over 6.5 million (Denning 2015, Overton, Simpson et al. (knowthecause.com)
  • Regional differences in the prevalence of asthma and allergic sensitization in adults 1 , 2 , in childhood 3 , and the increase in asthma prevalence in many Western countries over recent decades 4 , highlight the need for a greater understanding of the risk factors for asthma and allergic sensitization. (ersjournals.com)
  • The effect of GDF on asthma was modified by mite sensitization. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The frequency of sensitisation to moulds ( Alternaria alternata or Cladosporium herbarum , or both) increased significantly with increasing asthma severity (odds ratio 2.34 (95% confidence interval 1.56 to 3.52) for either for severe v mild asthma). (bmj.com)
  • There was no association between asthma severity and sensitisation to pollens or cats. (bmj.com)
  • Sensitisation to moulds is a powerful risk factor for severe asthma in adults. (bmj.com)
  • The associations between exposure, sensitisation, and asthma have suggested that house dust mite, 1 2 animal dander, 3 4 cockroaches, 5 pollens, 6 and mould spores 7 have a causal role in development. (bmj.com)
  • Sensitisation to moulds has been suggested as a risk factor for life threatening asthma. (bmj.com)
  • These mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia may be involved in the alleviation of central sensitization. (hindawi.com)
  • However, the mechanisms by which TZD-induced gene expression changes lead to insulin sensitization or by which TZD-induced insulin sensitization is prevented are poorly understood. (pnas.org)
  • Studies of the neural mechanisms of learning, especially of sensitization, have benefitted from extensive research on the model species, Aplysia californica (hereafter Aplysia ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Considering this volume of literature on mechanisms, it is surprising that our understanding of the ecological context of sensitization in Aplysia is completely lacking. (jneurosci.org)
  • One of the most widely used model species for the study of the mechanisms of sensitization is the opisthobranch mollusk, Aplysia californica (hereafter Aplysia ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Curcumin pre-treatment enhances chemo/radio-sensitization in A2780CP ovarian cancer cells through multiple molecular mechanisms. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Next, recent work on the developmental impacts of adolescent antipsychotic sensitization and tolerance is presented and recent research that delineates the neurobiological mechanisms of antipsychotic sensitization and tolerance is summarized. (unl.edu)
  • Understanding the behavioral characteristics and neurobiological underpinnings of antipsychotic sensitization and tolerance has greatly enhanced our understanding of mechanisms of antipsychotic action, and may have important implications for future drug discovery and clinical practice. (unl.edu)
  • A process called sensitization has become a topic of great interest to neuroscientists studying transmission mechanisms of painful stimuli. (erikdalton.com)
  • Pregnancy-induced sensitization has been reported in the range of 10-40% using CDC-methodology or solid-phase assays [ 6-10 ]. (wiley.com)
  • Central sensitization is defined as "an amplification of neural signaling within the central nervous system (CNS) that elicits pain hypersensitivity" [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Central sensitization manifests as pain hypersensitivity, particularly dynamic tactile allodynia, secondary punctate or pressure hyperalgesia, aftersensations, and enhanced temporal summation. (painscience.com)
  • Studies in clinical cohorts reveal changes in pain sensitivity that have been interpreted as revealing an important contribution of central sensitization to the pain phenotype in patients with fibromyalgia, osteoarthritis, musculoskeletal disorders with generalized pain hypersensitivity, headache, temporomandibular joint disorders, dental pain, neuropathic pain, visceral pain hypersensitivity disorders and post-surgical pain. (painscience.com)
  • The comorbidity of those pain hypersensitivity syndromes that present in the absence of inflammation or a neural lesion, their similar pattern of clinical presentation and response to centrally acting analgesics, may reflect a commonality of central sensitization to their pathophysiology. (painscience.com)
  • An important question that still needs to be determined is whether there are individuals with a higher inherited propensity for developing central sensitization than others, and if so, whether this conveys an increased risk in both developing conditions with pain hypersensitivity, and their chronification. (painscience.com)
  • This immune response involves proinflammatory cytokines that may induce central sensitization and contribute to pain hypersensitivity. (painweek.org)
  • Unlike immunization, sensitization is produced by minimal amounts of a sensitizing heterologous serum or some other heterologous protein and by chemical substances with low molecular weights, including medicines. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • More than one species are implicated, although sensitisation and exposure to D. pteronyssinus predominates. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Sensitisation to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was also positively associated with severity. (bmj.com)
  • Contamination or adulteration of the dyes with para-phenylendiamine has been identified as major cause of active sensitization and elicitation of severe allergic contact dermatitis. (aappublications.org)
  • These properties of meningeal afferents (chemosensitivity and sensitization) may contribute to the intracranial mechanical hypersensitivity that is characteristic of some types of clinically occurring headaches, and may also contribute to the throbbing pain of migraine. (nature.com)
  • This mouse model for the assay of nickel hypersensitivity was used for oral tolerance studies by administrating non-toxic doses of nickel sulfate in drinking water or intragastrically prior to sensitization. (nih.gov)
  • Tokyo, June 20, 2019 - FUJIFILM Corporation (President: Kenji Sukeno) announces that Amino acid Derivative Reactivity Assay (ADRA), an alternative skin sensitization test developed by Fujifilm has recently been adopted in the OECD (Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development) test Guidelines *1 for evaluating the safety of chemical substances. (fujifilm.com)
  • We have uniquely characterized coordinated cellular and tissue functional pathways that are characteristic of insulin resistance, TZD-induced insulin sensitization, and potential TZD responsiveness. (pnas.org)
  • Skin sensitization is the result of a series of biochemical "Key Events" (KEs) that involve covalent binding of (generally electrophilic) compounds to cellular proteins (KE1), activation of various pathways within skin cells (KE2) and priming of the immune system (KE3) that results in an allergic response upon repeat exposure to the substance. (iivs.org)
  • Drug-induced neuroplasticity, such as functional changes of striatal dopamine D 2 and prefrontal serotonin (5-HT) 2A receptors and their mediated signaling pathways, in principle, is responsible for antipsychotic sensitization and tolerance. (unl.edu)
  • the dose varies for different animals, depending on the means and pathways of sensitization in the animal. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The difficult-to-treat problem of phantom limb pain is consciously actualized by persistent activation (sensitization) of the pain transmission pathways from the site of amputation up to the brain. (erikdalton.com)
  • Microarray analysis of intestinal epithelial cells from gnotobiotic mice revealed a previously unidentified mechanism by which Clostridia regulate innate lymphoid cell function and intestinal epithelial permeability to protect against allergen sensitization. (pnas.org)
  • Workers exposed to particles, fumes, mists, or solutions from beryllium-containing materials may develop beryllium sensitization or chronic beryllium disease, a potentially disabling or even fatal respiratory disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Rising disease prevalence over a short period cannot be explained by genetic variation alone, renewing interest in the role of the environment in shaping allergic sensitization to food ( 2 , 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • The neural basis of behavioral sensitization is often not known, but it typically seems to result from a cellular receptor becoming more likely to respond to a stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, cross-sensitization to the neural and behavioral effects of addictive drugs are well characterized, such as sensitization to the locomotor response of a stimulant resulting in cross-sensitization to the motor-activating effects of other stimulants. (wikipedia.org)
  • These studies leave unanswered the question of what stimuli in the natural environment of Aplysia might cause sensitization, and whether sensitization induced by such stimuli could have unique behavioral and mechanistic elements undetected by studies using electric shock. (jneurosci.org)
  • TNF-alpha exerts a wide array of immediate and proactive (sensitization) neuroendocrine and neurochemical effects that may be fundamental in understanding the behavioral consequences of such treatments. (mcmaster.ca)
  • In this review, clinical evidence of the behavioral aspect of antipsychotic sensitization and tolerance is selectively reviewed, followed by an overview of preclinical literature that examines these behavioral characteristics and the related pharmacological and nonpharmacological factors. (unl.edu)
  • The association between age at the introduction of solid foods and allergic sensitization was analyzed by using logistic regression. (aappublications.org)
  • One of the major goals of this research is to prevent sensitization and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) by developing a better understanding of the exposure factors and work processes associated with increased risk for workers, and to develop effective interventions that will reduce the risk for adverse health effects. (cdc.gov)
  • Home / Test Division / Reference Database / 1970 to 1979 / 1971 / Effects of differential anxiety level and the repression-sensitization dimension in. (umn.edu)
  • One possible basis for such symptoms would be a sensitization of meningeal afferents to mechanical stimuli. (nature.com)
  • A differential diagnosis of proximal to distal tissues as well as central sensitization symptoms will be reviewed. (cvent.com)
  • Mite allergic patients are exposed to high mite allergen concentrations, exceeding previously established risk levels for sensitisation and symptoms. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We investigated whether triclosan exposure was associated with allergic sensitization and symptoms in 10-year-old Norwegian children. (ovid.com)
  • Previously, these tests have been carried out on animals such as guinea pigs and mice, but in recent years, in accordance with the 3R principles *2 for minimizing animal testing, it has become increasingly common to evaluate skin sensitization by using a combination of multiple alternative methods that focus on the various symptoms of the allergic reaction process. (fujifilm.com)
  • A broad scientific review on available evidence on thresholds in respiratory sensitisation would support discussions by risk assessors and risk managers on how to assess and regulate respiratory sensitisers. (ecetoc.org)
  • An ample body of scientific evidence associates exposure to nickel in traditional forms with risk of respiratory and skin sensitization. (cdc.gov)
  • Is there a risk of sensitization and alle. (mendeley.com)
  • The immediate question raised by the case study is this: Other factors being equal, notably in this instance the uncontrolled nature of the worker's exposure as described by the authors, does exposure to nickel nanoparticle powder increase the risk of sensitization above the risk posed by exposure to traditional forms? (cdc.gov)
  • He said that the sensitisation was meant to re-emphasise the need for those who have not obtained their PVC to go and register before the end of the exercise because by the end of August 17, 2018, exercise would be shut down until after the 2019 general elections. (sunnewsonline.com)
  • The changes of central sensitization occur after repeated trials to pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • What Is Central Sensitization? (healthcentral.com)
  • As our understanding of the profound influence of commensal microbes on the maturation of the immune system has grown, more recent iterations of this hypothesis have supported the idea that alterations in the composition of the intestinal microbiota induced by environmental factors (e.g., antibiotics, diet, vaccination, sanitation) play a central role in the regulation of allergic sensitization ( 5 ⇓ - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Pain can trigger central amplification called central sensitization, which ultimately results in hyperalgesia and/or allodynia. (hindawi.com)
  • We summarized that acupuncture enhances the descending inhibitory effect and modulates the feeling of pain, thus modifying central sensitization. (hindawi.com)
  • In its vicious cycle, a pain stimulus itself can trigger the central amplification of pain, called central sensitization, and ultimately cause hyperalgesia [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Central sensitization is due to an enhanced response of the CNS, which causes the development of hyperalgesia [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Altered membrane excitability, reduced inhibitory transmission, and increased synaptic efficacy contribute to the development of central sensitization. (hindawi.com)
  • I'm not sure I understand, though, what 'central sensitization' means in terms of treatment. (ic-network.com)
  • Does anyone know if central sensitization can be treated? (ic-network.com)
  • Central sensitization: Implications for the diagnosis and treatment of pain. (painscience.com)
  • That sensitization is called "central sensitization" because it involves changes in the central nervous system (CNS) in particular - the brain and the spinal cord. (painscience.com)
  • For a much more detailed summary of this paper, see Central Sensitization in Chronic Pain . (painscience.com)
  • Diagnostic criteria to establish the presence of central sensitization in patients will greatly assist the phenotyping of patients for choosing treatments that produce analgesia by normalizing hyperexcitable central neural activity. (painscience.com)
  • Nevertheless, discovering the genetic and environmental contributors to and objective biomarkers of central sensitization will be highly beneficial, as will additional treatment options to prevent or reduce this prevalent and promiscuous form of pain plasticity. (painscience.com)
  • Fibromyalgia, a central nervous system disorder, is described as a "central sensitization syndrome" caused by neurobiological abnormalities which act to produce physiological pain and cognitive impairments as well as neuro-psychological symptomatology. (paperrater.com)
  • Triacylglycerol 50:2 was significantly higher in participants with peripheral and central sensitization compared to the nonsensitized cluster. (ovid.com)
  • The nonsensitized cluster had significantly higher levels of phosphoglyceride 34:2, plasmenyl phosphocholine 38:1, and phosphatidic acid 28:1 compared to participants with peripheral and central sensitization. (ovid.com)
  • Characterizing classes of fibromyalgia within the continuum of central sensitization syndrome. (prohealth.com)
  • Davis F, Gostine M, Roberts B, Risko R, Cappelleri JC, Sadosky A. Characterizing classes of fibromyalgia within the continuum of central sensitization syndrome. (prohealth.com)
  • Individuals with versus without cluster headache were found to have lower cranial and extracranial pressure pain thresholds, indicating central sensitization, according to a study published in Pain Medicine . (painmed.org)
  • Central sensitization has recently been documented in patients with knee osteoarthritis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • So far, the presence of central sensitization has not been considered as a confounding factor in studies assessing the pain inhibitory effect of TENS on osteoarthritis of the knee. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Second, to explore the prognostic value of central sensitization on the pain inhibitory effect of TENS in Oak patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Sensitization has the innate ability to alter all regions of the central nervous system that process pain messages. (erikdalton.com)
  • Which of the following disorders is/are considered to be central sensitization pain syndromes? (mdedge.com)
  • Cross-sensitization is a phenomenon in which sensitization to a stimulus is generalized to a related stimulus, resulting in the amplification of a particular response to both the original stimulus and the related stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LIDs) in patients with Parkinson's disease are considered to result from the severity of dopaminergic denervation in the striatum, which is an irrevocable phenomenon, and sensitization induced by long-term intermittent administration of levodopa. (nih.gov)
  • He recently characterized a phenomenon described as retrograde sensitization of the primary sensory neuron, which emphasizes the importance of the peripheral component of the inflammatory pain. (paperrater.com)
  • For the concept in immunology, see Sensitization (immunology) . (wikipedia.org)
  • Sensitization may also refer to: Sensitization (immunology), a concept in immunology Sensitization effect, the creation of galvanic corrosion cells within the microstructure of an alloy Drug sensitization, also called Reverse tolerance "Sensitized", a song by Kylie Minogue from X Sensitivity (disambiguation) Sensitizer (disambiguation) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Sensitization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sensitization to para-phenylendiamine and other para-compounds was excluded by patch test evaluation. (aappublications.org)
  • Therefore, pretransplant evaluation of renal allograft recipients includes a sensitization history and a thorough analysis of HLA-antibodies in current and remote sera [ 1 ]. (wiley.com)
  • It is also well described, that pregnancy-induced HLA-antibodies can diminish over time and, thus, sensitization can be undetectable at the time of evaluation for transplantation [ 4-6 ]. (wiley.com)
  • We show here that sensitization to a food allergen is increased in mice that have been treated with antibiotics or are devoid of a commensal microbiota. (pnas.org)
  • Reward sensitization: effects of repeated nicotine exposure and withdrawal in mice. (nih.gov)
  • In mice expressing troponin T mutants that cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in humans, the risk of developing ventricular tachycardia was directly proportional to the degree of Ca2+ sensitization caused by the troponin T mutation. (jci.org)
  • We describe clear and reproducible sensitization to nickel in mice reared under nickel-free conditions. (nih.gov)
  • Effect of influenza virus infection on allergic sensitization to aerosolized ovalbumin in mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • At that time, he proposed that the mechanism of the analgesic action of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID) was due to the prevention of pain receptor sensitization which results from an inhibition of the synthesis of prostaglandins. (paperrater.com)
  • From neglected diseases to neglected populations : to reach the un-reached: report of the regional sensitization workshops on implementation of integrated disease prevention and control interventions. (who.int)
  • The Department of Prosthodontics and the Department of Public Health Dentistry of Amrita School of Dentistry, Kochi, conducted Amritasmitham - The tribal outreach program "Tobacco cessation & Community Sensitisation", from September 1 to 2, 2016. (amrita.edu)
  • In this context, the knowledge about skin sensitization potential is an explicit need for both hazard and risk assessment. (mdpi.com)
  • It is based on two earlier theories of MCS: the elevated nitric oxide/peroxynitrite theory and the neural sensitization theory. (ei-resource.org)
  • E myeloma protein was injected intracutaneously into monkey skin to produce passive sensitization. (jimmunol.org)
  • Evidence was obtained that both mast cells and basophil granulocytes contain monkey IgE, and that E myeloma protein combines with the same cells upon passive sensitization. (jimmunol.org)
  • This method allows for the controllable reduction in the degree of sensitization (DOS) by varying at least one of the following electron beam parameters: voltage, current density, pulse duration, pulse frequency, and total number of pulses. (navy.mil)
  • The number of live birth was associated with a higher frequency of sensitization, which was driven by child-specific, but not third party HLA-antibodies. (wiley.com)
  • Therefore, knowledge on the frequency and determinants of child-specific HLA-antibody production soon after delivery could be very helpful to better assess the likelihood of pregnancy-induced sensitization even in the absence of HLA-antibodies in current sera. (wiley.com)
  • However, these studies had some limitations, which can under- or overestimate the frequency of sensitization. (wiley.com)
  • This association existed in all of the study areas (gathered into regions), although there were differences in the frequency of sensitisation. (bmj.com)
  • Daily intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (energy adjusted) was positively associated with sensitization prevalence (OR=1.59, p=0.035). (ersjournals.com)
  • Our study demonstrates that Salvinorin A inhibits airway hyperreactivity induced by sensitization by inhibition of LT production and mast cell degranulation. (frontiersin.org)
  • This altered sensitivity is the result of a peripheral neuropathy, the exact pathophysiological mechanism of which is not yet established, and is independent of allergic contact sensitization. (lww.com)
  • HealthDay)-Individuals with prior Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GB) have blunted β-cell sensitivity to changes in glycemia, according to a study published online Nov. 20 in Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Sensitization is the increase in sensitivity to a drug after prolonged use. (paperrater.com)
  • The results of an ecological correlation study comparing the mean daily intake of selected dietary constituents and the prevalence of allergic sensitization in adults in Europe is presented. (ersjournals.com)
  • Inverse associations between the prevalence of allergic sensitization and the energy adjusted intake of fruit were found (odds ratio (OR)=0.68, p=0.034). (ersjournals.com)
  • Conclusion: The presence of garlic and onion specific IgE antibodies in a sizeable number of patients indicate sensitization and allergenic potential of these food materials. (mendeley.com)
  • The general principles of the origin and development of sensitization have been studied using active sensitization to allergenic serum as an example. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • [10] This type of sensitization has been suggested as a possible causal mechanism for chronic pain conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • This document supersedes document Guidance on the Content and Format of Premarket Notification [510(k)] Submissions for Testing for Skin Sensitization To Chemicals In Natural Rubber Products February 13, 1998. (fda.gov)
  • A discussion of sensitization might help somatic practitioners better understand why a client's chronic pain can be so severe, but in some cases, seem out of proportion to the degree of injury or disease in the affected body tissues. (erikdalton.com)
  • The purpose of this research was to identify plasma lipids that discriminate participants with acute low back pain with or without pain sensitization as measured by quantitative sensory testing. (ovid.com)
  • Sensitization is a non-associative learning process in which repeated administration of a stimulus results in the progressive amplification of a response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Covert sensitization is one of a group of behavior therapy procedures classified as covert conditioning, in which an aversive stimulus in the form of a nausea- or anxiety-producing image is paired with an undesirable behavior to change that behavior. (minddisorders.com)
  • In brief, the etiology and subsequent development of PTSD is viewed as the result of the sensitization of fear/anxiety which is linked to a variety of to be conditional stimuli by both backward and forward association: these become conditional stimuli (CSi) once paired with the instigating circumstances. (springer.com)