Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Contrast Sensitivity: The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: An acquired disorder characterized by recurrent symptoms, referable to multiple organ systems, occurring in response to demonstrable exposure to many chemically unrelated compounds at doses below those established in the general population to cause harmful effects. (Cullen MR. The worker with multiple chemical sensitivities: an overview. Occup Med 1987;2(4):655-61)Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Mice, Inbred C57BLPeptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Glucose Clamp Technique: Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques: Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Mice, Inbred BALB CDiagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Diagnostic Tests, Routine: Diagnostic procedures, such as laboratory tests and x-rays, routinely performed on all individuals or specified categories of individuals in a specified situation, e.g., patients being admitted to the hospital. These include routine tests administered to neonates.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Immunologic Tests: Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Reagent Strips: Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Baroreflex: A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Visual Field Tests: Method of measuring and mapping the scope of vision, from central to peripheral of each eye.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Point-of-Care Systems: Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Adaptation, Ocular: The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Latex Fixation Tests: Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.

Analysis of gabapentin in serum and plasma by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for therapeutic drug monitoring. (1/50409)

A simple method for the determination of gabapentin (Neurontin) is described. The method uses solid-phase extraction by disk column and derivatization followed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis. The single-step derivatization with MTBSTFA produces a t-BDMS derivative of both the carboxylic and amine moieties of the molecule. Each step of the procedure was optimized to assure reliable performance of the method. The assay limit of detection was 0.1 microg/mL with a linear range from 1.0 to 35 microg/mL. Within-run (n = 3) and between-run (n = 40) coefficients of variation were less than 8.2 and 15.9%, respectively. The method has proven reliable in routine production for more than a year, producing clean chromatography with unique ion fragments, consistent ion mass ratios, and no interferences. Statistical analysis of the gabapentin concentrations measured in 1020 random specimens over a 2-month period showed a mean concentration of 6.07 microg/mL with a standard deviation of 5.28.  (+info)

Solid-phase microextraction for cannabinoids analysis in hair and its possible application to other drugs. (2/50409)

This paper describes the application of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) to cannabis testing in hair. Fifty milligrams of hair was washed with petroleum ether, hydrolyzed with NaOH, neutralized, deuterated internal standard was added and directly submitted to SPME. The SPME was analyzed by GC-MS. The limit of detection was 0.1 ng/mg for cannabinol (CBN) and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 0.2 ng/mg for cannabidiol (CBD). THC was detected in a range spanning from 0.1 to 0.7 ng/mg. CBD concentrations ranged from 0.7 to 14.1 ng/mg, and CBN concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 ng/mg. The effectiveness of different decontamination procedures was also studied on passively contaminated hair. The proposed method is also suitable for the analysis of methadone in hair; cocaine and cocaethylene can be detected in hair with SPME extraction after enzymatic hydrolysis.  (+info)

Highly sensitive quantitation of methamphetamine by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay using a new europium chelate as a label. (3/50409)

A simple and highly sensitive time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of methamphetamine (MA) using a new fluorescent europium chelate (BHHCT-Eu3+) as a label is described. Two variations of competitive immunoassay were attempted. In the first (one-step) assay, microtiter plates coated with anti-MA were used, and the new label was bound to a conjugate of bovine serum albumin and N-(4-aminobutyl)-MA (MA-BSA). In the second (two-step) assay, instead of the labeled MA-BSA, biotinylated MA-BSA and BHHCT-Eu3+-labeled streptavidin-BSA were used. The lowest measurable concentrations of MA for the one-step and the two-step methods were 1 ng/mL (25 pg/assay) and 1 pg/mL (25 fg/assay), respectively. These were 10 to 1000 times superior to the detection limits of MA in any other immunoassay. Intra-assay coefficient of variation was approximately 2-8% at eight different concentrations (n = 4). Analysis of 34 urine samples with the new method and conventional gas chromatography showed a good correlation (r = 0.954). The high detectability of the present assay also enabled segmental hair analysis with a few centimeters of a hair.  (+info)

Semiautomated preparation of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol in human urine using a Zymate XP laboratory robot with quantitative determination by gas chromatography-negative-ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry. (4/50409)

A rapid and sensitive semiautomated method was developed for quantitation of the chlorpyrifos metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) in human urine. A Zymark Zymate XP laboratory robotics system was used to mix urine samples, transfer aliquots, add the stable-isotope-labeled TCP internal standard (13C2- or 13C2,15N-), and liberate conjugates of TCP from urine via acid hydrolysis. Samples were manually extracted into toluene, derivatized, and analyzed by gas chromatography-negative-ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Determination of the metabolic TCP was performed by selected ion monitoring of the dichloropyridinol fragment ions: m/z 161 for TCP and m/z 165 for 13C2-TCP or m/z 168 for 13C2,15N-TCP. Interday precision and accuracy were demonstrated over 3 years of analyses using the 13C2-TCP internal standard, with an average recovery from fortified urine samples of 93+/-12% (N = 54, concentration range 1-140 ng/mL). The method was found to be linear over the range of 0.5 to 200 ng/mL, and the limit of detection for TCP in urine was estimated to be 0.2 ng/mL with a limit of quantitation of 1 ng/mL. The effect of solids distribution on the concentration of TCP in the thawed urine samples was examined, and the results indicated that homogeneous distribution is critical for quantitation. The precision and accuracy of the automated method with respect to the transfer of homgeneous urine aliquots and delivery of internal standard yielded equivalent or improved results over the manual techniques. Overall, this method is more simple than existing methodologies, and it yields results with improved precision, accuracy, and sensitivity over previously developed methods.  (+info)

Identification and quantification of cocaine N-oxide: a thermally labile metabolite of cocaine. (5/50409)

In this article, we report the identification and quantitation of cocaine N-oxide (CNO), a thermally labile oxidative metabolite, from both animal and human samples. The concentration of CNO is similar to the concentrations of cocaine in the samples analyzed. The technique used for the determination of CNO in this study is liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, which is necessary because CNO is converted to cocaine upon heating. This includes simple heating of aqueous solutions to temperatures in excess of 100 degrees C and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), in which CNO is converted to cocaine in the injection port. The thermal conversion of CNO to cocaine is estimated to cause an over-reporting of cocaine levels by 10-20% when using GC-MS.  (+info)

Hybrid capture II, a new sensitive test for human papillomavirus detection. Comparison with hybrid capture I and PCR results in cervical lesions. (6/50409)

AIM: To test a new assay for the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA, hybrid capture II (HC II), compared with the previous commercialized hybrid capture I (HC I) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results on cervical scrapes from fresh cone excision biopsy samples. METHODS: The three methods were used on cervical scrapes from 42 fresh cone excision biopsy samples. There were nine metaplastic and inflammatory lesions, five low grade lesions, and 28 high grade lesions. PCR was performed using the general primers GP5+/GP6+. The viral load of high risk HPV DNA was estimated by the ratio of relative light units to positive control values in the samples. RESULTS: The sensitivity of HC I for the detection of high grade lesions was 71.4%, while it was 92.8% for HC II and 96.4% for the PCR. Considering only the absence of detectable cervical in situ neoplasia, the specificity was 88.9% for HC I, 66.7% for HC II, and 66.7% for PCR. With HC II, for a ratio of cervical sample to normal control of > 200, the sensitivity for the detection of high grade lesion was only 34.6% with a specificity of 66.7%. CONCLUSIONS: HPV detection with the HC II assay is more sensitive than the previous HC I and represents a more convenient and easier test than PCR for routine use. Nevertheless the viral load estimated with this test cannot be a reliable predictive indicator of high grade lesions.  (+info)

Comparative efficacy of positron emission tomography with FDG and computed tomographic scanning in preoperative staging of non-small cell lung cancer. (7/50409)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of positron emission tomography with 2-fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (PET-FDG) in the preoperative staging (N and M staging) of patients with lung cancer. The authors wanted to compare the efficacy of PET scanning with currently used computed tomography (CT) scanning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Results of whole-body PET-FDG imaging and CT scans were compared with histologic findings for the presence or absence of lymph node disease or metastatic sites. Sampling of mediastinal lymph nodes was performed using mediastinoscopy or thoracotomy. RESULTS: PET-FDG imaging was significantly more sensitive, specific, and accurate for detecting N disease than CT. PET changed N staging in 35% and M staging in 11% of patients. CT scans helped in accurate anatomic localization of 6/57 PET lymph node abnormalities. CONCLUSION: PET-FDG is a reliable method for preoperative staging of patients with lung cancer and would help to optimize management of these patients. Accurate lymph node staging of lung cancer may be ideally performed by simultaneous review of PET and CT scans.  (+info)

Screening for congenital heart malformation in child health centres. (8/50409)

BACKGROUND: Although screening for congenital heart malformations is part of the child health care programme in several countries, there are very few published evaluations of these activities. This report is concerned with the evaluation of this screening at the Dutch Child Health Centres (CHC). METHODS: All consecutive patients, aged between 32 days and 4 years, presented at the Sophia Children's Hospital Rotterdam throughout a period of 2 years, with a congenital heart malformation were included in this study. Paediatric cardiologists established whether or not these patients were diagnosed after haemodynamic complications had already developed (diagnosed 'too late'). Parents and CHC-physicians were interviewed in order to establish the screening and detection history. Test properties were established for all patients with a congenital heart malformation (n = 290), intended effects of screening were established in patients with clinically significant malformations (n = 82). RESULTS: The sensitivity of the actual screening programme was 0.57 (95% CI : 0.51-0.62), the specificity 0.985 (95% CI : 0.981-0.990) and the predictive value of a positive test result 0.13 (95% CI: 0.10-0.19). Sensitivity in a subpopulation of patients adequately screened was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.74-0.96). Adequately screened patients were less likely to be diagnosed 'too late' than inadequately screened patients (odds ratio [OR] = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.04-1.05). The actual risk of being diagnosed 'too late' in the study-population (48%) was only slightly less than the estimated risk for patients not exposed to CHC-screening (58%, 95% CI: 43%-72%). Adequately screened patients however were at considerably less risk (17%, 95% CI: 4%-48%). CONCLUSION: Screening for congenital heart malformations in CHC contributes to the timely detection of these disorders. The actual yield, however, is far from optimal, and the screening programme should be improved.  (+info)

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Objective: To investigate the influence of different settings, epidemiological and clinical, and different diagnostic thresholds on caries detection in a group of 7 10-year-old children in Brazil. Materials and Methods: In total, 983 children aged 7 10 years old and enrolled in four public schools were randomly selected. Three examiners performed epidemiological examinations followed by an examination of the same children in a clinical setting. The examinations of cleaned and dried teeth in both settings were carried out using a dental mirror and ball-ended probe, under natural light in the epidemiological setting examinations and under artificial light during the clinical setting examinations. For the analysis of results, comparisons were focused on WHO (World Health Organization) diagnostic thresholds versus WHO+IL (initial lesions) diagnostic thresholds, both under epidemiological conditions, in order to demonstrate the influence of the inclusion of IL in the study; and WHO+IL in the ...
Head CT is a very sensitive diagnostic test in patients with a clinical suspicion of nontraumatic SAH and a normal level of consciousness on admission. In patients who had CT imaging within 6 hours after onset of acute headache, a negative CT ruled out SAH. However, CT within 6 hours after symptom onset failed 1 patient with only neck pain who had an inconclusive CT; finally, bleeding from a cervical arteriovenous malformation was diagnosed.. Previous studies on test characteristics of head CT for SAH found sensitivities ranging between 90% and 100%.4,8-12 The discrepancy of most studies with our findings can be explained by longer cut-off points for time delay between onset of headache and imaging ranging from 12 to 24 hours after ictus, the use of first- or second-generation CT scanners, and the use of tests other than absorption spectrophotometry as a gold standard. The majority of these studies only calculated sensitivity but not specificity, negative predictive value, or positive predictive ...
Multi-detector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA)of the coronary arteries after stenting has been evaluated in multiple studies. The purpose of this study was to perform a structured review and meta-analysis of the diagnostic performance of MDCTA for the detection of in-stent restenosis in the coronary arteries. A Pubmed and manual search of the literature on in-stent restenosis (ISR) detected on MDCTA compared with conventional coronary angiography (CA) was performed. Bivariate summary receiver operating curve (SROC) analysis, with calculation of summary estimates was done on a stent and patient basis. In addition, the influence of study characteristics on diagnostic performance and number of non-assessable segments (NAP) was investigated with logistic meta-regression. Fourteen studies were included. On a stent basis, Pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.82(0.72-0.89) and 0.91 (0.83-0.96). Pooled negative likelihood ratio and positive likelihood ratio were 0.20 (0.13-0.32) and 9.34 (4.68-18
Results: We identified 18 validation studies (n = 7180) conducted in various clinical settings. Eleven studies provided details about the diagnostic properties of the questionnaire at more than one cut-off score (including 10), four studies reported a cut-off score of 10, and three studies reported cut-off scores other than 10. The pooled specificity results ranged from 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63-0.82) for a cut-off score of 7 to 0.96 (95% CI 0.94-0.97) for a cut-off score of 15. There was major variability in sensitivity for cut-off scores between 7 and 15. There were no substantial differences in the pooled sensitivity and specificity for a range of cut-off scores (8-11). ...
When a test has more than two possible outcomes, its accuracy can be reported as pairs of sensitivity and specificity corresponding to each degree of abnormality. This approach, the basis for receiver-operating characteristic analysis, maximizes the use of diagnostic information (2). When the diagnostic threshold is set at a lower degree of abnormality, the sensitivity of the test tends to increase but its specificity tends to decrease. The opposite occurs when a higher diagnostic threshold is selected. In the case of HIV viral load assays, if more viral units must be detected to report the test result as abnormal, the specificity will increase. As noted by Rich and colleagues, "the lowest reported plasma viral load during seroconversion is more than 17 times higher than the highest viral load detected in our three patients." Thus, for the diagnosis of acute infection, the threshold should probably be set much higher ...
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OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, in different patient groups, of the use of 64-slice or higher computed tomography (CT) angiography, instead of invasive coronary angiography (CA), for diagnosing people with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) and assessing people with known CAD. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases were searched from 2002 to December 2006. REVIEW METHODS: Included studies were tabulated and sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values calculated. Meta-analysis models were fitted using hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curves. Summary sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios and diagnostic odds ratios for each model were reported as a median and 95% credible interval (CrI). Searches were also carried out for studies on the cost-effectiveness of 64-slice CT in the assessment of CAD. RESULTS: The diagnostic accuracy and prognostic studies enrolled over 2500 and 1700 people,
It is important to note that critical components of cost-benefit analyses are the performance characteristics of the test being evaluated, as this information allows estimation of the impact of false-positive and false-negative results. For example, a rapid antigen test with lower sensitivity and similar specificity, compared to a NAAT, may be less cost-effective despite lower costs for reagents, equipment, and labor.. As has been well described in the literature, rapid antigen tests for influenza demonstrate poor to moderate sensitivity, depending on the particular assay and the circulating strain. A meta-analysis of influenza rapid antigen tests revealed pooled sensitivities of 64.6% for influenza A (95% confidence interval [CI], 59.0% to 70.1%) and 52.2% for influenza B (95% CI, 45.0% to 59.3%), with a combined pooled specificity of 98.2% (95% CI, 97.5% to 98.7%) (17). That analysis was completed prior to the introduction of next-generation digital antigen immunoassays with automated ...
Perhaps the most important development in psychooncology in the past 10 years has been the development and testing of short, user-friendly screening tools for distress. Attempts to validate these tools have helped crystallize the concept of distress, which had previously received little attention compared with depression.1 Distress is a very common complication of cancer at any stage and often occurs when multiple needs are unmet.2,3 The presence of distress is also linked with reduced health-related quality of life,4 poor satisfaction with medical care,5 and possibly reduced survival.6 Early psychometric research focused on diagnostic accuracy (performance against another scale) and diagnostic validity (performance against a true criterion standard) of longer tools involving 10 items or more that typically took at least 5 minutes to administer.7,8 It is now known that fewer than 15% of cancer professionals are prepared to use these questionnaires in clinical practice, with most relying on their ...
Sensitivity = a/(a+c). Specificity = d/(b+d). +ve predictive value = a/(a+b). -ve predictive value = d/(d+c). Likelihood ratio of a positive test = [a/(a+c)]/[b/(b+d)]. Likelihood ratio of a negative test = [c/(a+c)]/[d/(b+d)]. Likelihood ratios have become useful because they enable one to quantify the effect a particular test result has on the probability of a certain diagnosis or outcome. Using a simplified form of Bayes theorem:. posterior odds = prior odds * likelihood ratio. where:. odds = probability/(1-probability). probability = odds/(odds+1). This function is not truly Bayesian because it does not use any starting/prior probability. Likelihood ratios, however, are provided and these can be used to direct the flow of probabilities in Bayesian analysis. For an excellent account of this approach in medical diagnosis, see Sackett (1991).. Another way to summarise diagnostic test performace is via the diagnostic odds ratio:. Diagnostic odds ratio = true/false = (a * d)/(b * c). Technical ...
Human TNF-α ELISA Kit is the latest product from Abbkine Scientific Research Company. As part of the companys plans to ease the research process and ensure that better results are gotten in record time, the company made the announcement to official launch the Human TNF alpha ELISA Kit on the market.. The ELISA Kit is particularly designed to allow for the easy detection of Human TNF-α. Consequently, investigators, researchers and other such users of the product can easily get their desired results in record time. This also ensures that better results are gotten.. EliKine™ Human TNF-α ELISA Kit employs a two-site sandwich ELISA to quantitate TNF-α in samples, it has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Human TNF-α. No significant cross-reactivity or interference between Human TNF-α and analogues was observed.. The recent launch of the Human TNF-α ELISA Kit has been described by many as a revolutionary introduction to the industry. With a high sensitivity and ...
Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc. has announced the launch of its new CFX96 Touch Deep Well real-time PCR detection system, an ideal solution for researchers conducting real-time PCR (qPCR) experiments in large-volume reactions.
Comparative diagnostic capacity of corneal biomechanical indices. Receiver-operating characteristic curves are plotted for central-corneal-thickness-corrected c
Downloadable! This paper presents an indicator of fiscal distress for European economies based on a multivariate regression analysis (logit modelling, the L1 indicator) and on a recently updated dataset of fiscal stress episodes. This indicator presents some interesting features: relying on a parsimonious set of variables that have been tested for their conditional statistical significance, it exhibits an overall satisfactory insample performance. In line with Berti et al. (2012), this indicator confirms the importance of monitoring macro-financial variables to assess countries vulnerabilities to fiscal distress. It also provides some evidence that the change in the public debt ratio is an important predictor of fiscal distress events, while the level of public debt would particularly matter when combined with macrocompetitiveness imbalances. Our analysis suggests that the L1 indicator could be used as a complementary tool to the Commission S0 indicator to monitor prospective fiscal risks, building on
For the ultra-sensitive person, life can feel overwhelming. How do you move forward with these physical, emotional, and environmental sensitivities? These are the three keys that helped me shift into greater freedom.
The presentation will describe the principles of the ultra-sensitive single-molecule array (Simoa) developed by Quanterix and the application of the Simoa technology to the development of a t
The frequency of disease-related large rearrangements (referred to as copy-number mutations, CNMs) varies among genes, and search for these mutations has an important place in diagnostic strategies. In recent years, CGH method using custom-designed h
Abstract Context In 2015, the updated Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 (PI-RADSv2) for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) was established. Since then, several studies assessing the value of PI-RADSv2 have been published. Objective To review the diagnostic performance of PI-RADSv2 for the detection of PCa. Evidence acquisition MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched up to December 7, 2016. We included diagnostic accuracy studies that used PI-RADSv2 for PCa detection, using prostatectomy or biopsy as the reference standard. The methodological quality was assessed by two independent reviewers using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. Sensitivity and specificity of all studies were calculated. Results were pooled and plotted in a hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic plot with further exploration using meta-regression and multiple subgroup analyses. Head-to-head comparison between PI-RADSv1 and PI-RADSv2 was performed for available
I am wondering if anyone has had or seen an adverse reaction to the Mantoux tuberculosis test. I showed a negative result when subjected to the test, but now have a very swollen lymph node(about 20mm) in my groin, have been experiencing a very stiff neck, night sweats, loss of appetite and flu-like symptoms ...
Sensitivity and specificity are the probability of a correct test result in subjects with and without a condition respectively.. Sensitivity (true positive fraction, TPF) measures the ability of a test to detect the condition when it is present. It is the probability that the test result is positive when the condition is present.. Specificity (true negative fraction, TNF) measures the ability of a test to detect the absence of the condition when it is not present. It is the probability that the test result is negative when the condition is absent. ...
Citizens of these countries are required to take the tuberculosis test (note that the country names are written in Norwegian).. To make an appointment, call Diagnosestasjonen at Ullevål Hospital at (+47) 22 11 99 30. The examination is free of charge, but if you do not show up for your appointment, you will be charged a fee.. You will need to return a few days after your initial examination. After your second appointment you will receive a card verifying that you have had your check-up.. ...
Researchers at Allele have published new work demonstrating a novel application for nanoantibodies (nAbs) in direct signal amplification. nAbs have distinguishable qualities that set them apart from their traditional IgG counterparts, including significantly smaller size, better stability, and excellent specificity. However, because of their small size, there are no suitable secondary antibodies for traditional assays like immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and other biochemical assays that require an enhanced signal.. The researchers engineered a modified nAb, termed "nAb Plus," to directly amplify nAb signal detection through the addition of a small scaffolding protein containing numerous reporter binding sites. nAb Plus bypasses the need for secondary antibodies or additional amplification steps, streamlining biochemical assays and decreasing costs of reagents. The authors demonstrate the use of nAb Plus using immunohistochemistry, an assay typically requiring one or more signal ...
The above method for conversion of a ln(odds ratio) to effect size shows that the two are essentially equivalent. However, an analysis of a continuous outcome is generally more powerful than one based on an arbitrary division of the scale into two groups. This is not an argument for a slope measure of BHR over PD20, as the existence of a value for each subject does not automatically imply more information.10 Although the result implies that an odds ratio may be little affected by the alteration of cut off point, other statistics will change. Peat et al reported that BHR has high specificity for asthma and low sensitivity,1 but a greater maximum dose of provoking agent and cut off point would increase sensitivity and decrease specificity.. The method was illustrated using results from Burney et al11 and Chinn et al18 because, in each study, the data were analysed in the two ways; in the former the residual standard deviation from the linear regression was reported and in the latter it could be ...
The settings in the included datasets were stratified as having low prevalence (LP; 0 to 5%), intermediate prevalence (IP; 5 to 20%) or high prevalence (HP; ,20%) of the serious infection(s) of interest (including all serious infections, pneumonia, meningitis) with the clinical assumption that diagnostic goals are different in each setting. In LP settings, CPRs should have high sensitivity in order to correctly rule out (at a negative likelihood ratio (NLR) of up to 0.2) the target disorder(s) at a reasonable cost in terms of referral or admission rates [19, 20].. The accuracy of the CPRs was assessed retrospectively in each of the available prospectively collected datasets by calculating sensitivity, specificity, predictive value, and likelihood ratio (LR). We used dumbbell plots to display the change from pre-test to post-test probabilities [3].. To avoid the risk of influencing diagnostic accuracy by either an arbitrarily chosen number of required variables, or the age range available in each ...
Human CXCL16 ELISA Kit is a sandwich ELISA kit for use with Serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids. This assay has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of CXCL16|br/|N
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Diagnostic tests are used for a range of purposes; at their simplest they are either positive or negative. Most people who have the disease will test positive (true positives) with most who do not have the disease testing negative (true negatives). However, as few tests are perfect some of those without the disease will test positive (false positives) and some with the disease will test negative (false negatives).. The balance between these is expressed by two criteria which are used to judge all diagnostic tests.. ...
... tor Hidden Camera Wireless Laser Lens Device Finder Eavesdropping Device Killer Extensive Range: The level entry budget bug detector is a great little detector packed with everything you need. An amazing frequency range of 100Mhz to 6500Mhz (6.5Ghz) that detects everything from simple bugging devices to the most advanced GPS GSM WIFI G3 G4 SMS tracking devices, hidden cameras and listening devices. Multi-function & Multi-purpose: This product combines active laser scanning and passive RF scanning methods accurately detecting and identifying: eavesdropping devices, tracking devices, car eavesdropping, wireless pinhole cameras, wired cameras, electrical sources, and so on. . . . . . High Strength And High Sensitivity: Signal strength indicator quickly finds the source of the signal. The sensitivity can be adjusted (increased sensitivity to widen the detection range or lower sensitivity to shorten the detection range).
This calculator can determine diagnostic test characteristics (sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios) and/or determine the post-test probability of disease given given the pre-test probability and test characteristics. Given sample sizes, confidence intervals are also computed. Fill out one of the sections below on the left, and then click on the Compute button. Sections you dont fill out will be computed for you, and the nomogram on the right will display the probability that a patient has the disease after a positive or negative test ...
Our Diagnostic tests are designed and manufactured using recombinant Antigens and Monoclonal Antibodies that are carefully selected and thoroughly tested for high quality for Accurate, Sensitive and Specific Diagnostic tests as per International Standards ...
Heterogeneity of the results of studies of diagnostic accuracy is common but in itself does not prevent conclusions of clinical value from being drawn.22 Despite heterogeneity being observed in the case study, it was still possible to draw a conclusion of clinical value-that an endometrial thickness of 5 mm or less can rule out endometrial cancer.. Diagnostic odds ratios and summary receiver operating characteristic curves are, however, often promoted as the most statistically valid method for combining test results when there is heterogeneity between studies, and they are commonly used in systematic reviews of diagnostic accuracy.2-4 Unfortunately summary curves are of little use to practising healthcare professionals: they can identify whether a test has potential clinical value, but they cannot be used to compute the probability of disease associated with specific test outcomes. Their use is also based on a potentially inappropriate and untested assumption that observed heterogeneity has ...
Greater volume of mammograms interpreted and more years of experience were not associated with greater accuracy. However, greater volume was associated with higher sensitivity (more true positive results in women who had breast cancer) and lower specificity (more false positive results in women who did not have breast cancer) whereas more experience was associated with lower sensitivity and higher specificity. The authors conclude that increasing volume requirements for radiologists is unlikely to improve the interpretation of mammograms ...
Researchers in the UK have developed a naked eye colour test for virus and disease biomarkers that is ten times more sensitive than current gold standard
ADDRESS OF THE HONOURABLE MINISTER OF HEALTH, PROFESSOR ISAAC F. ADEWOLE FAS,FSPSP,DSC(Hons) AT THE PRESS BRIEFING TO LAUNCH THE RAPID RESULTS INITIATIVE OF THE FEDERAL MINISTRY OF HEALTH , AT THE NATIONAL PRESS CENTRE, RADIO HOUSE , AREA 11 GARKI , ABUJA ON MONDAY 18th JULY, 2016. PROTOCOL. I am highly delighted to address you today, on the occasion of the launch of the BETTER HEALTH FOR ALL PROGRAM (BH4A) of the Federal Ministry of Health. The program is a Rapid Results Initiative (RRI) borne out of the need to respond to the critical needs of the people and deliver on the mandate of promoting health with focus on Access, Affordability and Demand.. The program encapsulates a set of initiatives borne out of the vision of the administration of His Excellency President Muhammadu Buhari GCFR to produce quick and visible impacts that will altogether affect the lives of every Nigerian especially the most vulnerable and the poor in our society. The goals documented under every result area under the ...
Flow sensitivity is another detector property that can have a significant effect on long term noise and, consequently, also on the detector MDC. Again it is the bulk property detectors that are the most likely exhibit high flow sensitivities (e.g., the katharometer). To reduce its flow sensitivity, the katharometer is usually fitted with a reference cell through which a flow of mobile phase also passes. The two sensors for the column flow and the reference flow are placed in the arms of a Wheatstone bridge so that any changes in flow rate are to a large extent compensated. The flow sensitivity (DQ) is defined in a similar manner to pressure sensitivity (i.e. mV/ml/min). The flow sensitivity can be used to calculate the flow change (NQ) that would provide a signal equivalent to the detector noise (ND),. i.e. ...
In order to achieve the primary objective, clinical trials will be conducted to establish and confirm the sensitivity of the Clearview HIV 1/2 tests in the described pediatric population. Only HIV-1 will be included in the study.. The Clearview HIV tests can be used as a safe and effective screening method to aid in the diagnosis of infection with HIV 1/2 in the pediatric population aged between 12 and 17 years.. The secondary objectives of this study include demonstrating that:. - The Clearview HIV tests detect HIV-1 antibodies in a variety of sample matrices: capillary (fingertip) whole blood, venous whole blood, plasma and serum. ...
In order to achieve the primary objective, clinical trials will be conducted to establish and confirm the sensitivity of the Clearview HIV 1/2 tests in the described pediatric population. Only HIV-1 will be included in the study.. The Clearview HIV tests can be used as a safe and effective screening method to aid in the diagnosis of infection with HIV 1/2 in the pediatric population aged between 12 and 17 years.. The secondary objectives of this study include demonstrating that:. - The Clearview HIV tests detect HIV-1 antibodies in a variety of sample matrices: capillary (fingertip) whole blood, venous whole blood, plasma and serum. ...
The EMA binding test using flow cytometry is a rapid, sensitive, and reliable diagnostic aid [6]. Conventional diagnosis of hereditary RBC membrane disorders is labor-intensive, time-consuming, and has low sensitivity and specificity [10]. In contrast, the EMA test can be performed in less than 2 hours. Previous results have illustrated its high specificity (99.1%) and sensitivity (92.1%), indicating is it a useful diagnostic tool for red cell membrane disorders [8]. This method can be used to detect not only band 3 deficiencies, but also spectrin and protein 4.2 deficiencies [6].. Our study showed minimal changes in the MCF over a 6-month period for EMA. However, the stability of the EMA dye decreased continuously after 6 months, with a significant decrease relative to baseline levels at 8 months. Dye stability, dye concentration, incubation time, storage conditions of blood samples, and delay in flow cytometric analysis of EMA-labeled red cells each play a crucial role in the reproducibility ...
Researchers have developed a new tool for pathogen surveillance and discovery. It is supposed to provide comprehensive, differential diagnosis of infectious diseases, including those caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites.
Hello Pat I find the major limiting factor in performing Immunostains is the cutting of the sections. We have two Bond X Immunostainers that can handle a total of 30 slides each. These Immunostainers provide us with the flexibility of performing a run of up to 10 slides without tying up the whole machine, thus allowing further slides to be added. This is an enormous bonus when Pathologist like to have their request done urgently. We have had the Bond X Immunostainers for about 18 months now and they have made a major difference in our work flow in Immunohistochemistry. We do not have any cut off point for request and have two staff working in this area. One works from 8am to 4 pm and the other starts at 10am and finishes at 6pm. Before we purchased these stainers we had a cut off point of 10am. Pathologists receive their immunos the same day as requested or at least early the next morning for those request that are received late in the afternoon. For these late requests an overnight run is ...
CARLSBAD, Calif., June 6, 2011 /PRNewswire/ -- Life Technologies Corporation (NASDAQ: LIFE) today announced that it has developed a custom test (assay) to accurately detect the E. coli bacterium that has killed at least 22 people and affected more than 2,100 worldwide, including four new cases reported in the United States. Shipments of the TaqMan® E. coli 0104 Detection Kit to test foods thought to be associated with the outbreak are now in Europe.. "A qPCR-based assay test is the most accurate method to detect harmful foodborne pathogens because a positive result indicates the presence of that particular strains DNA in the food sample that is being tested," said Nir Nimrodi, Head of Food Safety at Life Technologies. "It is also the fastest. While traditional laboratory testing methods can take up to 10 days for results, this test can determine the presence or absence of the European pathogen in 10 to 24 hours, depending on the sample type and size.". Life Technologies began designing the ...
Validation. How the outputs were validated:. The outputs for this cluster are all laboratory diagnostic tests, which were initially validated by NRI scientists on collected field material and pathogen reference strains. The tests were validated through testing material and comparing the results obtained to those generated by more traditional means. Thereafter the outputs were validated in overseas laboratories by NRI scientists in collaboration with the in-country partner scientists listed in 3 (as described below).. BACTID. BACTID describes a kit for bacterial identification based on modifying traditional methods for identification of all plant pathogenic bacteria into a cost-effective kit format. The key issue in the identification of plant pathogenic bacteria is the need to distinguish a potential pathogen from contaminating non-pathogenic bacteria. Colony type and colour and cell morphology are rarely sufficient for this purpose. Hence the need for many different specialised, selective or ...
In systems biology and genomics, epistasis characterizes the impact that a substitution at a particular location in a genome can have on a substitution at another location. This phenomenon is often implicated in the evolution of drug resistance or to explain why particular "disease-causing" mutations do not have the same outcome in all individuals. Hence, uncovering these mutations and their locations in a genome is a central question in biology. However, epistasis is notoriously difficult to uncover, especially in fast-evolving organisms. Here, we present a novel statistical approach that replies on a model developed in ecology and that we adapt to analyze genetic data in fast-evolving systems such as the influenza A virus. We validate the approach using a two-pronged strategy: extensive simulations demonstrate a low-to-moderate sensitivity with excellent specificity and precision, while analyses of experimentally validated data recover known interactions, including in a eukaryotic system. We ...
This has been a collaborative effort between many parties and volunteers. First and foremost, we wish to thank all the speakers who were kind and trusting enough to grant permission to share their talks as video or slideset.. We wish to thank the organizing committee, SFAI and SSAI for supporting the idea of building an online presence for their content. The scanFOAM team believes in the power of online knowledge exchange and professional networking and hope to help improve the standard thereof ...
UltraPlex 1-Step ToughMix is a ready-to-use, 4X concentrated master mix 1-step reverse transcription and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) of RNA templates using probe-based detection methods. First-strand cDNA synthesis and PCR amplification are carried out in the same tube without opening between steps. Optimized to deliver highly sensitive quantification of RNA viruses or low abundance RNA targets in uni- or highly multiplexed RNA detection assays, this reagent chemistry is optimized to deliver maximum assay sensitivity, precision and reproducibility with miniaturized reaction volumes and either conventional or accelerated thermal cycling protocols. UltraPlex 1-Step ToughMix contains all required components for RT-qPCR except RNA template and probe and is compatible with all dual-labeled probe chemistries ...
We examined the potential of DHE-CMR for providing both diagnostic and prognostic information in patients with suspected CA. Presence of DHE on CMR was more accurate in predicting presence of EMB-positive CA as compared with ECG and TTE variables. Additionally, characteristic DHE on CMR in patients with suspected CA better predicted 1-year mortality as compared with ECG and TTE parameters. Because all but 1 patient (who underwent cardiac transplantation) had standard medical therapy, difference in treatment did not affect prognosis.. Although the presence of a characteristic DHE pattern on CMR is highly accurate in the diagnosis of CA, there are some potential pitfalls, as follows: patchy subendocardial DHE early in the disease process can lead to a “false negative” DHE-CMR interpretation, or EMB may miss a patchy area (due to sampling error), resulting in the DHE-CMR interpretation being deemed “false positive.” Additional problems can arise when there are other ...
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Open Repository is based on and contributes to DSpace the open source tool for the management of digital assets. Open Repository is a service operated by Atmire. ...
Results Both CMR and X-ray angiography were available in 676 patients. The diagnostic accuracy of the combined CMR protocol, individual components and paired and triplet combinations compared to the full multi-parametric protocol are presented in Table 1 and Figure 1.. The maximum sensitivity for the detection of significant CAD was achieved when all four components were used. No individual component, paired or triplet outperformed the multi-parametric protocol in terms of sensitivity.. However in terms specificity, the individual components of perfusion, ventricular function and LGE all performed significantly better than the multi-parametric protocol (P , 0.0001). In addition, combining LGE with perfusion or with perfusion and ventricular function significantly improved the specificity compared to the full protocol (P , 0.0001). In terms of NPV the multi-parametric protocol performed better than all individual components, paired or triplet combination.. ...
I've noticed a small bubble - it looks kind of like a pimple - on my gum. The area is not sensitive at all but should I - Answered by a verified Dentist
QRA, thanks to Dr. Omura and B-DORT, has become the most accurate diagnostic tool. Learn QRA attending training, or on your own. Nothing comes close to this most accurate clinical tool of all time. QRQ is it
A plethora of tests have been suggested to improve diagnostic decision making in the clinical setting of infection which is a clinical example used in this article. Several criteria that are critical to evidence-based appraisal of published data are often not adhered to during the study or in reporting. To enhance the critical appraisal on articles on diagnostic tests we discuss various measures of test accuracy: sensitivity, specificity, receiver operating characteristic curves, positive and negative predictive values, likelihood ratios, pretest probability, posttest probability, and diagnostic odds ratio.. ...
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Psychovisual experiments support the notion that a considerable amount of information is contained in region boundaries such as edges and linear features [1]. Thus, as long as these elements are...
There is no single test that can accurately diagnose cancer. The complete evaluation of a patient usually requires a thorough history and physical examination along with diagnostic testing. Many tests are needed to determine whether a person has cancer, or if another condition (such as an infection) is mimicking the symptoms of cancer. The doctor forms a list of possible diagnoses that can explain the symptoms and complaints, and then orders testing to confirm a diagnosis and/or to exclude other potential diagnoses. Effective diagnostic testing is used to confirm or eliminate the presence of disease, monitor the disease process, and plan for and evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. In some cases, it is necessary to repeat testing when a persons condition has changed, if a sample collected was not of good quality, or an abnormal test result needs to be confirmed. Diagnostic procedures for cancer may include imaging, laboratory tests (including tests for tumor markers), tumor biopsy, ...
There is no single test that can accurately diagnose cancer. The complete evaluation of a patient usually requires a thorough history and physical examination along with diagnostic testing. Many tests are needed to determine whether a person has cancer, or if another condition (such as an infection) is mimicking the symptoms of cancer. The doctor forms a list of possible diagnoses that can explain the symptoms and complaints, and then orders testing to confirm a diagnosis and/or to exclude other potential diagnoses. Effective diagnostic testing is used to confirm or eliminate the presence of disease, monitor the disease process, and plan for and evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. In some cases, it is necessary to repeat testing when a persons condition has changed, if a sample collected was not of good quality, or an abnormal test result needs to be confirmed. Diagnostic procedures for cancer may include imaging, laboratory tests (including tests for tumor markers), tumor biopsy, ...
Every 43 seconds someone in the U. S. has a heart attack, or acute myocardial infarction (AMI), which occurs when the blood supply to an area of the heart is interrupted. The longer time the heart is without proper blood supply, the greater the damage. Troponin, a specific marker of cardiac cell death, is released into the blood stream when cardiac cells are being damaged.. Patients with chest pain and other symptoms suggestive of AMI account for approximately 8 million of all emergency room consultations in the U.S., but only a fraction of them (5-20%) are actually having an AMI. Hence, fast and accurate diagnosis of AMI requires sensitive diagnostic tests that can detect early troponin release, allowing healthcare providers to make confident clinical decisions for their patients and appropriately manage hospital resources. In a heart attack, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment can reduce the amount of cardiac cell death thus potentially saving and improving quality of lives. This next ...
The foodproof D-Light instrument is designed for the differentiation of DNA from dead and living cells. The reaction principle is a photoactivation using Reagent D to avoid false-positive PCR results. Exposure to visible light leads to covalent binding of this substance to DNA and prevents the DNA from being amplified via PCR. It works as a preliminary step of sample treatment before the DNA extraction. The stand-alone foodproof D-Light is a compact benchtop solution that fits in every lab.. BIOTECON Diagnostics offers its customers complete workflow solutions, either via manual or automated sample preparation. The combination of the foodproof D-Light and Reagent D, foodproof sample preparation kits and subsequent real-time PCR detection kits and all assay-required laboratory equipment represents a true "One- Stop-Shop" solution for the customer. Features:. ...
Uncontrolled cell proliferation is the sine qua non of carcinogenesis. However, long before symptoms signal cancer growth, several initiating mutations are generally required to overcome normal homeostatic regulation in a tissue allowing the gradual expansion of premalignant clones. Albeit slow and possibly stagnant, this growth enhances the probability that a premalignant cell undergoes malignant transformation generating a clone that either becomes extinct or progresses until clinical detection. Therefore, at least 2 distinct but overlapping clonal expansion processes are likely to occur in a tissue before clinical detection of cancer. In the context of the multistage clonal expansion (MSCE) carcinogenesis model described here, the first clonal expansion begins after normal tissue stem cells acquire 2 rate-limiting mutations or epigenomic changes that lead to abrogation of homeostatic tissue control, causing gradual outgrowth of occult premalignant clones over an extended time period that may ...
These cells express a novel variant of clytin, a calcium-activated photoprotein, to enable sensitive luminescent detection of ligand-induced calcium flux. The clytin contains a mutation that increases its affinity for calcium to a level that permits detection of cytosolic calcium in many cells with greater sensitivity than other mitochondrially expressed photoproteins. Luminescent calcium assays offer several advantages over fluorescent calcium assays including increased sensitivity and lack of interference
This is a well-understood problem in medicine. To determine the accuracy of a given diagnostic test, sensitivity and specificity are calculated. Sensitivity is the probability that an individual with disease X will have positive test X. (Specificity, meanwhile is the inverse of the probabilty of a person without disease X will test negative. They are usually quited in tandem, but given the nature of the discussion, I assume that were talking about accuracy of postive tests - there is no one number for test "accuracy," more like a number for the accuracy of positive tests and a separate number for the accuracy of negative tests.). However, to determine the clinical significance of a test, the positive and negative predictive values are more valuable. PPV is the probability of having a disease with a positive test. A test may be insanely accurate, but if a disease is so rare, the clinical significance of a positive test may be next to nothing.. The point is that more random (in the sense that ...
A key highlight of this study is the profile observed for the BCL2 inhibitor, venetoclax, which revealed dose-dependent sensitivities across the hematopoietic cell types (Figure 1B). At the ends of this spectrum, B cells (CD19+) were the most sensitive whereas monocytes and granulocytes were the least sensitive to venetoclax. Moderate sensitivities were observed on cytotoxic and helper T cells (CD3+CD4− and CD3+CD4+), NK cells (CD56+), and NK-T cells (CD3+CD56+). Venetoclax had similar cell-specific effects regardless of disease status (healthy vs. malignant) indicating the variable nature of response to venetoclax is lineage specific. In addition, the study found an inverse relationship between venetoclax sensitivity and levels of phosphorylated STAT3. Monocytes and granulocytes have the highest levels of phosphorylated STAT3 and the lowest venetoclax sensitivity, perhaps reflecting the different transcriptional programs defining these two cell types.. Previous work by these authors and ...
Detection sensitivity of qPCR assays for three skin-targeted mRNA markers CDSN, KRT9 and LOR, with full (n = 5), half (n = 5) and quarter (n = 10) t
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Manuel Bauer, Erik Ahrné, Anna P Baron, Timo Glatter, Luca L Fava, Anna Santamaria, Erich A Nigg, Alexander Schmidt].
The PCC130 and the PCC130 SW are cardioid boundary layer microphones of professional quality that, due to their small size, fit perfectly on small tables. Thanks to low self-noise and very high sensitivity, the microphone picks up even distant voices clearly and naturally. A bass-tilt switch allows the user to tailor the low-end response and reduce subsonic noise. The PCC130 SW has a silent-operating programmable membrane switch that can be configured for touch on/off, momentary on or momentary off. A high-intensity LED lights when the unit is on. For easy installation, both microphones offer an XLR connector and a detachable cable. ...
The problem with PCR based design is that it is difficult to achieve high assay sensitivity and specificity due to obstacles such as primer dimers, false hybridization and competing secondary structure. These issues only magnify as the multiplex size increases. Better design makes a difference. VisualOMP improves assay sensitivity by accurately predicting the secondary structure and locating the sites on the target that are most thermodynamically accessible. Assay specificity is compromised by false positive hybridizations, which are minimized by ThermoBLAST. Multiplexing applications are particularly sensitive to design where the best practice is to design primers that amplify their targets with equal efficiency and with minimal cross-reactivity ...
Public Health England is now aiming to validate the test on around 2,000 samples and accredit it in order to offer it as a routine clinical diagnostic.
Over the past 20 yrs, helical CT of the chest has become the procedure of choice for PE diagnosis. Diagnostic performances of helical CT have been evaluated in two types of studies: accuracy and outcome studies. Accuracy studies are designed to establish the characteristics of a diagnostic test (sensitivity and specificity) by comparing test results with a reference diagnostic test (gold standard). Outcome studies evaluate patient outcomes when a given diagnostic test or strategy is used for clinical decision-making. In the field of PE, the outcome measurement is the rate of VTE events (DVT or PE) during a 3-month follow-up period in patients left untreated by anticoagulants. The reference for comparison is the rate of DVT or PE in patients left untreated after a negative pulmonary angiography, which is 1-2%, with an upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of 3% during a 3-month follow-up [38].. The reported sensitivity of single-detector helical CT ranged 53-100% and specificity ranged ...
In the lightning-fast business landscape of the 21st century, managers are expected to produce solid results, quickly. According to the authors, the key to creating widespread, lasting progress begins with achieving rapid results at the micro level-as you engineer small victories, your company will build a solid foundation for future, more global success. With their 100-day projects, the authors lay the groundwork for organizations to experience marked success at the micro level, which will eventually lead to increased productivity and the ability to implement necessary reorganization on the larger management level. Some of key points include the necessity of mobilizing large groups of people to initiate change, the importance of creating a unique transformation plan for your company and the significance of applying these principles in developing countries. Both authors bring a record of proven success coaching CEOs and other upper-level management, and they provide copious examples of rapid ...
Financial Sensitivity Analysis allows the analyst to be flexible with the boundaries within which to test the sensitivity of the dependent variables to the independent variables. It is nothing but a number of individual dots placed in a line within the span of 1 inch. Its units are ml/min per square meter of body surface area. Estimates of price sensitivity are needed most when setting prices for new products and when considering changing the prices of established products to new levels. Different players will use different mouse DPI and this can create a problem when choosing your sensitivity. Sensitivity is a measure of the proportion of people suffering from the disease who got predicted correctly as the ones suffering from the disease. An open-source and easily extendable implementation of the DSS calculation is made freely available to support its tailored application to translating drug sensitivity testing results into clinically actionable treatment options. Hi Abe, The calculator is not ...
A recent review of literature on the validity of self-report of cancer screening suggests that, across studies, weighted averages of concordance rates have ranged from 0.71 to 0.89, with sensitivity ranging from 0.68 to 0.91 and specificity from 0.40 to 0.90 (27). Thus, our data suggest that the validity of self-report of TVS screening is generally superior to the validity of screening self-reports in other modalities, although the high level of validity here must be considered in light of methodologic factors which affect accuracy. In this study, female volunteers underwent an initial TVS screening test and received a recommendation to return for repeat routine screening in 12 months. During the study interview, women were reminded of the date of their initial TVS test and were only required to recall whether they had engaged in another screening within a relatively narrow period, as interviews were completed at an average of 18.35 months following initial screening (range, 18-24 months). Thus, ...
Laboratory diagnostic tests are a constant need among medical clinics. Medical Device Depot provides many drug tests, infectious disease tests, and more...
Opal Polymer HRP Ms + Rb is a ready-to-use immunohistochemistry detection reagent specifically optimized for use with Opal and TSA® Plus detection reagents for maximum sensitivity, reduced incubation time and low background. This product reacts specifically with primary antibodies raised in mouse and rabbit and is part of a rapid, biotin-free detection protocol.
Diagnostic Tests at Dogs : Diagnostic tests are crucial to a diagnosis. This category has links to site that explain blood tests, urinalysis, EKG, x-rays, ultrasound, MRI, and more.
A step forward for measuring health care quality - AP News: WASHINGTON (AP) - The government, doctors groups, insurers and patient .12/12/2017 19:05:36PM EST.
In this article, we introduce a novel technique for obtaining cross-sectional counts of pathologically distinct lesions and demonstrate it to be a valid, reliable, and clinically meaningful biomarker for MS disease status. Using information contained in the Hessian structure of lesion probability maps produced by automated segmentation methods, this technique counts distinct lesions by identifying regions that resemble the physiologic traits of distinct lesion centers.. The validity of this measure was established by comparing counts obtained at a single time point with criterion standard counts that incorporated temporal information on lesion development. The proposed count had a correlation of 0.97 with the criterion standard count, indicating the very strong validity of this measure. A count obtained using the connected-components method had only a 0.67 correlation with the criterion standard and appeared to strongly underestimate the number of lesions in individuals who developed ,1 or 2 ...
The Company has previously reported about the Shelton light industrial building that will house the cGMP pilot production plant, research laboratories, and offices. The cGMP pilot plant is being designed for the production of sufficient quantities of the drug needed for human clinical trials for each of the various nanoviricides® drug candidates as they advance into the clinical pipeline. The light industrial building at 1 Controls Drive, Shelton CT was purchased by Inno-Haven, LLC. Inno-Haven is a private company that was founded by Dr. Anil R. Diwan, the Companys CEO, and financed by himself and certain of his friends and associates, with the specific purpose of enabling clinical cGMP manufacturing capabilities for NanoViricides, Inc. drug substances. Acquisition of this 18,000 sqft building on 4.2 acres of land was previously announced by NanoViricides, Inc. in September, 2011. Renovation of the building is to be performed as per the requirements of NanoViricides, Inc. for the production of ...
How can you ever know that the vaccine didnt cause autism? There is no proof. In Australia new born babies are given a Vit K injection on delivery and a Hep B shot on day one in hospital. Do they test babies for autism before they are one day old? They are then given up to 8 more vaccines when they are 2 months old, another 8 at 4 months, 8 at 6 months and 8 at 12 months plus all the adjuvants chemicals,animal tissue , antibiotics, yeast etc that are associated with each injection.At what age is this test for autism you speak of a reliable diagnostic tool?How could you or anyone know that all these isnt a massive assault to their immune systems and that the culmination of everything isnt the cause in a susceptible child to develop allergies, ear infections, asthma, autism, ADD, ADHD, Cancer? There seems to be an epidemic of these conditions. Why? Every parent deserves the respect to make a personal decision after they have fully investigated why each vaccine (medical intervention)is ...
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Usefulness of early rule-in and rule-out biomarker protocols to estimate ischemia-induced myocardial injury in early chest pain presenters ...
The West African Ebola virus outbreak underlined the importance of delivering mass diagnostic capability outside the clinical or primary care setting in effectively containing public health emergencies caused by infectious disease. Yet, to date, there is no solution for reliably deploying at the point of need the gold standard diagnostic method, real time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), in a laboratory infrastructure-free manner. In this proof of principle work, we demonstrate direct performance of RT-qPCR on fresh blood using far-red fluorophores to resolve fluorogenic signal inhibition and controlled, rapid freeze/thawing to achieve viral genome extraction in a single reaction chamber assay ...
Although the plain radiograph and computed tomography remain undoubtedly the primary imaging modalities in the investigation of chest pathology, ultrasound can play an important complementary role, both in the diagnostic workup of a patient and in their subsequent management. Its lack of ionizing radiation, bedside availability and dynamic imaging capacity afford ultrasound certain advantages over other techniques; particularly in the critical care setting where conventional radiography is often suboptimal. This article reviews the technique and diagnostic application of ultrasound in the assessment of pathologies of the diaphragm, pleura, lung, mediastinum and chest wall ...
Over the past decade, there has been a sharp increase in the number of meta-analyses of diagnostic studies published and the methods for performing such a meta-analysis have rapidly evolved [1, 2]. Analyzing the variability in results from primary studies is challenging in any type of systematic review, but it is even more difficult in systematic reviews of diagnostic studies. This is because the interest is often in two correlated estimates from the same study: pairs of sensitivity and specificity. How the variability in the results of diagnostic studies can best be assessed demands further attention.. Estimates of test accuracy are likely to differ between studies in a meta-analysis. This is referred to as variability or heterogeneity (in the broad sense of the word) [3]. Some variability in estimates can be expected simply due to chance as a result of sampling error. Even if studies are methodologically identical and carried out in the same population, their results may differ because each ...
Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Salmonella spp. by Using a Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay in Duck Carcass Sample - loop-mediated isothermal amplification;Salmonella spp.;screening;duck;
Quantitative lateral flow immunoassay for total prostate specific antigen in serum / I. P. Andreeva, V. G. Grigorenko, A. M. Egorov, A. P. Osipov // Analytical Letters. - 2016. - Vol. 49, no. 4. - P. 579-588. A simple method for the rapid determination of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in serum is reported using a lateral flow immunoassay with gold nanoparticles as the label. The method uses the intensity of colored test lines to determine PSA from 0.3 to 30 ng/ml. The limit of detection was 0.3 ng/ml and the coefficient of variation was less than 10%. The analysis time was approximately twenty minutes. The novel method showed good correlation with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) measurements of prostate-specific antigen concentration in human serum with a linear regression coefficient of 0.985. The developed system was stable for at least twelve months when stored from +4 to 30oC and has potential application for clinical practice. [ DOI ...
Developing multiplex Real-Time PCR assays can be difficult and time-consuming. As the reaction complexity increases, significant optimization may be required to generate reliable data. It can be a challenge to develop multiplex assays that amplify all targets with equal efficiency.. When developing multiplex Real-Time PCR assays, you need to consider primer design, the relative expression levels of target sequences, and master mix / reagent conditions.. Use the same design criteria for each primer/probe set and screen all sequences against each other to determine any potential primer-dimer formation. In addition, perform a BLAST analysis (http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cgi) to determine primer specificity.. If the expression levels of the target sequences are significantly different, the most abundant target will be preferentially amplified and deplete all the reaction components, compromising amplification of the less abundant targets. One way to address this issue is to limit the primer ...
Abstract. Monitoring post-control transmission of schistosomes by examining humans becomes less effective as infection rates among humans decrease. Molecular monitoring of prepatent schistosome infection in snails by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been used for studying human-to-snail transmission, and snail prepatent infection rates were found to correspond to infection prevalence and average intensity in human populations contacting the sites studied. We have now developed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for identifying Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium to facilitate large-scale evaluation of post-intervention transmission potential. LAMP primers were designed based on the Sm1-7 and DraI repeated sequences of the corresponding schistosomes, and amplification by LAMP of these 121-basepair highly abundant sequences provided a detection sensitivity of 0.1 fg of genomic DNA. When these LAMP assays were applied for examining infected laboratory snails, it was possible to
Objectives. Improved discrimination between prostate cancer (PC) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is clearly needed. Our aim in this study was to evaluate whether the free to total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ratio would be useful in the gray zone of 1.8-10 ng/mL total PSA range. Methods. In a consecutive series of 435 clinic patients referred for prostate evaluation, 308 had a total PSA ,10 ng/mL (92 had PC and 216 BPH). Free and total PSA were measured, and the free to total PSA ratio calculated. Results. Total PSA values were significantly different between the two groups. For the 200 patients with a total PSA ,6 ng/mL, no significant difference in total PSA values were seen (P = 0.411), whereas free to total PSA ratios remained statistically different (P , 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis comparing the performances of total PSA over the ratio of free to total PSA showed a clear advantage for the ratio at all sensitivity levels. Conclusions. These data ...
We carried out a study to compare the performance, in terms of sensitivity and specificity, of the new SD BIOLINE® HAT rapid diagnostic test (RDT) with the card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis (CATT) for diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Participants were enrolled actively by four mobile teams, and passively at four health facilities in three provinces. Consenting participants were tested concurrently with the RDT and CATT on whole blood. Those found positive by either test were tested with CATT on serial dilutions of plasma, and with a parasitological composite reference standard (CRS). Cases were only the individuals found positive by the CRS, while controls were negative by both CATT and RDT, as well as those that were positive by CATT or RDT, but were negative by the CRS, and had no history of HAT. Over five months, 131 cases and 13,527 controls were enrolled. The sensitivity of the RDT was 92.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 86
Introduction. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease that affects cloven-hooved animals such as cattle, sheep, goats and pigs. FMD outbreaks have occured worldwide, resulting in significant economic losses (Knowles & Samuel 2003). Early identification of FMD virus (FMDV) is, therefore, critical for the control of disease and to minimise losses that could occur in livestock. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of FMDV is required for effective disease control. FMD cannot be distinguished clinically from other vesicular diseases, such as swine vesicular disease (SVD), vesicular exanthema of swine (VES) and vesicular stomatitis (VS); similarities that can pose challenges for early confirmation of field outbreaks. Routine laboratory diagnosis of FMD can be performed by a combination of antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus isolation (OIE 2012). Antigen-capture ELISA only takes four hours to perform; however, this test is only suitable for epithelium ...
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Without any sample pretreatment,the mass spectral fingerprints of sulfur fumigated Chinese star anises and untreated samples were rapidly obtained in either a positive or negative ion detection mode with a home-made surface desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization(DAPCI) source.The DAPCI-MS raw data were further analyzed by principal component analysis(PCA) and cluster analysis(CA),and several unknown samples were successfully discriminated using the PCA model.The results showed that the DAPCI-MS was able to detect some characteristic chemicals from the Chinese star anises surface and identify the components by tandem mass spectrometry(MS/MS).The further principal component analysis(PCA) and cluster analysis(CA) of MS fingerprints allow a confident discrimination of sulfur fumigated star anise samples from the non-sulfur fumigated samples.The method developed here is attractive to provide a fast and effective way to screen sulfur fumigated products with sufficient sensitivity and no toxin
Clinical sensitivity and specificity[edit]. Fecal Immunochemical Testing (FIT) can identify as little as 0.3 ml of daily blood ... Further discussion of sensitivity and specificity issues that relate particularly to the guaiac method is found in the stool ... The number of fecal samples submitted for FIT may affect the clinical sensitivity and specificity of the methodology.[8] High ... The sensitivity of a single stool guaiac test to pick up bleeding has been quoted at 10 to 30%, but if a standard three tests ...
It has sensitivity = 92% and specificity = 92%.. *Full classification tree: Uses 6 criteria. It has sensitivity = 97% and ... specificity = 96%.[75]. *Discoid rash (red, scaly patches on skin that cause scarring); sensitivity = 18%; specificity = 99%.[ ... Neurologic disorder: Seizures or psychosis; sensitivity = 20%; specificity = 98%.[75]. Other than the ACR criteria, people with ... Antinuclear antibody test positive; sensitivity = 99%; specificity = 49%.[75]. *Immunologic disorder: Positive anti-Smith, anti ...
sensitivity 64%. *specificity 92%. *positive predictive value (at prevalence of 23%) 79% ... In several studies, specificity has been 83% for chronic mesenteric ischemia and 90% or higher for acute colonic ischemia, with ... Case series report prevalence of clinical findings and provide the best available, yet biased, estimate of the sensitivity of ... a sensitivity of 71%-92%. This device must be placed using endoscopy, however.[18][19][20] ...
... grades 2 and 3 according to Pap smear with a sensitivity and specificity of 92% each.[53] Whether cervical MF-EIT is going to ... factors affecting sensitivity and specificity". European Radiology. 7: 281-288. doi:10.1007/PL00006909. PMID 9370560.. ... which was reported to improve sensitivity and specificity when used as an adjunct to screening mammography. A report to the ... The low specificity of mammography [46] and of MRI [47] result in a relatively high rate of false positive screenings, with ...
"Sensitivity and Specificity". www.med.emory.edu. "B12 Deficiiency and Dizziness". www.dizziness-and-balance.com. http://scidok. ... It has lower specificity as 20-25% of patients over the age of 70 have elevated levels of MMA, but 25-33% of them do not have ...
... thus providing ultimately the best specificity for medical purposes.[2] ... sensitivity. *specificity. *robustness. *accuracy. *reproducibility. Protocol standardization This optimizes the validated ...
Percent Sensitivity and Specificity of Various Criteria for Typical Reiter's Syndrome. Method of diagnosis. Sensitivity. ... the American College of Rheumatology has published sensitivity and specificity guidelines.[16] ...
... reader1/reader2 sensitivity: 86%/100%; specificity: 90%/70%) and axial (reader1/reader2 sensitivity: 86%/93%; specificity: 90%/ ...
... while the Awaji criteria had a sensitivity of 81.1%; both sets of criteria had a specificity of about 98%.[83] The El Escorial ... Their sensitivity is particularly poor in the early stages of ALS. The Awaji criteria have better sensitivity than the El ... A 2012 meta-analysis found that the El Escorial Revised criteria had a sensitivity of 62.2%, ...
... specificity of 94%.[4] Several investigators have found the sensitivity being consistently higher than 90% though specificity ... "Revised estimates of diagnostic test sensitivity and specificity in suspected biliary tract disease". Arch Intern Med. 154 (22 ... Cholescintigraphy for acute cholecystitis has sensitivity of 97%, ...
At least 3 out of 6 criteria yields sensitivity and specificity of 90.5 and 97.8%: ... At least 3 out of 5 criteria yields sensitivity and specificity of 95 and 91%: ... At least 3 out of 10 criteria yields sensitivity and specificity of 82 and 87%: ... At least 2 out of 4 criteria yields sensitivity and specificity of 88 and 92%. ...
The absence of the inferior labial (100% sensitivity; 99.4% specificity) and lingual frenulum (71.4% sensitivity; 100% ... specificity) was found to be associated with classical and hypermobility types of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Traumatic lesions on ...
The algorithms used can be adjusted to balance between sensitivity and specificity to limit the number of false alarms and ... However, this directly trades sensitivity for specificity. Another solution that has been proposed is to use centralized alarms ...
Ocular ischemic syndrome Jahromi, AS; Cinà, CS; Liu, Y; Clase, CM (June 2005). "Sensitivity and specificity of color duplex ... This test has good sensitivity and specificity. Typically duplex ultrasound scan is the only investigation required for ...
However both tests lack sensitivity and specificity. The Widal test is losing its value as it is labor-intensive and time- ...
... even this method suffers from poor sensitivity, specificity, and inter-operator agreement.[10] ...
The sensitivity and specificity measurements are around 90%. The ultrasound equipment must be of sufficiently high quality in ... Rapid technical advancements in transmission tomography made possible the very good specificity and sensitivity capability of ...
The sensitivity was 100% and specificity was 75%. For patients at similar risk to those in this study, this leads to a positive ... Allen G, Larach M, Kunselman A; Larach; Kunselman (1998). "The sensitivity and specificity of the caffeine-halothane ... the sensitivity is 97% and the specificity 78%. Negative biopsies are not definitive, so any patient who is suspected of MH by ... Muscle from these mice also shows increased K+ -induced depolarization and an increased caffeine sensitivity. The earliest ...
Thijs C, Leffers P (January 1989). "Sensitivity and specificity of Rinne tuning fork test". BMJ. 298 (6668): 255. doi:10.1136/ ...
"What are the sensitivity and specificity of serologic tests for celiac disease? Do sensitivity and specificity vary in ... type can detect coeliac disease with a sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 99%, respectively. Serology for anti- ... transglutaminase antibodies (anti-tTG) was initially reported to have a higher sensitivity (99%) and specificity (>90%). ... Its sensitivity correlates with the degree of histological lesions. People who present minor damage of the small intestine may ...
The sensitivity=84%-89% and specificity=71%-80%. They also found significant correlation between the PWT, all 3 widths, and ...
It reacts positively against melanocytic tumors but not other tumors, thus demonstrating specificity and sensitivity. The ...
... has a high sensitivity and negative predictive value; although, the specificity is not high. However, in the ... elderly the sensitivity is markedly lower; a negative Murphy's sign in an elderly person is not useful for ruling out ...
The fundamental prevalence-independent statistics are sensitivity and specificity. Sensitivity or True Positive Rate (TPR), ... specificity}})(1-{\text{prevalence}})}}} If the prevalence, sensitivity, and specificity are known, the negative predictive ... specificity}})(1-{\text{prevalence}})}{({\text{specificity}})(1-{\text{prevalence}})+(1-{\text{sensitivity}})({\text{prevalence ... sensitivity ) ( prevalence ) + ( 1 − specificity ) ( 1 − prevalence ) {\displaystyle {\text{PPV}}={\frac {({\text{sensitivity ...
90% diagnostic sensitivity and 85% specificity have been reported. The system's diagnostic algorithm triages patients into ...
Newer PCR based tools have higher sensitivity and specificity. Emergence of PKDL has been reported in HIV affected individuals ... Parasite concentration is not consistent among studies, perhaps reflecting low sensitivity of diagnostic methods used in ...
... specificity is gained by coupling targeted proteins to an "E3 ubiquitin ligase". Each E3 ubiquitin ligase binds to a particular ... and a decrease in sensitivity to or the availability of critical secreted growth factors which are necessary to maintain muscle ...
In medicine, the sensitivity and specificity are conventionally used. In the field of defect detection testing, the ...
Specificity. Download Sensitivity & Specificity and enjoy it on your iPhone, iPad and iPod touch. ... Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots and learn more about Sensitivity & ... This app gives the sensitivity and specificity of thousands of medical tests, with literature citations included.. Visit our ... webpage version at sensitivityspecificity.com. For example, imagine a patient comes in for a reported seizure. What lab tests ...
The sensitivity and specificity are proportions, so confidence intervals can be calculated for them using standard methods for ... Sensitivity and specificity are one approach to quantifying the diagnostic ability of the test. In clinical practice, however, ... Statistics Notes: Diagnostic tests 1: sensitivity and specificity BMJ 1994; 308 :1552 ... Statistics Notes: Diagnostic tests 1: sensitivity and specificity. BMJ 1994; 308 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.308.6943.1552 ...
... you should be able to compute sensitivity and specificity. Either using formulas such as a / (a + c) or for specificity, d / (b ... Sensitivity and Specificity. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that supports ... You would be happy if you have a sensitivity above 80, 90% as well as a specificity in this range. We published this data a few ... If you want a high sensitivity or if you want a high specificity you can choose the cutoff which will provide you the highest ...
modify the performance of your sensitivity and specificity and vice versa.. If you want a high sensitivity or if you want a ... the sensitivity or the specificity of the test will remain unchanged.. This is true with one exception what we call the ... Sensitivity and Specificity. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that supports ... And when I compute, calculate the sensitivity and the specificity,. This performance will be modified, as you can imagine and ...
Sensitivity and specificity values alone may be highly misleading. The worst-case sensitivity or specificity must be ... sensitivity or true positive rate (TPR). eqv. with hit rate, recall. T. P. R. =. T. P. /. P. =. T. P. /. (. T. P. +. F. N. ). ... specificity (SPC) or true negative rate. S. P. C. =. T. N. /. N. =. T. N. /. (. T. N. +. F. P. ). {\displaystyle {\mathit {SPC ... sensitivity. If 100 with no disease are tested and 96 return a negative result, then the test has 96% specificity. Sensitivity ...
High sensitivity and low specificity Low sensitivity and high specificity In medical diagnosis, test sensitivity is the ability ... sensitivity. If 100 with no disease are tested and 96 return a negative result, then the test has 96% specificity. Sensitivity ... as the diagnostic power of any test is determined by both its sensitivity and its specificity. The tradeoff between Specificity ... Sensitivity therefore quantifies the avoiding of false negatives, and specificity does the same for false positives. For any ...
... specificity, and precision of the different commercially available troponin assays vary considerably. These differences are ... How does the sensitivity, specificity, and precision cardiac troponin assays vary?. Updated: Nov 20, 2018 ... The sensitivity, specificity, and precision of the different commercially available troponin assays vary considerably. These ... Novel high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I assay in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. Heart. 2018 Nov 15. [ ...
Sensitivity of clinical diagnosis was 100% for tuberculosis and 81.8% for lung cancer; specificity was 67.5% for tuberculosis ... Avijgan, M. (‎2005)‎. Specificity and sensitivity of clinical diagnosis for chronic pneumonia. http://www.who.int/iris/handle/ ...
... Sensitivity and specificity are the probability of a correct test result in subjects with and without ... Sensitivity (true positive fraction, TPF) measures the ability of a test to detect the condition when it is present. It is the ... Specificity (true negative fraction, TNF) measures the ability of a test to detect the absence of the condition when it is not ...
3. Sensitivity and specificity. How can we measure how good a pattern is at detecting a particular sequence feature? There are ... Specificity = TPos / (TPos + FPos) Warning: in the medical context (diagnosis), specificity is defined differently: there it is ... Sensitivity is the fraction of the true matches that actually are correctly predicted as matches by the pattern. If the pattern ... Specificity is the fraction of the sequences predicted as matches that really are true matches. If the pattern is too inclusive ...
Based on blood culture results, the tests overall sensitivity was 90%. Its specificity was 96% to 99% when blood culture was ... Based on blood culture results, the tests overall sensitivity was 90%. Its specificity was 96% to 99% when blood culture was ... "The T2Bacteria Panel had excellent sensitivity and specificity at detecting leading causes of bloodstream infection," Cornelius ... "The T2Bacteria Panel had excellent sensitivity and specificity at detecting leading causes of bloodstream infection," Cornelius ...
... Kim Kristiansen,1 Pernille Lyngholm- ... Kim Kristiansen, Pernille Lyngholm-Kjaerby, and Claus Moe, "DoloTest in General Practice Study: Sensitivity and Specificity ...
... ... were used to directly detect the viral protein Zika NS1 at clinically relevant levels of sensitivity. Specificity to Zika NS1 ...
However, there are limited published data on the sensitivity and specificity of self-administered questionnaires for ... However, there are limited published data on the sensitivity and specificity of self-administered questionnaires for ... The questionnaire demonstrated 100% sensitivity in identifying workers who required work restrictions, but had specificity of ... only 19%. Compared to physician evaluation, the questionnaire had modest sensitivity to the detection of chronic medical ...
After wrist flexion, sensitivities were 61 and 57% for specificities of 70 and 80%, respectively. ...
Sensitivity. , specificity. , positive & negative predictive values. and efficiency. show the performance of the diagnostic ... Qualitative (Sensitivity / Specificity).. *Click True classification then select the dichotomous variable containing the true ... Qualitative (Sensitivity/Specificity) examines the performance of a diagnostic test and its ability to correctly identify non- ... Sensitivity TP (true positive), Specificity TN (true negative), FP (false positive) and FN (false negative) proportions and ...
View source for Sensitivity and specificity/Bibliography. ← Sensitivity and specificity/Bibliography. Jump to: navigation, ...
Sensitivity and specificity of different methods for the isolation of Salmonella from pigs.. Bager F1, Petersen J. ... Of the conventional methods, enrichment in RV had a higher sensitivity and selectivity than SB and MKTB. Recovery of S. ... with a similar high sensitivity and specificity. ...
Sum of sensitivity and specificity). *(cur , prev). 21:48, 20 May 2010‎ Robert Badgett (Talk , contribs)‎ . . (17,893 bytes) (+ ... Sensitivity and specificity). *(cur , prev). 14:46, 13 May 2010‎ Robert Badgett (Talk , contribs)‎ . . (17,890 bytes) (+307)‎ ... Sum of sensitivity and specificity). *(cur , prev). 15:27, 1 April 2009‎ Robert Badgett (Talk , contribs)‎ . . (12,452 bytes) ... Sum of sensitivity and specificity: Added Youdens index). *(cur , prev). 13:07, 26 February 2009‎ Robert Badgett (Talk , ...
See Table 1 and Figures 1 and 2 for a detailed display of reviewer sensitivity and specificity data. Overall sensitivity for ... Novice reviewers accurately identified disease (sensitivity) in % of CD subjects and accurately identified health (specificity ... Table 1: Sensitivity and specificity of disease identification using only iWellnessExam. data, by educational experience. ... C. Awad, S. Slotnick, S. Nath, and J. Sherman, "Sensitivity and specificity of the iVue iWellnessExam. ™. in detecting retinal ...
Abnormal values of laryngoscopic reflux index (higher than 5 points) reflect a diagnostic sensitivity of 96% and specificity of ... To assess the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the laryngoscopic signs of reflux laryngitis. Material and methods. ... Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of laryngoscopic signs of reflux laryngitis by Rūta Pribuišienė 1,*, Virgilijus Uloza 1 ... "Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of laryngoscopic signs of reflux laryngitis." Medicina 44, no. 4: 280. ...
... which increases both the sensitivity and specificity of search results. Modelling a simple linear regression on the decoy hits ...
What Is the Sensitivity and Specificity of Self-Report for Retinopathy Screening?. ... What Is the Sensitivity and Specificity of Self-Report for Retinopathy Screening? ... What Is the Sensitivity and Specificity of Self-Report for Retinopathy Screening? ... What Is the Sensitivity and Specificity of Self-Report for Retinopathy Screening? ...
Sensitivity of FNAC was 61.53% and specificity was 98.9%.. CONCLUSION: FNAC in Thyroid has high sensitivity and specificity.. ... This study was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) in thyroid ...
... for the diagnosis of CTS because of low overall sensitivity and specificity, although it might provide useful information in ... Sensitivity and specificity of median nerve ultrasonography in diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome Mohammad Yazdchi1, Mohammad ... Sensitivity and specificity of median nerve ultrasonography in diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. ... for the diagnosis of CTS because of low overall sensitivity and specificity, although it might provide useful information in ...

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