Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
An acquired disorder characterized by recurrent symptoms, referable to multiple organ systems, occurring in response to demonstrable exposure to many chemically unrelated compounds at doses below those established in the general population to cause harmful effects. (Cullen MR. The worker with multiple chemical sensitivities: an overview. Occup Med 1987;2(4):655-61)
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Glucose in blood.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Diagnostic procedures, such as laboratory tests and x-rays, routinely performed on all individuals or specified categories of individuals in a specified situation, e.g., patients being admitted to the hospital. These include routine tests administered to neonates.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Method of measuring and mapping the scope of vision, from central to peripheral of each eye.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.

Analysis of gabapentin in serum and plasma by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for therapeutic drug monitoring. (1/50409)

A simple method for the determination of gabapentin (Neurontin) is described. The method uses solid-phase extraction by disk column and derivatization followed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis. The single-step derivatization with MTBSTFA produces a t-BDMS derivative of both the carboxylic and amine moieties of the molecule. Each step of the procedure was optimized to assure reliable performance of the method. The assay limit of detection was 0.1 microg/mL with a linear range from 1.0 to 35 microg/mL. Within-run (n = 3) and between-run (n = 40) coefficients of variation were less than 8.2 and 15.9%, respectively. The method has proven reliable in routine production for more than a year, producing clean chromatography with unique ion fragments, consistent ion mass ratios, and no interferences. Statistical analysis of the gabapentin concentrations measured in 1020 random specimens over a 2-month period showed a mean concentration of 6.07 microg/mL with a standard deviation of 5.28.  (+info)

Solid-phase microextraction for cannabinoids analysis in hair and its possible application to other drugs. (2/50409)

This paper describes the application of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) to cannabis testing in hair. Fifty milligrams of hair was washed with petroleum ether, hydrolyzed with NaOH, neutralized, deuterated internal standard was added and directly submitted to SPME. The SPME was analyzed by GC-MS. The limit of detection was 0.1 ng/mg for cannabinol (CBN) and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 0.2 ng/mg for cannabidiol (CBD). THC was detected in a range spanning from 0.1 to 0.7 ng/mg. CBD concentrations ranged from 0.7 to 14.1 ng/mg, and CBN concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 ng/mg. The effectiveness of different decontamination procedures was also studied on passively contaminated hair. The proposed method is also suitable for the analysis of methadone in hair; cocaine and cocaethylene can be detected in hair with SPME extraction after enzymatic hydrolysis.  (+info)

Highly sensitive quantitation of methamphetamine by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay using a new europium chelate as a label. (3/50409)

A simple and highly sensitive time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of methamphetamine (MA) using a new fluorescent europium chelate (BHHCT-Eu3+) as a label is described. Two variations of competitive immunoassay were attempted. In the first (one-step) assay, microtiter plates coated with anti-MA were used, and the new label was bound to a conjugate of bovine serum albumin and N-(4-aminobutyl)-MA (MA-BSA). In the second (two-step) assay, instead of the labeled MA-BSA, biotinylated MA-BSA and BHHCT-Eu3+-labeled streptavidin-BSA were used. The lowest measurable concentrations of MA for the one-step and the two-step methods were 1 ng/mL (25 pg/assay) and 1 pg/mL (25 fg/assay), respectively. These were 10 to 1000 times superior to the detection limits of MA in any other immunoassay. Intra-assay coefficient of variation was approximately 2-8% at eight different concentrations (n = 4). Analysis of 34 urine samples with the new method and conventional gas chromatography showed a good correlation (r = 0.954). The high detectability of the present assay also enabled segmental hair analysis with a few centimeters of a hair.  (+info)

Semiautomated preparation of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol in human urine using a Zymate XP laboratory robot with quantitative determination by gas chromatography-negative-ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry. (4/50409)

A rapid and sensitive semiautomated method was developed for quantitation of the chlorpyrifos metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) in human urine. A Zymark Zymate XP laboratory robotics system was used to mix urine samples, transfer aliquots, add the stable-isotope-labeled TCP internal standard (13C2- or 13C2,15N-), and liberate conjugates of TCP from urine via acid hydrolysis. Samples were manually extracted into toluene, derivatized, and analyzed by gas chromatography-negative-ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Determination of the metabolic TCP was performed by selected ion monitoring of the dichloropyridinol fragment ions: m/z 161 for TCP and m/z 165 for 13C2-TCP or m/z 168 for 13C2,15N-TCP. Interday precision and accuracy were demonstrated over 3 years of analyses using the 13C2-TCP internal standard, with an average recovery from fortified urine samples of 93+/-12% (N = 54, concentration range 1-140 ng/mL). The method was found to be linear over the range of 0.5 to 200 ng/mL, and the limit of detection for TCP in urine was estimated to be 0.2 ng/mL with a limit of quantitation of 1 ng/mL. The effect of solids distribution on the concentration of TCP in the thawed urine samples was examined, and the results indicated that homogeneous distribution is critical for quantitation. The precision and accuracy of the automated method with respect to the transfer of homgeneous urine aliquots and delivery of internal standard yielded equivalent or improved results over the manual techniques. Overall, this method is more simple than existing methodologies, and it yields results with improved precision, accuracy, and sensitivity over previously developed methods.  (+info)

Identification and quantification of cocaine N-oxide: a thermally labile metabolite of cocaine. (5/50409)

In this article, we report the identification and quantitation of cocaine N-oxide (CNO), a thermally labile oxidative metabolite, from both animal and human samples. The concentration of CNO is similar to the concentrations of cocaine in the samples analyzed. The technique used for the determination of CNO in this study is liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, which is necessary because CNO is converted to cocaine upon heating. This includes simple heating of aqueous solutions to temperatures in excess of 100 degrees C and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), in which CNO is converted to cocaine in the injection port. The thermal conversion of CNO to cocaine is estimated to cause an over-reporting of cocaine levels by 10-20% when using GC-MS.  (+info)

Hybrid capture II, a new sensitive test for human papillomavirus detection. Comparison with hybrid capture I and PCR results in cervical lesions. (6/50409)

AIM: To test a new assay for the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA, hybrid capture II (HC II), compared with the previous commercialized hybrid capture I (HC I) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results on cervical scrapes from fresh cone excision biopsy samples. METHODS: The three methods were used on cervical scrapes from 42 fresh cone excision biopsy samples. There were nine metaplastic and inflammatory lesions, five low grade lesions, and 28 high grade lesions. PCR was performed using the general primers GP5+/GP6+. The viral load of high risk HPV DNA was estimated by the ratio of relative light units to positive control values in the samples. RESULTS: The sensitivity of HC I for the detection of high grade lesions was 71.4%, while it was 92.8% for HC II and 96.4% for the PCR. Considering only the absence of detectable cervical in situ neoplasia, the specificity was 88.9% for HC I, 66.7% for HC II, and 66.7% for PCR. With HC II, for a ratio of cervical sample to normal control of > 200, the sensitivity for the detection of high grade lesion was only 34.6% with a specificity of 66.7%. CONCLUSIONS: HPV detection with the HC II assay is more sensitive than the previous HC I and represents a more convenient and easier test than PCR for routine use. Nevertheless the viral load estimated with this test cannot be a reliable predictive indicator of high grade lesions.  (+info)

Comparative efficacy of positron emission tomography with FDG and computed tomographic scanning in preoperative staging of non-small cell lung cancer. (7/50409)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of positron emission tomography with 2-fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (PET-FDG) in the preoperative staging (N and M staging) of patients with lung cancer. The authors wanted to compare the efficacy of PET scanning with currently used computed tomography (CT) scanning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Results of whole-body PET-FDG imaging and CT scans were compared with histologic findings for the presence or absence of lymph node disease or metastatic sites. Sampling of mediastinal lymph nodes was performed using mediastinoscopy or thoracotomy. RESULTS: PET-FDG imaging was significantly more sensitive, specific, and accurate for detecting N disease than CT. PET changed N staging in 35% and M staging in 11% of patients. CT scans helped in accurate anatomic localization of 6/57 PET lymph node abnormalities. CONCLUSION: PET-FDG is a reliable method for preoperative staging of patients with lung cancer and would help to optimize management of these patients. Accurate lymph node staging of lung cancer may be ideally performed by simultaneous review of PET and CT scans.  (+info)

Screening for congenital heart malformation in child health centres. (8/50409)

BACKGROUND: Although screening for congenital heart malformations is part of the child health care programme in several countries, there are very few published evaluations of these activities. This report is concerned with the evaluation of this screening at the Dutch Child Health Centres (CHC). METHODS: All consecutive patients, aged between 32 days and 4 years, presented at the Sophia Children's Hospital Rotterdam throughout a period of 2 years, with a congenital heart malformation were included in this study. Paediatric cardiologists established whether or not these patients were diagnosed after haemodynamic complications had already developed (diagnosed 'too late'). Parents and CHC-physicians were interviewed in order to establish the screening and detection history. Test properties were established for all patients with a congenital heart malformation (n = 290), intended effects of screening were established in patients with clinically significant malformations (n = 82). RESULTS: The sensitivity of the actual screening programme was 0.57 (95% CI : 0.51-0.62), the specificity 0.985 (95% CI : 0.981-0.990) and the predictive value of a positive test result 0.13 (95% CI: 0.10-0.19). Sensitivity in a subpopulation of patients adequately screened was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.74-0.96). Adequately screened patients were less likely to be diagnosed 'too late' than inadequately screened patients (odds ratio [OR] = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.04-1.05). The actual risk of being diagnosed 'too late' in the study-population (48%) was only slightly less than the estimated risk for patients not exposed to CHC-screening (58%, 95% CI: 43%-72%). Adequately screened patients however were at considerably less risk (17%, 95% CI: 4%-48%). CONCLUSION: Screening for congenital heart malformations in CHC contributes to the timely detection of these disorders. The actual yield, however, is far from optimal, and the screening programme should be improved.  (+info)

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Objective: To investigate the influence of different settings, epidemiological and clinical, and different diagnostic thresholds on caries detection in a group of 7 10-year-old children in Brazil. Materials and Methods: In total, 983 children aged 7 10 years old and enrolled in four public schools were randomly selected. Three examiners performed epidemiological examinations followed by an examination of the same children in a clinical setting. The examinations of cleaned and dried teeth in both settings were carried out using a dental mirror and ball-ended probe, under natural light in the epidemiological setting examinations and under artificial light during the clinical setting examinations. For the analysis of results, comparisons were focused on WHO (World Health Organization) diagnostic thresholds versus WHO+IL (initial lesions) diagnostic thresholds, both under epidemiological conditions, in order to demonstrate the influence of the inclusion of IL in the study; and WHO+IL in the ...
With optimized northern blot protocols and in situ hybridization protocols, our kits provide convenient setup and optimized detection of RNA in your in situ hybridization (ISH) and northern blotting experiments. Double digoxygenin (DIG)-labeled detection probes combined with optimized reagents deliver superior sensitivity and specificity, while the fast, easy one-day protocol means you get your results more quickly. If you need to target novel miRNA sequences, we provide custom-designed probes with a wide range of available labels to facilitate your multiplexing and co-localization studies. The superior sensitivity and specificity of our probes enables you to confidently detect low-abundance miRNAs.
First consider the sensitivity/specificity plot (the plot on the right). The x-axis in these plots is the threshold value used to classify into one group or the other and is the same axis as the predicted y-value. As you increase the threshold, the specificity increases (i.e. the false positive rate DECREASES - you are less likely to mistakenly call something in class when it is not). Likewise, the sensitivity decreases (i.e. the false negative rate INCREASES - you are more likely to call something not in class when it is actually in class). If you put the threshold all the way at the right (very high threshold value), everything will be classified as not in class. The sensitivity is zero (none of the true positives were detected = 100% false negative rate) but the specificity is 100% (you did not have any false positives - none of the not in class samples were marked in class). If you put the threshold all the way to the left (very low threshold value), everything will be classified ...
Head CT is a very sensitive diagnostic test in patients with a clinical suspicion of nontraumatic SAH and a normal level of consciousness on admission. In patients who had CT imaging within 6 hours after onset of acute headache, a negative CT ruled out SAH. However, CT within 6 hours after symptom onset failed 1 patient with only neck pain who had an inconclusive CT; finally, bleeding from a cervical arteriovenous malformation was diagnosed.. Previous studies on test characteristics of head CT for SAH found sensitivities ranging between 90% and 100%.4,8-12 The discrepancy of most studies with our findings can be explained by longer cut-off points for time delay between onset of headache and imaging ranging from 12 to 24 hours after ictus, the use of first- or second-generation CT scanners, and the use of tests other than absorption spectrophotometry as a gold standard. The majority of these studies only calculated sensitivity but not specificity, negative predictive value, or positive predictive ...
Multi-detector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA)of the coronary arteries after stenting has been evaluated in multiple studies. The purpose of this study was to perform a structured review and meta-analysis of the diagnostic performance of MDCTA for the detection of in-stent restenosis in the coronary arteries. A Pubmed and manual search of the literature on in-stent restenosis (ISR) detected on MDCTA compared with conventional coronary angiography (CA) was performed. Bivariate summary receiver operating curve (SROC) analysis, with calculation of summary estimates was done on a stent and patient basis. In addition, the influence of study characteristics on diagnostic performance and number of non-assessable segments (NAP) was investigated with logistic meta-regression. Fourteen studies were included. On a stent basis, Pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.82(0.72-0.89) and 0.91 (0.83-0.96). Pooled negative likelihood ratio and positive likelihood ratio were 0.20 (0.13-0.32) and 9.34 (4.68-18
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A new diagnostic tool helps clinicians to differentiate between Alzheimers disease, frontotemporal dementia and mild cognitive impairment.
Results: We identified 18 validation studies (n = 7180) conducted in various clinical settings. Eleven studies provided details about the diagnostic properties of the questionnaire at more than one cut-off score (including 10), four studies reported a cut-off score of 10, and three studies reported cut-off scores other than 10. The pooled specificity results ranged from 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63-0.82) for a cut-off score of 7 to 0.96 (95% CI 0.94-0.97) for a cut-off score of 15. There was major variability in sensitivity for cut-off scores between 7 and 15. There were no substantial differences in the pooled sensitivity and specificity for a range of cut-off scores (8-11). ...
When a test has more than two possible outcomes, its accuracy can be reported as pairs of sensitivity and specificity corresponding to each degree of abnormality. This approach, the basis for receiver-operating characteristic analysis, maximizes the use of diagnostic information (2). When the diagnostic threshold is set at a lower degree of abnormality, the sensitivity of the test tends to increase but its specificity tends to decrease. The opposite occurs when a higher diagnostic threshold is selected. In the case of HIV viral load assays, if more viral units must be detected to report the test result as abnormal, the specificity will increase. As noted by Rich and colleagues, the lowest reported plasma viral load during seroconversion is more than 17 times higher than the highest viral load detected in our three patients. Thus, for the diagnosis of acute infection, the threshold should probably be set much higher ...
Double DIG-labeled detection probes and optimized reagents deliver superior sensitivity and specificity with one-day protocol for fast results
Double DIG-labeled detection probes and optimized reagents deliver superior sensitivity and specificity with one-day protocol for fast results
Double DIG-labeled detection probes and optimized reagents deliver superior sensitivity and specificity with one-day protocol for fast results
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Looking for Laboratory Equipment? www.ferret.com.au showcases products from suppliers of Laboratory Equipment and other related products and services.
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OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, in different patient groups, of the use of 64-slice or higher computed tomography (CT) angiography, instead of invasive coronary angiography (CA), for diagnosing people with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) and assessing people with known CAD. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases were searched from 2002 to December 2006. REVIEW METHODS: Included studies were tabulated and sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values calculated. Meta-analysis models were fitted using hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curves. Summary sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios and diagnostic odds ratios for each model were reported as a median and 95% credible interval (CrI). Searches were also carried out for studies on the cost-effectiveness of 64-slice CT in the assessment of CAD. RESULTS: The diagnostic accuracy and prognostic studies enrolled over 2500 and 1700 people,
It is important to note that critical components of cost-benefit analyses are the performance characteristics of the test being evaluated, as this information allows estimation of the impact of false-positive and false-negative results. For example, a rapid antigen test with lower sensitivity and similar specificity, compared to a NAAT, may be less cost-effective despite lower costs for reagents, equipment, and labor.. As has been well described in the literature, rapid antigen tests for influenza demonstrate poor to moderate sensitivity, depending on the particular assay and the circulating strain. A meta-analysis of influenza rapid antigen tests revealed pooled sensitivities of 64.6% for influenza A (95% confidence interval [CI], 59.0% to 70.1%) and 52.2% for influenza B (95% CI, 45.0% to 59.3%), with a combined pooled specificity of 98.2% (95% CI, 97.5% to 98.7%) (17). That analysis was completed prior to the introduction of next-generation digital antigen immunoassays with automated ...
This study evaluated the ability of clinicians to detect residual calculus following subgingival scaling and root planing and compared the clinical detection to the microscopic presence and surface area occupied by calculus found on teeth extracted after instrumentation. Interexaminer and intraexami …
Use this to estimate test sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative likelihood ratios by comparison with a known reference (gold standard) test. Results are presented as estimates of sensitivity and specificity with specified Clopper-Pearson (exact) confidence limits and point estimates of positive and negative likelihood ratios. ...
Perhaps the most important development in psychooncology in the past 10 years has been the development and testing of short, user-friendly screening tools for distress. Attempts to validate these tools have helped crystallize the concept of distress, which had previously received little attention compared with depression.1 Distress is a very common complication of cancer at any stage and often occurs when multiple needs are unmet.2,3 The presence of distress is also linked with reduced health-related quality of life,4 poor satisfaction with medical care,5 and possibly reduced survival.6 Early psychometric research focused on diagnostic accuracy (performance against another scale) and diagnostic validity (performance against a true criterion standard) of longer tools involving 10 items or more that typically took at least 5 minutes to administer.7,8 It is now known that fewer than 15% of cancer professionals are prepared to use these questionnaires in clinical practice, with most relying on their ...
Sensitivity = a/(a+c). Specificity = d/(b+d). +ve predictive value = a/(a+b). -ve predictive value = d/(d+c). Likelihood ratio of a positive test = [a/(a+c)]/[b/(b+d)]. Likelihood ratio of a negative test = [c/(a+c)]/[d/(b+d)]. Likelihood ratios have become useful because they enable one to quantify the effect a particular test result has on the probability of a certain diagnosis or outcome. Using a simplified form of Bayes theorem:. posterior odds = prior odds * likelihood ratio. where:. odds = probability/(1-probability). probability = odds/(odds+1). This function is not truly Bayesian because it does not use any starting/prior probability. Likelihood ratios, however, are provided and these can be used to direct the flow of probabilities in Bayesian analysis. For an excellent account of this approach in medical diagnosis, see Sackett (1991).. Another way to summarise diagnostic test performace is via the diagnostic odds ratio:. Diagnostic odds ratio = true/false = (a * d)/(b * c). Technical ...
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Rapid diagnostic Test (RDT) kits are the preferred assays for HIV testing in many countries. Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission, Know Your Status Campaigns, Blood-Safety, Voluntary Counseling and Testing are major strategies adapted to control transmission of the virus and the pivot of these interventions is either screening or diagnosing individuals through testing. There are reports of inconsistent sensitivity and specificity with whole blood and serum samples collected from the same individual. Little is known about the diagnostic characteristics of First Response HIV-1-2 RDT kit, used as a single test kit in national HIV prevention and control programmes. The debate has always centered on choosing between whole blood and serum in a case where a single test kit that runs on only blood specimen will be used for testing. The variations in specificities and sensitivities with whole blood and serum samples imply that some individuals who might be true positives
Transgenomic, Inc. (OTC Bulletin Board: TBIO) announced today that it has completed a preliminary study with a leading pharmaceutical company that validates the use of its licensed
Human TNF-α ELISA Kit is the latest product from Abbkine Scientific Research Company. As part of the companys plans to ease the research process and ensure that better results are gotten in record time, the company made the announcement to official launch the Human TNF alpha ELISA Kit on the market.. The ELISA Kit is particularly designed to allow for the easy detection of Human TNF-α. Consequently, investigators, researchers and other such users of the product can easily get their desired results in record time. This also ensures that better results are gotten.. EliKine™ Human TNF-α ELISA Kit employs a two-site sandwich ELISA to quantitate TNF-α in samples, it has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Human TNF-α. No significant cross-reactivity or interference between Human TNF-α and analogues was observed.. The recent launch of the Human TNF-α ELISA Kit has been described by many as a revolutionary introduction to the industry. With a high sensitivity and ...
Diagnostic Standards and Classification of Tuberculosis in Adults and Children. This official statement of the American Thoracic Society and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was adopted by the ATS Board of Directors, July 1999. This statement was endorsed by the Council of the Infectious Disease Society of America, September 1999
Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc. has announced the launch of its new CFX96 Touch Deep Well real-time PCR detection system, an ideal solution for researchers conducting real-time PCR (qPCR) experiments in large-volume reactions.
Comparative diagnostic capacity of corneal biomechanical indices. Receiver-operating characteristic curves are plotted for central-corneal-thickness-corrected c
Downloadable! This paper presents an indicator of fiscal distress for European economies based on a multivariate regression analysis (logit modelling, the L1 indicator) and on a recently updated dataset of fiscal stress episodes. This indicator presents some interesting features: relying on a parsimonious set of variables that have been tested for their conditional statistical significance, it exhibits an overall satisfactory insample performance. In line with Berti et al. (2012), this indicator confirms the importance of monitoring macro-financial variables to assess countries vulnerabilities to fiscal distress. It also provides some evidence that the change in the public debt ratio is an important predictor of fiscal distress events, while the level of public debt would particularly matter when combined with macrocompetitiveness imbalances. Our analysis suggests that the L1 indicator could be used as a complementary tool to the Commission S0 indicator to monitor prospective fiscal risks, building on
For the ultra-sensitive person, life can feel overwhelming. How do you move forward with these physical, emotional, and environmental sensitivities? These are the three keys that helped me shift into greater freedom.
The presentation will describe the principles of the ultra-sensitive single-molecule array (Simoa) developed by Quanterix and the application of the Simoa technology to the development of a t
Wild-type blocking PCR followed by direct sequencing offers a highly sensitive method of detection for low frequency somatic mutations...
The emergence of a new coronavirus in Wuhan China has triggered a global need for accurate diagnostic assays. Initially, mostly laboratory developed molecular tests were available but shortly thereafter different commercial assays started to appear and are still increasing in number. Although independent performance evaluations are ongoing, available data is still scarce. Here we provide a direct comparison of key performance characteristics of 13 commercial RT-PCR assays. Thirteen RT-PCR assays were selected based on the criteria that they can be used following generic RNA extraction protocols, on common PCR platforms and availability. Using a 10-fold and 2-fold dilution series of a quantified SARS-CoV-2 cell-cultured virus stock, performance was assessed compared to our in house validated assay. Specificity was tested by using RNA extracted from cultured common human coronaviruses. All RT-PCR kits included in this study exhibited PCR efficiencies , 90%, except for the Sentinel Diagnostics B ...
NCSS provides tools for computing sensitivity and specificity for one-sample, two-sample, paired-sample, and cluster-randomized binary diagnostic tests.
The frequency of disease-related large rearrangements (referred to as copy-number mutations, CNMs) varies among genes, and search for these mutations has an important place in diagnostic strategies. In recent years, CGH method using custom-designed h
Abstract Context In 2015, the updated Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 (PI-RADSv2) for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) was established. Since then, several studies assessing the value of PI-RADSv2 have been published. Objective To review the diagnostic performance of PI-RADSv2 for the detection of PCa. Evidence acquisition MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched up to December 7, 2016. We included diagnostic accuracy studies that used PI-RADSv2 for PCa detection, using prostatectomy or biopsy as the reference standard. The methodological quality was assessed by two independent reviewers using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. Sensitivity and specificity of all studies were calculated. Results were pooled and plotted in a hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic plot with further exploration using meta-regression and multiple subgroup analyses. Head-to-head comparison between PI-RADSv1 and PI-RADSv2 was performed for available
I am wondering if anyone has had or seen an adverse reaction to the Mantoux tuberculosis test. I showed a negative result when subjected to the test, but now have a very swollen lymph node(about 20mm) in my groin, have been experiencing a very stiff neck, night sweats, loss of appetite and flu-like symptoms ...
Sensitivity and specificity are the probability of a correct test result in subjects with and without a condition respectively.. Sensitivity (true positive fraction, TPF) measures the ability of a test to detect the condition when it is present. It is the probability that the test result is positive when the condition is present.. Specificity (true negative fraction, TNF) measures the ability of a test to detect the absence of the condition when it is not present. It is the probability that the test result is negative when the condition is absent. ...
Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Salmonella spp. by Using a Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay in Duck Carcass Sample - loop-mediated isothermal amplification;Salmonella spp.;screening;duck;
A Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay and Sample Preparation Procedure for Sensitive Detection of Xanthomonas fragariae in Strawberry. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Read Detection of hepatitis C virus by an improved loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay, Archives of Virology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
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We recently heard from Fred who asked, What is the detection limit for your Arsenic in Water Test by National Testing Laboratories product? Is there any discount for ordering multiple tests? I want to test my incoming city water and water after RO treatment.. Good afternoon, Fred, and thank you for the inquiry... The minimum detection limit for the Arsenic Test by National Testing Laboratories is 5ppb (also written as .005ppm and .005 mg/L). The USEPA has set the acceptable limit for arsenic in public water systems at 10ppb.. Regarding discounts for additional test kits, we offer a discount of 5% for quantities of 3 to 10 of the kits. You can find a link to bulk pricing on the product page ( http://www.watertestkitstore.com/arsenic-in-water-test-by-national-testing-laboratories/) under the add to cart button.. What is arsenic and where does it come from?. Arsenic occurs naturally in the environment and may show up in both public and private water supplies. Levels of arsenic occurring ...
This study was designed to optimize and apply the use of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) as an alternative to conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) (FC 126 strain) in vaccinated and non-vaccinated poultry in Nigeria
TY - GEN. T1 - Detection and Categorisation of Multilevel High-Sensitivity Cardiovascular Biomarkers from Lateral Flow Immunoassay Images via Recurrent Neural Networks. AU - Jing, Min. AU - Mc Laughlin, Donal. AU - Steele, David. AU - Mc Namee, Sara. AU - Mac Namee, Brian. AU - Cullen, Patrick. AU - Finlay, Dewar. AU - McLaughlin, James. PY - 2020/2/29. Y1 - 2020/2/29. N2 - Lateral Flow Immunoassays (LFA) have the potential to provide low cost, rapid and highly efficacious Point-of-Care (PoC) diagnostic testing in resource limited settings. Traditional LFA testing is semi-quantitative based on the calibration curve, which faces challenges in the detection of multilevel high-sensitivity biomarkers due its low sensitivity. This paper proposes a novel framework in which the LFA images are acquired from a designed CMOS reader system under controlled lighting. Unlike most existing approaches based on image intensity, the proposed system does not require detection of region of interest (ROI), instead ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A multi-target lateral flow immunoassay enabling the specific and sensitive detection of total antibodies to SARS COV-2. AU - Cavalera, Simone. AU - Colitti, Barbara. AU - Rosati, Sergio. AU - Ferrara, Gianmarco. AU - Bertolotti, Luigi. AU - Nogarol, Chiara. AU - Guiotto, Cristina. AU - Cagnazzo, Celeste. AU - Denina, Marco. AU - Fagioli, Franca. AU - Di Nardo, Fabio. AU - Chiarello, Matteo. AU - Baggiani, Claudio. AU - Anfossi, Laura. PY - 2021/2/1. Y1 - 2021/2/1. N2 - © 2020 Elsevier B.V. A rapid test for detecting total immunoglobulins directed towards the nucleocapsid protein (N) of severe acute syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) was developed, based on a multi-target lateral flow immunoassay comprising two test lines. Both test lines bound to several classes of immunoglobulins (G, M, and A). Specific anti-SARS immunoglobulins were revealed by a colorimetric probe formed by N and gold nanoparticles. Targeting the total antibodies response to infection enabled achieving 100% ...
The Global Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Technology (INAAT) Market is expected to reach USD 4.3 billion by 2025, growing at a CAGR of 11.8%, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. This can be attributed to significant rise in awareness regarding need for rapid and on-time testing for chronic and infectious diseases. Global increase in adoption of INAAT for detection of HIV, hepatitis A & B, and sexually transmitted diseases is considered to be a high impact rendering driver for growth.. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification is one of the most preferred nucleic acid amplification methods because of its ability to provide point of care testing, thus leading to increased adoption. The recently-introduced Nicking Enzyme Amplification Reaction (NEAR) and Helicase-dependent amplification (HDA) technologies are expected to experience exponential growth during the forecast period owing to their patent protection.. In addition, owing to recent epidemics of infectious diseases, ...
The Global Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Technology (INAAT) Market is expected to reach USD 4.3 billion by 2025, growing at a CAGR of 11.8%, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. This can be attributed to significant rise in awareness regarding need for rapid and on-time testing for chronic and infectious diseases. Global increase in adoption of INAAT for detection of HIV, hepatitis A & B, and sexually transmitted diseases is considered to be a high impact rendering driver for growth.. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification is one of the most preferred nucleic acid amplification methods because of its ability to provide point of care testing, thus leading to increased adoption. The recently-introduced Nicking Enzyme Amplification Reaction (NEAR) and Helicase-dependent amplification (HDA) technologies are expected to experience exponential growth during the forecast period owing to their patent protection.. In addition, owing to recent epidemics of infectious diseases, ...
The Global Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Technology (INAAT) Market is expected to reach USD 4.3 billion by 2025, growing at a CAGR of 11.8%, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. This can be attributed to significant rise in awareness regarding need for rapid and on-time testing for chronic and infectious diseases. Global increase in adoption of INAAT for detection of HIV, hepatitis A & B, and sexually transmitted diseases is considered to be a high impact rendering driver for growth.. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification is one of the most preferred nucleic acid amplification methods because of its ability to provide point of care testing, thus leading to increased adoption. The recently-introduced Nicking Enzyme Amplification Reaction (NEAR) and Helicase-dependent amplification (HDA) technologies are expected to experience exponential growth during the forecast period owing to their patent protection.. In addition, owing to recent epidemics of infectious diseases, ...
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472827490 - EP 3117213 A1 20170118 - SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR LATERAL FLOW IMMUNOASSAY TESTING - [origin: US2015260708A1] A lateral flow immunoassay system is provided that includes a housing having a base portion forming a first chamber therein and a body portion formed with three openings in fluid communication with the first chamber, a vial containing a buffer agent, and a sample collector for introducing a sample fluid into the first chamber via the second opening. The vial is mounted to the housing such that a dispensing side extends into the first opening for dispensing the buffer agent therefrom into the first chamber. The housing allows the buffer agent and sample fluid to be mixed within a reaction well formed within the first chamber to form a test sample mixture. The body portion is configured to receive a receiving end of an elongated holder in the third opening and allow a test strip secured in the holder to be brought into communication with the text sample mixture.[origin: US2015260708A1] A
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject-specific sections.
Sensitivity - The probability that if the animal has the disease that the test will be positive.. Specificity - The probability that if the animal does not have the disease that the test will be negative.. Tests for cell mediated immune responses. SICTT. The intra-dermal test utilises tuberculin which is a purified protein derivative (PPD), a complex preparation obtained from filtrates of sterilized, concentrated cultures of Mycobacterium bovis. The injection of this into the skin of animals exposed to bovine TB (bTB) results in an inflammatory reaction in which TB-specific memory T cells are attracted into the skin and multiply in response to the PPD antigen. The use of avian and bovine tuberculin allows the differentiation between bTB and other Mycobacterial species, principally avian TB, thereby significantly improving the specificity.. The advantage of this test lies in its excellent specificity (generally considered around 99.5%) which makes it very suitable for herd level testing. However, ...
How is the cutoff point actually determined? This can be based on a pure mathematical analysis to either minimize the mathematical distance between the receiver operator characteristic curve and the ideal point (sensitivity = specificity = 1) or to maximize the difference (Youden index) between the receiver operator characteristic curve and the diagonal or chance line (sensitivity + specificity − 1). Whereas the first approach minimizes misclassification, the second one maximizes appropriate classification.4 An alternative approach will also take into account the cost-benefit ratio of the consequence of having either false-positive or false-negative results. One can easily appreciate that in certain pathologic conditions, treatment of a patient with a false-positive result may be worse than missing a false-negative result or conversely that not treating a patient with a false-negative result may be worse than treating one with a false-positive result. In the case of PPV assessment, a low ...
Chlamydiae are implicated in a variety of clinically and economically important diseases in livestock and companion animals. These bacteria are associated with abortion, conjunctivitis, encephalomyelitis, enteritis, pneumonia, and polyarthritis in ruminants. Infection with these bacteria is the most common cause of abortion in sheep and goats and also causes zoonotic infection in humans which, in pregnant women, can result in spontaneous abortion.
Upper limits of normal ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) have been a matter of debate in recent years. Current diagnostic thresholds for ABP rely mainly on statistical parameters derived from reference populations. Recent findings from the International Database of Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcome (IDACO) provide outcome-driven thresholds for ABP Rounded systolic/diastolic thresholds for optimal ABP were found to be 115/75 mm Hg for 24 hours, 120/80 mm Hg for daytime, and 100/65 mm Hg for nighttime. The corresponding rounded thresholds for normal ABP were 125/75 mm Hg, 130/85 mm Hg, and 110/70 mm Hg, respectively, and those for ambulatory hypertension were 130/80 mm Hg, 140/85 mm Hg, and 120/70 mm Hg. However, in clinical practice, any diagnostic threshold for blood pressure needs to be assessed in the context of the patients overall risk profile. The IDACO database is therefore being updated with additional population cohorts to enable the construction of ...
Procalcitonin (PCT) is a current, frequently-used marker for severe bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to develop a cost-effective detection kit for rapid quantitative and on-site detection of PCT. To develop the new PCT quantitative detecting kit, a double-antibody sandwich immunofluorescent assay was employed based on time-resolved immunofluorescent assay (TRFIA) combined with lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA). The performance of the new developed kit was evaluated in the aspects of linearity, precision, accuracy, and specificity. Two-hundred thirty-four serum samples were enrolled to carry out the comparison test. The new PCT quantitative detecting kit exhibited a higher sensitivity (0.08 ng/mL). The inter-assay coefficient of variation (CV) and the intra-assay CV were 5.4%-7.7% and 5.7%-13.4%, respectively. The recovery rates ranged from 93% to 105%. Furthermore, a high correlation (n = 234, r = 0.977, p | 0.0001) and consistency (Kappa = 0.875) were obtained when compared with the PCT kit
Pereira, B.P., Aung, K.Z., Pho, R.W.H., Cool, S.M., Nathan, S.S., Zhou, Y., Gupta, A., Leong, D.T., Salto-Tellez, M., Van, Wijnen A.J., Ling, L., Galindo, M., Stein, G.S. (2009). Runx2, p53, and pRB status as diagnostic parameters for deregulation of osteoblast growth and differentiation in a new pre-chemotherapeutic osteosarcoma cell line (OS1). Journal of Cellular Physiology 221 (3) : 778-788. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcp. ...
In the present study, the Hyplex BloodScreen PCR-ELISA system was evaluated for the first time for direct identification of pathogenic bacteria in a large panel of positive BACTEC 9240 blood culture bottles. This test system allows identification of the bacteria within ca. 4.5 to 6 h, including DNA isolation, PCR amplification, and detection by reverse hybridization. Therefore, in contrast to conventional culture and biochemical identification techniques, which usually take 1 to 2 days, the Hyplex BloodScreen PCR-ELISA system generates results much quicker.. Concerning pure cultures of bacteria, the Hyplex BloodScreen PCR-ELISA system had a very high sensitivity, ranging from 96.6 to 100% for the various test modules (Table 1 and 2). The specificities of the different modules were also high and exceeded 97.5% in all assays but one. The test module for the detection of E. coli cross-reacted with B. fragilis, M. morganii, and one isolate of E. cloacae and therefore had a specificity of only 92.5%. ...
On Thu, 11 Mar 2004 13:16:15 -0500 XIAO LIU ,xiaoliu at jhmi.edu, wrote: , Dear R-helpers: , , I want to calculate area under a Receiver Operator Characteristic curve. , Where can I find related functions? , , Thank you in advance , , Xiao , install.packages(Hmisc) library(Hmisc) w ,- somers2(predicted probability, 0/1 diagnosis) Convert Somers Dxy rank correlation to ROC area (C) using Dxy=2*(C-.5). To get standard error of Dxy (and hence C) type ?rcorr.cens (another Hmisc function). This is the nonparametric Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney approach. --- Frank E Harrell Jr Professor and Chair School of Medicine Department of Biostatistics Vanderbilt University ...
A mark-free computer-assisted diagnosis method and system are provided for assisting diagnosis of abnormalities in digital medical images using diagnosis based image enhancement. The method includes the steps of: receiving indicia identifying one or more regions of interest in a digital medical image; and displaying one or more enhanced views of the regions of interest, the enhanced views being based on diagnostic parameters for the regions of interest and diagnostic parameters corresponding to a particular abnormality.
Background Blood culture is viewed as the golden standard for the diagnosis of sepsis but suffers from low sensitivity and long turnaround time. LightCycler SeptiFast (LC-SF) is a real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction test able to detect 25 common pathogens responsible for bloodstream infections within hours. We aim to assess the accuracy of LC-SF by systematically reviewing the published studies. Method Related literature on Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases was searched up to October 2012 for studies utilizing LC-SF to diagnose suspected sepsis and that provided sufficient data to construct two-by-two tables. Results A total of 34 studies enrolling 6012 patients of suspected sepsis were included. The overall sensitivity and specificity for LC-SF to detect bacteremia or fungemia was 0·75 (95% CI: 0·65-0·83) and 0·92 (95%CI:0·90-0·95), respectively. LC-SF had a high positive likelihood ratio (10·10) and a moderate negative likelihood ratio (0·27). Specifically, LC-SF had a
Battling infection is a major healthcare objective. Untreated infections can rapidly evolve toward the condition of sepsis in which the body begins to fail and resuscitation becomes critical and tenuous. Identification of infection followed by rapid antimicrobial treatment are primary goals of medical care, but precise identification of offending organisms by current methods is slow and broad spectrum empirical therapy is employed to cover most potential pathogens. Current methods for identification of bacterial pathogens in a clinical setting typically require days of time, or a four- to eight-hour growth phase followed by DNA extraction, purification and PCR-based amplification. We demonstrate rapid (70-120 minutes) genetic diagnostics methods utilizing loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to test for 15 common infection pathogen targets, called the Infection Diagnosis Panel (In-Dx). The method utilizes filtration to rapidly concentrate bacteria in sample matrices with lower bacterial loads
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In this study, we constructed a novel tool for the identification of six Plasmodium parasites, including two P. ovale subspecies, using MinION™ portable sequencer and the LAMP method. We demonstrated that the method can achieve a comprehensive diagnosis of malaria even in resource-limited endemic regions. In particular, the LAMP method employs a set of four specially designed primers that recognize six distinct sequences on the target DNA, and relies on an auto-cycling procedure under isothermal conditions. In addition, our method enabled rapid library preparation (within 30 min), with multiplex sequencing and streaming analysis of real-time sequencing data via the Rapid Barcoding Sequencing Kit. Therefore, our LAMP method combined with the MinION™ sequencer would be convenient to use in various clinical settings.. Recently, Loopamp™ MALARIA Pan/Pf Detection Kit (Eiken Chemical) has become commercially available for the diagnosis of malaria by the LAMP method. This LAMP kit has good ...
The serological tests play a vital role in the diagnosis of both human and animal toxoplasmosis [6]. Thus, researchers continue to strive in perfecting and improving the serodiagnostics of T. gondii infections. In this regard, acquiring effective diagnostic antigens would be highly beneficial. The current immunoassays are mainly based on the T. gondii lysate antigens (TLAs), which are characterized as high sensitive and specific diagnostic tools [26].. However, the insufficient accuracy of some diagnostic tests are correlated with significant variation in the procedure of producing such kind of antigens, resulting in a major drawback which is lack of the standardization. The real challenge for researchers is to identify novel antigens that possess high immunoreactivity [27]. Thus, exploration of effective diagnostic reagents is the best strategy for the development of accurate diagnostic assays, which would considerably improve the management of the disease [16]. Accordingly, significant efforts ...
If these results combined with your physical exam and history lead you to believe your patient has a local process, there are a few diagnostics that can be done to help you gain a definitive diagnosis before the need for advanced imaging and rhinoscopy.. As stated before, aspiration of the mandibular lymph nodes, although low yield, is a non-invasive method of obtaining a potential diagnosis. This might be reserved for older, large breed dogs with a history of nasal discharge and therefore a greater suspicion of neoplasia.. If aspergillosis is suspected due to breed, life style, chronic nasal discharge and possible nasal pain or ulceration over the bridge of the nose or depigmentation/ ulceration of the nasal planum, agar-gel immunodiffusion or IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays can be performed. These blood tests provide excellent specificity but moderate sensitivity for sinonasal aspergillosis. Therefore, false negative results are possible. If your patient tests positive for this disease, ...
Template matching method is presented to identify the peaks from the scanned signals of lateral flow immunoassay strips. The template is composed of two pulses separated by the distance of the control and the target ligand line in the assay, and is convolved with the scanned signal to deliver the maximum at the center of the two peaks. The peak regions were identified with the predefined distances from the center. Glycosylated haemoglobin immunoassay strips and fluorescent strip readers from Boditechmed Inc. were tested to estimate the lot and reader variations of the concentration measurands. The results showed the robustness of the propose method ...
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The Used Laboratory Equipment Donation Program (LEDP) Grant Program was established by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to grant available excess of used energy-related laboratory equipment to universities and colleges and other nonprofit educational institutions of higher learning in the United States for use in energy oriented educational programs.
The Used Laboratory Equipment Donation Program (LEDP) Grant Program was established by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to grant available excess of used energy-related laboratory equipment to universities and colleges and other nonprofit educational institutions of higher learning in the United States for use in energy oriented educational programs.
The main findings of our study are that: 1) low-radiation CTDE performed immediately after a stress-rest MDCT protocol is capable of scar detection with reasonable accuracy but low sensitivity; and 2) the addition of CTDE to a stress-rest CTA + CTP integrated protocol does not improve the global accuracy of MDCT for the detection of functionally significant CAD in patients with intermediate-to-high pre-test probability.. We and others have previously shown that integration of CTP with CTA improved diagnostic accuracy of MDCT in patients with intermediate-to-high pre-test probability, mainly because of an increased specificity in heavily calcified coronary arteries (7-12). In this study, we added CTDE analysis to our integrated CTA + CTP protocol, aiming to test its potential as an additive tool for the diagnosis of CAD. A similar approach has been proposed for CMR using LGE to improve the accuracy of stress perfusion, but currently, this algorithm is seldom used (21).. In our study, ischemic ...
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For instance, let us consider a 55 year old non-smoking woman who presents with a 10 mm spiculated nodule located in the right upper lobe. Her past medical history includes a mastectomy for breast cancer six years previously. From table 3 the pre-test probability of malignancy is 44%. A TNAB is performed and a diagnosis of malignancy is obtained, which corresponds from the meta-analysis to a likelihood ratio of 72. From the nomogram of Fagan the post-test probability of malignancy reaches more than 98%. Had the pathologist responded suspicious for malignancy the post-test probability would have been around 92%. On the other hand, if the pathologist had diagnosed a benign lesion without being more specific, the post-test probability of malignancy is 5%. Finally, had the pathologist reported a finding of hamartoma the post-test probability of malignancy would have been less than 1%.. We restricted this analysis to studies that met methodological criteria for assessing diagnostic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ultra-sensitive and rapid detection of nucleic acids and microorganisms in body fluids using single-molecule tethering. AU - Cheng, Wen Chih. AU - Horn, Troy. AU - Zayats, Maya. AU - Rizk, Georges. AU - Major, Samuel. AU - Zhu, Hongying. AU - Russell, Joseph. AU - Xu, Zhiguang. AU - Rothman, Richard E.. AU - Celedon, Alfredo. N1 - Funding Information: The authors would like to thank Gregory Bowman and Karen Carroll at Johns Hopkins University for discussions that helped to improve the manuscript significantly and Nikki Parrish at Johns Hopkins Hospital for providing sputum samples. Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and by the National Institute on Aging of the National Institutes of Health under Awards R44AI124871, R44AI122527 and R43AG056208. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.. PY - ...
Seegenes innovative real-time PCR method, READ™ (REal Amplicon Detection), is a powerful technology that overcomes the limitations of conventional real-time PCR. READ™ is totally different from current probe- (TaqMan, Molecular Beacon, etc.) and primer-based (Scorpion, LUX, Sunrise, etc.) real-time PCR methods, and opens new opportunities for highly effective pathogen detection. The Magicplex™ System is a two step process system based on READ™ technology that amplifies multiple target genes and then selectively detects the amplicons on a real-time PCR platform. The system provides maximum sensitivity and specificity by detecting the amplicons produced by the first amplification step. This unique process overcomes the limitations of conventional PCR and real-time PCR testing methods, such as low specificity and sensitivity, limited multiplexity, high re-test rates, long processing cycles and narrow range of applicable specimens for testing ...
All of the patients underwent an MRI of the abdomen and were retrospectively analyzed by 2 blinded, independent readers. Histopathology after resection was the reference standard. Both readers evaluated tumor characteristics, including invasion through bowel wall, invasion beyond bowel wall of ≥5 mm and/or invasion of surrounding organs, serosal involvement, extramural vascular invasion, and malignant lymph nodes. The team found that MRI had a high sensitivity and specificity in detecting T3/T4 tumors, and a low sensitivity and high specificity in detecting T3cd/T4 tumors. The researchers noted that for detecting serosal involvement and extramural vascular invasion, MRI had a high sensitivity and moderate specificity, as well as a moderate sensitivity and specificity in the detection of nodal involvement. Interobserver agreements were predominantly good, and the more experienced reader achieved better results in the majority of these categories.. Dr Nerads team comments, MRI has a good ...
Abstract. Twenty-four male patients grafted for various pathologies with the marrow of a female donor and presenting a complete donor-type hematopoiesis when a
EliKine™ Mouse IL-17 ELISA Kit is the latest addition to the Abbkine family, after the scientific research giant announced the release of the product. The release of the kit is part of Abbkines attempt to ease the process of scientific research and investigation, making it more effective and allowing researchers to get more from their effort.. The Mouse IL-17 ELISA Kit as it also known a two-site sandwich ELISA to quantitate IL-17 in samples. The Mouse Interleukin 17 ELISA Kit uses the colorimetric for detection, with sample types including cell culture supernatants, other biological fluids, plasma, and serum.. One of the outstanding features of the EliKine™ Mouse IL-17 ELISA Kit in addition to high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Mouse IL-17 is its assay duration. The kit has multiple steps standard sandwich ELISA assay, with a working time of 3 to 5 hours depending on the experience of the person carrying out the operation.. Some of the kit components include Mouse ...
EliKine™ Mouse IL-17 ELISA Kit is the latest addition to the Abbkine family, after the scientific research giant announced the release of the product. The release of the kit is part of Abbkines attempt to ease the process of scientific research and investigation, making it more effective and allowing researchers to get more from their effort.. The Mouse IL-17 ELISA Kit as it also known a two-site sandwich ELISA to quantitate IL-17 in samples. The Mouse Interleukin 17 ELISA Kit uses the colorimetric for detection, with sample types including cell culture supernatants, other biological fluids, plasma, and serum.. One of the outstanding features of the EliKine™ Mouse IL-17 ELISA Kit in addition to high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Mouse IL-17 is its assay duration. The kit has multiple steps standard sandwich ELISA assay, with a working time of 3 to 5 hours depending on the experience of the person carrying out the operation.. Some of the kit components include Mouse ...
EliKine™ Mouse IL-17 ELISA Kit is the latest addition to the Abbkine family, after the scientific research giant announced the release of the product. The release of the kit is part of Abbkines attempt to ease the process of scientific research and investigation, making it more effective and allowing researchers to get more from their effort.. The Mouse IL-17 ELISA Kit as it also known a two-site sandwich ELISA to quantitate IL-17 in samples. The Mouse Interleukin 17 ELISA Kit uses the colorimetric for detection, with sample types including cell culture supernatants, other biological fluids, plasma, and serum.. One of the outstanding features of the EliKine™ Mouse IL-17 ELISA Kit in addition to high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Mouse IL-17 is its assay duration. The kit has multiple steps standard sandwich ELISA assay, with a working time of 3 to 5 hours depending on the experience of the person carrying out the operation.. Some of the kit components include Mouse ...
Results 466 patients presenting to the ED with sepsis were analysed. Thirty-two (7%) reached at least one endpoint within 72 hours. An LF/HF ratio ,1 had a sensitivity and specificity of 34% (95% CI (19% to 53%)) and 82% (95% CI (78% to 85%)), respectively, with positive and negative likelihood ratios of 1.9 (95% CI (1.1 to 3.2)) and 0.8 (95% CI (0.6 to 1.0)). An initial SOFA score ≥3 had a sensitivity and specificity of 38% (95% CI (22% to 56%)) and 92% (95% CI (89% to 95%)), with positive and negative likelihood ratios of 4.9 (95% CI (2.8 to 8.6)) and 0.7 (95% CI (0.5 to 0.9)). The composite measure of HRV+SOFA had improved sensitivity (56%, 95% CI (38% to 73%)) but at the expense of specificity (77%, 95% CI (72% to 80%)), with positive and negative likelihood ratios of 2.4 (95% CI (1.7 to 3.4)) and 0.6 (95% CI (0.4 to 0.9)). Receiver operating characteristic analysis did not identify a superior alternate threshold for the LF/HF ratio. Kaplan-Meier survival functions differed significantly ...
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Researchers showed how an isothermal amplification technique could detect S. enterica serovars from culture by targeting specific gene markers.
IL-6 gene encodes a cytokine, which functions in inflammation as well as the maturation of B cells. This is in addition to the encoded protein being shown to be an endogenous pyrogen capable of inducing fever in people with autoimmune diseases or infections. The - IL 6 Elisa kit is designed having the researcher or investigator in mind.. With human reactivity and colorimetric method of detection and limit of detection of 2 pg/mL, the kit employs a two-site sandwich ELISA to quantitate IL-6 in samples. The BSF2 Elisa kit as it is also referred to as has a calibration range of 3.125 pg/ml-200 pg/ml.. The IL6 Elisa kit has multiple steps standard sandwich ELISA assay with a working time of 3-5 hours, depending on the experience of the operation person. The sample type includes Cell culture supernatants, other biological fluids, Plasma, Serum.. The features and benefits of the kit include its high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Human IL-6. The kit also has no significant ...
The algorithms used can be adjusted to balance between sensitivity and specificity to limit the number of false alarms and ... However, this directly trades sensitivity for specificity. Use centralized alarms. In this approach, alarms don't fire at the ...
They have a sensitivity and specificity approaching 100%. However, they tend to be more expensive and require more complex ... Because of its sensitivity, PCR can also often detect asymptomatic carriers and may remain positive even days after an ... The sensitivity of DFA testing depends on an adequate specimen. Molecular assays, such as nucleic acid amplification tests ( ...
http://en.citizendium.org/wiki/Sensitivity_and_specificity#Reclassification_tables. ...
... reader1/reader2 sensitivity: 86%/100%; specificity: 90%/70%) and axial (reader1/reader2 sensitivity: 86%/93%; specificity: 90%/ ...
... specificity of 94%. Several investigators have found the sensitivity being consistently higher than 90% though specificity has ... 1994). "Revised estimates of diagnostic test sensitivity and specificity in suspected biliary tract disease". Arch Intern Med. ... Cholescintigraphy for acute cholecystitis has sensitivity of 97%, ...
Several studies have successfully optimized sensitivity and specificity by using PCR amplification (pre-enrichment PCR) and ... Vermeulen, M (2010). "Evaluation of sensitivity, specificity and cross-reactivity in Bartonella henselae serology". J Med ... IFA sensitivity may range from 14-100%, causing discrepancies between PCR and serology test results. Positive IFA results do ... but it has a low sensitivity (17-35%). Western blot for protein detection of Bartonella-associated proteins has also been ...
Sensitivity, and Specificity of Wrist Actigraphy Compared to Polysomnography. Sleep, 36(11), 1747-1755. https://doi.org/10.5665 ... These false positives are relatively common: while actigraphy is good at detecting sleep patterns (sensitivity: 0.965), it has ... When compared, data collected through polysomnographs and actigraphs defines sensitivity; which is the proportion of sleep ... its difficulties in detecting wake periods (specificity: 0.329). As an electronic device, there can be unobserved technical ...
Iino M, Kuribayashi S, Imakita S, Takamiya M, Matsuo H, Ookita Y, Ando M, Ueda H (2002). "Sensitivity and specificity of CT in ...
The specificity of the CODY Assessment is 81 and the sensitivity is 76. The Ratz-Index is 0,68, which shows a good level of ...
Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) can improve specificity and sensitivity. Some medical disorders are ... Automated immunoassays lack specificity and show significant cross-reactivity due to interactions with structural analogs of ... further complemented by a decrease in the sensitivity of peripheral tissue to insulin, thus preventing this tissue from taking ...
It has a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 87% in detecting RBD. The RBD1Q can be used to establish a diagnosis of REM ...
... showing an overall sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 95%. MRI is superior to bone scans in terms of sensitivity (99%-100%) ... MRI has been shown to have 100% sensitivity and specificity in prospective studies of occult hip fractures. These fractures ... ADC ratio superior to 1.63 indicates bad prognosis with 89% sensitivity and 58% specificity. In adults, MRI is currently ... MR arthrography has demonstrated sensitivity over 90% and specificity close to 100% in detecting labral tears. Loose bodies are ...
The sensitivity and specificity for SCA1 within this model was 76.9% and 98.2% respectively. Regional variance in prevalence, ...
This RI number provides a clear and objective measurement of retinal function with 90% sensitivity and specificity. An RI of ... Jackson, GR (2014). "Diagnostic Sensitivity and Specificity of Dark Adaptometry for Detection of Age-Related Macular ... Sensitivity to light is modulated by changes in intracellular calcium ions and cyclic guanosine monophosphate. The sensitivity ... Changes in the sensitivity of rods and cones in the eye are the major contributors to dark adaptation. Above a certain ...
"Defining the actual sensitivity and specificity of the neurosphere assay in stem cell biology". Nature Methods. 3 (10): 801-6. ...
No single test has adequate sensitivity and specificity to diagnose pelvic inflammatory disease. A large multisite U.S. study ... found that cervical motion tenderness as a minimum clinical criterion increases the sensitivity of the CDC diagnostic criteria ...
Diagnoses is subject to methodological shortcomings in regard to specificity and sensitivity of assays used. For this reason, ... As in humans, the sensitivity of testing methods for rodents contributes to the accuracy of diagnosis. LCMV is typically ... In addition, infection will increase the sensitivity of the mouse to ectromelia virus and to bacterial endotoxins. Reported ...
The infraspinatus and supraspinatus tests have a specificity of 80% to 90%. A common cause of shoulder pain in rotator cuff ... The Hawkins-Kennedy test has a sensitivity of approximately 80% to 90% for detecting impingement. ...
The sensitivity and the specificity of these criteria for differentiating AIP from neoplasia are unknown. In cases of systemic ...
A meta-analysis of CT use in penetrating abdominal traumas demonstrated sensitivity, specificity and accuracy >= 95%, with a ...
For anxiety (HADS-A) this gave a specificity of 0.78 and a sensitivity of 0.9. For depression (HADS-D) this gave a specificity ... of 0.79 and a sensitivity of 0.83. There are a large number of studies that have explored the underlying factor structure of ...
The Apley grind test has a reported sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 87%. In order to perform the test, the patient lies ...
The system exhibits "per study" specificity of 60-70%, while keeping the sensitivity above 90%. It can be used for chest pain ... Since CAST operates in a fully automated mode, the system is expected to exhibit very high sensitivity - usually above 90%. ... Therefore, for most clinical applications, CAST specificity should be higher than 60-70% to make it useful. Since CAST operates ... Moreover, the need to provide a diagnosis at "per study" level dictates stringent requirements for CAST specificity as well. ...
... has a high sensitivity and negative predictive value, although the specificity is not high. However, in the ... elderly the sensitivity is markedly lower; a negative Murphy's sign in an elderly person is not useful for ruling out ...
The accuracy by dermatoscopy was increased up to 20% in the case of sensitivity and up to 10% in the case of specificity, ... Thus, there is considerable improvement in the sensitivity (detection of melanomas) as well as specificity (percentage of non- ... "Sensitivity and specificity of epiluminescence microscopy: evaluation on a sample of 2731 excised cutaneous pigmented lesions ... By using dermatoscopy the specificity is thereby increased, reducing the frequency of unnecessary surgical excisions of benign ...
The technique is especially useful for deamidation analysis due to its high sensitivity, speed, and specificity. This allows ... The endoprotease, Glu-C, has shown specificity to only glutamic acid when in specific pH conditions (4.5 and 8.0) and cleaved ...
It can detect larger adenomas and neoplasia with high specificity, but less sensitivity than conventional colonoscopy. Heiken, ... "Virtual Colonoscopy" - National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse - NIH Menardo G (December 2004). "Sensitivity of ...
This is now an obsolete test for diagnosing PNH due to its low sensitivity and specificity. Today, the gold standard is flow ...
In contrast to the high specificity, estimates of 25-85% have been observed for the sensitivity of anti-dsDNA in SLE. Therefore ... EIA detects low and high avidity anti-dsDNA antibodies, increasing its sensitivity and reducing its specificity. Flow cytometry ... This test has a higher specificity than EIA because it uses unprocessed DNA. Processed DNA can contain regions of ssDNA, ... "Four Anti-dsDNA Antibody Assays in Relation to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Specificity and Activity". J Rheumatol. 42 ...
The sensitivity and specificity of anal Pap smears are lower than those of their cervical counterparts. This means that a ...
... specificity is gained by coupling targeted proteins to an "E3 ubiquitin ligase". Each E3 ubiquitin ligase binds to a particular ... and a decrease in sensitivity to or the availability of critical secreted growth factors which are necessary to maintain muscle ...
... and detector-sensitivity correction (for both inherent detector sensitivity and changes in sensitivity due to angle of ... indirectly by competition studies between unlabeled drug and radiolabeled compounds known apriori to bind with specificity to ... 3D techniques have better sensitivity (because more coincidences are detected and used) and therefore less noise, but are more ... and preliminary assessment of sensitivity to aging effects on dopamine D-2/D-3 receptors". Synapse. 46 (3): 170-88. doi:10.1002 ...
The test measures free circulating cortisol and has both a sensitivity and specificity of 95-98%.[7][9] This test is especially ... The BIPSS has a sensitivity and specificity of 94% for Cushing's disease but it is usually used as a last resort due to its ... The sensitivity of the CRH test for detecting Cushing's disease is 93% when plasma levels are measured after fifteen and thirty ... The UFC test has a specificity of 81% and thus has a high rate of false-positives that are due to pseudo-Cushing states, sleep ...
However, the sensitivity of the DRE for injuries of the spinal cord, pelvis, and bowel is poor, and false positive and negative ... The DRE has a 50% specificity for benign prostatic hypoplasia.[1] Vigorous examination of the prostate in suspected acute ... is not an adequate screen due to low sensitivity for advanced tumor and colorectal cancer.[20] Screening for colon cancer this ...
... sensitivity and 90% specificity for the presence of the infection. Other laboratory findings in Lassa fever include ...
... sensitivity and 100% specificity. The sensitivity of the Ishihara test varies by the number of plates allowed to pass, which ... Sensitivity also may be influenced by test administration (strength of lighting, time allowed to answer) and testing errors ( ...
A particularly telling case of this effect is host specificity in pathogenic ascomycetes and specifically, in venturia, the ... Some forms of albinism are also known to have symptoms that manifest themselves through rapid-eye movement, light sensitivity, ...
They offer the specificity required to separate similar compounds from each other, such as separating polymers in plastic waste ... Two major drawbacks for some applications were moisture sensitivity and acidity or basicity. In 1992, Wilkes and Zawarotko ...
Two or more positive criteria have a sensitivity of 88.2% and a specificity of 92.0% of describing GPA.[13][18] ...
... thus providing ultimately the best specificity for medical purposes.[2] ... sensitivity. *specificity. *robustness. *accuracy. *reproducibility. Protocol standardization This optimizes the validated ...
Molina-Infante J, Santolaria S, Sanders DS, Fernández-Bañares F (May 2015). "Systematic review: noncoeliac gluten sensitivity ... specificity of the threat, and (4) motivated direction. Fear is short lived, present focused, geared towards a specific threat ... non-celiac gluten sensitivity, inflammatory bowel disease),[73][74][75] heart diseases, blood diseases (anemia),[7] cerebral ...
... while the Awaji criteria had a sensitivity of 81.1%; both sets of criteria had a specificity of about 98%.[83] The El Escorial ... Their sensitivity is particularly poor in the early stages of ALS. The Awaji criteria have better sensitivity than the El ... A 2012 meta-analysis found that the El Escorial Revised criteria had a sensitivity of 62.2%, ...
Estimation of dose based on target sensitivity[edit]. Different cancer types have different radiation sensitivity. However, ... The specificity of this technique is to modify three parameters during the treatment. VMAT delivers radiation by rotating ... An example of this problem is seen in radiation of the prostate gland, where the sensitivity of the adjacent rectum limited the ... predicting the sensitivity based on genomic or proteomic analyses of biopsy samples has proved difficult.[40][41] An ...
Using antibodies and gold particles this approach can quantify proteins in serum with high sensitivity and specificity.[43] ... Le Ru, Eric C.; Meyer, Matthias; Etchegoin, Pablo G. (2006). "Proof of Single-Molecule Sensitivity in Surface Enhanced Raman ... SERS combined with plasmonic sensing can be used for high-sensitivity and quantitative detection of biomolecular interaction,[ ...
... rapid diagnostic tests have a sensitivity of 50-75% and specificity of 90-95% when compared with viral culture.[30] ...
T-cell sensitivity to antigen could be increased via avidity-based mechanism. The antigen sensitivity is higher in antigen- ... TCRs have very high degree of antigen specificity, despite of fact that the affinity to the peptide/MHC ligand is in the ... Each recombined TCR possess unique antigen specificity, determined by the structure of the antigen-binding site formed by the α ... Extracellularly, the TCR co-receptor defines the specificity of the TCR to MHC class I or II molecule, and increases binding ...
Although sensitivity levels vary by country, the most common food allergies are allergies to milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, ... A CAP-RAST has greater specificity than RAST; it can show the amount of IgE present to each allergen.[48] Researchers have been ... One of the most common food allergies is a sensitivity to peanuts, a member of the bean family. Peanut allergies may be severe ... Some children who are allergic to cow's milk protein also show a cross-sensitivity to soy-based products.[34] Some infant ...
High accuracy, precision, sensitivity and specificity of proposed method are fully acceptable for clinical practice and for ...
less than 5% sensitivity Some ANAs appear in several types of disease, resulting in lower specificity of the test. For example ... Sensitivity[edit]. The following table lists the sensitivity of different types of ANAs for different diseases. ... Sensitivity (%) SLE. Drug-induced LE. Diffuse systemic sclerosis. Limited systemic scleroderma. Sjögren syndrome. Inflammatory ... They are a very specific marker for the disease, with some studies quoting nearly 100%.[7] Data on sensitivity ranges from 25 ...
... and they are designed to offer the best sensitivity and specificity possible, respect the presence of a condition, with the ...
Specificity and sensitivity. *Likelihood-ratios. *Pre/post-test probability. Trial/test types. *In vitro ...
In instances where resistance occurs more gradually, a shift in sensitivity in the pathogen to the fungicide can be seen. Such ... The pathogen had five ABC-type transporters with overlapping substrate specificities that together work to pump toxic chemicals ... where resistance to one chemical class of fungicides leads to an increase in sensitivity to a different chemical class of ...
Ultrasonography or a CT scan can establish the diagnosis, although CT scan provides the greatest sensitivity and specificity.[2 ...
Related concerns include achieving appropriate levels of statistical power and sensitivity.. Correctly designed experiments ... Specificity and sensitivity. *Likelihood-ratios. *Pre/post-test probability. Trial/test types. *In vitro ...
Newer PCR based tools have higher sensitivity and specificity. Emergence of PKDL has been reported in HIV affected individuals ... perhaps reflecting low sensitivity of diagnostic methods used in earlier entries. ...
... specificity but only a 67% sensitivity. As of 2017 some scientists hypothesized that changes in the gut flora might be an early ...
Stefanova I.; Dorfman J. R.; Germain R. N. (2002). "Self-recognition promotes the foreign antigen sensitivity of naive T ... and production of large amounts of antibodies of varying specificities, some of which may be self-reactive (see below). ...
... may be screened for in animal discrimination and self-administration models which have high sensitivity albeit low specificity. ... "Reinforcing Effects of Stimulants in Humans: Sensitivity of Progressive-Ratio Schedules". Experimental and Clinical ...
The hearing range of birds is from below 50 Hz (infrasound) to around 12 kHz, with maximum sensitivity between 1 and 5 kHz.[17] ... The specificity of bird calls has been used extensively for species identification. The calls of birds have been described ...
Double DIG-labeled detection probes and optimized reagents deliver superior sensitivity and specificity with one-day protocol ... Superior sensitivity and specificity. With optimized northern blot protocols and in situ hybridization protocols, our kits ... The superior sensitivity and specificity of our probes enables you to confidently detect low-abundance miRNAs. ... Double digoxygenin (DIG)-labeled detection probes combined with optimized reagents deliver superior sensitivity and specificity ...
... Sensitivity and specificity are the probability of a correct test result in subjects with and without ... Sensitivity (true positive fraction, TPF) measures the ability of a test to detect the condition when it is present. It is the ... Specificity (true negative fraction, TNF) measures the ability of a test to detect the absence of the condition when it is not ...
NCSS provides tools for computing sensitivity and specificity for one-sample, two-sample, paired-sample, and cluster-randomized ... This can be done by comparing sensitivity and/or specificity using a statistical test. NCSS includes tools to make these ... The Binary Diagnostic Test procedures are used to calculate, analyze, and compare the sensitivity and the specificity of the ... This can be done by comparing summary measures of diagnostic accuracy such as sensitivity or specificity using a statistical ...
The quality of a diagnostic test is often expressed in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Sensitivity is the ability of the ... This function gives predictive values (post-test likelihood) with change, prevalence (pre-test likelihood), sensitivity, ... specificity and likelihood ratios with robust confidence intervals (Sackett et al., 1983, 1991; Zhou et al., 2002). ... test to pick up what it is testing for and specificity is the ability of the test to reject what it is not testing for. ...
Specificity. Download Sensitivity & Specificity and enjoy it on your iPhone, iPad and iPod touch. ... Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots and learn more about Sensitivity & ... This app gives the sensitivity and specificity of thousands of medical tests, with literature citations included.. Visit our ... webpage version at sensitivityspecificity.com. For example, imagine a patient comes in for a reported seizure. What lab tests ...
The sensitivity and specificity are proportions, so confidence intervals can be calculated for them using standard methods for ... Sensitivity and specificity are one approach to quantifying the diagnostic ability of the test. In clinical practice, however, ... Statistics Notes: Diagnostic tests 1: sensitivity and specificity BMJ 1994; 308 :1552 ... Statistics Notes: Diagnostic tests 1: sensitivity and specificity. BMJ 1994; 308 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.308.6943.1552 ...
... you should be able to compute sensitivity and specificity. Either using formulas such as a / (a + c) or for specificity, d / (b ... Sensitivity and Specificity. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that supports ... You would be happy if you have a sensitivity above 80, 90% as well as a specificity in this range. We published this data a few ... If you want a high sensitivity or if you want a high specificity you can choose the cutoff which will provide you the highest ...
modify the performance of your sensitivity and specificity and vice versa.. If you want a high sensitivity or if you want a ... the sensitivity or the specificity of the test will remain unchanged.. This is true with one exception what we call the ... Sensitivity and Specificity. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that supports ... And when I compute, calculate the sensitivity and the specificity,. This performance will be modified, as you can imagine and ...
Sensitivity and specificity values alone may be highly misleading. The worst-case sensitivity or specificity must be ... sensitivity or true positive rate (TPR). eqv. with hit rate, recall. T. P. R. =. T. P. /. P. =. T. P. /. (. T. P. +. F. N. ). ... specificity (SPC) or true negative rate. S. P. C. =. T. N. /. N. =. T. N. /. (. T. N. +. F. P. ). {\displaystyle {\mathit {SPC ... sensitivity. If 100 with no disease are tested and 96 return a negative result, then the test has 96% specificity. Sensitivity ...
... specificity, and precision of the different commercially available troponin assays vary considerably. These differences are ... How does the sensitivity, specificity, and precision cardiac troponin assays vary?. Updated: Nov 20, 2018 ... The sensitivity, specificity, and precision of the different commercially available troponin assays vary considerably. These ... Novel high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I assay in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. Heart. 2018 Nov 15. [ ...
Sensitivity of clinical diagnosis was 100% for tuberculosis and 81.8% for lung cancer; specificity was 67.5% for tuberculosis ... Avijgan, M. (‎2005)‎. Specificity and sensitivity of clinical diagnosis for chronic pneumonia. http://www.who.int/iris/handle/ ...
The balance of sensitivity and specificity. Glossary. sensitivity. When using a diagnostic test, the probability that a person ... Lower rates of specificity will produce more false positive results.. *Both the sensitivity and specificity of the HIV tests ... In general, sensitivity and specificity exist in a state of balance. Increased sensitivity (the ability to correctly identify ... Lower rates of sensitivity will produce more false negative results.. *The specificity of a test is the percentage of results ...
Specificity, Positive Predictive Value, and Negative Predictive Value. For any given test administered to a given population, ... Have a test that you are interested in determining its sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative ... Know that sensitivity and specificity are intrinsic properties of a given test, and do not depend on the given population, i.e ... To calculate the sensitivity, divide TP by (TP+FN). In the case above, that would be 95/(95+5)= 95%. The sensitivity tells us ...
McKeithans kinetic proofreading model is often invoked to explain this sensitivity and specificity of the T cell. In this ... and suggest that it does not seem adequate to explain the observed degree of T cell sensitivity, specificity and robustness. ... and are able to discriminate between different ligands with high specificity. ... T cell sensitivity and specificity - kinetic proofreading revisited. Cliburn Chan 1, , Andrew J.T. George 1, and Jaroslav Stark ...
3. Sensitivity and specificity. How can we measure how good a pattern is at detecting a particular sequence feature? There are ... Specificity = TPos / (TPos + FPos) Warning: in the medical context (diagnosis), specificity is defined differently: there it is ... Sensitivity is the fraction of the true matches that actually are correctly predicted as matches by the pattern. If the pattern ... Specificity is the fraction of the sequences predicted as matches that really are true matches. If the pattern is too inclusive ...
Based on blood culture results, the tests overall sensitivity was 90%. Its specificity was 96% to 99% when blood culture was ... Based on blood culture results, the tests overall sensitivity was 90%. Its specificity was 96% to 99% when blood culture was ... "The T2Bacteria Panel had excellent sensitivity and specificity at detecting leading causes of bloodstream infection," Cornelius ... "The T2Bacteria Panel had excellent sensitivity and specificity at detecting leading causes of bloodstream infection," Cornelius ...
... Kim Kristiansen,1 Pernille Lyngholm- ... Kim Kristiansen, Pernille Lyngholm-Kjaerby, and Claus Moe, "DoloTest in General Practice Study: Sensitivity and Specificity ...
... ... were used to directly detect the viral protein Zika NS1 at clinically relevant levels of sensitivity. Specificity to Zika NS1 ...
However, there are limited published data on the sensitivity and specificity of self-administered questionnaires for ... However, there are limited published data on the sensitivity and specificity of self-administered questionnaires for ... The questionnaire demonstrated 100% sensitivity in identifying workers who required work restrictions, but had specificity of ... only 19%. Compared to physician evaluation, the questionnaire had modest sensitivity to the detection of chronic medical ...
Sensitivity. , specificity. , positive & negative predictive values. and efficiency. show the performance of the diagnostic ... Qualitative (Sensitivity / Specificity).. *Click True classification then select the dichotomous variable containing the true ... Qualitative (Sensitivity/Specificity) examines the performance of a diagnostic test and its ability to correctly identify non- ... Sensitivity TP (true positive), Specificity TN (true negative), FP (false positive) and FN (false negative) proportions and ...
View source for Sensitivity and specificity/Bibliography. ← Sensitivity and specificity/Bibliography. Jump to: navigation, ...
Sensitivity and specificity of different methods for the isolation of Salmonella from pigs.. Bager F1, Petersen J. ... Of the conventional methods, enrichment in RV had a higher sensitivity and selectivity than SB and MKTB. Recovery of S. ... with a similar high sensitivity and specificity. ...
Sum of sensitivity and specificity). *(cur , prev). 21:48, 20 May 2010‎ Robert Badgett (Talk , contribs)‎ . . (17,893 bytes) (+ ... Sensitivity and specificity). *(cur , prev). 14:46, 13 May 2010‎ Robert Badgett (Talk , contribs)‎ . . (17,890 bytes) (+307)‎ ... Sum of sensitivity and specificity). *(cur , prev). 15:27, 1 April 2009‎ Robert Badgett (Talk , contribs)‎ . . (12,452 bytes) ... Sum of sensitivity and specificity: Added Youdens index). *(cur , prev). 13:07, 26 February 2009‎ Robert Badgett (Talk , ...
... The basic nature of viral selectivity for certain species, ... Logically, it has been supposed that the specificity of viruses and of response to them is in some way related not only to the ... strange that the polyoma-tumor complex should be selected as a subject for studies dealing with sensitivity and specificity of ... the word itself lacks a certain amount of specificity, for before this agent was recognized it was established by investigators ...
See Table 1 and Figures 1 and 2 for a detailed display of reviewer sensitivity and specificity data. Overall sensitivity for ... Novice reviewers accurately identified disease (sensitivity) in % of CD subjects and accurately identified health (specificity ... Table 1: Sensitivity and specificity of disease identification using only iWellnessExam. data, by educational experience. ... C. Awad, S. Slotnick, S. Nath, and J. Sherman, "Sensitivity and specificity of the iVue iWellnessExam. ™. in detecting retinal ...
Abnormal values of laryngoscopic reflux index (higher than 5 points) reflect a diagnostic sensitivity of 96% and specificity of ... To assess the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the laryngoscopic signs of reflux laryngitis. Material and methods. ... Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of laryngoscopic signs of reflux laryngitis by Rūta Pribuišienė 1,*, Virgilijus Uloza 1 ... "Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of laryngoscopic signs of reflux laryngitis." Medicina 44, no. 4: 280. ...
Sensitivity and specificity of administrative mortality data for identifying prescription opioid-related deaths. Emilie ... Sensitivity and specificity of administrative mortality data for identifying prescription opioid-related deaths ... Sensitivity and specificity of administrative mortality data for identifying prescription opioid-related deaths ... Sensitivity and specificity of administrative mortality data for identifying prescription opioid-related deaths ...
... which increases both the sensitivity and specificity of search results. Modelling a simple linear regression on the decoy hits ...
What Is the Sensitivity and Specificity of Self-Report for Retinopathy Screening?. ... What Is the Sensitivity and Specificity of Self-Report for Retinopathy Screening? ... What Is the Sensitivity and Specificity of Self-Report for Retinopathy Screening? ... What Is the Sensitivity and Specificity of Self-Report for Retinopathy Screening? ...
Sensitivity of Pap smear, LBC and HPV DNA was 75.80%, 76.47% and 89.89%, respectively. Specificity of Pap smear, LBC and HPV ... Evaluation of Sensitivity and Specificity of Pap Smear, LBC and HPV in Screening of Cervical Cancer. ... The present study was undertaken to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of conventional Pap smear, liquid-based cytology and ... However, this technique is not without limitations and the sensitivity and specificity of cervical cytology are relatively low ...
... specificity on 1,000 fresh samples from UK blood donors
. ... today announced the best sensitivity and specificity ever ... Amorfix vCJD assay achieves 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity on 1,000 fresh samples from UK blood donors. ... "The UK authorities have put forward a 99.9% specificity as an acceptable performance for a vCJD test on blood donor samples and ... The EP- vCJDTM Blood Screening Assay scored 100% sensitivity for all spiked samples down to a 1 in 100,000 dilution of 10% ...