A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Virus diseases caused by the TOGAVIRIDAE.
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins that catalyze MEMBRANE FUSION.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A variable mixture of the mono- and disodium salts of gold thiomalic acid used mainly for its anti-inflammatory action in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It is most effective in active progressive rheumatoid arthritis and of little or no value in the presence of extensive deformities or in the treatment of other forms of arthritis.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS associated with epidemic EXANTHEMA and polyarthritis in Australia.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
A local anesthetic of the amide type now generally used for surface anesthesia. It is one of the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics and its parenteral use is restricted to spinal anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1006)
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, consisting of ether-sensitive viruses of leporids and squirrels. They commonly cause tumors and are usually transmitted mechanically by arthropods. MYXOMA VIRUS is the type species.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.
The type species of CARDIOVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis and myocarditis in rodents, pigs, and monkeys. Infection in man has been reported with CNS involvement but without myocarditis.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.

Propagation of Semliki Forest virus in various human lymphoblastoid cell lines. (1/707)

Semliki Forest virus (SFV) propagation was studied in one marmoset and eight human lymphoblastoid cell lines. In eight of these cell lines SFV propagated well. Only in the Daudi (human) cell line virus replication was suppressed. This suppression takes place after virus adsorption but before virus inhibitory effects on cell functions.  (+info)

Stable alphavirus packaging cell lines for Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus-derived vectors. (2/707)

Alphavirus vectors are being developed for possible human vaccine and gene therapy applications. We have sought to advance this field by devising DNA-based vectors and approaches for the production of recombinant vector particles. In this work, we generated a panel of alphavirus vector packaging cell lines (PCLs). These cell lines were stably transformed with expression cassettes that constitutively produced RNA transcripts encoding the Sindbis virus structural proteins under the regulation of their native subgenomic RNA promoter. As such, translation of the structural proteins was highly inducible and was detected only after synthesis of an authentic subgenomic mRNA by the vector-encoded replicase proteins. Efficient production of biologically active vector particles occurred after introduction of Sindbis virus vectors into the PCLs. In one configuration, the capsid and envelope glycoproteins were separated into distinct cassettes, resulting in vector packaging levels of 10(7) infectious units/ml, but reducing the generation of contaminating replication-competent virus below the limit of detection. Vector particle seed stocks could be amplified after low multiplicity of infection of PCLs, again without generating replication-competent virus, suggesting utility for production of large-scale vector preparations. Furthermore, both Sindbis virus-based and Semliki Forest virus-based vectors could be packaged with similar efficiency, indicating the possibility of developing a single PCL for use with multiple alphavirus-derived vectors.  (+info)

Virus infection induces neuronal apoptosis: A comparison with trophic factor withdrawal. (3/707)

Multicellular organisms can employ a number of defences to combat viral replication, the most dramatic being implementation of a cell autonomous apoptotic process. The overall cost to the viability of an organism of losing infected cells by apoptosis may be small if the dying cells can be substituted. In contrast, suicide of irreplaceable cells such as highly specialised neurons may have a more dramatic, even fatal consequence. Previous in vitro approaches to understanding whether neurotropic viruses cause neurons to apoptose have utilised transformed cell lines. These are not in the appropriate state of differentiation to provide an accurate indication of events in vivo. We have chosen to characterise the ability of a model CNS disease-causing virus, Semliki Forest virus (SFV), to infect and trigger apoptosis in primary cultures of nerve growth factor (NGF)-dependent sensory neurons. These cells are known to die when deprived of NGF and constitute a useful indicator of apoptosis. We observe that infection causes cell death which bears the morphological hallmarks of apoptosis, this occurs even in the present of survival promoting NGF and is concomitant with new virus production. Using the TUNEL (transferase dUTP nick end labelling) technique we show that SFV-induced apoptosis involves DNA fragmentation and requires caspase (CED-3/ICE cysteine protease) activation, as does apoptosis induced by NGF-deprivation. Extensive areas of apoptosis, as defined using a combination of ultrastructural analysis and TUNEL occur in infected neonatal mouse brains. The novel evidence that infection of primary neurons with SFV induces apoptosis with activation of one or more caspases defines a system for the further anlaysis of apoptosis regulation in physiologically relevant neurons.  (+info)

RNA helicase activity of Semliki Forest virus replicase protein NSP2. (4/707)

Semliki Forest virus replicase protein nsP2 shares sequence homology with several putative NTPases and RNA helicases. NsP2 has RNA-dependent NTPase activity. Here we expressed polyhistidine-tagged nsP2 in Escherichia coli, purified it by metal-affinity chromatography, and used it in RNA helicase assays. RNA helicase CI of plum pox potyvirus was used as a positive control. Unwinding of alpha-32P-labelled partially double-stranded RNA required nsP2, Mg2+ and NTPs. NsP2 with a mutation, K192N, in the NTP-binding sequence GVPGSGK192SA could not unwind dsRNA and had no NTPase activity. This is the first demonstration of RNA helicase activity within the large alphavirus superfamily.  (+info)

The isolation of the ectodomain of the alphavirus E1 protein as a soluble hemagglutinin and its crystallization. (5/707)

Alphaviruses are isometric enveloped viruses approximately 70 nm in diameter. The viral surface contains 80 glycoprotein spikes arranged in a T = 4 lattice. Each of these spikes consists of three heterodimers of the viral membrane proteins E1 (approximately 49 kDa) and E2 (approximately 51 kDa). Cryoelectron microscopic analyses have shown that the spikes form a protein shell on the viral surface. We have made an attempt to isolate biologically active protein fragments from this surface and to grow crystals from such fragments. To this end membrane proteins were extracted with Nonidet-P40 from the Semliki Forest alphavirus and the proteins were separated from detergent by centrifugation. A protein complex containing the E1 and E2 molecules in quantitative yield was obtained by this procedure. This complex has the following properties: It sediments at approximately 30S, it chromatographs with an apparent molecular mass of approximately 580,000 Da during gel filtration, it cannot be dissociated by either nonionic detergents or 6 M urea, and at acid pH it is a highly active hemagglutinin. The data indicate that this 30S hemagglutinin complex, which has not been hitherto described for alphaviruses, may represent a variant form of the protein lattice present on the alphavirus surface. Cleavage of this complex by subtilisin selectively removes carboxy-terminal sequences from the E1 and E2 proteins, which contain the cytoplasmic and transmembrane segments of the proteins and a small part of their ectodomain. The remaining ectodomains are called E1DeltaS and E2DeltaS. This proteolysis also leads to dissociation of the 30S complex. The cleavage products accumulate in the form of a heterodimer of the E1DeltaS and E2DeltaS proteins. Treatment of the heterodimer with PNGase F leads to rapid removal of carbohydrate from the E2DeltaS protein and a dissociation of the complex into the constituent molecules, which can be separated by chromatography. The finding that the heterodimer and the purified E1DeltaS protein both function as hemagglutinin at acid pH indicates that the E1 protein represents the alphavirus hemagglutinin. We have obtained crystals of the E1DeltaS protein and are currently in the process of determining the atomic structure of this protein by the isomorphous replacement method.  (+info)

Interference of nucleoside diphosphate derivatives of 2-deoxy-D-glucose with the glycosylation of virus-specific glycoproteins in vivo. (6/707)

The predominant effect of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on chick embryo cells infected with Semliki Forest virus is an interference with glycosylation of virus-specific glycoproteins; this results in a block of synthesis of infectious virus. Incorporation of radioactive mannose is blocked severely in the presence of 2-deoxyglucose in the cultural medium although it is readily phosphorylated and subsequently activated by GTP to yield GDP-mannose, which accumulates under these conditions. The intracellular concentrations of GDP-mannose and UDP-N-acetyl-D-hexosamine are not reduced in the presence of the inhibitor. An equimolar concentration of mannose in the cultural medium competes with the inhibitory effect of the deoxysugar and drops the cellular pool of GDP-2-deoxy-D-glucose below the level of detection, at the same time restoring the synthesis of infectious virus. When the intracellular concentration of UDP-2-deoxyglucose is reduced by addition of glucose into the cultural medium the inhibition of virus synthesis by the deoxysugar and the concentration of GDP-2-deoxyglucose within the cells remain near to the values when the inhibitor is present alone. It is concluded that among the metabolites of 2-deoxyglucose which occur in vivo after addition of 2-deoxyglucose to the culture medium, GDP-2-deoxyglucose is the agent responsible for inhibition of glycosylation of viral glycoproteins.  (+info)

Only the non-glycosylated fraction of hepatitis E virus capsid (open reading frame 2) protein is stable in mammalian cells. (7/707)

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a non-enveloped, positive-strand RNA virus, with the genome encoding three open reading frames (ORFs) of which ORF 2 directs translation of the capsid protein, PORF2. Following pulse-labelling and cell fractionation of PORF2 expressed in mammalian cells using the Semliki Forest virus replicon, the capsid protein was detected as three major species of 78 (PORF2), 82 and 86 kDa, with P82 and P86 being N-glycosylated (gPORF2 and ggPORF2, respectively). Although gPORF2 and ggPORF2 species represented 79% of total PORF2 after 20 min metabolic labelling and were largely membrane-associated, the glycosylated PORF2 species were much less stable than non-glycosylated PORF2, which was present in the cytosol and represented the major product accumulated in the cell. In the absence of detectable surface expression or export of PORF2, this suggests that glycosylated ORF 2 proteins may not be intermediates in HEV capsid assembly.  (+info)

Recombinant Semliki Forest virus particles encoding the prME or NS1 proteins of louping ill virus protect mice from lethal challenge. (8/707)

Recombinant Semliki Forest virus (rSFV) vaccines encoding louping ill virus (LIV) genes prME and NS1 were examined. Cells transfected with rSFV-prME RNA showed correct processing of the precursor prME and the release into the medium of M and E proteins in particulate form, whilst rSFV-NS1-transfected cells secreted glycosylated, heat-labile NS1 dimers. Mice immunized with rSFV particles produced antibodies against prME and NS1 that were mainly of the IgG2a subtype, indicating that a T-helper 1 immune response was induced. Immunization with prME- or NS1-encoding particles induced T-cell proliferation. Mice vaccinated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with rSFV-prME and/or rSFV-NS1 were significantly protected from lethal i.p. challenge by two strains of LIV, the virulent LI/31 strain, from which the commercial LIV vaccine is derived, and the less-virulent LI/I antibody-escape variant. Intranasal (i.n.) vaccination was protective for rSFV-prME only against LI/31 challenge and not against challenge with LI/I. Immunization with rSFV-NS1 was protective against i.p. and i.n. challenge with both virus strains when given i.p., but was not protective when given i.n. For unvaccinated mice infected with LIV, all animals showing clinical signs had severe degenerative and inflammatory lesions in the central nervous system. None of the rSFV-vaccinated mice that survived challenge showed central nervous system pathology, with the exception of mild leptomeningitis in a minority of LI/31-infected mice. This suggests that protection following immunization with rSFV must occur at early stages of LIV infection.  (+info)

294966285 - EP 0996737 A1 2000-05-03 - SEMLIKI FOREST VIRUS VECTORS FOR GENE TRANSFER INTO NON-ENDOTHELIAL CARDIOVASCULAR CELLS - [origin: WO9909192A1] The invention provides methods of transducing non-endothelial cardiovascular cells with a recombinant Togavirus vector, vector kits, and vectors.[origin: WO9909192A1] The invention provides methods of transducing non-endothelial cardiovascular cells with a recombinant Togavirus vector, vector kits, and vectors.
The Semliki Forest virus was first isolated from mosquitoes in the Semliki Forest, Uganda by the Uganda Virus Research Institute in 1942 and described by Smithburn and Haddow.[2] It is known to cause disease in animals including humans. It is an alphavirus found in central, eastern, and southern Africa. The Semliki Forest virus is a positive-stranded RNA virus with a genome of approximately 13,000 base pairs which encodes nine proteins.[3] The 5 two thirds of the genome encode four non-structural proteins concerned with RNA synthesis and the structural proteins are encoded in the 3 third. Of the structural proteins, the C proteins makes up the icosahedral capsid which is enveloped by a lipid bilayer, derived from the host cell. The outermost surface of the virus is almost entirely covered by heterodimers of glycoproteins E1 and E2, arranged in interconnective trimers, which form an outer shell. Trimers are anchored in the membrane by an E2 cytoplasmic domain that associates with the ...
PATHOGEN SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES. SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT NAME: Semliki Forest Virus SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: SFV (1-3), Old World Alphavirus (4), Semliki Forest Fever (5) CHARACTERISTICS: Family Togaviridae, Genus Alphavirus (6, 7). Virions have an approximate diameter of 50-70 nm and contain one positive stranded RNA molecule. Genetic material is enveloped in an icosahedral nucleocapsid.. SECTION II - HAZARD IDENTIFICATION PATHOGENICITY/TOXICITY: Most infections caused by the Semliki Forest Virus (SFV) are asymptomatic or very mild (3). When symptoms are present they are mild. During the acute phase of infection they are indistinguishable from those of malaria, influenza, or other febrile illnesses (3, 8). When present, symptoms include headache, fever, myalgia and athrolgia. Rare symptoms of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and conjunctivitis have been reported. The acute phase lasts 2-4 days and is followed by a long period marked by weakness. In the only case reported to ...
To evaluate the use of alphavirus vectors for tumor treatment we have constructed and compared two Semliki Forest virus (SFV) vectors expressing different levels of IL-12. SFV-IL-12 expresses both IL-12 subunits from a single subgenomic promoter, while in SFV-enhIL-12 each IL-12 subunit is expressed …
The Alphavirus genus within the Togaviridae family contains several important mosquito-borne arboviruses. Other than the antiviral activity of RNAi, relatively little is known about alphavirus interactions with insect cell defences. Here we show that Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infection of Aedes albopictus-derived U4.4 mosquito cells reduces cellular gene expression. Activation prior to SFV infection of pathways involving STAT/IMD, but not Toll signaling reduced subsequent virus gene expression and RNA levels. These pathways are therefore not only able to mediate protective responses against bacteria but also arboviruses. However, SFV infection of mosquito cells did not result in activation of any of these pathways and suppressed their subsequent activation by other stimuli. ...
Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infection of the laboratory mouse provides a well-characterized tractable system to study the pathogenesis of virus encephalitis and virus induced demyelination. In μMT mice, which have no antibodies, infectious virus persisted in both the serum and the brain for several weeks, indicating that antibodies are required to eliminate infectious virus. In immunocompetent mice, virus infectivity in the brain was undetectable after the first week of infection, but virus RNA levels declined slowly. Following SFV infection, lesions of demyelination were present in the brains of both immunocompetent and μMT mice, indicating that antibodies are not required to generate lesions of demyelination.
Expression of the Semliki Forest virus p62/E2 protein was studied in the polarized epithelial cell line Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK). After infection this transmembrane protein, together with the other spike subunit E1, accumulates at the basolateral surface of MDCK cells (Fuller, S. D., C.-H. von Bonsdorff, and K. Simons, 1985, EMBO (Eur. Mol. Biol. Organ.) J., 4:2475-2485). The cDNAs encoding truncated forms of the protein were used to stably transform MDCK cells to examine the role of subunit oligomerization (E1-E2) and the cytoplasmic domain of p62/E2 in directed transport to the basolateral surface. The biochemical characteristics and polarity of the expressed proteins were studied using cell monolayers grown on nitrocellulose filters. A wild-type form of p62/E2, in the absence of E1, and two forms having either 15 or 3 of the wild-type 31-amino acid carboxyl cytoplasmic domain were all localized to the basolateral surface. These results indicate that the cytoplasmic domain of E2 does ...
The small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway is a major antiviral response in mosquitoes; however, another RNA interference pathway, the PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway, has been suggested to be antiviral in mosquitoes. Piwi4 has been reported to be a key mediator of this response in mosquitoes, but it is not involved in the production of virus-specific piRNAs. Here, we show that Piwi4 associates with members of the antiviral exogenous siRNA pathway (Ago2 and Dcr2), as well as with proteins of the piRNA pathway (Ago3, Piwi5, and Piwi6) in an Aedes aegypti-derived cell line, Aag2. Analysis of small RNAs captured by Piwi4 revealed that it is predominantly associated with virus-specific siRNAs in Semliki Forest virus-infected cells and, to a lesser extent, with viral piRNAs. By using a Dcr2 knockout cell line, we showed directly that Ago2 lost its antiviral activity, as it was no longer bound to siRNAs, but Piwi4 retained its antiviral activity in the absence of the siRNA pathway. These results ...
2003 Bicout DJ and Sache I. Persistent Walk and Spore Dispersal Density Function. Phys. Rev. E. 2003, vol. 67, n° 0319131 - 0319137. Billecocq A, Coudrier D, Boué F, Combes B, Zeller H, Artois M and Bouloy M. Expression of the nucleoprotein of the Puumala virus from the recombinant Semliki Forest virus replicon : characterization and use as a potential diagnostic tool. Clinical and diagnostic laboratory immunology. 2003, vol. 10, n° 4, pp. 658-663. Hours M, Anzivino-Viricel L, Maître A, (...)
A novel system for the production of high levels of functional human therapeutic proteins in stable cells with a Semliki Forest virus noncytopathic vector.
In summary, our data indicate that SFV fusion and exit are highly cholesterol dependent, and that this sterol requirement is significantly reduced by the P226S mutation. Interestingly, preliminary data from our lab indicate that two independent mutants selected for cholesterol-independent growth also have the P226S mutation, supporting the importance of this region of the spike protein in the virus cholesterol requirement (Chatterjee, P., and M. Kielian, unpublished results). It is striking that although it is not conserved, the position analogous to SFV E1 P226 is not found as a serine residue in any of the alphavirus sequences in the database, including recent virus isolates from nature (Fig. 7). Other nonconserved proline residues in this and other E1 regions (eg., P237; Fig. 7) are present as a serine in some alphavirus sequences. Preliminary results with Sindbis virus, having alanine at position 226, indicate that both its infection and fusion are highly cholesterol dependent, similar to wt ...
Infection of genital epithelial cells with human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 is closely associated with the development of cervical carcinoma. The transforming potential of these high-risk HPVs depends on the expression of the E6 and E7 early viral gene products. Since the expression of E6 and E7 is selectively maintained in premalignant and malignant cervical lesions these proteins are attractive candidates for immunotherapeutic and prophylactic strategies. This report describes the construction, characterization and the in vivo immunotherapeutic potential of recombinant Semliki Forest virus (SFV) expressing the HPV16 E6 and E7 proteins (SFV-E6E7). Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining demonstrated expression of E6 and E7 in BHK cells infected with SFV-E6E7. Immunization of mice with SFV-E6E7 resulted in an efficient in vivo priming of HPV-specific CTL activity. The induced CTL lysed murine tumor cells transformed with the HPV16 genome and EL4 cells loaded with an
Summary In these studies in mice, guinea pigs and rabbits infected by intraperitoneal, intracerebral or respiratory routes, the expression of virulence by a virulent/avirulent mixture of known proportion depended on the administered dose and was not a simple marker for the virus population, or for the heterogeneous wild strain which it simulated. This dependence of the virulence of a virus sample upon its dose and heterogeneity is presented quantitatively for each host by a dose-response diagram which is the necessary extension of the simple dose-response curve. The latter may be used to express single response characteristics (death only, protection only) but is inappropriate to the expression of the present dual response-dose characteristics in which protection at low dose gives place to death at high dose, or vice versa. At some proportions of virulent/avirulent sub-populations in the virus inoculum even more complex dual response-dose characteristics may be generated. Thus the specification of
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4. The virus can be preserved by drying while frozen. It remains viable in saline at low temperatures for a number of days but gradually loses potency. It retains potency for several weeks when stored in serum in the refrigerator. It is not excessively sensitive to room or incubator temperatures. It survives heating at 60 C for ½ hour but not for 1 hour. It is inactivated by heating at 62 C for 30 minutes.. ...
Frozen, thin sections of baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells were incubated with either concanavalin A (Con A) or Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA) to localize specific oligosaccharide moieties in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi membranes. These lectins were then visualized using an anti-lectin antibody followed by protein A conjugated to colloidal gold. All Golgi cisternae and all ER membranes were uniformly labeled by Con A. In contrast, RCA gave a uniform labeling of only half to three-quarters of those cisternae on the trans side of the Golgi stack; one or two cis Golgi cisternae and all ER membranes were essentially unlabeled. This pattern of lectin labeling was not affected by infection of the cells with Semliki Forest virus (SFV). Infected cells transport only viral spike glycoproteins from their site of synthesis in the ER to the cell surface via the stacks of Golgi cisternae where many of the simple oligosaccharids on the spike proteins are converted to complex ones (Green, J., G. ...
Glomb-Reinmund, Sallie, and Margaret Kielian. fus-1, a pH Shift Mutant of Semliki Forest Virus, Acts by Altering Spike Subunit Interactions via a Mutation in the E2 Subunit. Journal of Virology 72.5 (1998): 4281-4287. Web. 02 June. 2020. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Stephanie van de Wall, Mateusz Walczak, Nienke van Rooij, Baukje-Nynke Hoogeboom, Tjarko Meijerhof, Hans W Nijman, Toos Daemen].
Generation of plasmids and Semliki Forest viruses.The viral vector pSFV1 (Invitrogen, San Diego, CA) was modified by the introduction of an oligonucleotide cassette into itsXmaI site to generate singular ClaI andBssHII restriction sites. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-SNAP-25A was cloned into the modified pSFV1 as described previously (Wei et al., 2000). SNAP-25 mutants were generated by site-directed mutagenesis. The sequence of all constructs was verified by DNA sequencing. Virus production and transfection were performed as described previously (Ashery et al., 1999).. Chromaffin cell preparation. Cell preparation was modified compared with the previous description (Ashery et al., 1999) by the omission of the Percoll gradient purification step. Bovine adrenal glands were collected, injected with collagenase, and opened; the medulla was dissected out as described previously (Ashery et al., 1999). Pieces of the medulla were collected in a plastic tube with ∼10 ml of Lockes solution and ...
Suckling, A J.; Jagelman, S; and Webb, H E., Immunoglobulin synthesis in nude (nu/nu), nu/+ and reconstituted nu/nu mice infected with a demyelinating strain of semliki forest virus. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 3033 ...
When Erik Fries and I were discussing the conference in the laboratory the following week, he made a remark that changed everything. He simply asked, Could pH have something to do with it? Suddenly, all the pieces of the puzzle fell into a coherent picture. We realized that the acidic pH in lysosomes and other endocytic vacuoles was not only required to optimize the degradative action of acid hydrolases, but could also serve as a cue for viruses to activate their penetration mechanism. Exposure to low pH told the viruses that they had entered a cell and reached the endocytic pathway, and that it was time to activate the penetration machinery. We speculated that low pH induced a change in the spike glycoproteins present on the virus envelope that allowed fusion of the viral envelope from the lumenal side with the limiting membrane of the vacuole. As a result, the viral capsid was released into the cytosol without itself having to cross the hydrophobic barriers formed by a membrane. ...
Most Asian markets fell Monday following another disappointing performance on Wall Street with investors concerned about an uptick in coronavirus infections in Europe and the United States.
Wu Y, Voth GA. Computer Simulations of Proton Transport Through the M2 Channel of the Influenza A Virus. In: Fischer W Viral Membrane Proteins: Structure, Function and Drug Design. Viral Membrane Proteins: Structure, Function and Drug Design. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2004. ...
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Alpha- and flaviviruses contain class II fusion proteins, which form ion-permeable pores in the target membrane during virus entry. The pores generated during entry of the alphavirus Semliki Forest virus have been shown previously to be blocked by lanthanide ions. Here, analyses of the influence of rare earth ions on the entry of the flaviviruses West Nile virus and Uganda S virus revealed an unexpected effect of lanthanide ions. The results showed that a 30 s treatment of cells with an appropriate lanthanide ion changed the cellular chemistry into a state in which the cells no longer supported the multiplication of flaviviruses. This change occurred in cells treated before, during or after infection, did not inhibit multiplication of Semliki Forest virus and did not interfere with host-cell multiplication. The change was generated in vertebrate and insect cells, and was elicited in the presence of actinomycin D. In vertebrate cells, the change was elicited specifically by La(3+), Ce(3+), Pr(3+) and Nd
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Semliki-Forest-virus-specific nonstructural protein nsP4 is an autoproteinase. AU - Takkinen, Kristiina. AU - Peränen, Johan. AU - Keränen, Sirkka. AU - Söderlund, Hans. AU - Kääriäinen, Leevi. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - The Semliki‐Forest‐virus‐specific nonstructural proteins are translated as a large polyprotein (2431 amino acid residues), from which the mature polymerase components nsP1, nsP2, nsP3 and nsP4 are released by proteolytic cleavages. The complete ns polyprotein (P1234) can be cleaved in two alternative ways yielding either P123 (with sequences of nsP1, nsP2 and nsP3) and nsP4 or P12 (nsP1 plus nsP2) and P34 (nsP3 plus nsP4). We studied the possible autoproteolytic role of nsP4 involved in the cleavage between nsP3 and nsP4 in an in vitro transcription‐translation system. cDNAs encoding P34 precursor and shorter precursor protein segments covering the nsP3‐nsP4 cleavage region, were cloned under the T7 RNA polymerase promoter. The mRNAs ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of cycloleucine on SFV A7(74) infection in mice. AU - Amor, S. AU - Webb, H E. PY - 1987/4. Y1 - 1987/4. N2 - Cycloleucine (CL), a non-metabolizable amino acid analogue, was found to reduce thymus and spleen weights in Semliki Forest virus (SFV) strain A7(74) infected and control mice. The maximum effects were seen when three daily doses of CL were given to mice 24 h after an SFV A7(74) infection. In these mice thymus atrophy led to abolition of thymus dependent immune responses and changes in the pathological features of the viral infection--the most striking feature being prevention of demyelination. In addition virus titres in the brains of CL treated infected mice were increased and prolonged. These results show that demyelination following an SFV A7(74) infection is not a result of direct virus action, but of a T-cell mediated mechanism.. AB - Cycloleucine (CL), a non-metabolizable amino acid analogue, was found to reduce thymus and spleen weights in Semliki ...
US Air Force Research Lab. Monday, April 24, 2017, Colloquia Auditorium. Electron microscopy has been one of the robust tools in characterizing the life cycle of viruses, such as Semliki Forest Virus (SFV), an alphavirus that belongs to Togavirus family and causes encephalitis in human. The viral particle of SFV is composed of a nucleocapsid enclosed by a lipid-anchored glycoprotein spikes and infects cell through clathrin-dependent endocytosis pathway where it releases the nucleocapsid into the cytoplasm after membrane fusion at the late endosome. Cryo-electron microscopy and single particle reconstruction revealed the structure of SFV virion that both the nucleocapsid and surface spikes adapted into icosahedral symmetry with T4 surface lattice and that the connection between nucleocapsid protein and C-terminal tail of the glycoprotein stabilizes the particle integrity. Mutation at nucleocapsid does not changed the assembly of the viral particle although truncation at the RNA-binding domain ...
PANAX GINSENG extract, having a novel type of pharmacological action classified as adaptogen, was found to be effective against experimental viral infection in mice. Ginseng, administerd orally in repeat doses prior to and after challenge with Semliki forest virus, was able to protect 34-40% of... mehr ...
India recorded its biggest single-day spike in coronavirus cases on Monday as the government eased one of the worlds strictest lockdowns to allow some manufacturing and agricultural activity to resume. At least 543 people have died from COVID-19, the respiratory disease caused by the virus, and epidemiologists forecast the peak may not be reached before June. The shelter-in-place orders imposed in India on March 24 halted all but essential services, sparking an exodus of migrant workers and people who survive on daily wages out of Indias cities and toward villages in rural areas.
As we fall back into the cooler months, many people are dreading cold and flu season. Whether or not you have children who have started back to school, the spread of bacteria and viruses spikes this time every year. How can we avoid sick days and stay well during the fall and winter months?
As we fall back into the cooler months, many people are dreading cold and flu season. Whether or not you have children who have started back to school, the spread of bacteria and viruses spikes this time every year. How can we avoid sick days and stay well during the fall and winter months?
Listing of the answers to the question: What inspired you to make this poem? I know the forest... but how were you inspired? Did you... visit a forest somewhere? If so, which forest did you go to? Or did you read something on forests? Etc.
Change in forest cover between the two assessment periods(2013 and 2015). An important component of the mapping exercise is to validate the interpreted data at appropriate points. During the exercise of ground truthing for the current cycle, efforts have been made to ascertain the reasons for change in forest cover in the respective States/UTs. Based on the information collected by the FSI officials in consultation with the field officials of the State Forest Departments (SFDs), main reasons for aforesaid changes are summarized in Pictures ...
There is a wide selection of hotels in the New Forest to suit all kind of taste, budget and preferred location. You can find hotels in our stunning countryside, surrounded by the forest itself or…
One thing that I loved the most from my journey to Bali was the forest. I remember a friend in France asked me to visit a small forest near her house. I was astounded to see the trees that she was proudly claiming as a forest. It was even far from the Indonesians Bogor Botanical…
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Read real reviews and see ratings for Green Forest, AR Wallpaper removal services for free! This list will help you pick the right pro Wallpaper removal service in Green Forest, AR.
Black forest ham is sold fully cooked. It only needs to be warmed to serving temperature. A black forest ham should be roasted about 8 to 10 minutes per pound, depending on the size of the ham, at...
Forest bathing offers a number of benefits. In this article, True Terpenes shares how you can integrate the practice of Shinrin-yoku (forest bathing) into your life. Shop terpenes to experience the practice at home.
the complication with having more than one theme is that when changes have to be made (such as mods or updates), they often need to be individually tailored to each theme. what weve just done is a good example. the forest logo could be slipped into the one theme easily but not the other. this can make mods & upgrades far more complex than they need be. so lets try to get one good forest theme and stick with it. and lets keep it fairly simple ...
2731 Woodspring Forest Dr KINGWOOD TX 77345 was recently sold. It is a 3,010 SQFT, 4 Beds, 2 Full Bath(s) & 1 Half Bath(s) in Woodspring Forest.
This beautiful forest mural brings feelings of hope as the sun slowly rises through the dense fog, reminding us how the sun always rises everyday.
From adventure and outdoor activities, through to horse riding or pony trekking, there are so many things for lovers of the outdoors to do here in The New Forest.
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Download Taking Picture In Forest Stock Video by CineGeek. Subscribe to Envato Elements for unlimited Stock Video downloads for a single monthly fee. Subscribe and Download now!
Improve efficiency, productivity, and performance at every level of forest operations planning with the Remsoft Operations Cloud.
Realm Quest: Forest of the Ancients (Paperback) in Black Library , made by Games Workshop. Great Prices, free UK 24hr delivery over £40.
Painted by David Nordahl, the Forest - Gray wall mural from Murals Your Way will add a distinctive touch to any room. Choose a pre-set size, or customize to your wall.
You looking for professional deep regular or one off cleaners in Waltham Forest E? Choose Property Ultra Care company for your home or office cleanin
Official information from NHS about The Forest Practice including contact details, directions, opening hours and service/treatment details
I have a client who currently has 2 separate forests. 1 contains 1 2000 DC, the other contains 1 2003 DC/File Server and 1 Exchange 2003 Server; they are trusted. What would be the BEST way to do...
Find, compare and select indoor play centres in Duffys Forest (2084). Read reviews of kids activities and events. ActiveActivities - Australias leading online marketplace for kids activities.
Journey on the back of a gentle old horse through The Healing Forest. Nature comforts and soothes you, helps you deeply relax and connect within.
A curated image collection revolving around trees, the forest, and the spirit they have. This often photographed subject photographed 23 ways.
Its Your Choice provides confidential and free information, support, advice and counselling for young people aged between 12 and 25 years old in the New Forest…
The walk around Lulworth Cove and the Fossil Forest is a popular one with families as, not only is it just under two miles long, but children are always fas
Routine blood testing in Wake Forest, NC is essential to maintain a healthy lifestyle and are recommended even if you are not feeling ill.
Silverpine Forest. I didnt know if Id come back to it after On The Forsaken. I know that Id said: I think the best leveling in the Forsaken zones is yet to come. I have actually enjoyed my time leveling in Trisifal, and fully intend to hit Silverpine and Hillsbrad on the Forsaken Cynwise, so I…
Damp problems in a property do not have a single cause. There are a number of different reasons why properties in Forest Row and elsewhere in the UK experience damp walls, floors or ceilings and every one is unique and requires its own solution to eradicate. This is why you should only use an experienced, established
List of species contained in HaRPPS version 1. These species have been flagged as needing special management attention in Britains forests and woodlands.
You need to sign up for an account and after the account is reviewed and approved you can go to your location and report.. Please contact [email protected] if you are having problems signing up or reporting. Become a Reporter. ...
Do you want to learn about forest animals, their origin, biology and distribution patterns? Then this is the course for you! CTA Forest animals In this course you will study the biology of Swedish ...
I read a local church sign not too long ago that stated something to the effect that if we will make ourselves available, God will make us able. Sometimes we get it into our heads that we must make a difference in some grand way. We may think we can only do something significant for…
The event is organized within the World Forests, Society and Environment (WFSE) to contribute to the edition of the fourth volume of the WFSE, which will focus on changing paradigms. The objective of the current research work is to collate and critically analyse the existing knowledge and to disseminate the results of selected issues on the interrelations between forests, society and environment. ...
Чикаго : Локалізація Чикаго : Країна Сполучені Штати Америки, Державна Іллінойс, County Кук. Доступна інформація : Поштова адреса, Телефон, Інтернет, Мер, Географічні координати, Кількість жителів, Висота над рівнем моря, Область, Погода і Готель. Найближчі міста і села : Cicero, Stickney і Forest View. - Міста і села Всесвітньої
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Ripping Off the Mundra Coast! Environment and Forest Clearance Violations in Mundra Port and Special Economic Zone Ltd.s Projects: A CASE ...
The Semliki Forest virus is a positive-strand RNA virus with a genome of approximately 13,000 base pairs which encodes nine ... Alphavirus Sindbis virus Chikungunya Scholia has a topic profile for Semliki Forest virus. Mancini, E. J.; Clarke, M.; Gowen, B ... Atkins, G. J.; Sheahan, B. J.; Liljeström, P. (1999). "The molecular pathogenesis of Semliki Forest virus: A model virus made ... Semliki Forest virus has been used extensively in biological research as a model of the viral life cycle and of viral ...
Simons K, Warren G (1984). "Semliki Forest virus: a probe for membrane traffic in the animal cell". Adv. Protein Chem. Advances ... Renkonen O, Kääriäinen L, Gahmberg CG, Simons K (1972). "Lipids of Semliki Forest virus and of host cell membranes". Biochem. ... Renkonen O, Gahmberg CG, Kaariainen L, Simons K (1972). "Envelope of Semliki Forest virus as membrane model". Biochem. J. 128 ( ... but soon started investigating Semliki Forest virus, focusing on its membrane and its lipid composition and their role in the ...
Zhou X, Berglund P, Rhodes G, Parker SE, Jondal M, Liljeström P (December 1994). "Self-replicating Semliki Forest virus RNA as ... Geisbert TW, Feldmann H (November 2011). "Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccines against Ebola and Marburg virus ... harmless carrier virus with an antigen transgene) into the body. These antigens and viruses are prepared and grown outside the ... and Chikungunya virus. In March 2022 Moderna announced the development of mRNA vaccines for 15 diseases: Chikungunya virus, ...
Kim, K. S; Moon, H. M; Sapienza, V; Carp, R. I; Pullarkat, R (1978). "Inactivation of cytomegalovirus and Semliki Forest virus ... which disrupt viruses by insertion of the chemical into the virus membrane, coat, or other structure, which are established ... Moreover, no group of articles constitute a series, reflecting long-term study of BHT in a host-virus pair by the same research ... Richards, J. T; Katz, M. E; Kern, E. R (1985). "Topical butylated hydroxytoluene treatment of genital herpes simplex virus ...
"Structural plasticity of the Semliki Forest virus glycome upon interspecies transmission". Journal of Proteome Research. 13 (3 ... In addition, glycosylation is often used by viruses to shield the underlying viral protein from immune recognition. A ... Crispin M, Doores KJ (April 2015). "Targeting host-derived glycans on enveloped viruses for antibody-based vaccine design". ... role may well have driven the diversification of glycan heterogeneity and creates a barrier to zoonotic transmission of viruses ...
"A Neurotropic Virus Isolated from Aedes Mosquitoes Caught in the Semliki Forest". The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and ... Bunyamwera is where Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus was first isolated, and it also lends its name to that virus' genus ... Bunya: from Bunyamwera, place in Uganda, where type virus was isolated. (CS1: long volume value, Articles with short ... "ICTV 9th Report (2011) Bunyaviridae". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Archived from the original on 11 ...
Oncolytic viruses include adenoviruses, Herpes simplex viruses, Semliki forest viruses, poxviruses, among others. They can be ... Cytokine-loaded oncolytic viruses have shown activity in murine models, with several clinical trials under investigation. ... IMLYGIC (talimogene laherparepvec) was the first FDA-approved oncolytic virus for cancer treatment. It is a modified herpes ... There are many limitations associated with virus-based delivery systems. Anti-viral antibodies could be produced against viral ...
April 2001). "The Fusion glycoprotein shell of Semliki Forest virus: an icosahedral assembly primed for fusogenic activation at ... Closely related viruses include Mucambo virus and Everglades virus. Rio Negro virus is a spherical, enveloped virus. The ... The virus was first called Ag80-663 but was renamed to Rio Negro virus in 2005. It is a former member of the Venezuelan equine ... In horses, the virus attacks the central nervous system, causing paralysis and eventual death. When the virus infects humans, ...
"A neurotropic virus isolated from Aedes mosquitoes caught in the Semliki forest". The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and ... the La Crosse virus and the Jamestown Canyon virus are North American species that cause encephalitis in humans. The virus is ... Genbank: Bunyamwera virus segment S, complete sequence Genbank: Bunyamwera virus L segment, complete sequence Sakkas H, Bozidis ... even where multiple viruses and vectors overlap. Organisms related to the preferential vector may be able to carry a virus but ...
Semliki Forest virus (SFV) is a virus that naturally infects cells of the central nervous system and causes encephalitis. A ... an oncolytic herpes virus which is a modified herpes simplex virus, became the first oncolytic virus to be approved for use in ... Herpes simplex virus (HSV) was one of the first viruses to be adapted to attack cancer cells selectively, because it was well ... Oncolytic viruses can be used against cancers in ways that are additional to lysis of infected cells. Viruses can be used as ...
... virus Ndumu virus complex Ndumu virus Semliki Forest virus complex Bebaru virus Chikungunya virus Getah virus Mayaro virus ... virus O'nyong'nyong virus Pixuna virus Rio Negro virus Ross River virus Salmon pancreas disease virus Semliki Forest virus ... Una virus O'nyong'nyong virus Subtype: Igbo-Ora virus Ross River virus Subtype: Sagiyama virus Semliki Forest virus Subtype: Me ... Aura virus Barmah Forest virus Bebaru virus Caaingua virus Cabassou virus Chikungunya virus Eastern equine encephalitis virus ...
X. Zhou, P. Berglund, G. Rhodes, S. E. Parker, M. Jondal, P. Liljeström: Self-replicating Semliki Forest virus RNA as ... G. L. Smith, M. Mackett, B. Moss: Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that express hepatitis B virus surface antigen. In: ... F. Martinon, S. Krishnan, G. Lenzen, R. Magné, E. Gomard, J. G. Guillet, J. P. Lévy, P. Meulien: Induction of virus-specific ... The first use of a viral vector for vaccination - a Modified Vaccinia Ankara Virus expressing HBsAg - was published by Bernard ...
"A Neurotropic Virus Isolated from Aedes Mosquitoes Caught in the Semliki Forest". The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and ... "Bunyaviridae - Negative Sense RNA Viruses - Negative Sense RNA Viruses (2011)". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ... Jamestown Canyon virus, La Crosse encephalitis virus, Oropouche orthobunyavirus, and Snowshoe hare virus (vector: mosquitoes; ... As precautions Cache Valley virus and Hantavirus research are conducted in BSL-2 (or higher), Rift Valley Fever virus research ...
It is a member of the Semliki Forest virus complex and is closely related to Ross River virus, O'nyong'nyong virus, and Semliki ... and false positives can occur with infection due to other related viruses, such as o'nyong'nyong virus and Semliki Forest virus ... Chikungunya virus is passed to humans when a bite from an infected mosquito breaks the skin and introduces the virus into the ... Because high amounts of virus are present in the blood in the beginning of acute infection, the virus can be spread from a ...
... of viral membrane proteins from medial to trans Golgi cisternae in baby hamster kidney cells infected with Semliki Forest virus ...
MIDV is classified as an Old World Alphavirus which also includes Semliki Forest virus (SFV), Ndumu virus, Barmah Forest virus ... This same study found that the MIDV E1 gene was likely formed through recombination with Semliki Forest virus, or a virus very ... These include: Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. These viruses are more ... It is thought to be part of the Semliki Forest clade of Alphaviridae A complete genomic sequence was made of the originally ...
Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus, chikungunya and rubella); and phleboviruses (Rift Valley fever virus and Uukuniemi virus ... Virus-cell fusions occur during infections of several viruses that are health concerns relevant today. Some of these include ... At this point, the cytoplasmic components of the cell and the virus begin to mix. As the fusion pore expands, virus-cell fusion ... Fusogens involved in virus-to-cell fusion mechanisms were the first of these proteins to be discovered. Viral fusion proteins ...
Semliki forest virus, Junin virus, reovirus, influenza, measles virus and respiratory syncytial virus among others, although it ... De Clercq E (November 2019). "New Nucleoside Analogues for the Treatment of Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Infections". Chemistry: An ... June 2019). "Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel imidazole nucleosides as potential anti-dengue virus agents". ... It has broad spectrum antiviral effects with activity against pox viruses, ...
Semliki Forest virus, Bacteriophage CbK, and Vesicular-Stomatitis-Virus. In recognition of the impact cryo-EM has had on ... "Cryo-electron microscopy of viruses" (PDF). Nature. 308 (5954): 32-36. Bibcode:1984Natur.308...32A. doi:10.1038/308032a0. PMID ...
The Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus have been used to build recombinant alphavirus replicons. Unlike conventional DNA ... They altered the DNA of cowpox virus by inserting a gene from other viruses (namely Herpes simplex virus, hepatitis B and ... activity of vaccinia virus recombinants expressing the hepatitis B virus surface antigen and the herpes simplex virus ... Recombinant virus boosts have been shown to be very efficient at boosting DNA-primed CTL responses. Priming with DNA focuses ...
West Nile virus, Bwamba virus, Semliki Forest virus, O'nyong'nyong virus, and Kadam virus. In 1950, after gaining regional ... UVRI (24 October 2016). "Uganda Virus Research Institute: Department of Ecology and Zoology". Entebbe: Uganda Virus Research ... UVRI (24 October 2016). "Uganda Virus Research Institute: Department of Entomology and Vector Biology". Entebbe: Uganda Virus ... UVRI (24 October 2016). "Uganda Virus Research Institute: Department of Planning and Fund Raising". Entebbe: Uganda Virus ...
... and the Semliki Forest virus. Liquid membranes formed from SDS in water have been demonstrated to work as unusual particle ... to inhibit and possibly prevent infection by various enveloped and non-enveloped viruses such as the herpes simplex viruses, ... a microbicide effective against enveloped and nonenveloped viruses". Curr. Drug Targets. 3 (1): 17-30. doi:10.2174/ ... of sodium lauryl sulfate and dextran sulfate as microbicides against herpes simplex and human immunodeficiency viruses". J. ...
"Assembly of viroplasm and virus-like particles of rotavirus by a Semliki Forest virus replicon". Virology. 242 (2): 255-65. doi ... Viroplasms have been found in the cauliflower mosaic virus, rotavirus, vaccinia virus and the rice dwarf virus. These appear ... The number and the size of viroplasms depend on the virus, the virus isolate, hosts species, and the stage of the infection. ... A viroplasm, sometimes called "virus factory" or "virus inclusion", is an inclusion body in a cell where viral replication and ...
Semliki forest virus, Hepatitis E virus, Sindbis virus, and arboviruses (which cause certain types of encephalitis). Many of ... One option is to use a strain of plant that is resistant to this virus. Since this is a virus fungicides will have no effect on ... Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is a small (28 nm, 86S), positive-stranded, icosahedral RNA plant virus belonging to the genus ... It has been found that the most effective way to combat this virus is to use strains of crop that have resistance to this virus ...
... and is a member of the Semliki Forest antigenic complex. The name was given to the disease by the Acholi tribe during the 1959 ... The o'nyong'nyong virus (ONNV) was first isolated by researchers at the Uganda Virus Research Institute in Entebbe, Uganda, ... The first virus isolates were obtained during this outbreak from mosquitoes and human blood samples collected from Gulu in ... The name comes from the Nilotic language of Uganda and Sudan and means "weakening of the joints". The virus can infect humans ...
Semliki Forest virus (SFV) and Sindbis virus (SIN) require cholesterol and sphingolipids in target membrane lipid rafts for ... Human T-lymphotropic virus Type I (HTLV-1) enter cells via glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1). Ebola virus and Marburg virus use ... Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV), as a sexually-transmitted animal virus, must first penetrate a barrier of epithelial cells ... Viruses, as obligate intracellular parasites, have to involve specific interaction of virus and cellular receptor expressed at ...
Viruses isolated from wild-caught Eretmapodites include Rift Valley fever, Semliki forest, Spondweni, Nyando, Okola, Middleburg ... Some species seem to breed exclusively in plant axils; the majority are most frequently found in fallen leaves in forest ... Nkolbisson, and Bunyamwera viruses and an undefined viral agent, MTMP 131. Species listed by the Walter Reed Biosystematics ...
Semliki Forest, Bunyamwera and West Nile. In 1961, a steel tower was erected in the Zika forest to allow mosquitoes to be ... "Zika virus birthplace: Uganda's Zika Forest". CNN. Retrieved 2 May 2016. "This week in the archive services searchroom…". The ... In 1942, Haddow joined the Virus Research Institute at Entebbe, Uganda (now known as the Uganda Virus Research Institute) as a ... including the discovery of the Zika virus, and research into the insect vectors of the yellow fever virus. Other notable work ...
... bond This enzyme is isolated from the Sindbis and Semliki forest togaviruses. Kräusslich HG, Wimmer E (1988). "Viral ... Togavirin (EC, Sindbis virus protease, Sindbis virus core protein, NsP2 proteinase) is an enzyme. This enzyme ... Tong L, Wengler G, Rossmann MG (March 1993). "Refined structure of Sindbis virus core protein and comparison with other ... "Identification of the active site residues in the nsP2 proteinase of Sindbis virus". Virology. 191 (2): 932-40. doi:10.1016/ ...
Oriboca virus (ORIV), Orungo virus (ORUV), Restan virus (RESV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), Semliki Forest virus (SFV), ... Kunjin virus (KUNV), La Crosse virus (LACV), Mayaro virus (MAYV), Marburg virus (MBGV), Marco virus (MCOV), Melao virus (MELV) ... West Nile virus (WNV), Wesselsbron virus (WSLV), Yaounde virus (YAOV) Yellow fever virus (YFV), Zegla virus (ZEGV), Zika virus ... Mount Elgon bat virus (MEBV), Mucambo virus (MUCV), Murray Valley Encephalitis virus (MVEV), Navarro virus (NAVV), Nepuyo virus ...
District Yunus Sentamu Yusuf Lule Zerubabel Nyiira Zika virus Ziroobwe Ziroobwe-Wobulenzi Road Ziwa Rhino Sanctuary Zoka Forest ... Uganda Sekamaanya of Buganda Selestino Babungi Semakookiro of Buganda Sembabule Sembabule District Semliki River Semuliki ... Uganda Bunamwaya SC Bundibugyo Bundibugyo Airport Bundibugyo District Bundibugyo ebolavirus Bundibugyo virus Bunyamwera virus ... Kichwamba Uganda-United States relations Uganda Virus Research Institute Uganda Wildlife Authority Uganda women's national ...
... ross river virus MeSH B04.909.777.923.054.840 - semliki forest virus MeSH B04.909.777.923.054.860 - sindbis virus MeSH B04.909. ... ross river virus MeSH B04.820.850.054.840 - semliki forest virus MeSH B04.820.850.054.860 - sindbis virus MeSH B04.820.850.700 ... yellow fever virus MeSH B04.820.250.400 - gb virus a MeSH B04.820.250.405 - gb virus b MeSH B04.820.250.410 - GB virus C MeSH ... yellow fever virus MeSH B04.909.777.310.400 - gb virus a MeSH B04.909.777.310.405 - gb virus b MeSH B04.909.777.310.410 - GB ...
In the Baamba population living in the Semliki Forest region in Western Uganda the sickle-cell heterozygote (AS) frequency is ... Microscopic parasites, like viruses, protozoans that cause malaria, and others, cannot replicate on their own and rely on a ... Malarial forests were intentionally maintained by the rulers of Nepal as a defensive measure. Humans attempting to live in this ...
See also 2014 Ebola virus epidemic in Sierra Leone, 2014 Ebola virus epidemic in Guinea, and 2014 Ebola virus epidemic in ... Since most of the plants grew in the forest, the Niger-Congo speakers invented polished stone axes for clearing forest. Most of ... Upper Semliki Valley, Zaire". Science. 268 (5210): 553-556. Bibcode:1995Sci...268..553Y. doi:10.1126/science.7725100. PMID ... The forest-dwellers provided furs and meat. Dhar Tichitt and Oualata in present-day Mauritania figure prominently among the ...
Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ... Virus Name: Semliki Forest Abbreviation: SFV Status. Arbovirus Select Agent. No SALS Level. 3 ...
The envelope of the Semliki Forest virus (SFV) contains two transmembrane proteins, E2 and E1, in a heterodimeric complex. The ... A Salminen, J M Wahlberg, M Lobigs, P Liljeström, H Garoff; Membrane fusion process of Semliki Forest virus. II: Cleavage- ... The envelope of the Semliki Forest virus (SFV) contains two transmembrane proteins, E2 and E1, in a heterodimeric complex. The ... Membrane fusion process of Semliki Forest virus. I: Low pH-induced rearrangement in spike protein quaternary structure precedes ...
Analysis of Semliki-Forest-virus structural proteins to illustrate polyprotein processing of alpha viruses. ... Assembly of the Semliki Forest virus membrane glycoproteins in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum in vitro. ... The amphiphilic membrane glycoproteins of Semliki Forest virus are attached to the lipid bilayer by their COOH-terminal ends. ... Characterization of a small, nonstructural viral polypeptide present late during infection of BHK cells by Semliki Forest virus ...
... Academic Article ... Furthermore, both Sindbis virus-based and Semliki Forest virus-based vectors could be packaged with similar efficiency, ... Efficient production of biologically active vector particles occurred after introduction of Sindbis virus vectors into the PCLs ... but reducing the generation of contaminating replication-competent virus below the limit of detection. Vector particle seed ...
Technics have been found for intracerebral neutralization tests and intra-abdominal protective tests with the Semliki Forest ... By means of these immunological tests the Semliki Forest virus has been differentiated from the viruses of yellow fever, Bwamba ... Semliki Forest Virus: II. Immunological Studies with Specific Antiviral Sera and Sera from Humans and Wild Animals K. C. ... K. C. Smithburn, A. F. Mahaffy, A. J. Haddow; Semliki Forest Virus: II. Immunological Studies with Specific Antiviral Sera and ...
SF, Semliki Forest; ND, not done; BF, Barmah Forest; VEE, Venezuelan equine encephalitis; WEE, Western equine encephalitis; EEE ... Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. VEE. 80. ,20. 80. ,20. ND. ND. Western equine encephalitis virus. WEE. 80. ,20. 80. ,20. ... Virus. Antigenic complex. Indirect immunofluorescence assay. Virus neutralization assay. First serum sample†. Second serum ... Mayaro Virus Infection in Traveler Returning from Amazon Basin, Northern Peru Andreas Neumayr1. , Martin Gabriel1, Jasmin Fritz ...
A study of anti-semliki forest virus activity of poly N epsilon-(2-aryl-2-thiazoline-4-carbonyl-L-lysines) in mice.. en_US. ... A study of anti-semliki forest virus activity of poly N epsilon-(2-aryl-2-thiazoline-4-carbonyl-L-lysines) in mice. Indian ...
"Cholesterol is required in the exit pathway of Semliki Forest virus",. abstract = "The enveloped alphavirus Semliki Forest ... Marquardt, M. T., Phalen, T., & Kielian, M. (1993). Cholesterol is required in the exit pathway of Semliki Forest virus. ... Marquardt, MT, Phalen, T & Kielian, M 1993, Cholesterol is required in the exit pathway of Semliki Forest virus, Journal of ... The enveloped alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infects cells via a membrane fusion reaction triggered by low pH. For ...
Virus. Abbreviation. Species pos. serum. Alphavirus. Semliki Forest Virus. chickungunya virus. CHIKV ... Arthropod borne viruses are transmitted by vectors and are sustained in a complex, often zoonotic transmission cycle between ... Table 1: Viruses for which antigens were selected, spotted on protein microarrays and tested. ... Figure 3: Bar graphs representing patients antibody responses in titers towards one specific virus (patient A and B) or ...
Infectious VEE virus could be recovered for up to 40 days; WN and YF viruses were cultured in Vero cells for up to 60 and 90 ... At regular intervals over a 90-day period, the dried virus samples were eluted, tested for infectivity by culture and titration ... The results of this study demonstrate that viral nucleic acids and infectious virus can be recovered from arbovirus samples air ... viruses were blotted onto filter paper discs, air-dried, and stored at room temperature. ...
Semliki Forest virus (Discovered:1942) This mosquito-borne virus is found in central, eastern and southern Africa ... Kamese virus (Discovered: 1967) This virus has been found in mosquitoes collected from the Kamese Forest, toward Lake Victoria ... The Uganda Virus Research Institute has lead the way in identifying the viruses and bacteria that cause these new diseases. The ... Orungo virus (Discovered: 1959) First isolated from mosquitoes in Ugandas Apac district, the virus has been implicated in a ...
The spike protein VP4 is a principal component in the entry apparatus of rotavirus, a non-enveloped virus that causes ... Trypsin cleavage of VP4 primes the virus for entry by triggering a rearrangement that rigidifies the VP4 spikes2. We have ... Non-enveloped virus particles (those that lack a lipid-bilayer membrane) must breach the membrane of a target host cell to gain ... Conformational change and protein-protein interactions of the fusion protein of Semliki Forest virus. Nature 427, 320-325 (2004 ...
Semliki forest, Bunyamwera, Ntaya, Uganda S and Zika viruses. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1953 Jan. 47 (1):13-48. [QxMD MEDLINE ... Zika Virus Testing. The CDC offers the following recommendations for Zika virus testing in non-pregnant patients [32] :. * Zika ... Testing for evidence of Zika virus infection should be performed in persons with possible exposure to Zika virus who have 1 or ... Evasion of Innate and Intrinsic Antiviral Pathways by the Zika Virus. Viruses. 2019 Oct 22. 11(10):970. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
Semliki Forest virus, model for HCV. SV:. Sindbis virus, model for HCV. ... Human immunodeficiency virus, model for HIV 1 and HIV 2. BVDV:. Bovine viral diarrhea virus, model for HCV (Hepatitis C virus) ... Pseudorabies virus, model for large, enveloped DNA viruses (e.g., herpes virus). ... Table 1. Virus Elimination and Inactivation. Virus. HIV. BVDV. PRV. SFV. SV. BEV. ...
... ameliorates blood-brain barrier disruption and neuropathological lesions caused by avirulent Semliki Forest virus infection. ... Hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 4 suppresses Th1 responses by stimulating IL-10 production from monocytes. Brady MT, ...
A comparative study of entry modes into C6/36 cells by Semliki Forest and Japanese encephalitis viruses. Arch Virol. 108:101- ... JE virus is antigenically related to St Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus, West Nile virus and several flaviviruses found in ... Virus can be recovered from CSF in about one third of patients, chiefly in cases that ultimately are fatal (97). JE virus ... Virus. Res. 27:72-101, 1982. * Yu YX, Peifeng W, Li HM. Studies on mutation of Japanese B encephalitis virus. VII. An ...
Virus-derived PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) can also be generated during infection, at least in some insects. Finally, ... Our work describes for the first time a model to study virus infection in sandflies and highlights the importance of the siRNA ... Here we show that virus infection triggers activation of the siRNA pathway but not production of piRNAs in the sandfly ... We also show that virus infection caused mild changes to the expression of endogenous miRNAs. ...
Species Semliki forest virus [TaxId:11033] [74841] (2 PDB entries). *. Domain d1rerb1: 1rer B:293-391 [97329]. Other proteins ... PDB Description: crystal structure of the homotrimer of fusion glycoprotein e1 from semliki forest virus. ... d1rerb1 b.1.18.4 (B:293-391) Fusion glycoprotein E1 {Semliki forest virus} ...
In vitro inhibition of Chikungunya and Semliki Forest viruses replication by antiviral compounds: synergistic effect of ... Laras K, Sukri NC, Larasati RP, Bangs MJ, Kosim R, Djauzi WT, Tracking the re-emergence of epidemic chikungunya virus in ... Schuffenecker I, Iteman I, Michault A, Murri S, Frangeul L, Vaney MC, Genome microevolution of chikungunya viruses causing the ... indicated that this virus is most closely related to previous African rather than Southeast Asian chikungunya viruses (Figure ...
Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus are indigenous to Australia. Onyong-nyong and Semliki Forest viruses are found in ... Japanese encephalitis and West Nile virus. The elevated antibody titres to chikungunya virus and the clinical course were ... Seroprevalence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection on Lamu Island, Kenya, October 2004. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2008;78:333-7. ... Other viruses to consider as a cause of fever and arthritis include parvovirus B19 as well as other alphaviruses, most of which ...
... appear to be essential in virus multiplication. We suggest that the acidic nature of the NS1 of A/FP/Rostock may prevent it ... of influenza A viruses was found to be heterogeneous with respect to charge, varying in pI by more than two orders of magnitude ... Mörser M. J., Kennedy S. I. T., Burke D. C. 1973; Virus-specified polypeptides in cells infected with Semliki Forest virus. ... Hay A. J., Skehel J. J. 1975 Studies on the synthesis of influenza virus proteins. In Negative Strand Viruses vol. 2 pp. 635- ...
Isolation of Semliki Forest virus from Aedes (Aedimorphus) argenteopunctatus (Theobald) collected in portuguese East Africa. ... Smithburn KC, Kokernot RH, Weinbren MP, de Meillon B. Studies on arthropod-borne viruses of Tongaland. VII. Simbu virus, a ... including Wesselsbron virus (WSLB) and Middelburg virus (MIDV) in Ae. mcintoshi/luridus, Ae. circumluteolus, and Ae. juppi/ ... Isolation of Spondweni virus from four species of culicine mosquitoes and a report of two laboratory infections with the virus ...
Semliki Forest virus vectors expressing IL-12 (SFV-IL-12) were shown to induce potent antitumor responses against s.c. MC38 ... Título: A Semliki Forest virus vector engineered to express IFN-alpha induces efficient elimination of established tumors. ... Título: Eradication of liver-implanted tumors by Semliki Forest virus expressing IL-12 requires efficient long-term immune ... Título: Intratumoral immunotherapy with XCL1 and sFlt3L encoded in recombinant semliki forest virus-derived vectors fosters ...
Sindbis and Semliki Forest viruses, but also from flaviruses, nodamura viruses and nidoviruses. Although the successful COVID- ... The vesicular stomatitis virus-based Ebola virus vaccine: from concept to clinical trials. Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018; 14:2107- ... vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) [62], adeno-associated viruses (AAV) [63], integration-deficient lentiviruses (IDLV) [64,65], ... However, a difficult virus may require a complex approach. Proof of concept for HIV-1 prevention and cure might be at reach, ...
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), Semliki Forest, West Nile, Yellow Fever, or Vesicular Stomatitis particles. ... 0030] Described herein are compositions, devices, systems, and methods for inactivating viruses, including the COVID-19 virus. ... 241000725303 Human immunodeficiency virus Species 0.000 description 2 * FFEARJCKVFRZRR-BYPYZUCNSA-N L-methionine Chemical ... In the processes described herein, the virus or target agent is inactivated in situ in its native form. The processes described ...
... especially in his work on Semliki Forest Virus and HIV.. Many alumni will remember Steve for much more than his research. He ... Amongst other important research from his EMBL group, he advanced the field of virus structure determination, ...
Semliki Forest virus. Semliki Forest virus (SFV) is a virus that naturally infects cells of the central nervous system and ... Herpes simplex virus. Main article: Oncolytic herpes virus. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) was one of the first viruses to be ... Oncolytic virus An oncolytic virus is a virus that preferentially infects and kills cancer cells. As the infected cancer cells ... Oncolytic behaviour of wild-type viruses. Vaccinia virus. Vaccinia virus (VACV) is arguably the most successful live ...
  • Vector particle seed stocks could be amplified after low multiplicity of infection of PCLs, again without generating replication-competent virus, suggesting utility for production of large-scale vector preparations. (uab.edu)
  • For fusion to occur cholesterol is required in the target membrane, as demonstrated both in in vitro fusion assays and in vivo for virus infection of a host cell. (elsevier.com)
  • Pregnant women with male sex partners who live in or have traveled to an area with active Zika virus transmission should use barriers against infection during sex or abstain from sex for the duration of the pregnancy. (medscape.com)
  • For specimens collected from 7 days to 12 weeks after onset of symptoms, a negative IgM antibody result to Zika virus rules out recent infection with either virus, and testing for other etiologies should be considered. (medscape.com)
  • If Zika virus IgM antibody testing is positive without a positive NAAT,a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) titer ≥10 against Zika virus with negative PRNTs against dengue and other flaviviruses is evidence of recent Zika virus infection. (medscape.com)
  • In most cases, Zika virus infection causes a mild, self-limited illness. (medscape.com)
  • 5] Since 2017, Zika cases have declined, and as of January 2021, no countries in the world report active Zika virus infection outbreaks. (medscape.com)
  • Zika virus infection is among the nationally notifiable diseases in the United States since 2016. (medscape.com)
  • It is speculated that Zika virus Asian lineage is associated with serious outbreaks and congenital malformations and that African lineage is intrinsically more virulent and is associated with acute infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes. (medscape.com)
  • After human immunodeficiency virus infection, JE may be the leading cause of viral encephalitis worldwide. (cdc.gov)
  • Here, we analyzed the small non-coding RNA response to Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection in the sandfly Lutzoymia longipalpis . (plos.org)
  • We detected abundant production of virus-derived siRNAs after VSV infection in adult sandflies. (plos.org)
  • However, there was no production of virus-derived piRNAs and only mild changes in the expression of vector miRNAs in response to infection. (plos.org)
  • Virus-derived PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) can also be generated during infection, at least in some insects. (plos.org)
  • Here we show that virus infection triggers activation of the siRNA pathway but not production of piRNAs in the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis . (plos.org)
  • We also show that virus infection caused mild changes to the expression of endogenous miRNAs. (plos.org)
  • Our work describes for the first time a model to study virus infection in sandflies and highlights the importance of the siRNA pathway for the control of virus infection in L . longipalpis . (plos.org)
  • An electron microscopic study of single-cycle infection of chick embryo fibroblasts by influenza virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Infection of chicken erythrocytes with influenza and other viruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Patients infected with high-hazard viruses: scientific basis for infection control. (cdc.gov)
  • 14. Tomori O, Monath TP, Lee V, Fagbami A, Fabiyi A. Bwamba virus infection: a sero-survey of veterbrates in five ecological zones in Nigeria. (cdc.gov)
  • A connection between cancer regression and viruses has long been theorised, and case reports of regression noted in cervical cancer , Burkitt lymphoma , and Hodgkin lymphoma , after immunisation or infection with an unrelated virus appeared at the beginning of the 20th century. (orange.com)
  • [14] Efforts to treat cancer through immunisation or virotherapy (deliberate infection with a virus), began in the mid-20th century. (orange.com)
  • 9. Morris MM, Dyson H, Baker D, Harbige LS, Fazakerley JK, Amor S. Characterization of the cellular and cytokine response in the central nervous system following Semliki Forest virus infection. (southernbiotech.com)
  • CHIKV can be detected between the first and fourth day of infection (the acute phase) using PCR or virus cultivation, and virus-specific IgM and IgG antibodies can be detected during the 8th to the 10th day of infection. (loinc.org)
  • Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection of C57Bl/6 mice is a model of viral encephalitis in which the compromise results in hippocampal damage and permanent neurological sequelae. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neural injury associated with virus infection represents a multifaceted convergence of host-pathogen interactions that range from direct lytic killing of infected neurons to bystander pathology mediated by brain-infiltrating immune cells responding to chemotactic and inflammatory cues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) is a model of such an infection [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The infection of mice with Sindbis-group viruses provides an excellent model for studying virus-induced neurologic disease. (bioinf.org)
  • The infection of neonatal mice with Sindbis computer virus results in a lethal disease characterized by elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines and high viral titers in the muscle tissue, brain, and serum in the absence of overt encephalitis (11, 26, 27). (bioinf.org)
  • Ferrets are this website a good animal model for human influenza virus infection [29] and [30]. (hsp70inhibitor.com)
  • In this 12 month project we will build on our preliminary data showing that G. mellonella larvae are susceptible to Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus infection. (ukri.org)
  • We will evaluate whether this infection model shows morbidity or mortality in response to challenge with related viral pathogens (Western Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus, Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus, Semliki Forest Virus and Sindbis Virus). (ukri.org)
  • Our research suggests that blocking sialokinin, for example through a vaccine or a topical treatment, may be an exciting new approach that prevents severe disease following infection with numerous distinct viruses. (healthandnurture.com)
  • Crucially, we show that their saliva, which cannot cause leaky blood vessels, and cannot enhance infection of virus in mammalian host, does not contain sialokinin. (healthandnurture.com)
  • The enveloped alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infects cells via a membrane fusion reaction triggered by low pH. (elsevier.com)
  • 1, 2] Zika virus is widely distributed outside Africa. (medscape.com)
  • To the Editor: Chikungunya virus disease, caused by a mosquitoborne alphavirus, is endemic to Africa and Southeast Asia. (cdc.gov)
  • Lassa fever, a new virus disease of man from West Africa. (cdc.gov)
  • Genetic detection and characterization of Lujo virus, a new hemorrhagic fever-associated arenavirus from southern Africa. (cdc.gov)
  • Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) belongs to the mosquito-borne alphavirus genus, in the family Togaviridae, and was first observed in epidemic form in Africa. (loinc.org)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants are a growing population in sub-Saharan Africa, with higher morbidity and mortality than HIV-unexposed infants. (ac.ke)
  • Zika virus is found in parts of South and Central America, the Caribbean, the Pacific islands, Africa and Asia. (healthandnurture.com)
  • Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) could be introduced to Europe from Africa through animal transportation. (cdc.gov)
  • Four of these steps were validated for virus elimination of both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses. (drugs.com)
  • The results, summarized in Table 1, demonstrate virus clearance during Carimune ® NF manufacturing using model viruses for lipid enveloped and non-enveloped viruses. (drugs.com)
  • 1980). As a way to enter the cell each enveloped and non-enveloped viruses want to connect to the host cell receptors and both fuse with the plasma or endosomal membrane (enveloped viruses) or disrupt/type pore(s) within the plasma membrane (non-enveloped viruses) to achieve entry into the cell (Cossart and Helenius, 2014). (achengula.com)
  • The endocytic pathway is the most typical amongst enveloped and non-enveloped viruses for entry and launch of their nucleocapsid and accent proteins into the cytosol. (achengula.com)
  • The high incidence of humoral immunity among Cercopithecus nictitans , together with its relatively high susceptibility, point to the possibility that in the wild state this species may be frequently attacked by the virus. (aai.org)
  • Sandflies are important insect vectors that transmit many species of Leishmania , bacteria and viruses. (plos.org)
  • For each virus species, we used the search terms comprising the virus name (including all synonyms sourced from King et al. (cdc.gov)
  • These viruses can replicate in the insect vector species, and there are reports of pathology and morbidity in infected insects. (ukri.org)
  • TBEV complex viruses rarely cause disease in indigenous forest animals but may emerge as pathogens when they infect introduced species. (cdc.gov)
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus ( SARSr-CoV or SARS-CoV ) [note 1] is a species of virus consisting of many known strains phylogenetically related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1) that have been shown to possess the capability to infect humans , bats , and certain other mammals . (wikizero.com)
  • [4] The SARSr-CoV species is a member of the genus Betacoronavirus and of the subgenus Sarbecovirus ( SAR S Be ta co rona virus ). (wikizero.com)
  • Updates on areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission are available online . (medscape.com)
  • Mosquitoes that spread Zika virus usually do not live at elevations above 6,500 feet (2,000 meters). (medscape.com)
  • People who live in or visit areas above this elevation are at a very low risk of acquiring Zika virus from a mosquito unless they visit or travel through areas of lower elevation. (medscape.com)
  • Discussion with healthcare provider on risks and possible health effects of Zika on baby and protection strategies from Zika virus. (medscape.com)
  • On May 12, 2021, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) stopped recommending that blood establishments test donated blood for Zika virus (ZIKV). (medscape.com)
  • Zika virus nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) should be performed on serum collected ≤7 days after symptom onset. (medscape.com)
  • 1] The spectrum of Zika virus disease overlaps with other arboviral infections, but rash (maculopapular and likely immune-mediated) typically predominates. (medscape.com)
  • 1] Unlike other arboviral infections, Zika virus has potential for sexual transmission[1] and has been associated with congenital brain abnormalities in pregnant women infected during the first trimester. (medscape.com)
  • Zika virus was first described in a captive sentinel febrile rhesus monkey in the Zika forest of Entebbe, Uganda in 1947. (medscape.com)
  • In 1948, the virus was recovered from the mosquito Aedes africanus in the Zika forest. (medscape.com)
  • In February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the spread of Zika virus a public health emergency. (medscape.com)
  • For the latest information concerning Zika virus, see also Medscape's Zika Virus Resource Center. (medscape.com)
  • The genome of the Zika virus has a length of 10.7 kb, divided into structural and non-structural segments. (medscape.com)
  • Zika virus has 2 Zika virus lineages (Asian and African) and 3 genotypes (West African, East African, and Asian) based on phylogenetic analysis. (medscape.com)
  • Zika virus is well-adapted to grow in various hosts, ranging from arthropods to vertebrates. (medscape.com)
  • Zika virus has tropism for various tissues in the human body such as skin, blood, placenta cells, testes, retinal cells, neural stem cells and neuroprogenitor cells. (medscape.com)
  • Zika virus also infects monocytes, facilitating passage across blood-brain and placental barriers. (medscape.com)
  • Host cells invaded by Zika virus undergo cellular appoptosis, necrosis, and death. (medscape.com)
  • Thus, Zika virus affecting neuronal progenitor cells affects neuronal growth, causing fetal brain abnormalities and placental insufficiency resulting in fetal loss. (medscape.com)
  • The first defense against Zika virus is produced by the innate immune system. (medscape.com)
  • 10] Activation of type I interferon (IFN) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISG) inhibits Zika virus replication. (medscape.com)
  • Zika virus is able to evade the immune response with the help of NS proteins inhibiting the signaling pathway responsible for activation of IFN and ISG. (medscape.com)
  • 10] Studies have demonstrated inhibition of stress granule formation and modulation of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay machinery by Zika virus, enhancing its viral replication. (medscape.com)
  • There are currently no specific treatments or vaccines for dengue, Zika, and other potentially serious mosquito-borne viruses including Chikungunya, West Nile Virus, Semliki Forest virus and Rift Valley Fever virus. (healthandnurture.com)
  • The envelope of the Semliki Forest virus (SFV) contains two transmembrane proteins, E2 and E1, in a heterodimeric complex. (rupress.org)
  • Studies on the amphipathic nature of the membrane proteins in Semliki Forest virus. (wikidata.org)
  • Isolation and characterization of the membrane proteins of Semliki Forest virus. (wikidata.org)
  • Analysis of Semliki-Forest-virus structural proteins to illustrate polyprotein processing of alpha viruses. (wikidata.org)
  • Carboxyl-terminal sequence analysis of the four structural proteins of Semliki Forest virus. (wikidata.org)
  • These cell lines were stably transformed with expression cassettes that constitutively produced RNA transcripts encoding the Sindbis virus structural proteins under the regulation of their native subgenomic RNA promoter. (uab.edu)
  • Proteins specified by influenza virus in infected cells: analysis by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of antigens not present in the virus particle. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Newly synthesized influenza virus proteins are transported from the nucleus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Variation in the nucleotide sequences coding for the N-terminal regions of the matrix and nonstructural proteins of influenza A viruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Viruses use a number of advanced and fewer understood mechanisms and pathways to ship their cargo (nucleocapsid and accent proteins) to the cytoplasm and or nucleus. (achengula.com)
  • [5] A number of viruses including adenovirus , reovirus , measles , herpes simplex , Newcastle disease virus , and vaccinia have been clinically tested as oncolytic agents. (orange.com)
  • No antiviral activity against Coxsackie virus, poliovirus (unspecified), measles virus and Semliki-Forest virus was demonstrated in these studies8, 9. (uconn.edu)
  • Assembly of the Semliki Forest virus membrane glycoproteins in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum in vitro. (wikidata.org)
  • The Carimune ® NF manufacturing process provides a significant virus reduction capacity as shown in in vitro studies. (drugs.com)
  • The attenuating mutations didn't adversely impact viral replication in vitro, and the attenuated viruses established contamination in the brain and spinal cord as efficiently as the virulent viruses. (bioinf.org)
  • Efficient production of biologically active vector particles occurred after introduction of Sindbis virus vectors into the PCLs. (uab.edu)
  • Furthermore, both Sindbis virus-based and Semliki Forest virus-based vectors could be packaged with similar efficiency, indicating the possibility of developing a single PCL for use with multiple alphavirus-derived vectors. (uab.edu)
  • Arthropod borne viruses are transmitted by vectors and are sustained in a complex, often zoonotic transmission cycle between mammalian hosts and arthropod vectors. (rivm.nl)
  • Sandflies are well known vectors for Leishmania but also transmit a number of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). (plos.org)
  • The cells are also often employed in transfection experiments with simian virus 40 ( SV40 ) and recombinant plasmid vectors. (microscopyu.com)
  • vectors that inhabit the moist forest undergrowth. (cdc.gov)
  • II: Cleavage-dependent reorganization of the spike protein complex controls virus entry. (rupress.org)
  • We have analyzed the transport of the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein, the Semliki Forest virus spike-glycoprotein, both basolateral in MDCK cells, and the influenza virus hemagglutinin, apical in MDCK cells. (elsevier.com)
  • In this assay anti-NSF and rab-GDI inhibited transport of Semliki Forest virus spike glycoproteins from the TGN to the cell surface while having little effect on transport of the hemagglutinin. (elsevier.com)
  • Behavior of dengue virus in solution. (ajtmh.org)
  • For the clinical evaluation, 36 dengue virus (DENV)-positive serum samples were extracted in duplicate with the optimized RNAES protocol and once in an EMAG instrument (bioMérieux). (bvsalud.org)
  • Other human pathogens in the genus Flavivirus that will be discussed in this review include yellow fever virus (YFV), dengue virus (DENV), Israel turkey meningoencephalomyelitis virus, and Bagaza virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Replication of Sindbis virus. (wikidata.org)
  • The CHIKV antigens had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% for serological diagnosis of CHIKV infected patients, with no cross reactivity when testing serum from closely related sindbis virus infected patients. (rivm.nl)
  • While other arboviruses, such as West Nile virus, Sindbis virus, Tahyna virus, and Louping ill virus, apparently circulate in the United Kingdom, they do not appear to present an imminent threat to humans or animals. (cdc.gov)
  • Many are mammalian and avian pathogens, 4 of which (West Nile virus [WNV], Usutu virus, Sindbis virus [SINV], and Tahyna virus) circulate in the United Kingdom in resident and migratory birds ( 2 , 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Serologically, CHIKV belongs to the Semliki Forest (SF) subgroup of alphaviruses. (loinc.org)
  • Certain arboviruses, like Dengue (DENV) and Chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses, are responsible for huge epidemic outbreaks worldwide [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The E2 subunit is initially synthesized as a precursor protein p62, which is proteolytically processed to the mature E2 form before virus budding at the plasma membrane. (rupress.org)
  • The p62 (E2) protein mediates binding of the heterodimer to the nucleocapsid during virus budding, whereas E1 carries the entry functions of the virus, that is, cell binding and low pH-mediated membrane fusion activity. (rupress.org)
  • Table 1: Viruses for which antigens were selected, spotted on protein microarrays and tested. (rivm.nl)
  • Serum specimens taken on days 2 and 6 were positive for chikungunya virus RNA by in-house reverse transcription (RT)-PCR at the Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) (targeting the nonstructural protein-1 [NSP-1] gene) and PWH laboratory (targeting both NSP-1 and the envelope glycoprotein [E1] gene). (cdc.gov)
  • The type-specific non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza A viruses was found to be heterogeneous with respect to charge, varying in pI by more than two orders of magnitude, and to phosphorylation. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • An oncolytic virus is a virus that preferentially infects and kills cancer cells . (orange.com)
  • The mosquito-borne mode of JE transmission was elucidated with the isolation of JE virus from Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes in 1938 and in field studies that established the role of aquatic birds and pigs in the viral enzootic cycle. (cdc.gov)
  • In contrast to results with SFV, no cholesterol requirement for virus exit was observed for the production of either the unrelated vesicular stomatitis virus or a cholesterol-independent SFV fusion mutant. (elsevier.com)
  • Often utilized as a transfection host, the CHO-K1 line is susceptible to a number of viruses including vesicular stomatitis (Indiana strain) and the Getah virus. (microscopyu.com)
  • [12] In 2015, talimogene laherparepvec (OncoVex, T-VEC), an oncolytic herpes virus which is a modified herpes simplex virus , became the first oncolytic virus to be approved for use in the U.S. and European Union, for the treatment of advanced inoperable melanoma . (orange.com)
  • CV-1 cells demonstrate susceptibility to a variety of viruses, including herpes simplex, Eastern and Western equine encephalitis, poliovirus 1, California encephalitis, and simian virus 40. (microscopyu.com)
  • CHO-K1 cells are resistant to poliovirus 2, Modoc virus, and button willow virus. (microscopyu.com)
  • Gene 8 of influenza virus: sequences of cDNA transcribed from the 3' ends of viral RNA of influenza A and B strains. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Morphological changes in BHK-21 cells infected with S/N (H2N1) influenza virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Penetration of nuclear inclusions into the cytoplasm In influenza-virus-infected cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Nucleotide sequence of the influenza A/Duck/Alberta/60/76 virus NS RNA: conservation of the NS1/NS2 over-lapping gene structure in a divergent influenza virus RNA segment. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Migration of influenza virus-specific polypeptides from cytoplasm to nucleus of infected cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • I. Nucleo-cytoplasmic changes in A o /WSN influenza virus-infected chick embryo cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • New virus-specific antigens in cells infected with influenza virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Sterols and sphingolipids strongly affect the growth of fusion pores induced by the hemagglutinin of influenza virus. (rush.edu)
  • Presently, the body weight of surviving ferrets that had been fed with Red Ginseng and lethally challenged with HP H5N1 influenza virus Crenolanib supplier was reduced up to 20% at 7 d.p.i., whereas the body weight of control ferrets was reduced up to 25% at 5 d.p.i. (hsp70inhibitor.com)
  • Mice and ferrets fed with Red Ginseng could be protected from lethal challenges of HP H5N1 influenza virus. (hsp70inhibitor.com)
  • Kinetics of inactivation of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus. (ajtmh.org)
  • We have already carried out a pilot study indicating that a virus called Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus causes disease in waxmoth larvae. (ukri.org)
  • Membrane fusion process of Semliki Forest virus. (rupress.org)
  • Noninfectivity resulted from impaired uptake into cells, as well as from the inability of the virus to promote membrane fusion in the mildly acidic conditions of the endosome. (rupress.org)
  • Nucleotide sequence of cdna coding for Semliki Forest virus membrane glycoproteins. (wikidata.org)
  • Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), West Nile virus (WNV) and Ilheus virus (ILHV) are flaviviruses maintained by enzootic transmission networks between mosquitoes and birds. (bvsalud.org)
  • LIV is included in the tickborne encephalitis virus (TBEV) complex that includes Kyasanur Forest disease virus and Alkhurma virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Viruses spread by mosquitoes are known as arboviruses. (healthandnurture.com)
  • The only zoonotic arboviruses isolated from field material in the United Kingdom are the flavivirus Louping ill virus (LIV) ( 4 ) and the bunyavirus Uukuniemi virus ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Here, we present the 1.9 Å resolution crystal structure of the NTF2-like domain of G3BP-1 in complex with a 25-residue peptide derived from Semliki Forest virus nsP3 (nsP3-25). (scilifelab.se)
  • Two strains of the virus have caused outbreaks of severe respiratory diseases in humans: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-1), which caused the 2002-2004 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is causing the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 . (wikizero.com)
  • The amphiphilic membrane glycoproteins of Semliki Forest virus are attached to the lipid bilayer by their COOH-terminal ends. (wikidata.org)
  • In one configuration, the capsid and envelope glycoproteins were separated into distinct cassettes, resulting in vector packaging levels of 107 infectious units/ml, but reducing the generation of contaminating replication-competent virus below the limit of detection. (uab.edu)
  • The virus resembles other known flavivirus structures with the exception of approximately 10 amino acids surrounding the Asn154 glycosylation site in each of the 180 envelope glycoproteins comprising the icosahedral shell, the carbohydrate moiety that may be the site where the virus attaches to the host cells. (medscape.com)
  • It revealed that individuals residing in each of the areas sampled possess protective antibody against the Semliki Forest virus. (aai.org)
  • The incidence of humoral antibody in the 4 areas, and among different age groups within them, was sufficiently variable to emphasize the specificity of the tests and to point to recent activity of the virus in widely separated areas having no contact. (aai.org)
  • The elevated antibody titres to chikungunya virus and the clinical course were diagnostic of chikungunya fever. (cmaj.ca)
  • By means of these immunological tests the Semliki Forest virus has been differentiated from the viruses of yellow fever, Bwamba fever, St. Louis and Japanese B encephalitis, eastern and western equine encephalomyelitis, and from the West Nile virus. (aai.org)
  • The persistent arthralgia combined with a negative dengue IgM suggested false-positive (cross-reactive) dengue IgG, which can be seen after infections with, or vaccinations against, other Raviviruses, such as yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis and West Nile virus. (cmaj.ca)
  • Furthermore to demonstrating the function from the structural genes in adult mouse neurovirulence, research using the Sindbis trojan S.A.AR86 (AR86) and Semliki PF 429242 supplier Forest virus (SFV) indicate the fact that viral non-structural genes donate to adult mouse neurovirulence (9, 32, 33). (bioinf.org)
  • Non-enveloped virus particles (those that lack a lipid-bilayer membrane) must breach the membrane of a target host cell to gain access to its cytoplasm. (nature.com)
  • Thus, cholesterol was only critical in the exit pathway of viruses that also require cholesterol for fusion. (elsevier.com)
  • These results demonstrate a specific and unexpected lipid requirement in virus exit, and suggest that in addition to its role in fusion, cholesterol is involved in the assembly or budding of SFV. (elsevier.com)
  • crystal structure of the homotrimer of fusion glycoprotein e1 from semliki forest virus. (berkeley.edu)
  • 2018). The low pH for fusion varies between viruses making some viruses to fuse both throughout early endosomes (comparatively excessive pH ∼ 6.0) or late endosomes (low pH ∼ 5) to launch its content material to the cytosol (White and Whittaker, 2016). (achengula.com)
  • Effects of membrane potential and sphingolipid structures on fusion of Semliki Forest virus. (rush.edu)
  • European human and animal pathogens in the genus Alphavirus include SINV, Ockelbo virus, and Chikungunya virus and in the family Bunyaviridae , sandfly fever Naples virus (often referred to as Toscana virus), sandfly fever Sicilian virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Inkoo virus, and Tahyna virus, which is widespread throughout Europe. (cdc.gov)
  • University of Leeds Virus Host Interaction Team researchers have discovered that the molecule, called sialokinin, makes it easier for a number of viruses to pass from mosquitoes to human, where they can then take hold - leading to unpleasant and potentially deadly diseases. (healthandnurture.com)
  • Anopheles mosquitoes cannot spread most viruses. (healthandnurture.com)
  • Persistent shedding of West Nile virus in urine of experimentally infected hamsters. (ajtmh.org)
  • Inactivation of West Nile virus during serologic testing and transport. (ajtmh.org)
  • When C57Bl/6 mice are inoculated via intracranial delivery of the Daniel's strain of TMEV, there is an acute viral encephalitis that culminates in the generation of an antiviral T cell-mediated response, development of virus neutralizing antibodies, clearance of the virus, and resolution of brain inflammation over the course of about 45 days [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An antiviral activity found in human, bovine, ovine, porcine, lapine, murine and piscine brain tissues shares some properties with a contact blocking-virus inhibitor, which was previously found only in cell culture supernatants. (utmb.edu)
  • The inhibitor does not directly neutralize virus or induce an antiviral state in cells, but appears to act early in the replication cycle, most likely by preventing virus attachment to target cells. (utmb.edu)
  • The uncleaved p62E1 heterodimer was found to be used for the formation of virus particles with an efficiency comparable to the wild type E2E1 form. (rupress.org)
  • Surprisingly, the subsequent exit of virus particles was dramatically slowed compared to cholesterol-containing cells. (elsevier.com)
  • As the infected cancer cells are destroyed by oncolysis , they release new infectious virus particles or virions to help destroy the remaining tumour. (orange.com)
  • In agreement with this hypothesis, pre-treatment of cells with dsRNA against VSV was able to inhibit viral replication while knock-down of the central siRNA component, Argonaute-2, led to increased virus levels. (plos.org)
  • Chikungunya virus nsP3 also binds G3BP dimers via a hierarchical interaction, which was found to be critical for viral replication. (scilifelab.se)
  • The SARS-related coronavirus is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus . (wikizero.com)
  • Ari Helenius was the primary individual to show that some enveloped viruses fuse with the endosomes to ship their genome into the cytosol (Helenius et al. (achengula.com)
  • lassical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious disease of swine caused by CSF virus (CSFV), a small enveloped virus with a positive-sense, single-strand RNA genome (1). (1library.net)
  • Its genome is about 30 kb , which is one of the largest among RNA viruses. (wikizero.com)
  • Cytoplasmic inclusions, which are formed between NS1 and cellular RNA in infections with a number of human strains, were absent from A/FP/Rostock-infected cells and do not, therefore, appear to be essential in virus multiplication. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Imported virus infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Sindbis pathogen infections of mice provides provided valuable understanding into viral and web host factors that donate to virus-induced neurologic disease. (bioinf.org)
  • Repeated oral administration of Panax ginseng extract to mice resulted in protection from the infections of Semliki forest virus up to 34-40% [24]. (hsp70inhibitor.com)
  • Its occurrence in concentrations sufficient to reduce virus yield in cell cultures at least 30-fold may indicate a role in limiting viral infections of the central nervous system. (utmb.edu)
  • For these viruses it may be feasible to use insects to study the infections. (ukri.org)
  • abstract = "Brain tissue extracts from vertebrates were examined for non-specific, broad-spectrum virus inhibitors, previously identified and characterized from other body tissues and fluids. (utmb.edu)
  • References were compiled for each virus, and the virus was assigned to pyramid level independently by 2 of the authors (L.B. and C.M.). The key references providing evidence of human transmissibility for the level 3 viruses (Table 2 in the text) are in the Technical Appendix Table. (cdc.gov)
  • We conclude that the p62 cleavage is not needed for virus budding, but regulates entry functions of the E1 subunit by controlling the heterodimer stability in acidic conditions. (rupress.org)
  • However, in contrast to the wild type virus, the mutant virus was virtually noninfectious. (rupress.org)
  • The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) mutant 1716 lacks both copies of the ICP34.5 gene, and as a result is no longer able to replicate in terminally differentiated and non- dividing cells but will infect and cause lysis very efficiently in cancer cells, and this has proved to be an effective tumour-targeting strategy. (orange.com)
  • The COS-1 cell line was produced via transformation of the previously established line with an origin defective mutant of simian virus 40 ( SV40 ) that codes for wild type large tumor antigen ( T antigen ). (microscopyu.com)
  • The COS-7 cell line is a line developed from the standard CV-1 African green monkey kidney line by transforming the normal cells with an origin defective mutant of simian virus 40 that codes for the wild-type large tumor antigen. (microscopyu.com)
  • were protected against virulent challenge with Brescia virus at 21 days postvaccination. (1library.net)
  • The acute cytokine immunologic response to this virus was also tested (Appendix). (cdc.gov)
  • induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α was similar between control mice and mice fed with Red Ginseng following the virus challenge (Fig. 4A). (hsp70inhibitor.com)
  • Our work begins to elucidate the role of RNAi mechanisms in the interaction between L . longipalpis and viruses and should also open the way for studies with other sandfly-borne pathogens. (plos.org)
  • Finally, the family Reoviridae contains a variety of animal arbovirus pathogens, including bluetongue virus, which is currently circulating in Europe, and African horse sickness virus, which has been found in Europe but is not currently circulating. (cdc.gov)