A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Virus diseases caused by the TOGAVIRIDAE.
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins that catalyze MEMBRANE FUSION.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A variable mixture of the mono- and disodium salts of gold thiomalic acid used mainly for its anti-inflammatory action in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It is most effective in active progressive rheumatoid arthritis and of little or no value in the presence of extensive deformities or in the treatment of other forms of arthritis.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS associated with epidemic EXANTHEMA and polyarthritis in Australia.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
A local anesthetic of the amide type now generally used for surface anesthesia. It is one of the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics and its parenteral use is restricted to spinal anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1006)
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, consisting of ether-sensitive viruses of leporids and squirrels. They commonly cause tumors and are usually transmitted mechanically by arthropods. MYXOMA VIRUS is the type species.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.
The type species of CARDIOVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis and myocarditis in rodents, pigs, and monkeys. Infection in man has been reported with CNS involvement but without myocarditis.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.

Propagation of Semliki Forest virus in various human lymphoblastoid cell lines. (1/707)

Semliki Forest virus (SFV) propagation was studied in one marmoset and eight human lymphoblastoid cell lines. In eight of these cell lines SFV propagated well. Only in the Daudi (human) cell line virus replication was suppressed. This suppression takes place after virus adsorption but before virus inhibitory effects on cell functions.  (+info)

Stable alphavirus packaging cell lines for Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus-derived vectors. (2/707)

Alphavirus vectors are being developed for possible human vaccine and gene therapy applications. We have sought to advance this field by devising DNA-based vectors and approaches for the production of recombinant vector particles. In this work, we generated a panel of alphavirus vector packaging cell lines (PCLs). These cell lines were stably transformed with expression cassettes that constitutively produced RNA transcripts encoding the Sindbis virus structural proteins under the regulation of their native subgenomic RNA promoter. As such, translation of the structural proteins was highly inducible and was detected only after synthesis of an authentic subgenomic mRNA by the vector-encoded replicase proteins. Efficient production of biologically active vector particles occurred after introduction of Sindbis virus vectors into the PCLs. In one configuration, the capsid and envelope glycoproteins were separated into distinct cassettes, resulting in vector packaging levels of 10(7) infectious units/ml, but reducing the generation of contaminating replication-competent virus below the limit of detection. Vector particle seed stocks could be amplified after low multiplicity of infection of PCLs, again without generating replication-competent virus, suggesting utility for production of large-scale vector preparations. Furthermore, both Sindbis virus-based and Semliki Forest virus-based vectors could be packaged with similar efficiency, indicating the possibility of developing a single PCL for use with multiple alphavirus-derived vectors.  (+info)

Virus infection induces neuronal apoptosis: A comparison with trophic factor withdrawal. (3/707)

Multicellular organisms can employ a number of defences to combat viral replication, the most dramatic being implementation of a cell autonomous apoptotic process. The overall cost to the viability of an organism of losing infected cells by apoptosis may be small if the dying cells can be substituted. In contrast, suicide of irreplaceable cells such as highly specialised neurons may have a more dramatic, even fatal consequence. Previous in vitro approaches to understanding whether neurotropic viruses cause neurons to apoptose have utilised transformed cell lines. These are not in the appropriate state of differentiation to provide an accurate indication of events in vivo. We have chosen to characterise the ability of a model CNS disease-causing virus, Semliki Forest virus (SFV), to infect and trigger apoptosis in primary cultures of nerve growth factor (NGF)-dependent sensory neurons. These cells are known to die when deprived of NGF and constitute a useful indicator of apoptosis. We observe that infection causes cell death which bears the morphological hallmarks of apoptosis, this occurs even in the present of survival promoting NGF and is concomitant with new virus production. Using the TUNEL (transferase dUTP nick end labelling) technique we show that SFV-induced apoptosis involves DNA fragmentation and requires caspase (CED-3/ICE cysteine protease) activation, as does apoptosis induced by NGF-deprivation. Extensive areas of apoptosis, as defined using a combination of ultrastructural analysis and TUNEL occur in infected neonatal mouse brains. The novel evidence that infection of primary neurons with SFV induces apoptosis with activation of one or more caspases defines a system for the further anlaysis of apoptosis regulation in physiologically relevant neurons.  (+info)

RNA helicase activity of Semliki Forest virus replicase protein NSP2. (4/707)

Semliki Forest virus replicase protein nsP2 shares sequence homology with several putative NTPases and RNA helicases. NsP2 has RNA-dependent NTPase activity. Here we expressed polyhistidine-tagged nsP2 in Escherichia coli, purified it by metal-affinity chromatography, and used it in RNA helicase assays. RNA helicase CI of plum pox potyvirus was used as a positive control. Unwinding of alpha-32P-labelled partially double-stranded RNA required nsP2, Mg2+ and NTPs. NsP2 with a mutation, K192N, in the NTP-binding sequence GVPGSGK192SA could not unwind dsRNA and had no NTPase activity. This is the first demonstration of RNA helicase activity within the large alphavirus superfamily.  (+info)

The isolation of the ectodomain of the alphavirus E1 protein as a soluble hemagglutinin and its crystallization. (5/707)

Alphaviruses are isometric enveloped viruses approximately 70 nm in diameter. The viral surface contains 80 glycoprotein spikes arranged in a T = 4 lattice. Each of these spikes consists of three heterodimers of the viral membrane proteins E1 (approximately 49 kDa) and E2 (approximately 51 kDa). Cryoelectron microscopic analyses have shown that the spikes form a protein shell on the viral surface. We have made an attempt to isolate biologically active protein fragments from this surface and to grow crystals from such fragments. To this end membrane proteins were extracted with Nonidet-P40 from the Semliki Forest alphavirus and the proteins were separated from detergent by centrifugation. A protein complex containing the E1 and E2 molecules in quantitative yield was obtained by this procedure. This complex has the following properties: It sediments at approximately 30S, it chromatographs with an apparent molecular mass of approximately 580,000 Da during gel filtration, it cannot be dissociated by either nonionic detergents or 6 M urea, and at acid pH it is a highly active hemagglutinin. The data indicate that this 30S hemagglutinin complex, which has not been hitherto described for alphaviruses, may represent a variant form of the protein lattice present on the alphavirus surface. Cleavage of this complex by subtilisin selectively removes carboxy-terminal sequences from the E1 and E2 proteins, which contain the cytoplasmic and transmembrane segments of the proteins and a small part of their ectodomain. The remaining ectodomains are called E1DeltaS and E2DeltaS. This proteolysis also leads to dissociation of the 30S complex. The cleavage products accumulate in the form of a heterodimer of the E1DeltaS and E2DeltaS proteins. Treatment of the heterodimer with PNGase F leads to rapid removal of carbohydrate from the E2DeltaS protein and a dissociation of the complex into the constituent molecules, which can be separated by chromatography. The finding that the heterodimer and the purified E1DeltaS protein both function as hemagglutinin at acid pH indicates that the E1 protein represents the alphavirus hemagglutinin. We have obtained crystals of the E1DeltaS protein and are currently in the process of determining the atomic structure of this protein by the isomorphous replacement method.  (+info)

Interference of nucleoside diphosphate derivatives of 2-deoxy-D-glucose with the glycosylation of virus-specific glycoproteins in vivo. (6/707)

The predominant effect of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on chick embryo cells infected with Semliki Forest virus is an interference with glycosylation of virus-specific glycoproteins; this results in a block of synthesis of infectious virus. Incorporation of radioactive mannose is blocked severely in the presence of 2-deoxyglucose in the cultural medium although it is readily phosphorylated and subsequently activated by GTP to yield GDP-mannose, which accumulates under these conditions. The intracellular concentrations of GDP-mannose and UDP-N-acetyl-D-hexosamine are not reduced in the presence of the inhibitor. An equimolar concentration of mannose in the cultural medium competes with the inhibitory effect of the deoxysugar and drops the cellular pool of GDP-2-deoxy-D-glucose below the level of detection, at the same time restoring the synthesis of infectious virus. When the intracellular concentration of UDP-2-deoxyglucose is reduced by addition of glucose into the cultural medium the inhibition of virus synthesis by the deoxysugar and the concentration of GDP-2-deoxyglucose within the cells remain near to the values when the inhibitor is present alone. It is concluded that among the metabolites of 2-deoxyglucose which occur in vivo after addition of 2-deoxyglucose to the culture medium, GDP-2-deoxyglucose is the agent responsible for inhibition of glycosylation of viral glycoproteins.  (+info)

Only the non-glycosylated fraction of hepatitis E virus capsid (open reading frame 2) protein is stable in mammalian cells. (7/707)

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a non-enveloped, positive-strand RNA virus, with the genome encoding three open reading frames (ORFs) of which ORF 2 directs translation of the capsid protein, PORF2. Following pulse-labelling and cell fractionation of PORF2 expressed in mammalian cells using the Semliki Forest virus replicon, the capsid protein was detected as three major species of 78 (PORF2), 82 and 86 kDa, with P82 and P86 being N-glycosylated (gPORF2 and ggPORF2, respectively). Although gPORF2 and ggPORF2 species represented 79% of total PORF2 after 20 min metabolic labelling and were largely membrane-associated, the glycosylated PORF2 species were much less stable than non-glycosylated PORF2, which was present in the cytosol and represented the major product accumulated in the cell. In the absence of detectable surface expression or export of PORF2, this suggests that glycosylated ORF 2 proteins may not be intermediates in HEV capsid assembly.  (+info)

Recombinant Semliki Forest virus particles encoding the prME or NS1 proteins of louping ill virus protect mice from lethal challenge. (8/707)

Recombinant Semliki Forest virus (rSFV) vaccines encoding louping ill virus (LIV) genes prME and NS1 were examined. Cells transfected with rSFV-prME RNA showed correct processing of the precursor prME and the release into the medium of M and E proteins in particulate form, whilst rSFV-NS1-transfected cells secreted glycosylated, heat-labile NS1 dimers. Mice immunized with rSFV particles produced antibodies against prME and NS1 that were mainly of the IgG2a subtype, indicating that a T-helper 1 immune response was induced. Immunization with prME- or NS1-encoding particles induced T-cell proliferation. Mice vaccinated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with rSFV-prME and/or rSFV-NS1 were significantly protected from lethal i.p. challenge by two strains of LIV, the virulent LI/31 strain, from which the commercial LIV vaccine is derived, and the less-virulent LI/I antibody-escape variant. Intranasal (i.n.) vaccination was protective for rSFV-prME only against LI/31 challenge and not against challenge with LI/I. Immunization with rSFV-NS1 was protective against i.p. and i.n. challenge with both virus strains when given i.p., but was not protective when given i.n. For unvaccinated mice infected with LIV, all animals showing clinical signs had severe degenerative and inflammatory lesions in the central nervous system. None of the rSFV-vaccinated mice that survived challenge showed central nervous system pathology, with the exception of mild leptomeningitis in a minority of LI/31-infected mice. This suggests that protection following immunization with rSFV must occur at early stages of LIV infection.  (+info)

294966285 - EP 0996737 A1 2000-05-03 - SEMLIKI FOREST VIRUS VECTORS FOR GENE TRANSFER INTO NON-ENDOTHELIAL CARDIOVASCULAR CELLS - [origin: WO9909192A1] The invention provides methods of transducing non-endothelial cardiovascular cells with a recombinant Togavirus vector, vector kits, and vectors.[origin: WO9909192A1] The invention provides methods of transducing non-endothelial cardiovascular cells with a recombinant Togavirus vector, vector kits, and vectors.
The Semliki Forest virus was first isolated from mosquitoes in the Semliki Forest, Uganda by the Uganda Virus Research Institute in 1942 and described by Smithburn and Haddow.[2] It is known to cause disease in animals including humans. It is an alphavirus found in central, eastern, and southern Africa. The Semliki Forest virus is a positive-stranded RNA virus with a genome of approximately 13,000 base pairs which encodes nine proteins.[3] The 5 two thirds of the genome encode four non-structural proteins concerned with RNA synthesis and the structural proteins are encoded in the 3 third. Of the structural proteins, the C proteins makes up the icosahedral capsid which is enveloped by a lipid bilayer, derived from the host cell. The outermost surface of the virus is almost entirely covered by heterodimers of glycoproteins E1 and E2, arranged in interconnective trimers, which form an outer shell. Trimers are anchored in the membrane by an E2 cytoplasmic domain that associates with the ...
PATHOGEN SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES. SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT NAME: Semliki Forest Virus SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: SFV (1-3), Old World Alphavirus (4), Semliki Forest Fever (5) CHARACTERISTICS: Family Togaviridae, Genus Alphavirus (6, 7). Virions have an approximate diameter of 50-70 nm and contain one positive stranded RNA molecule. Genetic material is enveloped in an icosahedral nucleocapsid.. SECTION II - HAZARD IDENTIFICATION PATHOGENICITY/TOXICITY: Most infections caused by the Semliki Forest Virus (SFV) are asymptomatic or very mild (3). When symptoms are present they are mild. During the acute phase of infection they are indistinguishable from those of malaria, influenza, or other febrile illnesses (3, 8). When present, symptoms include headache, fever, myalgia and athrolgia. Rare symptoms of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and conjunctivitis have been reported. The acute phase lasts 2-4 days and is followed by a long period marked by weakness. In the only case reported to ...
To evaluate the use of alphavirus vectors for tumor treatment we have constructed and compared two Semliki Forest virus (SFV) vectors expressing different levels of IL-12. SFV-IL-12 expresses both IL-12 subunits from a single subgenomic promoter, while in SFV-enhIL-12 each IL-12 subunit is expressed …
The Alphavirus genus within the Togaviridae family contains several important mosquito-borne arboviruses. Other than the antiviral activity of RNAi, relatively little is known about alphavirus interactions with insect cell defences. Here we show that Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infection of Aedes albopictus-derived U4.4 mosquito cells reduces cellular gene expression. Activation prior to SFV infection of pathways involving STAT/IMD, but not Toll signaling reduced subsequent virus gene expression and RNA levels. These pathways are therefore not only able to mediate protective responses against bacteria but also arboviruses. However, SFV infection of mosquito cells did not result in activation of any of these pathways and suppressed their subsequent activation by other stimuli. ...
Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infection of the laboratory mouse provides a well-characterized tractable system to study the pathogenesis of virus encephalitis and virus induced demyelination. In μMT mice, which have no antibodies, infectious virus persisted in both the serum and the brain for several weeks, indicating that antibodies are required to eliminate infectious virus. In immunocompetent mice, virus infectivity in the brain was undetectable after the first week of infection, but virus RNA levels declined slowly. Following SFV infection, lesions of demyelination were present in the brains of both immunocompetent and μMT mice, indicating that antibodies are not required to generate lesions of demyelination.
Expression of the Semliki Forest virus p62/E2 protein was studied in the polarized epithelial cell line Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK). After infection this transmembrane protein, together with the other spike subunit E1, accumulates at the basolateral surface of MDCK cells (Fuller, S. D., C.-H. von Bonsdorff, and K. Simons, 1985, EMBO (Eur. Mol. Biol. Organ.) J., 4:2475-2485). The cDNAs encoding truncated forms of the protein were used to stably transform MDCK cells to examine the role of subunit oligomerization (E1-E2) and the cytoplasmic domain of p62/E2 in directed transport to the basolateral surface. The biochemical characteristics and polarity of the expressed proteins were studied using cell monolayers grown on nitrocellulose filters. A wild-type form of p62/E2, in the absence of E1, and two forms having either 15 or 3 of the wild-type 31-amino acid carboxyl cytoplasmic domain were all localized to the basolateral surface. These results indicate that the cytoplasmic domain of E2 does ...
The small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway is a major antiviral response in mosquitoes; however, another RNA interference pathway, the PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway, has been suggested to be antiviral in mosquitoes. Piwi4 has been reported to be a key mediator of this response in mosquitoes, but it is not involved in the production of virus-specific piRNAs. Here, we show that Piwi4 associates with members of the antiviral exogenous siRNA pathway (Ago2 and Dcr2), as well as with proteins of the piRNA pathway (Ago3, Piwi5, and Piwi6) in an Aedes aegypti-derived cell line, Aag2. Analysis of small RNAs captured by Piwi4 revealed that it is predominantly associated with virus-specific siRNAs in Semliki Forest virus-infected cells and, to a lesser extent, with viral piRNAs. By using a Dcr2 knockout cell line, we showed directly that Ago2 lost its antiviral activity, as it was no longer bound to siRNAs, but Piwi4 retained its antiviral activity in the absence of the siRNA pathway. These results ...
2003 Bicout DJ and Sache I. Persistent Walk and Spore Dispersal Density Function. Phys. Rev. E. 2003, vol. 67, n° 0319131 - 0319137. Billecocq A, Coudrier D, Boué F, Combes B, Zeller H, Artois M and Bouloy M. Expression of the nucleoprotein of the Puumala virus from the recombinant Semliki Forest virus replicon : characterization and use as a potential diagnostic tool. Clinical and diagnostic laboratory immunology. 2003, vol. 10, n° 4, pp. 658-663. Hours M, Anzivino-Viricel L, Maître A, (...)
A novel system for the production of high levels of functional human therapeutic proteins in stable cells with a Semliki Forest virus noncytopathic vector.
In summary, our data indicate that SFV fusion and exit are highly cholesterol dependent, and that this sterol requirement is significantly reduced by the P226S mutation. Interestingly, preliminary data from our lab indicate that two independent mutants selected for cholesterol-independent growth also have the P226S mutation, supporting the importance of this region of the spike protein in the virus cholesterol requirement (Chatterjee, P., and M. Kielian, unpublished results). It is striking that although it is not conserved, the position analogous to SFV E1 P226 is not found as a serine residue in any of the alphavirus sequences in the database, including recent virus isolates from nature (Fig. 7). Other nonconserved proline residues in this and other E1 regions (eg., P237; Fig. 7) are present as a serine in some alphavirus sequences. Preliminary results with Sindbis virus, having alanine at position 226, indicate that both its infection and fusion are highly cholesterol dependent, similar to wt ...
Infection of genital epithelial cells with human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 is closely associated with the development of cervical carcinoma. The transforming potential of these high-risk HPVs depends on the expression of the E6 and E7 early viral gene products. Since the expression of E6 and E7 is selectively maintained in premalignant and malignant cervical lesions these proteins are attractive candidates for immunotherapeutic and prophylactic strategies. This report describes the construction, characterization and the in vivo immunotherapeutic potential of recombinant Semliki Forest virus (SFV) expressing the HPV16 E6 and E7 proteins (SFV-E6E7). Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining demonstrated expression of E6 and E7 in BHK cells infected with SFV-E6E7. Immunization of mice with SFV-E6E7 resulted in an efficient in vivo priming of HPV-specific CTL activity. The induced CTL lysed murine tumor cells transformed with the HPV16 genome and EL4 cells loaded with an
Summary In these studies in mice, guinea pigs and rabbits infected by intraperitoneal, intracerebral or respiratory routes, the expression of virulence by a virulent/avirulent mixture of known proportion depended on the administered dose and was not a simple marker for the virus population, or for the heterogeneous wild strain which it simulated. This dependence of the virulence of a virus sample upon its dose and heterogeneity is presented quantitatively for each host by a dose-response diagram which is the necessary extension of the simple dose-response curve. The latter may be used to express single response characteristics (death only, protection only) but is inappropriate to the expression of the present dual response-dose characteristics in which protection at low dose gives place to death at high dose, or vice versa. At some proportions of virulent/avirulent sub-populations in the virus inoculum even more complex dual response-dose characteristics may be generated. Thus the specification of
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4. The virus can be preserved by drying while frozen. It remains viable in saline at low temperatures for a number of days but gradually loses potency. It retains potency for several weeks when stored in serum in the refrigerator. It is not excessively sensitive to room or incubator temperatures. It survives heating at 60 C for ½ hour but not for 1 hour. It is inactivated by heating at 62 C for 30 minutes.. ...
Frozen, thin sections of baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells were incubated with either concanavalin A (Con A) or Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA) to localize specific oligosaccharide moieties in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi membranes. These lectins were then visualized using an anti-lectin antibody followed by protein A conjugated to colloidal gold. All Golgi cisternae and all ER membranes were uniformly labeled by Con A. In contrast, RCA gave a uniform labeling of only half to three-quarters of those cisternae on the trans side of the Golgi stack; one or two cis Golgi cisternae and all ER membranes were essentially unlabeled. This pattern of lectin labeling was not affected by infection of the cells with Semliki Forest virus (SFV). Infected cells transport only viral spike glycoproteins from their site of synthesis in the ER to the cell surface via the stacks of Golgi cisternae where many of the simple oligosaccharids on the spike proteins are converted to complex ones (Green, J., G. ...
Glomb-Reinmund, Sallie, and Margaret Kielian. fus-1, a pH Shift Mutant of Semliki Forest Virus, Acts by Altering Spike Subunit Interactions via a Mutation in the E2 Subunit. Journal of Virology 72.5 (1998): 4281-4287. Web. 02 June. 2020. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Stephanie van de Wall, Mateusz Walczak, Nienke van Rooij, Baukje-Nynke Hoogeboom, Tjarko Meijerhof, Hans W Nijman, Toos Daemen].
Generation of plasmids and Semliki Forest viruses.The viral vector pSFV1 (Invitrogen, San Diego, CA) was modified by the introduction of an oligonucleotide cassette into itsXmaI site to generate singular ClaI andBssHII restriction sites. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-SNAP-25A was cloned into the modified pSFV1 as described previously (Wei et al., 2000). SNAP-25 mutants were generated by site-directed mutagenesis. The sequence of all constructs was verified by DNA sequencing. Virus production and transfection were performed as described previously (Ashery et al., 1999).. Chromaffin cell preparation. Cell preparation was modified compared with the previous description (Ashery et al., 1999) by the omission of the Percoll gradient purification step. Bovine adrenal glands were collected, injected with collagenase, and opened; the medulla was dissected out as described previously (Ashery et al., 1999). Pieces of the medulla were collected in a plastic tube with ∼10 ml of Lockes solution and ...
Suckling, A J.; Jagelman, S; and Webb, H E., Immunoglobulin synthesis in nude (nu/nu), nu/+ and reconstituted nu/nu mice infected with a demyelinating strain of semliki forest virus. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 3033 ...
When Erik Fries and I were discussing the conference in the laboratory the following week, he made a remark that changed everything. He simply asked, Could pH have something to do with it? Suddenly, all the pieces of the puzzle fell into a coherent picture. We realized that the acidic pH in lysosomes and other endocytic vacuoles was not only required to optimize the degradative action of acid hydrolases, but could also serve as a cue for viruses to activate their penetration mechanism. Exposure to low pH told the viruses that they had entered a cell and reached the endocytic pathway, and that it was time to activate the penetration machinery. We speculated that low pH induced a change in the spike glycoproteins present on the virus envelope that allowed fusion of the viral envelope from the lumenal side with the limiting membrane of the vacuole. As a result, the viral capsid was released into the cytosol without itself having to cross the hydrophobic barriers formed by a membrane. ...
Most Asian markets fell Monday following another disappointing performance on Wall Street with investors concerned about an uptick in coronavirus infections in Europe and the United States.
Wu Y, Voth GA. Computer Simulations of Proton Transport Through the M2 Channel of the Influenza A Virus. In: Fischer W Viral Membrane Proteins: Structure, Function and Drug Design. Viral Membrane Proteins: Structure, Function and Drug Design. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2004. ...
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Alpha- and flaviviruses contain class II fusion proteins, which form ion-permeable pores in the target membrane during virus entry. The pores generated during entry of the alphavirus Semliki Forest virus have been shown previously to be blocked by lanthanide ions. Here, analyses of the influence of rare earth ions on the entry of the flaviviruses West Nile virus and Uganda S virus revealed an unexpected effect of lanthanide ions. The results showed that a 30 s treatment of cells with an appropriate lanthanide ion changed the cellular chemistry into a state in which the cells no longer supported the multiplication of flaviviruses. This change occurred in cells treated before, during or after infection, did not inhibit multiplication of Semliki Forest virus and did not interfere with host-cell multiplication. The change was generated in vertebrate and insect cells, and was elicited in the presence of actinomycin D. In vertebrate cells, the change was elicited specifically by La(3+), Ce(3+), Pr(3+) and Nd
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Semliki-Forest-virus-specific nonstructural protein nsP4 is an autoproteinase. AU - Takkinen, Kristiina. AU - Peränen, Johan. AU - Keränen, Sirkka. AU - Söderlund, Hans. AU - Kääriäinen, Leevi. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - The Semliki‐Forest‐virus‐specific nonstructural proteins are translated as a large polyprotein (2431 amino acid residues), from which the mature polymerase components nsP1, nsP2, nsP3 and nsP4 are released by proteolytic cleavages. The complete ns polyprotein (P1234) can be cleaved in two alternative ways yielding either P123 (with sequences of nsP1, nsP2 and nsP3) and nsP4 or P12 (nsP1 plus nsP2) and P34 (nsP3 plus nsP4). We studied the possible autoproteolytic role of nsP4 involved in the cleavage between nsP3 and nsP4 in an in vitro transcription‐translation system. cDNAs encoding P34 precursor and shorter precursor protein segments covering the nsP3‐nsP4 cleavage region, were cloned under the T7 RNA polymerase promoter. The mRNAs ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of cycloleucine on SFV A7(74) infection in mice. AU - Amor, S. AU - Webb, H E. PY - 1987/4. Y1 - 1987/4. N2 - Cycloleucine (CL), a non-metabolizable amino acid analogue, was found to reduce thymus and spleen weights in Semliki Forest virus (SFV) strain A7(74) infected and control mice. The maximum effects were seen when three daily doses of CL were given to mice 24 h after an SFV A7(74) infection. In these mice thymus atrophy led to abolition of thymus dependent immune responses and changes in the pathological features of the viral infection--the most striking feature being prevention of demyelination. In addition virus titres in the brains of CL treated infected mice were increased and prolonged. These results show that demyelination following an SFV A7(74) infection is not a result of direct virus action, but of a T-cell mediated mechanism.. AB - Cycloleucine (CL), a non-metabolizable amino acid analogue, was found to reduce thymus and spleen weights in Semliki ...
US Air Force Research Lab. Monday, April 24, 2017, Colloquia Auditorium. Electron microscopy has been one of the robust tools in characterizing the life cycle of viruses, such as Semliki Forest Virus (SFV), an alphavirus that belongs to Togavirus family and causes encephalitis in human. The viral particle of SFV is composed of a nucleocapsid enclosed by a lipid-anchored glycoprotein spikes and infects cell through clathrin-dependent endocytosis pathway where it releases the nucleocapsid into the cytoplasm after membrane fusion at the late endosome. Cryo-electron microscopy and single particle reconstruction revealed the structure of SFV virion that both the nucleocapsid and surface spikes adapted into icosahedral symmetry with T4 surface lattice and that the connection between nucleocapsid protein and C-terminal tail of the glycoprotein stabilizes the particle integrity. Mutation at nucleocapsid does not changed the assembly of the viral particle although truncation at the RNA-binding domain ...
PANAX GINSENG extract, having a novel type of pharmacological action classified as adaptogen, was found to be effective against experimental viral infection in mice. Ginseng, administerd orally in repeat doses prior to and after challenge with Semliki forest virus, was able to protect 34-40% of... mehr ...
India recorded its biggest single-day spike in coronavirus cases on Monday as the government eased one of the worlds strictest lockdowns to allow some manufacturing and agricultural activity to resume. At least 543 people have died from COVID-19, the respiratory disease caused by the virus, and epidemiologists forecast the peak may not be reached before June. The shelter-in-place orders imposed in India on March 24 halted all but essential services, sparking an exodus of migrant workers and people who survive on daily wages out of Indias cities and toward villages in rural areas.
As we fall back into the cooler months, many people are dreading cold and flu season. Whether or not you have children who have started back to school, the spread of bacteria and viruses spikes this time every year. How can we avoid sick days and stay well during the fall and winter months?
As we fall back into the cooler months, many people are dreading cold and flu season. Whether or not you have children who have started back to school, the spread of bacteria and viruses spikes this time every year. How can we avoid sick days and stay well during the fall and winter months?
Listing of the answers to the question: What inspired you to make this poem? I know the forest... but how were you inspired? Did you... visit a forest somewhere? If so, which forest did you go to? Or did you read something on forests? Etc.
One thing that I loved the most from my journey to Bali was the forest. I remember a friend in France asked me to visit a small forest near her house. I was astounded to see the trees that she was proudly claiming as a forest. It was even far from the Indonesians Bogor Botanical…
Giant Forest, California Doctor Near me | Giant Forest Clinics and Medicine | Find California Healthcare professionals and more through Doctor Near Me
Black forest ham is sold fully cooked. It only needs to be warmed to serving temperature. A black forest ham should be roasted about 8 to 10 minutes per pound, depending on the size of the ham, at...
Forest bathing offers a number of benefits. In this article, True Terpenes shares how you can integrate the practice of Shinrin-yoku (forest bathing) into your life. Shop terpenes to experience the practice at home.
the complication with having more than one theme is that when changes have to be made (such as mods or updates), they often need to be individually tailored to each theme. what weve just done is a good example. the forest logo could be slipped into the one theme easily but not the other. this can make mods & upgrades far more complex than they need be. so lets try to get one good forest theme and stick with it. and lets keep it fairly simple ...
2731 Woodspring Forest Dr KINGWOOD TX 77345 was recently sold. It is a 3,010 SQFT, 4 Beds, 2 Full Bath(s) & 1 Half Bath(s) in Woodspring Forest.
From adventure and outdoor activities, through to horse riding or pony trekking, there are so many things for lovers of the outdoors to do here in The New Forest.
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Painted by David Nordahl, the Forest - Gray wall mural from Murals Your Way will add a distinctive touch to any room. Choose a pre-set size, or customize to your wall.
Official information from NHS about The Forest Practice including contact details, directions, opening hours and service/treatment details
I have a client who currently has 2 separate forests. 1 contains 1 2000 DC, the other contains 1 2003 DC/File Server and 1 Exchange 2003 Server; they are trusted. What would be the BEST way to do...
Find, compare and select indoor play centres in Duffys Forest (2084). Read reviews of kids activities and events. ActiveActivities - Australias leading online marketplace for kids activities.
A curated image collection revolving around trees, the forest, and the spirit they have. This often photographed subject photographed 23 ways.
The walk around Lulworth Cove and the Fossil Forest is a popular one with families as, not only is it just under two miles long, but children are always fas
Damp problems in a property do not have a single cause. There are a number of different reasons why properties in Forest Row and elsewhere in the UK experience damp walls, floors or ceilings and every one is unique and requires its own solution to eradicate. This is why you should only use an experienced, established
List of species contained in HaRPPS version 1. These species have been flagged as needing special management attention in Britains forests and woodlands.
Silverpine Forest. I didnt know if Id come back to it after On The Forsaken. I know that Id said: I think the best leveling in the Forsaken zones is yet to come. I have actually enjoyed my time leveling in Trisifal, and fully intend to hit Silverpine and Hillsbrad on the Forsaken Cynwise, so I…
Routine blood testing in Wake Forest, NC is essential to maintain a healthy lifestyle and are recommended even if you are not feeling ill.
The event is organized within the World Forests, Society and Environment (WFSE) to contribute to the edition of the fourth volume of the WFSE, which will focus on changing paradigms. The objective of the current research work is to collate and critically analyse the existing knowledge and to disseminate the results of selected issues on the interrelations between forests, society and environment. ...
Big up to AsianDrag0n, our latest supporter!. Were 12 people from our target today. Why dont you be one of them?. You can support NG too and get tons of perks for just $2.99.. ...
Чикаго : Локалізація Чикаго : Країна Сполучені Штати Америки, Державна Іллінойс, County Кук. Доступна інформація : Поштова адреса, Телефон, Інтернет, Мер, Географічні координати, Кількість жителів, Висота над рівнем моря, Область, Погода і Готель. Найближчі міста і села : Cicero, Stickney і Forest View. - Міста і села Всесвітньої
Simons K, Warren G (1984). "Semliki Forest virus: a probe for membrane traffic in the animal cell". Adv. Protein Chem. Advances ... Renkonen O, Kääriäinen L, Gahmberg CG, Simons K (1972). "Lipids of Semliki Forest virus and of host cell membranes". Biochem. ... Renkonen O, Gahmberg CG, Kaariainen L, Simons K (1972). "Envelope of Semliki Forest virus as membrane model". Biochem. J. 128 ( ... but soon started investigating Semliki Forest virus, focusing on its membrane and its lipid composition and their role in the ...
Zhou X, Berglund P, Rhodes G, Parker SE, Jondal M, Liljeström P (December 1994). "Self-replicating Semliki Forest virus RNA as ... Traditional vaccines stimulate an antibody response by injecting antigens, an attenuated virus (weakened or harmless virus), or ... Geisbert TW, Feldmann H (November 2011). "Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccines against Ebola and Marburg virus ... Typical RNA viruses used as vectors include retroviruses, lentiviruses, alphaviruses and rhabdoviruses, each of which can ...
"Inactivation of cytomegalovirus and Semliki Forest virus by butylated hydroxytoluene". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 138 ... which disrupt viruses by insertion of the chemical into the virus membrane, coat, or other structure, which are established ... Moreover, no group of articles constitute a series, reflecting long-term study of BHT in a host-virus pair by the same research ... First, there are studies that describe virus inactivation-where treatment with the chemical results in disrupted or otherwise ...
"Structural plasticity of the Semliki Forest virus glycome upon interspecies transmission". Journal of Proteome Research. 13 (3 ... In addition, glycosylation is often used by viruses to shield the underlying viral protein from immune recognition. A ... Crispin M, Doores KJ (April 2015). "Targeting host-derived glycans on enveloped viruses for antibody-based vaccine design". ... role may well have driven the diversification of glycan heterogeneity and creates a barrier to zoonotic transmission of viruses ...
"A Neurotropic Virus Isolated from Aedes Mosquitoes Caught in the Semliki Forest". The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and ... Bunyamwera is where Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus was first isolated, and it also lends its name to that virus' genus ... "ICTV 9th Report (2011) Bunyaviridae". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Archived from the original on 11 ... Bunya: from Bunyamwera, place in Uganda, where type virus was isolated. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link). ...
... virus Ndumu virus complex Ndumu virus Semliki Forest virus complex Bebaru virus Chikungunya virus Getah virus Mayaro virus ... virus O'nyong-nyong virus Pixuna virus Rio Negro virus Ross River virus Salmon pancreas disease virus Semliki Forest virus ... Una virus O'nyong'nyong virus Subtype: Igbo-Ora virus Ross River virus Subtype: Sagiyama virus Semliki Forest virus Subtype: Me ... Alphavirus Southern elephant seal virus Tonate virus Caaingua virus Barmah Forest virus is related to the Semliki Forest virus ...
It is a member of the Semliki Forest virus complex and is closely related to Ross River virus, O'nyong'nyong virus, and Semliki ... and false positives can occur with infection due to other related viruses, such as o'nyong'nyong virus and Semliki Forest virus ... Chikungunya virus is passed to humans when a bite from an infected mosquito breaks the skin and introduces the virus into the ... Because high amounts of virus are present in the blood in the beginning of acute infection, the virus can be spread from a ...
... of viral membrane proteins from medial to trans Golgi cisternae in baby hamster kidney cells infected with Semliki Forest virus ...
"Structural plasticity of the Semliki Forest virus glycome upon interspecies transmission". Journal of Proteome Research. 13 (3 ... A significant example is the dense glycan shield of the envelope spike of the human immunodeficiency virus.[7] ... glycosylation is often used by viruses to shield the underlying viral protein from immune recognition. ... "Targeting host-derived glycans on enveloped viruses for antibody-based vaccine design". Current Opinion in Virology. Viral ...
"A Neurotropic Virus Isolated from Aedes Mosquitoes Caught in the Semliki Forest". The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and ... California encephalitis virus, La Crosse encephalitis virus, Jamestown Canyon virus and Snowshoe hare virus vector: mosquitoes ... "Bunyaviridae - Negative Sense RNA Viruses - Negative Sense RNA Viruses (2011)". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ... Viruses. 12 (9): 1010. doi:10.3390/v12091010. Virus Taxonomy: 2018 Release, International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, ...
Model af Semliki Forest virus, prototypen på en ssRNA(+)-virus. Model af Poliovirus, prototypen på en ssRNA(+)-virus ... Sygdomme forårsaget af virus[redigér , redigér wikikode]. Mange sygdomme forårsages af virus.[2][13][14] Nogle virus forårsager ... Samling af virus-komponenterne til komplette virus-partikler.. *Frigivelse af virus-partiklerne fra værtscellen for at inficere ... Revers transkriberende virus *DNA revers transkriberende virus. *RNA revers transkriberende virus Retrovirus *Familie: ...
Semliki forest virus, Junin virus, reovirus, influenza, measles virus and respiratory syncytial virus among others, although it ... De Clercq E (November 2019). "New Nucleoside Analogues for the Treatment of Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Infections". Chemistry, an ... June 2019). "Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel imidazole nucleosides as potential anti-dengue virus agents". ... It has broad spectrum antiviral effects with activity against pox viruses, ...
Semliki Forest virus, Bacteriophage CbK, and Vesicular-Stomatitis-Virus. In 2017, three scientists, Jacques Dubochet, Joachim ... "Cryo-EM reconstruction of the Cafeteria roenbergensis virus capsid suggests novel assembly pathway for giant viruses". ... "Cryo-electron microscopy of viruses". Nature. 308 (5954): 32-36. Bibcode:1984Natur.308...32A. doi:10.1038/308032a0. ISSN 0028- ...
... and the Semliki Forest virus. In gas hydrate formation experiments, SDS is used as a gas hydrate growth promoter. Researchers ... to inhibit and possibly prevent infection by various enveloped and non-enveloped viruses such as the herpes simplex viruses, ... a microbicide effective against enveloped and nonenveloped viruses". Curr. Drug Targets. 3 (1): 17-30. doi:10.2174/ ... of sodium lauryl sulfate and dextran sulfate as microbicides against herpes simplex and human immunodeficiency viruses". J. ...
The Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus have been used to build recombinant alphavirus replicons. Unlike conventional DNA ... They altered the DNA of cowpox virus by inserting a gene from other viruses (namely Herpes simplex virus, hepatitis B and ... activity of vaccinia virus recombinants expressing the hepatitis B virus surface antigen and the herpes simplex virus ... Recombinant virus boosts have been shown to be very efficient at boosting DNA-primed CTL responses. Priming with DNA focuses ...
Semliki Forest virus (SFV) is a virus that naturally infects cells of the central nervous system and causes encephalitis. A ... an oncolytic herpes virus which is a modified herpes simplex virus, became the first oncolytic virus to be approved for use in ... Herpes simplex virus (HSV) was one of the first viruses to be adapted to attack cancer cells selectively, because it was well ... Oncolytic viruses can be used against cancers in ways that are additional to lysis of infected cells. Viruses can be used as ...
MIDV is classified as an Old World Alphavirus which also includes Semliki Forest virus (SFV), Ndumu virus, Barmah Forest virus ... This same study found that the MIDV E1 genes was likely formed through recombination with Semliki Forest virus, or a virus very ... These include: Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. These viruses are more ... It is thought to be part of the Semliki Forest clade of Alphaviridae A complete genomic sequence was made of the originally ...
April 2001). "The Fusion glycoprotein shell of Semliki Forest virus: an icosahedral assembly primed for fusogenic activation at ... Closely related viruses include Mucambo virus and Everglades virus. Rio Negro virus is a spherical, enveloped virus. The ... The virus was first called Ag80-663 but was renamed to Rio Negro virus in 2005. The virus is a member of the Venezuelan equine ... In horses, the virus attacks the central nervous system, causing paralysis and eventual death. When the virus infects humans, ...
The Semliki Forest virus was first isolated from mosquitoes in the Semliki Forest, Uganda by the Uganda Virus Research ... The Semliki Forest virus is a positive-stranded RNA virus with a genome of approximately 13,000 base pairs which encodes nine ... Atkins, G. J.; Sheahan, B. J.; Liljeström, P. (1999). "The molecular pathogenesis of Semliki Forest virus: A model virus made ... "Cryo-electron microscopy reveals the functional organization of an enveloped virus, Semliki Forest virus". Molecular Cell. 5 (2 ...
West Nile virus, Bwamba virus, Semliki Forest virus, O'nyong'nyong virus, and Kadam virus. In 1950, after gaining regional ... UVRI (24 October 2016). "Uganda Virus Research Institute: Department of Ecology and Zoology". Entebbe: Uganda Virus Research ... UVRI (24 October 2016). "Uganda Virus Research Institute: Department of Entomology and Vector Biology". Entebbe: Uganda Virus ... UVRI (24 October 2016). "Uganda Virus Research Institute: Department of Planning and Fund Raising". Entebbe: Uganda Virus ...
"Assembly of viroplasm and virus-like particles of rotavirus by a Semliki Forest virus replicon". Virology. 242 (2): 255-65. doi ... Viroplasms have been found in the cauliflower mosaic virus, rotavirus, vaccinia virus and the rice dwarf virus. These appear ... The number and the size of viroplasms depend on the virus, the virus isolate, hosts species, and the stage of the infection. ... The viroplasm could also prevent virus degradation by proteases and nucleases. In the case of the Cauliflower mosaic virus ( ...
Semliki forest virus, Hepatitis E virus, Sindbis virus, and arboviruses (which cause certain types of encephalitis). Many of ... One option is to use a strain of plant that is resistant to this virus. Since this is a virus fungicides will have no effect on ... Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is a small (28 nm, 86S), positive-stranded, icosahedral RNA plant virus belonging to the genus ... It has been found that the most effective way to combat this virus is to use strains of crop that have resistance to this virus ...
... and is a member of the Semliki Forest antigenic complex. The name was given to the disease by the Acholi tribe during the 1959 ... The o'nyong'nyong virus (ONNV) was first isolated by researchers at the Uganda Virus Research Institute in Entebbe, Uganda, ... The first virus isolates were obtained during this outbreak from mosquitoes and human blood samples collected from Gulu in ... The name comes from the Nilotic language of Uganda and Sudan and means "weakening of the joints". The virus can infect humans ...
Viruses isolated from wild-caught Eretmapodites include Rift Valley fever, Semliki forest, Spondweni, Nyando, Okola, Middleburg ... Some species seem to breed exclusively in plant axils; the majority are most frequently found in fallen leaves in forest ... Nkolbisson, and Bunyamwera viruses and an undefined viral agent, MTMP 131. Species listed by the Walter Reed Biosystematics ...
Semliki Forest virus (SFV) and Sindbis virus (SIN) require cholesterol and sphingolipids in target membrane lipid rafts for ... Human T-lymphotropic virus Type I (HTLV-1) enter cells via glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1). Ebola virus and Marburg virus use ... Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV), as a sexually-transmitted animal virus, must first penetrate a barrier of epithelial cells ... Viruses, as obligate intracellular parasites, have to involve specific interaction of virus and cellular receptor expressed at ...
Semliki Forest, Bunyamwera and West Nile. In 1961, a steel tower was erected in the Zika forest to allow mosquitoes to be ... "Zika virus birthplace: Uganda's Zika Forest". CNN. Retrieved 2 May 2016. "This week in the archive services searchroom…". The ... In 1942, Haddow joined the Virus Research Institute at Entebbe, Uganda (now known as the Uganda Virus Research Institute) as a ... including the discovery of the Zika virus, and research into the insect vectors of the yellow fever virus. Other notable work ...
Semliki Forest virus. *Sindbis fever. Reoviridae. *Banna virus encephalitis. Tick-borne. Bunyavirales. *Viral hemorrhagic ... Lassa viruses[12][13] are enveloped, single-stranded, bisegmented, ambisense RNA viruses. Their genome[14] is contained in two ... Lassa virus is an emerging virus and a select agent, requiring Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment. It is endemic in West ... The life cycle of Lassa virus is similar to the Old World arenaviruses. Lassa virus enters the cell by the receptor-mediated ...
Lujo virus. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad "Lassa fever". WHO. March 2016 ... Semliki Forest virus. *Sindbis fever. Reoviridae. *Banna virus encephalitis. Tick-borne. Bunyavirales. *Viral hemorrhagic ... Confirmation is by laboratory testing to detect the virus's RNA, antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture. ... The Lassa virus is one of several viruses identified by WHO as a likely cause of a future epidemic. They therefore list it for ...
It is a member of the Semliki Forest virus complex and is closely related to Ross River virus, O'nyong'nyong virus, and Semliki ... and false positives can occur with infection due to other related viruses, such as o'nyong'nyong virus and Semliki Forest virus ... Chikungunya virus is passed to humans when a bite from an infected mosquito breaks the skin and introduces the virus into the ... This mutation potentially allows the virus to multiply more easily in mosquito cells.[74] The change allows the virus to use ...
The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, ... The virus responsible for the initial outbreak, first thought to be Marburg virus, was later identified as a new type of virus ... Main articles: Ebola virus cases in the United States, Ebola virus disease in Spain, and Ebola virus disease in the United ... Virus taxonomy classification and nomenclature of viruses; 8th report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. ...
... in deciduous forest habitats. The virus is maintained over the winter by transovarial transmission in mosquito eggs. If the ... La Crosse Virus The La Crosse encephalitis virus is a type of arbovirus called a bunyavirus.[3] The Bunyavirales are mainly ... La Crosse encephalitis virus (LACV) is one of a group of mosquito-transmitted viruses that can cause encephalitis, or ... "La Crosse virus disease cases reported to CDC by state, 2004-2013" (PDF). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved ...
Detecting antibodies, the virus's RNA, or the virus itself[1]. Differential diagnosis. Dengue fever, Q fever,[2] Ebola virus ... Semliki Forest virus. *Sindbis fever. Reoviridae. *Banna virus encephalitis. Tick-borne. Bunyavirales. *Viral hemorrhagic ... February 1967). "Congo virus: a hitherto undescribed virus occurring in Africa. I. Human isolations-clinical notes". East Afr ... The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses proposed the name Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever virus, but the Soviets ...
... who had visited Python Cave in Maramagambo Forest during her holiday in Uganda suffered of MVD due to MARV infection, and had ... Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time ... MVD is caused by two viruses Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV)family Filoviridae[16] ... Ebola virus, Marburg virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus". Vaccine. 21 (25-26): 4071-4080. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(03 ...
Semliki Forest virus(英语:Semliki Forest virus). *Sindbis fever(英语:Sindbis virus) ... 科萨努尔森林病(英语:Kyasanur forest disease) *KFDV(英语:Kyasanur forest disease virus) ... Australian encephalitis(英语:Murray Valley encephalitis virus) *MVEV(英语:Murray Valley encephalitis virus) ... Holy Bat Virus! Genome Hints At Origin Of SARS-Like Virus. NPR. 2012-09-28 [2012-09-29].. ...
In the Baamba population living in the Semliki Forest region in Western Uganda the sickle-cell heterozygote (AS) frequency is ... Microscopic parasites, like viruses, protozoans that cause malaria, and others, cannot replicate on their own and rely on a ... Malarial forests were intentionally maintained by the rulers of Nepal as a defensive measure. Humans attempting to live in this ...
Semliki Forest virus. *Sindbis fever. Reoviridae. *Banna virus encephalitis. Tick-borne. Bunyavirales. *Viral hemorrhagic ... The enveloped virus is closely related to the West Nile virus and the St. Louis encephalitis virus. The positive sense single- ... Japanese encephalitis virus JEV is a virus from the family Flaviviridae, part of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex of 9 ... The virus appears to have originated from its ancestral virus in the mid-1500s in the Indonesia-Malaysia region and evolved ...
Semliki Forest virus(英語:Semliki Forest virus). *Sindbis fever(英語:Sindbis virus) ... 科薩努爾森林病(英語:Kyasanur forest disease) *KFDV(英語:Kyasanur forest disease virus) ... Australian encephalitis(英語:Murray Valley encephalitis virus) *MVEV(英語:Murray Valley encephalitis virus) ... Field, H., Young, P., Yob, J. M., Mills, J., Hall, L., Mackenzie, J. The natural history of Hendra and Nipah viruses. Microbes ...
Semliki Forest virus. *Sindbis fever. Reoviridae. *Banna virus encephalitis. Tick-borne. Bunyavirales. *Viral hemorrhagic ... the genetic sequence of the virus[97] based on the virus's RNA obtained from the Qatari case.[8][98] ... "Camels in Kenya test positive for MERS virus". Informer East Africa.. *^ "MERS antibody shows promise in rabbits; signs of ... "Mers virus: Saudis warned to wear masks near camels". BBC News. 11 May 2014. Retrieved 22 May 2014.. ...
Sindbis virus. *Ross River fever *RRV. *Semliki Forest virus. Reoviridae. *Banna virus encephalitis ...
District Yunus Sentamu Yusuf Lule Zerubabel Nyiira Zika virus Ziroobwe Ziroobwe-Wobulenzi Road Ziwa Rhino Sanctuary Zoka Forest ... Uganda Sekamaanya of Buganda Selestino Babungi Semakookiro of Buganda Sembabule Sembabule District Semliki River Semuliki ... Uganda Bunamwaya SC Bundibugyo Bundibugyo Airport Bundibugyo District Bundibugyo ebolavirus Bundibugyo virus Bunyamwera virus ... Kichwamba Uganda-United States relations Uganda Virus Research Institute Uganda Wildlife Authority Uganda women's national ...
... ross river virus MeSH B04.909.777.923.054.840 - semliki forest virus MeSH B04.909.777.923.054.860 - sindbis virus MeSH B04.909. ... ross river virus MeSH B04.820.850.054.840 - semliki forest virus MeSH B04.820.850.054.860 - sindbis virus MeSH B04.820.850.700 ... yellow fever virus MeSH B04.820.250.400 - gb virus a MeSH B04.820.250.405 - gb virus b MeSH B04.820.250.410 - GB virus C MeSH ... yellow fever virus MeSH B04.909.777.310.400 - gb virus a MeSH B04.909.777.310.405 - gb virus b MeSH B04.909.777.310.410 - GB ...
The Semliki Forest virus was first isolated from mosquitoes in the Semliki Forest, Uganda by the Uganda Virus Research ... The Semliki Forest virus is a positive-stranded RNA virus with a genome of approximately 13,000 base pairs which encodes nine ... Atkins, G. J.; Sheahan, B. J.; Liljeström, P. (1999). "The molecular pathogenesis of Semliki Forest virus: A model virus made ... "Cryo-electron microscopy reveals the functional organization of an enveloped virus, Semliki Forest virus". Molecular Cell. 5 (2 ...
Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ... Virus Name: Semliki Forest Abbreviation: SFV Status. Arbovirus Select Agent. No SALS Level. 3 ...
Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Known (Virus detected). Africa: Uganda, Mozambique, Cameroun, Central African Republic, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal (46); USSR (40 ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ... Virus Name: Semliki Forest Abbreviation: SFV Status. Arbovirus Select Agent. No SALS Level. 3 ...
PATHOGENICITY/TOXICITY: Most infections caused by the Semliki Forest Virus (SFV) are asymptomatic or very mild (3). When ... Two other cases of infections with the Semliki Forest virus were reported; neither was fatal (5, 14). ... SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: SFV (1-3), Old World Alphavirus (4), Semliki Forest Fever (5) ... Enzyme linked immunoabsorbant assays may also be performed for identification of virus specific antibodies (5). ...
Semliki Forest Virus. I. Isolation and Pathogenic Properties. J Immunol September 1, 1944, 49 (3) 141-157; ... 1. A filterable virus has been isolated from Aëdes abnormalis group mosquitoes caught in the Semliki Forest in western Uganda. ... 4. The virus can be preserved by drying while frozen. It remains viable in saline at low temperatures for a number of days but ... 3. In mice inoculated intracerebrally the virus is present in the blood and various other tissues in considerable concentration ...
SFV based systems are increasingly the virus vector systems of choice for production of recombinant proteins for research, ...
RNA helicase activity of Semliki Forest virus replicase protein NSP2.. Gomez de Cedrón M1, Ehsani N, Mikkola ML, García JA, ... Semliki Forest virus replicase protein nsP2 shares sequence homology with several putative NTPases and RNA helicases. NsP2 has ...
Semliki Forest virus;. SIN,. Sindbis virus;. RCV,. replication-competent virus;. PCL,. packaging cell line;. SV40,. simian ... Sindbis virus, Semliki Forest virus (SFV), and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus are among the alphaviruses being exploited ... Stable alphavirus packaging cell lines for Sindbis virus- and Semliki Forest virus-derived vectors. John M. Polo, Barbara A. ... Furthermore, both Sindbis virus-based and Semliki Forest virus-based vectors could be packaged with similar efficiency, ...
Cryo-electron microscopy reveals the functional organization of an enveloped virus, Semliki Forest virus.. Mancini EJ1, Clarke ... Semliki Forest virus serves as a paradigm for membrane fusion and assembly. Our icosahedral reconstruction combined 5276 ... between the layers to provide a framework for understanding the structural changes during the life cycle of an enveloped virus. ...
Semliki Forest virus strongly reduces mosquito host defence signaling. Authors. *. R. Fragkoudis,. * The Roslin Institute & ... Here we show that Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infection of Aedes albopictus-derived U4.4 mosquito cells reduces cellular gene ... Brackney, Gregory Ebel, The Role of Innate Immunity in Conditioning Mosquito Susceptibility to West Nile Virus, Viruses, 2013, ... Chang-Hyun Kim, Ephantus J. Muturi, Effect of larval density and Sindbis virus infection on immune responses in Aedes aegypti, ...
Conformational change and protein-protein interactions of the fusion protein of Semliki Forest virus.. Gibbons, D.L., Vaney, M. ... Here we report the crystal structure of the ectodomain of the Semliki Forest virus fusion glycoprotein E1 in its low-pH-induced ... Here we report the crystal structure of the ectodomain of the Semliki Forest virus fusion glycoprotein E1 in its low-pH-induced ... Crystal structure of the homotrimer of fusion glycoprotein E1 from Semliki Forest Virus.. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1RER/pdb ...
Dissection of Semliki Forest virus glycoprotein delivery from the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface in permeabilized BHK ... Dissection of Semliki Forest virus glycoprotein delivery from the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface in permeabilized BHK ... Dissection of Semliki Forest virus glycoprotein delivery from the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface in permeabilized BHK ... Dissection of Semliki Forest virus glycoprotein delivery from the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface in permeabilized BHK ...
High resolution crystal structure of domain III of E1 fusion glycoprotein of Semliki Forest Virus ... High Resolution Structure of Domain III from Class II Fusion Protein of Semliki Forest Virus. Vaney, M.C., Vigouroux, A., Rey, ... High resolution crystal structure of domain III of E1 fusion glycoprotein of Semliki Forest Virus. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb2V33/pdb ... Semliki forest virus. Mutation(s): 0 Find proteins for P03315 (Semliki forest virus) ...
Tattoo Delivery of a Semliki Forest Virus-Based Vaccine Encoding Human Papillomavirus E6 and E7.. [Stephanie van de Wall, ... In this study, we explored the efficacy of tattoo injection of a tumor vaccine based on recombinant Semliki Forest virus ...
The neurotropic alphavirus Semliki Forest virus is a well-studied example of this and importantly the age-related change in ... Many neurotropic virus infections have been shown to be virulent in neonatal and suckling mice but avirulent in weaned mice. ... neurovirulence of this virus has been shown to be i … ... Transneuronal spread of Semliki Forest virus in the developing ... The neurotropic alphavirus Semliki Forest virus is a well-studied example of this and importantly the age-related change in ...
To evaluate the use of alphavirus vectors for tumor treatment we have constructed and compared two Semliki Forest virus (SFV) ... Semliki forest virus vectors engineered to express higher IL-12 levels induce efficient elimination of murine colon ... To evaluate the use of alphavirus vectors for tumor treatment we have constructed and compared two Semliki Forest virus (SFV) ...
The role of polyamines in macromolecular synthesis has been studied using the synthesis of Semliki-Forest virus (SF virus) in ... Synthesis of Semliki-forest virus in polyamine-depleted baby-hamster kidney cells K Tuomi; K Tuomi ... Semliki Forest virus induced cell-cell fusion at neutral extracellular pH Biosci Rep (August, 1990) ... K Tuomi, A Raina, R Mäntyjärvi; Synthesis of Semliki-forest virus in polyamine-depleted baby-hamster kidney cells. Biochem J 15 ...
What is Semliki Forest virus? Meaning of Semliki Forest virus medical term. What does Semliki Forest virus mean? ... Looking for online definition of Semliki Forest virus in the Medical Dictionary? Semliki Forest virus explanation free. ... Semliki Forest, forest in Uganda where the virus is transmitted by mosquitos. Semliki Forest virus - an alphavirus in the ... Semliki Forest virus. Also found in: Acronyms, Wikipedia. Semliki Forest virus. an alphavirus in the family Togaviridae rarely ...
Recently, Alphavirus have been used as expression vectors, among these, Semliki Forest virus (SFV), an enveloped virus, besides ... Keywords : Semliki forest virus; Transduction genetic; Gene expression. · abstract in Spanish · text in Spanish · Spanish ( pdf ... HENAO, Luis Felipe; CORTES, Fabián and NAVAS, María Cristina. Semliki Forest Virus: a viral vector with multiple applications. ...
Membrane fusion of Semliki Forest virus involves homotrimers of the fusion protein.. J M Wahlberg, R Bron, J Wilschut, H Garoff ... We have studied the low-pH-mediated fusion process of the alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV). The spike protein of SFV is ... Membrane fusion of Semliki Forest virus involves homotrimers of the fusion protein. ... Membrane fusion of Semliki Forest virus involves homotrimers of the fusion protein. ...
Semliki Forest virus); RRV (Ross River virus); ONN (ONyong-nyong virus); CHIK (Chikungunya virus) (NCBI 576465); EEE (Eastern ... Membrane fusion and budding are key steps in the life cycle of all enveloped viruses. Semliki Forest virus (SFV) is an ... 1995) Mutations in the putative fusion peptide of Semliki Forest virus affect spike protein oligomerization and virus assembly ... 1985) pH-induced alterations in the fusogenic spike protein of Semliki Forest virus. J Cell Biol 101:2284-2291, pmid:3905823.. ...
Structure of the Complex Carbohydrate Chains in the Membrane Glycoproteins of Semliki Forest Virus. MARJA PESONEN, OSSI ... Structure of the Complex Carbohydrate Chains in the Membrane Glycoproteins of Semliki Forest Virus ... Structure of the Complex Carbohydrate Chains in the Membrane Glycoproteins of Semliki Forest Virus ... Structure of the Complex Carbohydrate Chains in the Membrane Glycoproteins of Semliki Forest Virus ...
Human MxA Protein Confers Resistance to Semliki Forest Virus and Inhibits the Amplification of a Semliki Forest Virus-Based ... Human MxA Protein Confers Resistance to Semliki Forest Virus and Inhibits the Amplification of a Semliki Forest Virus-Based ... Human MxA Protein Confers Resistance to Semliki Forest Virus and Inhibits the Amplification of a Semliki Forest Virus-Based ... Human MxA Protein Confers Resistance to Semliki Forest Virus and Inhibits the Amplification of a Semliki Forest Virus-Based ...
Expression of the Semliki Forest virus p62/E2 protein was studied in the polarized epithelial cell line Madin-Darby canine ... Alteration of the cytoplasmic domain of the membrane-spanning glycoprotein p62 of Semliki Forest virus does not affect its ... Alteration of the cytoplasmic domain of the membrane-spanning glycoprotein p62 of Semliki Forest virus does not affect its ...
Neuroblastoma and Glioblastoma Using Systemically Delivered Triple MicroRNA-Detargeted Oncolytic Semliki Forest Virus. Mohanraj ... Neuroblastoma and Glioblastoma Using Systemically Delivered Triple MicroRNA-Detargeted Oncolytic Semliki Forest Virus ... Neuroblastoma and Glioblastoma Using Systemically Delivered Triple MicroRNA-Detargeted Oncolytic Semliki Forest Virus ... Neuroblastoma and Glioblastoma Using Systemically Delivered Triple MicroRNA-Detargeted Oncolytic Semliki Forest Virus ...
SFV requires cholesterol in the cell membrane both for virus membrane fusion and for the efficient exit of progeny virus from ... A previously isolated SFV mutant, srf-3, is strikingly less cholesterol-dependent for virus fusion, exit, and growth due to a ... The presence or absence of cholesterol in the srf-3 virus membrane did not affect its infection properties in mosquitoes. Thus ... Here we show that when mosquitoes were infected by intrathoracic injection at a range of virus multiplicities, the growth of ...
... bcl-2 acts early to restrict Semliki Forest virus replication and delays virus-induced programmed cell death. J Virol 71, 1583- ... Alphavirus encephalitis has been studied extensively in Semliki Forest virus (SFV)- and Sindbis virus (SV)-infected mice and ... The type I interferon system protects mice from Semliki Forest virus by preventing widespread virus dissemination in ... Glasgow, G. M., Mcgee, M. M., Tarbatt, C. J., Mooney, D. A., Sheahan, B. J. & Atkins, G. J. (1998). The Semliki Forest virus ...
EXPRESSION OF HIV-1 ENVELOPE GLYCOPROTEINS BY SEMLIKI FOREST VIRUS VECTORS. AIDS RESEARCH AND HUMAN RETROVIRUSES , 9 (10) pp. ... Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Immunology, Infectious Diseases, Virology, HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS, REV ...
"A conserved leucine in the cytoplasmic domain of the Semliki Forest virus spike protein is important for budding, Archives of ... liki Forest virus (SFV), Sindbis virus (SIN) and Ross River virus (RRV) are ... the Semliki Forest virus spike protein was studied. When alanine and threonine ... A conserved leucine in the cytoplasmic domain of the Semliki Forest virus spike protein is important for budding. Skoging- ...
  • Alphavirus Sindbis virus Chikungunya Mancini, E. J. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cell lines were stably transformed with expression cassettes that constitutively produced RNA transcripts encoding the Sindbis virus structural proteins under the regulation of their native subgenomic RNA promoter. (pnas.org)
  • Efficient production of biologically active vector particles occurred after introduction of Sindbis virus vectors into the PCLs. (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, both Sindbis virus-based and Semliki Forest virus-based vectors could be packaged with similar efficiency, indicating the possibility of developing a single PCL for use with multiple alphavirus-derived vectors. (pnas.org)
  • Sindbis virus, Semliki Forest virus (SFV), and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus are among the alphaviruses being exploited by using such approaches ( 4 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Replicon vectors derived from Sindbis virus and Semliki forest virus that establish persistent replication in host cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Recombinant Semliki Forest virus and Sindbis virus efficiently infect neurons in hippocampal slice cultures. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Together with the accompanying report on the structure of the Sindbis virus E2-E1 heterodimer at acidic pH (ref. 3), this work also provides new insight into the acid-triggered conformational change on the virus particle and its inbuilt inhibition mechanism in the immature complex. (rcsb.org)
  • SINV, Sindbis virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Laine M , Luukkainen R , Toivanen A . Sindbis viruses and other alphaviruses as cause of human arthritic disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Alphaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses that use arthropods such as mosquitoes for transmission to their vertebrate hosts, and include Semliki Forest and Sindbis viruses [ PMID: 15378043 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Structural localization of the E3 glycoprotein in attenuated Sindbis virus mutants. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The most extensive structural studies have been carried out on Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus (SFV). (springer.com)
  • The Semliki Forest virus is a positive-stranded RNA virus with a genome of approximately 13,000 base pairs which encodes nine proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • SFV based systems are increasingly the virus vector systems of choice for production of recombinant proteins for research, therapy and diagnosis. (europa.eu)
  • The virus structural proteins are translated from the subgenomic mRNA as a polyprotein that is processed into the individual components of the virion. (pnas.org)
  • Recently, Alphavirus have been used as expression vectors, among these, Semliki Forest virus (SFV), an enveloped virus, besides replicating itself in the cytoplasm, has the property to express structural proteins separately from nonstructural proteins, allowing a greater expression control. (scielo.org.co)
  • The binding and fusion processes are mediated by the spike proteins in the envelope of the virus particle and usually involve a series of conformational changes in these proteins. (asm.org)
  • Virus membrane fusion is carried out by the 80 spike proteins on the surface of the virus. (rupress.org)
  • Mx proteins form a small family of interferon (IFN)-induced GTPases with potent antiviral activity against various negative-strand RNA viruses. (asm.org)
  • The antiviral effect of IFNs is mediated by several IFN-induced proteins which inhibit the multiplication of viruses by distinct mechanisms (for reviews see references 31 and 37 ). (asm.org)
  • After this, virus subgenomic 26S RNA continues to be translated and virus structural proteins are the main products of cellular translation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This interaction could be the basis for the highly selective inclusion of viral glycoproteins--and exclusion of host cell surface proteins--during virus budding. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The Semliki‐Forest‐virus‐specific nonstructural proteins are translated as a large polyprotein (2431 amino acid residues), from which the mature polymerase components nsP1, nsP2, nsP3 and nsP4 are released by proteolytic cleavages. (vtt.fi)
  • This report describes the construction, characterization and the in vivo immunotherapeutic potential of recombinant Semliki Forest virus (SFV) expressing the HPV16 E6 and E7 proteins (SFV-E6E7). (nature.com)
  • A novel system for the production of high levels of functional human therapeutic proteins in stable cells with a Semliki Forest virus noncytopathic vector. (cun.es)
  • Semliki Forest virus (SFV) vectors lead to high protein expression in mammalian cells, but expression is transient due to vector cytopathic effects, inhibition of host cell proteins and RNA-based expression. (cun.es)
  • After returning from his post-doc scholarship he continued research on vitamin B12 as well as on blood plasma proteins, but soon started investigating Semliki Forest virus, focusing on its membrane and its lipid composition and their role in the virus budding and its transport, as the model for lipid and protein secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • These studies provided insights into how NNS RNA viruses synthesize 5′-capped mRNAs using their RNA-dependent RNA polymerase L proteins equipped with an unconventional mRNA capping enzyme, namely GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase), domain. (frontiersin.org)
  • PRNTase or PRNTase-like domains are evolutionally conserved among L proteins of all known NNS RNA viruses and their related viruses belonging to Jingchuvirales , a newly established order, in the class Monjiviricetes , suggesting that they may have evolved from a common ancestor that acquired the unique capping system to replicate in a primitive eukaryotic host. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, rubella virus E1 has an extensive membrane-fusion surface that includes a metal site, reminiscent of the T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin family of cellular proteins that bind phosphatidylserine lipids at the plasma membrane of cells undergoing apoptosis. (nature.com)
  • Structural comparisons show that the class II fusion proteins from alphaviruses and flaviviruses, despite belonging to different virus families, are closer to each other than they are to rubella virus E1. (nature.com)
  • Tsai and Oroszlan (19) have described proteolytic processing and novel glycosylation pathways for retroviral envelope proteins and characterized the env precursor polyprotein of avian reticuleondotheliosis virus (REV-A) as being modified by unusually large sialic acid-rich complex-type carbohydrate moieties (19). (google.ca)
  • CIM® monolithic columns can be utilized for purification of viruses, virus-like particles, nucleic acids, proteins and their complexes. (helsinki.fi)
  • The neurotropic alphavirus Semliki Forest virus is a well-studied example of this and importantly the age-related change in neurovirulence of this virus has been shown to be independent of specific immune responses. (nih.gov)
  • We have studied the low-pH-mediated fusion process of the alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV). (asm.org)
  • Upon infection of vertebrate cells in continuous culture, the alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV) initiates apoptosis and IFN synthesis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Vector particle seed stocks could be amplified after low multiplicity of infection of PCLs, again without generating replication-competent virus, suggesting utility for production of large-scale vector preparations. (pnas.org)
  • Here we show that Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infection of Aedes albopictus- derived U4.4 mosquito cells reduces cellular gene expression. (wiley.com)
  • Activation prior to SFV infection of pathways involving STAT/IMD, but not Toll signaling reduced subsequent virus gene expression and RNA levels. (wiley.com)
  • To investigate whether these changes affect virus replication, spread and virulence we have studied the course of infection in the mouse olfactory system. (nih.gov)
  • Following Semliki Forest virus infection, mice younger than 14 days-of-age died from a fulminant panencephalitis, whilst those 15 days and older survived and cleared the infection. (nih.gov)
  • In neonatal mice virus rapidly spread throughout the olfactory system and the temporal progress of the infection correlated with the known connectivity patterns of this system. (nih.gov)
  • The activities of ornithine decarboxylase and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, the rate-limiting enzymes in polyamine biosynthesis, decreased rapidly in mock- and SF-virus-infected cells, indicating that virus production in BHK21 cells was not dependent on polyamines formed after infection. (portlandpress.com)
  • Infection of cells with enveloped viruses is accomplished through membrane fusion. (asm.org)
  • A striking example of a defined lipid requirement in membrane fusion is the Semliki Forest virus (SFV) 1 fusion protein, which mediates the cholesterol and sphingolipid- dependent fusion of the virus membrane with the cellular membrane during virus infection. (rupress.org)
  • This simple virus structure protects the virus RNA genome, mediates virus fusion with the cell membrane to release the nucleocapsid and initiate infection, and is efficiently assembled during the budding of progeny virions from the host cell plasma membrane. (rupress.org)
  • SFV is a highly developed system to study virus membrane fusion and budding, two key steps in infection by all enveloped viruses. (rupress.org)
  • Experimental infection with various RNA and DNA viruses revealed that MxA-expressing HEp-2 cells were protected not only against influenza virus and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) but also against Semliki Forest virus (SFV), a togavirus with a single-stranded RNA genome of positive polarity. (asm.org)
  • In Semliki Forest virus infected Aedes albopictus cells, 42S and 26S RNA were the major virus RNA species detected up to 10 h post infection. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Induction of membrane proliferation by GSTM seems to be an important factor in converting the avirulent Semliki Forest virus infection into a lethal one. (portlandpress.com)
  • Semliki Forest virus (SFV), like many enveloped viruses, takes advantage of the low pH in the endosome to convert into a fusion-competent configuration and complete infection by fusion with the endosomal membrane. (elsevier.com)
  • Furusawa and Cuttings2 tested 130 plant extracts against Columbia SK virus in experimentally infected animals (mice) and found two that protected animals from challenge infection. (healthyliver.co.uk)
  • These RNA transcripts are fully infectious, ie introduction into cells suffices to initiate replication and a full infection cycle, resulting in virus formation. (nature.com)
  • Such findings may be particularly useful in the development of future prevention and care strategies for this emerging virus infection. (plos.org)
  • This construct has correct processing of the replicase polyprotein, produces viable virus and expresses detectable EGFP fluorescence upon infection of cultured cells and cells of the mouse brain. (ed.ac.uk)
  • An electron microscopic study of Semliki Forest virus infection in mice. (utmb.edu)
  • Identification of transmitted/founder simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) envelope sequences responsible for infection may prove critical for understanding HIV/SIV mucosal transmission. (duke.edu)
  • During infection of host cells, a number of enveloped animal viruses are known to produce soluble forms of viral membrane glycoproteins lacking the transmembrane domain. (elsevier.com)
  • E1s cleavage required spike protein transport out of the endoplasmic reticulum and was independent of virus infection. (elsevier.com)
  • 1990. Coat protein-mediated resistance against virus infection. (springer.com)
  • In most cases, Zika virus infection causes a mild, self-limited illness. (medscape.com)
  • [ 2 ] Owing to the mild nature of the disease, more than 80% of Zika virus infection cases likely go unnoticed. (medscape.com)
  • In April 2016, a deputy director at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) warned that the risk of Zika virus infection in the United States may have been previously underestimated, citing the increased range of the mosquito vectors (now in 30 US states, up from 12 as previously thought) and the travel risks associated with the 2016 Olympics in Brazil. (medscape.com)
  • Zika virus infection is among the nationally notifiable diseases in the United States. (medscape.com)
  • State and local health departments should be informed by healthcare professionals of suspected cases of Zika virus infection to facilitate diagnosis and to reduce the risk of local transmission. (medscape.com)
  • The global prevalence of Zika virus infection has not been widely reported owing to asymptomatic clinical course, clinical resemblance to other infection with other flaviviruses ( dengue , chikungunya ), and difficulty in confirming diagnosis. (medscape.com)
  • 1RER: Crystal structure of the homotrimer of fusion glycoprotein E1 from Semliki Forest Virus. (rcsb.org)
  • Transport from the Golgi complex was monitored by measuring the proteolytic cleavage of the Semliki Forest virus p62 glycoprotein into the E2 and E3 polypeptide chains. (pnas.org)
  • Alteration of the cytoplasmic domain of the membrane-spanning glycoprotein p62 of Semliki Forest virus does not affect its polar distribution in established lines of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. (rupress.org)
  • Using in vitro immunization, we have reconstructed three consecutive steps of an idiotype network to show that the nucleocapsid of Semliki Forest virus contains a specific 'receptor' for the cytoplasmic tail of the E2 spike glycoprotein. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Detalhe do registro: Rabies virus glycoprotein (RVGP) expression in Drosophila S2 cells and by Semliki Forest Virus (SFV). (usp.br)
  • Rabies virus glycoprotein (RVGP) expression in Drosophila S2 cells and by Semliki Forest Virus (SFV). (usp.br)
  • Astray RM, Jorge SAC, Marcos Alexandre Nobre Lemos, BENMAAMAR R, KATAOKA A, Tonso A, Wagner R, Pereira CA. Rabies virus glycoprotein (RVGP) expression in Drosophila S2 cells and by Semliki Forest Virus (SFV). (usp.br)
  • Here we report the 1.8 Å resolution crystal structure of envelope glycoprotein E1, the main antigen and sole target of neutralizing antibodies against rubella virus. (nature.com)
  • Semliki Forest virus replicase protein nsP2 shares sequence homology with several putative NTPases and RNA helicases. (nih.gov)
  • Visualization of the target-membrane-inserted fusion protein of Semliki Forest virus by combined electron microscopy and crystallography. (rcsb.org)
  • Molecular dissection of the Semliki Forest virus homotrimer reveals two functionally distinct regions of the fusion protein. (rcsb.org)
  • The results indicated that polyamines are needed for maximum initial rate of SF-virus replication and suggest that the inhibition of virus production in polyamine-depleted cells is at least partly due to malfunction of the protein-synthetic machinery of the host cell. (portlandpress.com)
  • Rapid, high level protein production using DNA-based Semliki Forest virus vectors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • High level expression of the capsid protein of hepatitis E virus in diverse eukaryotic cells using the Semliki Forest virus replicon. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Membrane fusion of Semliki Forest virus involves homotrimers of the fusion protein. (asm.org)
  • The srf-3 mutant emphasizes the relationship between the role of cholesterol in membrane fusion and virus exit, and most significantly, identifies a novel spike protein region involved in the virus cholesterol requirement. (rupress.org)
  • IFN-α treatment leads to reduced viral protein levels and hinders virus-mediated host shutoff ( 24 ). (asm.org)
  • Expression of the Semliki Forest virus p62/E2 protein was studied in the polarized epithelial cell line Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK). (rupress.org)
  • A previously isolated SFV mutant, srf-3, is strikingly less cholesterol-dependent for virus fusion, exit, and growth due to a single amino acid change in the E1 spike protein subunit, proline 226 to serine. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In summary, in response to SFV, PKR exerts an early antiviral effect that delays virus protein production and release of infectious virus and, whilst PKR is not required for induction of apoptosis or activation of the type I IFN response, it strongly augments the type I IFN response and contributes to clearance of infectious virus from the mouse brain. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Here the function of leucine401 in the cytoplasmic tail of the Semliki Forest virus spike protein was studied. (deepdyve.com)
  • the Semliki Forest virus spike protein was studied. (deepdyve.com)
  • The oligomerization reaction of the Semliki Forest virus membrane protein subunits. (rupress.org)
  • The Semliki Forest virus (SFV) spike is composed of three copies of a membrane protein heterodimer. (rupress.org)
  • Here, a novel alphavirus construct is described in which an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) marker gene is inserted into the virus replicase open reading frame between nsP3 and nsP4, flanked by nsP2 protease-recognition sites. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Viral env was prepared from rhesus plasma in 3 groups of 6 immunized with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vectors and boosted with Semliki forest virus (SFV) replicons expressing (a) SIVsmE660 gag-env (b) SIVsmE660 gag-env plus rhesus GM-CSF and (c) control influenza hemagglutinin protein. (duke.edu)
  • 1993. Cloning and Expression of the C-terminus of the tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) L protein. (springer.com)
  • Virus resistance through expression of coat protein genes, pp. 89-104. (springer.com)
  • 1992. Serological detection of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) nonstructural protein. (springer.com)
  • [6] In addition, glycosylation is often used by viruses to shield the underlying viral protein from immune recognition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most alphaviruses lose the peripheral protein E3, but in Semliki viruses it remains associated with the viral surface. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • It also shows that rubella virus E1 is a class II fusion protein, which had hitherto only been structurally characterized for the arthropod-borne alphaviruses and flaviviruses. (nature.com)
  • In the design of such a vector to treat hepatocellular carcinoma, we took advantage of ( a ) the high infectivity of adenoviruses for hepatic cells, ( b ) the high level of protein expression and proapoptotic properties that characterize Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replicon, and ( c ) tumor selectivity provided by α-fetoprotein (AFP) promoter. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our technologies can be used in different combinations to purify large macromolecular complexes such as viruses, virus-like particles, viral subassemblies, exosomes, membrane vesicles, large protein complexes, ribonucleoprotein complexes etc. (helsinki.fi)
  • The Ross River virus 6K protein. (tcdb.org)
  • In this study, we explored the efficacy of tattoo injection of a tumor vaccine based on recombinant Semliki Forest virus replicon particles (rSFV) targeting human papillomavirus (HPV). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Recombinant Semliki Forest virus vaccine vectors: the route of injection determines the localization of vector RNA and subsequent T cell response. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Recombinant Semliki forest virus infects and kills human prostate cancer cell lines and prostatic duct epithelial cells ex vivo. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some potential limitations of the RNA-based vector replicon systems are utility for large-scale preparations and the generation of contaminating replication-competent virus (RCV). (pnas.org)
  • Assembly of viroplasm and virus-like particles of rotavirus by a Semliki Forest virus replicon. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Semliki Forest virus was first isolated from mosquitoes in the Semliki Forest, Uganda by the Uganda Virus Research Institute in 1942 and described by Smithburn and Haddow. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. A filterable virus has been isolated from Aëdes abnormalis group mosquitoes caught in the Semliki Forest in western Uganda. (jimmunol.org)
  • Growth and stability of a cholesterol-independent Semliki Forest virus mutant in mosquitoes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Semliki forest virus (SFV), a RNA arbovirus originally isolated from mosquitoes by Smithburn and Haddow3,4 has been extensively employed in recent years for production of experimental viral encephalitis5,6 in laboratory animals (mice) and study of antiviral chemotherapy1,7. (healthyliver.co.uk)
  • Transmitted by day-biting mosquitoes, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), causing febrile illness and joint pain, is widespread in Africa and Asia. (plos.org)
  • Many alphaviruses multiply in the cytoplasm of cells of arthropods and are transmitted to humans from mosquitoes, such as those causing equine encephalitis and Semiliki Forest virus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The CDC has released a map of potential Zika virus spread in the United States based on the estimated range of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. (medscape.com)
  • The modified virus reduced tumour growth and prolonged survival of mice with brain tumours. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3. In mice inoculated intracerebrally the virus is present in the blood and various other tissues in considerable concentration before the onset of objective illness. (jimmunol.org)
  • Many neurotropic virus infections have been shown to be virulent in neonatal and suckling mice but avirulent in weaned mice. (nih.gov)
  • Interferon therapy in experimental Semliki forest virus disease in mice. (bvsalud.org)
  • Antiviral agents from fungi effective against Semliki Forest virus (SFV) in mice. (bvsalud.org)
  • In mice inoculated by the subcutaneous (s.c.) route, the virus normally has an average incubation period of 3 to 6 days. (healthyliver.co.uk)
  • 6,7,9-12 In addition, studies in mice found that consuming Panax ginseng before exposure to a virus significantly increased the survival rate and the number of antibodies produced. (epnet.com)
  • In one configuration, the capsid and envelope glycoproteins were separated into distinct cassettes, resulting in vector packaging levels of 10 7 infectious units/ml, but reducing the generation of contaminating replication-competent virus below the limit of detection. (pnas.org)
  • IFN also mediates a very potent activity against SFV replication in cell cultures, and the virus is widely used as challenging agent in virus yield reduction assays ( 20 ). (asm.org)
  • These are translated directly from the full-length 42S genomic RNA and form the virus replicase responsible for RNA replication and transcription ( Takkinen, 1986 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Molecular and serological investigation of thrips cells is elucidating mechanisms governing virus entry to cells, the role of TSWV membrane glycoproteins in thrips acquisition, the processes of TSWV replication within thrips cells and virus movement from cell to cell. (springer.com)
  • Over the past 40 years, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), closely related to rabies virus, has served as a paradigm to study the fundamental molecular mechanisms of transcription and replication of NNS RNA viruses. (frontiersin.org)
  • A method for treatment of a central nervous system cancer in an individual which includes administration, preferably peripheral administration, of a replication competent alphavirus of the Semliki Forest family, or its recombinant, to the individual. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 16. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a replication competent alphavirus of the Semliki Forest family, or its recombinant, and a therapeutically suitable carrier. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • A common feature among positive-strand RNA viruses is their assembly of replication-transcription complexes in association with cytoplasmic membranes. (mdpi.com)
  • A distinctive common feature of +RNA viruses is the replication of their genomes in the cytoplasm of the host cell in association with rearranged cellular membranes that are remodeled into organelle-like membranous structures to which the viral replication-transcription complexes (RTCs) localize. (mdpi.com)
  • These alterations often increase replication efficiency by mislocalizing immune regulators or restriction factors ot by creating platforms for replication and assembly of new virus particles. (bioscience.org)
  • Viruses, many of which require interactions with membranes at multiple steps during their replication cycle, often alter the membrane profiles of cells. (bioscience.org)
  • These alterations have several benefits for the virus and may be essential for immune evasion strategies or to create a novel milieu optimal for replication. (bioscience.org)
  • GBF1, BIG1 and BIG2 are mostly at the Golgi and are sensitive to the trafficking inhibitor brefeldin A. Many of the initial observations linking the Arfs to virus replication are based on the observation that replication is sensitive to brefeldin A. It should be noted that some Arf GEFs, like ARNO and EFA6, are resistant to brefeldin A treatment. (bioscience.org)
  • Semliki Forest virus - an alphavirus in the family Togaviridae rarely associated with human disease. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • SFV is a member of the family Togaviridae (genus Alphavirus ), a family of mosquito-borne, positive-strand RNA viruses which has a large host range and whose most common complication is encephalitis ( 17 ). (asm.org)
  • Chikungunya virus (CHIKV, family Togaviridae , genus Alphavirus ) is a mosquito-borne virus belonging to the Semliki Forest serocomplex, which includes Ross River virus (RRV) , O'nyong-nyong (ONN) , Mayaro (MAY) , and Barmah Forest viruses (BFV) . (plos.org)
  • Al·pha·vi·rus/ ( al´fah-vi″rus ) a genus of viruses of the family Togaviridae that cause encephalitis or febrile illness with rash or arthralgia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Entire genome characterization of Chikungunya virus from the 2008-2009 outbreaks in Thailand. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Large epidemics can occur, as witnessed by the current epidemic of chikungunya virus ( Powers & Logue, 2007 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that has caused widespread outbreaks of debilitating human disease in the past five years. (rcsb.org)
  • Although the acute manifestations of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) illness are well-documented, few data exist about the long-term rheumatic outcomes of CHIKV-infected patients. (plos.org)
  • Re-emergence of Chikungunya and O'nyong-nyong viruses: evidence for distinct geographical lineages and distant evolutionary relationships. (cdc.gov)
  • Wahid B , Ali A , Rafique S , Idrees M . Global expansion of chikungunya virus: mapping the 64-year history. (cdc.gov)
  • Any of a genus of single-stranded RNA viruses that infect animals and cause diseases such as chikungunya and Eastern equine encephalitis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Unlike influenza virus, carrying an N-terminal fusion peptide, SFV represents a less-well understood fusion principle involving an endosequence fusion peptide. (elsevier.com)
  • Alphaviruses are single-stranded, positive-sense, enveloped RNA viruses with a genome of approximately 11.5 kb with a 5′ cap and a 3′ poly(A) tail. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Although rubella virus belongs to the same family as the mosquito-borne alphaviruses, in many respects it is more similar to other aerosol-transmitted human viruses such as the agents of measles and mumps. (nature.com)
  • The use of virus-derived expression vectors for gene therapy and vaccine applications increasingly is being pursued, with a number of diverse virus types and approaches. (pnas.org)
  • Novel mutant Semliki Forest virus vectors: gene expression and localization studies in neuronal cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Therapeutic genes were fused at the carboxy-terminal end of Puromycin N-acetyl-transferase gene by using as a linker the sequence coding for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2A autoprotease. (cun.es)
  • Since gene products as well as RNA genomes of these non-segmented negative strand (NNS) RNA viruses share structural and functional similarities, they are believed to have evolved from a common ancestor. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recently, a virus-mediated gene therapy has emerged as one of the interesting alternatives, and vectors based on different virus types have been developed for this purpose. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • First, we brie¯y review current knowledge of RNA virus recombination and describe new methods for detecting its occurrence using gene sequence data. (biology-online.org)
  • Cholesterol depletion from LLC-MK2 cells by methyl-beta cyclodextrin treatment resulted in a marked increase in the production of both HVJ from the infected cells and virus-like particles from M-gene-transfected cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • Since Semliki Forest virus naturally infects cells of the central nervous system it has been pre-clinically tested as an oncolytic virus against the severe brain tumour type glioblastoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • The SFV virus was genetically modified with microRNA target sequences so that it only replicated in brain tumour cells and not in normal brain cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this paper mechanically permeabilized cells have been used to dissect the transport of Semliki Forest virus glycoproteins from the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane. (pnas.org)
  • The role of polyamines in macromolecular synthesis has been studied using the synthesis of Semliki-Forest virus (SF virus) in normal and alpha-difluoromethylornithine-treated baby-hamster kidney (BHK21) cells as a model system. (portlandpress.com)
  • A prolonged treatment of BHK21 cells with alpha-difluoro-methylornithine, a specific inhibitor of polyamine synthesis, resulted in a marked inhibition of the initial rate of virus production, which appeared 72 h after the beginning of the treatment. (portlandpress.com)
  • Polyamine-depletion also markedly reduced viral RNA polymerase activity in SF-virus infected cells. (portlandpress.com)
  • Semliki Forest virus (SFV) is an enveloped alphavirus that requires cellular membrane cholesterol for both membrane fusion and efficient exit of progeny virus from infected cells. (rupress.org)
  • SFV infects cells by cell surface receptor binding, uptake via receptor-mediated endocytosis, and low pH-triggered fusion of the virus membrane with that of the endosome. (rupress.org)
  • HEp-2 cells are permissive for many viruses and are unable to express endogenous MxA in response to IFN. (asm.org)
  • The virus enters the cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis ( 22 ). (asm.org)
  • In contrast to negative-strand RNA viruses, which transport their RNA transcriptase within the virion into the cells, the liberated genomic 49S RNA of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) serves directly as mRNA for the synthesis of the RNA polymerase. (asm.org)
  • In tissue culture cells, SFV requires cholesterol in the cell membrane both for virus membrane fusion and for the efficient exit of progeny virus from the cell. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Small interfering RNA suppression of PKR levels in NIH-3T3 cells also reduced virus production and apoptosis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The detection of virus antigens in tissue-cell monolayers by immunofluorescence is now an established procedure, as are the extensions of such procedures to the assay of virus infectivity by the counting of fluorescent cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The present note is a contribution to the assessment of immunofluorescent methods in the assay of group A arbovirus infectivity and it describes the rapid counting of infected-cell foci formed by Semliki forest virus (Smithburn & Haddow, 1944) in monolayers of HeLa (Appleyard & Westwood, 1964), BHK21 (Stoker & Macpherson, 1964) and primary chick embryo cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Semliki Forest virus (SFV) is an enveloped alphavirus that infects cells through low-pH-dependent fusion and buds from the plasma membrane. (elsevier.com)
  • E1s generation was strongly pH dependent in BHK cells, with optimal cleavage at a pH of ≤7.0, conditions that inhibited the budding of SFV but not the budding of the rhabdovirus vesicular stomatitis virus. (elsevier.com)
  • 7. Co-transfer of multiple p lasmids/viruses to introduce several genes in mammalian cells (F. Wurm). (booktopia.com.au)
  • The present invention is concerned with the use of certain quinolinyl and acridinyl derivatives to inhibit the infectivity of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 in human cells. (google.ca)
  • The present invention is concerned with methods of inhibiting the infectivity of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) in human cells infected therewith. (google.ca)
  • The virus resembles other known flavivirus structures with the exception of approximately 10 amino acids surrounding the Asn154 glycosylation site in each of the 180 envelope glycoproteins comprising the icosahedral shell, the carbohydrate moiety of which may be the attachment site of the virus to host cells. (medscape.com)
  • Inhibition of human lung carcinoma cell growth by apoptosis induction using Semliki Forest virus recombinant particles. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Artificial assembly of envelope particles of HVJ (Sendai virus). (deepdyve.com)
  • Regression ofmouse tumours and inhibition ofmetastases following administration of a Semliki Forest virus vector with enhanced expression of IL-12. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Transmitted/founder simian immunodeficiency virus envelope sequences in vesicular stomatitis and Semliki forest virus vector immunized rhesus macaques. (duke.edu)
  • The outermost surface of the virus is almost entirely covered by heterodimers of glycoproteins E1 and E2, arranged in interconnective trimers, which form an outer shell. (wikipedia.org)
  • These clearly visible features combine with the variation in order between the layers to provide a framework for understanding the structural changes during the life cycle of an enveloped virus. (nih.gov)
  • To explore the series of events leading to a fusogenic configuration of the SFV, we exposed the virus to successive acidification, mimicking endosomal conditions, and followed structural rearrangements at probed sensor surfaces. (elsevier.com)
  • The hepatitis C virus (HCV) mutates within human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I restricted immunodominant epitopes of the non-structural (NS) 3/4A protease to escape cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) recognition and promote viral persistence. (bmj.com)
  • Expression of ligand-gated ion channels with the Semliki Forest virus expression system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the present study, our approach is to use the Semliki Forest virus (SFV) expression system. (nature.com)
  • The virus lifecycle and how it uses components of vesicular pathways while shuttling to the cell surface, turned Simons' attention toward vesicular transport pathways and cell polarization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus [hereafter simply called vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)] is an arthropod-borne animal virus belonging to the Vesiculovirus genus in the Rhabdoviridae family. (frontiersin.org)
  • PATHOGENICITY/TOXICITY: Most infections caused by the Semliki Forest Virus (SFV) are asymptomatic or very mild (3). (msdsonline.com)
  • The human herpes simplex viruses cause cold sores and sexually transmitted infections. (frontiersin.org)
  • One outcome of many virus infections is the regulation of cellular trafficking machinery. (bioscience.org)
  • The molecular and cellular aspects of arthritis due to alphavirus infections: lesson learned from Ross River virus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • [ 2 ] The spectrum of Zika virus disease overlaps with other that of arboviral infections, but rash (maculopapular and likely immune-mediated) typically predominates. (medscape.com)
  • Semliki Forest virus serves as a paradigm for membrane fusion and assembly. (nih.gov)
  • From studies that use an in vitro assay for fusion of SFV with liposomes, we show that the E1 trimer is efficiently expressed during virus-mediated membrane fusion. (asm.org)
  • Membrane fusion and budding are key steps in the life cycle of all enveloped viruses. (rupress.org)
  • Enzyme linked immunoabsorbant assays may also be performed for identification of virus specific antibodies (5). (msdsonline.com)
  • Spike--nucleocapsid interaction in Semliki Forest virus reconstructed using network antibodies. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Neutralizing antibodies to arthropod-borne viruses in human beings and animals in the Union of South Africa. (cdc.gov)
  • forest in Uganda where the virus is transmitted by mosquitos. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Uganda Virus Research Institute has lead the way in identifying the viruses and bacteria that cause these new diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Zika virus was first described in a febrile rhesus monkey in the Zika forest of Entebbe, Uganda, and was reported in a human field worker shortly thereafter. (medscape.com)
  • Non-segmented negative strand (NNS) RNA viruses belonging to the order Mononegavirales are highly diversified eukaryotic viruses including significant human pathogens, such as rabies, measles, Nipah, and Ebola. (frontiersin.org)
  • The order Mononegavirales comprises highly diversified eukaryotic viruses with a monopartite negative strand RNA genome (rarely bipartite genomes), which includes important human pathogens [e.g., rabies virus (RABV), measles virus (MeV), Nipah virus (NiV), human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), Ebola virus (EBOV)] ( Lamb, 2013 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Our analysis found that 2 of 2 gag-env vaccinated but infected macaques exhibited single but distinct virus envelope lineages whereas rhesus vaccinated with gag-env-GM-CSF or HA control exhibited both single and multiple env lineages. (duke.edu)
  • A significant example is the dense glycan shield of the envelope spike of the human immunodeficiency virus . (wikipedia.org)
  • Methyl beta-cyclodextrin (MβCD) treatment of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) reduced envelope cholesterol levels and inhibited viral entry and infectivity in several cell types, regardless of the dependence of entry on endocytosis or low pH. (frontiersin.org)
  • Herpes simplex virus is encased in a lipid bilayer envelope that is derived from internal membranes of the host cell. (frontiersin.org)
  • 1992. Characterization of RNA mediated resistance to tomato spotted wilt virus in transgenic tobacco plants. (springer.com)
  • The virus is able to cause a lethal encephalitis in rodents, but generally only mild symptoms in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • WEEV, Western equine encephalitis virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Detection of North American eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses by nucleic acid amplification assays. (cdc.gov)
  • See also encephalitis , Toga virus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2.1 Herpes simplex virus (J.C. Glorioso). (booktopia.com.au)
  • Entry of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is initiated by attachment of virions to cell surface glycosaminoglycans ( Shukla and Spear, 2001 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • It was only for a year and I worked on a kind of virus called a 'baceriophage,' which infects baceria, but in the process, I learned a lot about virology. (airliners.net)
  • The results demonstrate that the antiviral spectrum of MxA is not restricted to negative-strand RNA viruses but also includes SFV, which contains an RNA genome of positive polarity. (asm.org)
  • The first, reassortment, occurs only in multipartite viruses and involves swapping one or more of the discrete RNA molecules that make up the segmented viral genome. (biology-online.org)
  • any of a group of very small Toga viruses consisting of a single molecule of single-stranded ribonucleic acid within a lipoprotein capsule. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Development of orally active antiviral drugs against SFV would be of great interest particularly those that will act in concert with immunologically or therapeutically active virus inhibitory substances. (healthyliver.co.uk)
  • To evaluate the use of alphavirus vectors for tumor treatment we have constructed and compared two Semliki Forest virus (SFV) vectors expressing different levels of IL-12. (nih.gov)
  • Black circles indicate wildlife, domestic animals, and birds from South Africa, February 2010-September 2018, and open circles indicate previously reported virus-positive horses ( 11 ). (cdc.gov)
  • [ 1 ] Currently, Zika virus is known to be widely distributed outside of Africa. (medscape.com)
  • The molecular pathogenesis of Semliki Forest virus: A model virus made useful? (wikipedia.org)