Seminal Vesicle Secretory Proteins
Prostatic Secretory Proteins
Seminal Plasma Proteins
Genital Diseases, Male
Tuberculosis, Male Genital
Rats, Inbred Strains
Molecular Sequence Data
Potent inhibition of CD4/TCR-mediated T cell apoptosis by a CD4-binding glycoprotein secreted from breast tumor and seminal vesicle cells. (1/751)We previously isolated a CD4 ligand glycoprotein, gp17, from human seminal plasma; this glycoprotein is identical with gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), a factor specifically secreted from primary and secondary breast tumors. The function of gp17/GCDFP-15 in physiological as well as in pathological conditions has remained elusive thus far. As a follow up to our previous findings that gp17 binds to CD4 with high affinity and interferes with both HIV-1 gp120 binding to CD4 and syncytium formation, we investigated whether gp17 could affect the T lymphocyte apoptosis induced by a separate ligation of CD4 and TCR. We show here that gp17/GCDFP-15 is in fact a strong and specific inhibitor of the T lymphocyte programmed cell death induced by CD4 cross-linking and subsequent TCR activation. The antiapoptotic effect observed in the presence of gp17 correlates with a moderate up-regulation of Bcl-2 expression in treated cells. The presence of gp17 also prevents the down-modulation of Bcl-2 expression in Bcl-2bright CD4+ T cells that is caused by the triggering of apoptosis. Our results suggest that gp17 may represent a new immunomodulatory CD4 binding factor playing a role in host defense against infections and tumors. (+info)
The novel analgesic compound OT-7100 (5-n-butyl-7-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoylamino)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimid ine) attenuates mechanical nociceptive responses in animal models of acute and peripheral neuropathic hyperalgesia. (2/751)We investigated the effects of OT-7100, a novel analgesic compound (5-n-butyl-7-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoylamino)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidi ne), on prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis in vitro, acute hyperalgesia induced by yeast and substance P in rats and hyperalgesia in rats with a chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve (Bennett model), which is a model for peripheral neuropathic pain. OT-7100 did not inhibit prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis at 10(-8)-10(-4) M. Single oral doses of 3 and 10 mg/kg OT-7100 were effective on the hyperalgesia induced by yeast. Single oral doses of 0.1, 0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg OT-7100 were effective on the hyperalgesia induced by substance P in which indomethacin had no effect. Repeated oral administration of OT-7100 (10 and 30 mg/kg) was effective in normalizing the mechanical nociceptive threshold in the injured paw without affecting the nociceptive threshold in the uninjured paw in the Bennett model. Indomethacin had no effect in this model. While amitriptyline (10 and 30 mg/kg) and clonazepam (3 and 10 mg/kg) significantly normalized the nociceptive threshold in the injured paw, they also increased the nociceptive threshold in the uninjured paw. These results suggest that OT-7100 is a new type of analgesic with the effect of normalizing the nociceptive threshold in peripheral neuropathic hyperalgesia. (+info)
Testosterone control of nucleic acid content and proliferation of epithelium and stroma in rat seminal vesicles. (3/751)Tissue wet weight, nucleic acid content and epithelial and stromal cell numbers were measured in the seminal vesicles of sexually mature male rats. After castration, tissue weight and RNA decreased rapidly and in aprallel to reach, after 14 days, values only 15-20% of those in control (not castrated) animals. During this period, DNA decreased to a much lesser extent (by about 40%), but this change in DNA correlates well with the observed loss of cells from the epithelium. Testosterone in vivo promoted an immediate resynthesis of RNA, the value characteristic of control animals being reached within 80h. Delays occurred in the hormone-induced regain of tissue weight (30h) and DNA (40h), each of which preceded proliferation of the epithelium (40--50h). The cells of the stroma were unaffected by these changes in the androgenic statls of the animal. It is suggested that these proliferative changes in the epithelium cannot account for the previously reported induction by testosterone of basic secretory proteins in this tissue. (+info)
Seminal tract infections: impact on male fertility and treatment options. (4/751)Bacterial and viral infections of the genital tract may be important aetiological factors for male infertility. Infectious processes may lead to deterioration of spermatogenesis, impairment of sperm function and/or obstruction of the seminal tract. Detection of bacteria in semen does not necessarily signify infection since bacteriospermia may represent contamination, colonization or infection. Reported prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum in human semen varies from 10 to 40%. Enterobacteria can even be found in up to 90% of semen samples depending on the sensitivity of detection methods used. Chlamydia trachomatis is the most frequent sexually transmitted bacterial organism in industrialized countries. It is suggested that its main influence is due to sexual transmission resulting in tubal disease and subsequent infertility in the female partner rather than a direct influence on male reproductive functions. The effect of leukocytospermia on male fertility is controversial. This is probably due to different detection methods, different populations studied and to the fact that leukocyte subtypes in semen may have different functions. In addition to potentially negative effects, leukocytes may even have protective effects on spermatozoa. Only recently have amplification methods been established to detect viruses in semen with high sensitivity and specificity. It is unclear if these infections significantly contribute to male infertility. (+info)
Many LH peaks are needed to physiologically stimulate testosterone secretion: modulation by fasting and NPY. (5/751)The pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone secretions were studied during serial blood collections performed at 7-min time intervals in the male rat. In fed rats, a discontinuous pattern of LH secretion was observed. Periods without secretion alternated with active secretory episodes consisting in trains of three to four LH peaks that triggered testosterone secretion usually 1-2 h later. The magnitude of the testosterone response was not correlated with the amplitude of the LH peaks. Isolated, single peaks of LH did not evoke clear testosterone responses. Forty-eight hours after initiation of fasting, testosterone secretion was markedly decreased, but integrated LH secretion was only partly reduced. Chronic infusion of neuropeptide Y (NPY; 18 microgram/day, icv) reduced testosterone secretion to very low levels and abolished pulsatile LH secretion or testosterone response to isolated LH peaks. In conclusion, the stimulation of testosterone secretion by LH necessitates several LH peaks organized in a proper sequence, and the testosterone response is not immediate. Low testosterone secretion in fasting rats appears to result from disappearance of coordinated, multiple LH peaks of sufficient size. Inhibition of the gonadotropic axis achieved by central NPY administration is due to either absence of LH peak "clusters" or occurrence of nonfunctional single LH peaks. (+info)
Comparison of the peroxidase reaction kinetics of prostaglandin H synthase-1 and -2. (6/751)Prostaglandin H synthase isoforms 1 and 2 (PGHS-1 and -2) each have a peroxidase activity and also a cyclooxygenase activity that requires initiation by hydroperoxide. The hydroperoxide initiator requirement for PGHS-2 cyclooxygenase is about 10-fold lower than for PGHS-1 cyclooxygenase, and this difference may contribute to the distinct control of cellular prostanoid synthesis by the two isoforms. We compared the kinetics of the initial peroxidase steps in PGHS-1 and -2 to quantify mechanistic differences between the isoforms that might contribute to the difference in cyclooxygenase initiation efficiency. The kinetics of formation of Intermediate I (an Fe(IV) species with a porphyrin free radical) and Intermediate II (an Fe(IV) species with a tyrosyl free radical, thought to be the crucial oxidant in cyclooxygenase catalysis) were monitored at 4 degrees c by stopped flow spectrophotometry with several hydroperoxides as substrate. With 15-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid, the rate constant for Intermediate I formation (k1) was 2.3 x 10(7) M-1 s-1 for PGHS-1 and 2.5 x 10(7) M-1 s-1 for PGHS-2, indicating that the isoforms have similar initial reactivity with this lipid hydroperoxide. For PGHS-1, the rate of conversion of Intermediate I to Intermediate II (k2) became the limiting factor when the hydroperoxide level was increased, indicating a rate constant of 10(2)-10(3) s-1 for the generation of the active cyclooxygenase species. For PGHS-2, however, the transition between Intermediates I and II was not rate-limiting even at the highest hydroperoxide concentrations tested, indicating that the k2 value for PGHS-2 was much greater than that for PGHS-1. Computer modelling predicted that faster formation of the active cyclooxygenase species (Intermediate II) or increased stability of the active species increases the resistance of the cyclooxygenase to inhibition by the intracellular hydroperoxide scavenger, glutathione peroxidase. Kinetic differences between the PGHS isoforms in forming or stabilizing the active cyclooxygenase species can thus contribute to the difference in the regulation of their cellular activities. (+info)
Significant changes in volume of seminal vesicles as determined by transrectal sonography in relation to age and benign prostatic hyperplasia. (7/751)We evaluated the changes in volume of the seminal vesicles as determined by transrectal sonography in terms of the possible relationship with aging, lower urinary tract symptoms and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in community based populations in Japan. In 641 men (55-86 year, mean 67) on a mass screening program for prostatic diseases, the maximum horizontal area of the seminal vesicles (MHA) was compared with age, American Urological Association (AUA) symptom index scores and transrectal ultrasonic parameters of the prostate including prostatic volume, transition zone (TZ) volume, TZ index and presumed circle area ratio (PCAR). Simple regression analyses demonstrated that MHA correlated significantly with age, prostatic volume, TZ volume, TZ index and PCAR, but not with AUA symptom index scores. Multiple regression analysis revealed age, prostatic volume and PCAR to be independent determinants of MHA. There was a difference in MHA between subjects with BPH (7.1+/-2.5 cm2) and those with a normal prostate (5.6+/-2.1 cm2) with a statistical significance. In the morphological evaluation of the seminal vesicles, the significant influence of age and BPH has to be taken into account. (+info)
Hyperplasia in multiple smooth muscle tissues in transgenic mice expressing a temperature-sensitive SV40 T-antigen under the control of smooth muscle alpha-actin regulatory sequences. (8/751)Control of smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation is of fundamental importance in the development and pathology of the vasculature. To derive vascular SMC with conditional inactivation of negative cell cycle regulatory proteins in the context of smooth muscle protein expression, a 3.4 kb fragment of the mouse SMC alpha-actin promoter was used to target a temperature-sensitive mutant SV40 T antigen (tsA58) to smooth muscle in transgenic mice. Mice with this genotype display a heritable phenotype of abnormal SMC proliferation in the central tail artery, vasa deferentia, seminal vesicles, prostate, and uterus, with the latter resembling uterine leiomyomatosis and prostatic hypertrophy. Neither the aorta nor other viscera manifested abnormal proliferation. Cultures from aorta, vas deferens, seminal vesicle, and kidney tissue were characterized with regard to protein expression, stability, and matrix remodelling capacity. The alpha-actin content/cell was up to 3-4-fold higher, as well as more stable than in primary SMC cultures, suggesting successful selection for propagation of cells expressing this differentiation marker. All cells displayed enhanced growth at the permissive temperature. As an initial functional assessment, the cells were compared to non-transformed mouse aortic SMC with respect to the ability to remodel collagen gel matrices, and demonstrated conservation of this physiologic function. This in vivo analysis of the SMC alpha-actin promoter supports a broader range of smooth muscle-directed expression activity than previously recognized, and establishes the feasibility of its use to direct transgene expression to vascular as well as genito-urinary smooth muscle. The targeted expression of the tsA58 T antigen has yielded transgenic animals with several manifestations of smooth muscle hyperplasia; these animals have in turn permitted the derivation of several murine SMC lines with phenotypic stability and conditionally-modulated proliferation. These cells will allow expansion of derivative transfected smooth muscle cell lines under permissive conditions, as well as oncogene inactivation at the restrictive temperature when desired for functional studies. (+info)
Seminal vesicle secretory proteins are proteins that are produced by the seminal vesicles, which are glands located in the male reproductive system. These glands are responsible for producing a fluid that makes up a significant portion of the semen, the fluid that carries sperm from the testicles to the urethra. The seminal vesicle secretory proteins play a number of important roles in the function of semen, including providing nutrients and energy for the sperm, protecting the sperm from damage, and helping to facilitate the movement of the sperm through the female reproductive tract. Some of the most well-known seminal vesicle secretory proteins include prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PSAP), and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). These proteins are often used as markers for prostate cancer, as their levels in the blood or semen can be elevated in people with the disease.
Genital neoplasms, male refer to tumors or abnormal growths that develop in the male reproductive system, including the testes, epididymis, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, and penis. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous) and can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, swelling, difficulty urinating, and changes in sexual function. Treatment options for genital neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. Some common treatments for genital neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hormone therapy. Early detection and treatment are important for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of complications.
Prostatic secretory proteins (PSPs) are a group of proteins that are produced by the prostate gland and are secreted into the seminal fluid. These proteins play a variety of roles in the reproductive system, including protecting sperm from damage, facilitating sperm motility, and contributing to the viscosity of the semen. PSPs are also thought to play a role in the development of prostate cancer.
Seminal plasma proteins are proteins found in the fluid portion of semen. They are produced by various cells within the male reproductive system, including the prostate gland, seminal vesicles, and epididymis. These proteins play a number of important roles in the reproductive process, including protecting and nourishing sperm cells, facilitating sperm movement, and contributing to the viscosity of semen. Some of the most well-known seminal plasma proteins include prostate-specific antigen (PSA), fructose, and citrate. Abnormal levels of seminal plasma proteins can sometimes be an indication of certain medical conditions, such as prostate cancer or infections of the reproductive system.
Hemospermia is a medical condition characterized by the presence of blood in semen. It is a relatively rare condition that can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury to the prostate gland or seminal vesicles, sexually transmitted infections, prostate cancer, and certain medications. Hemospermia can be a cause for concern, as it may indicate an underlying health issue that requires medical attention. Treatment for hemospermia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions.
In the medical field, cytoplasmic vesicles are small, membrane-bound sacs that are found within the cytoplasm of cells. They are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including the transport of molecules and materials within the cell, the degradation of cellular waste, and the regulation of cellular signaling pathways. There are several different types of cytoplasmic vesicles, including endosomes, lysosomes, and exosomes. Endosomes are vesicles that are involved in the internalization and processing of extracellular molecules and materials. Lysosomes are vesicles that contain enzymes that are involved in the degradation of cellular waste and the breakdown of cellular components. Exosomes are vesicles that are released by cells and are involved in the communication between cells. Cytoplasmic vesicles play important roles in many different cellular processes and are involved in a wide range of diseases and conditions. For example, defects in the formation or function of cytoplasmic vesicles have been implicated in a number of neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease.
Testosterone is a hormone that is primarily produced in the testicles in males and in smaller amounts in the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. It is responsible for the development of male sexual characteristics, such as the growth of facial hair, deepening of the voice, and muscle mass. Testosterone also plays a role in bone density, red blood cell production, and the regulation of the body's metabolism. In the medical field, testosterone is often used to treat conditions related to low testosterone levels, such as hypogonadism (a condition in which the body does not produce enough testosterone), delayed puberty, and certain types of breast cancer in men. It can also be used to treat conditions related to low estrogen levels in women, such as osteoporosis and menopause symptoms. Testosterone therapy can be administered in various forms, including injections, gels, patches, and pellets. However, it is important to note that testosterone therapy can have side effects, such as acne, hair loss, and an increased risk of blood clots, and should only be prescribed by a healthcare professional.
Castration is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the testicles in males or the ovaries in females. In males, castration is often performed to treat conditions such as prostate cancer, testicular cancer, or advanced prostate enlargement. In females, castration is typically performed to treat conditions such as ovarian cancer or endometriosis. There are two main types of castration: surgical castration and chemical castration. Surgical castration involves the removal of the testicles or ovaries through surgery. Chemical castration involves the administration of drugs that suppress the production of hormones by the testicles or ovaries. Castration can have a number of effects on the body, including changes in hormone levels, sexual function, and mood. In males, castration can lead to a decrease in testosterone levels, which can cause changes in sexual desire, energy levels, and muscle mass. In females, castration can lead to a decrease in estrogen levels, which can cause changes in sexual desire, bone density, and mood.
Prostatic neoplasms refer to tumors that develop in the prostate gland, which is a small gland located in the male reproductive system. These tumors can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign prostatic neoplasms, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), are the most common type of prostatic neoplasm and are typically associated with an increase in the size of the prostate gland. Malignant prostatic neoplasms, on the other hand, are more serious and can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated. The most common type of prostate cancer is adenocarcinoma, which starts in the glandular cells of the prostate. Other types of prostatic neoplasms include sarcomas, which are rare and start in the connective tissue of the prostate, and carcinoid tumors, which are rare and start in the neuroendocrine cells of the prostate.
Genital diseases in males refer to medical conditions that affect the male reproductive system, including the testes, prostate gland, penis, and related structures. These conditions can be acute or chronic, and can range from minor infections to more serious conditions that can affect fertility and overall health. Some common examples of genital diseases in males include sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis, as well as non-infectious conditions such as erectile dysfunction, prostate cancer, and varicocele (swelling of the veins in the scrotum). Diagnosis of genital diseases in males typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood tests, urine tests, and imaging studies. Treatment options depend on the specific condition and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions. It is important for males to seek medical attention if they experience any symptoms of a genital disease, as prompt diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
In the medical field, "calculi" refers to solid masses or stones that form in the urinary tract or other organs. The most common type of calculi are kidney stones, which can form in the kidneys, ureters, or bladder. Kidney stones are typically composed of minerals such as calcium, oxalate, or phosphate, and can vary in size from a grain of sand to a golf ball. They can cause severe pain, blood in the urine, and other symptoms, and may require medical intervention to remove. Other types of calculi can form in the gallbladder (gallstones), bile ducts (cholecystolithiasis), or pancreas (pancreatic calculi). These calculi can also cause serious health problems if left untreated.
The bulbourethral glands, also known as Cowper's glands, are two small glands located in the male reproductive system, just superior to the external urethral orifice. They are responsible for producing a clear, slippery fluid that is released into the urethra just before ejaculation. This fluid helps to lubricate the urethra and neutralize any acidity that may be present, making it easier for sperm to pass through and reducing the risk of irritation or infection. The bulbourethral glands are not essential for reproduction, but they play an important role in the sexual response and overall health of the male reproductive system.
Methyltestosterone is a synthetic androgenic anabolic steroid that is used in the medical field for the treatment of conditions such as delayed puberty, breast cancer in women, and muscle wasting diseases. It is also used to promote muscle growth and strength in athletes and bodybuilders. However, the use of methyltestosterone for these purposes is illegal without a prescription and can have serious side effects, including liver damage, high blood pressure, and infertility.
Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by the cells of the prostate gland in men. It is normally present in small amounts in the blood, but levels can increase if there is an abnormality in the prostate gland, such as cancer. PSA testing is commonly used as a screening tool for prostate cancer, as elevated levels of PSA can indicate the presence of cancerous cells in the prostate gland. However, it is important to note that not all cases of elevated PSA levels are due to cancer, and some men with prostate cancer may have normal PSA levels. Therefore, PSA testing should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical information and diagnostic tests.
Androgens are a group of hormones that are primarily responsible for the development and maintenance of male characteristics. They are produced by the testes in males and by the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. The most well-known androgen is testosterone, which is responsible for the development of male sexual characteristics such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass. Other androgens include dihydrotestosterone (DHT), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and androstenedione. In addition to their role in sexual development, androgens also play a role in other bodily functions such as bone density, red blood cell production, and metabolism. They are also involved in the regulation of mood and behavior. Abnormal levels of androgens can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including androgen insensitivity syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and testicular feminization syndrome. Androgens are also used in medical treatment for conditions such as hypogonadism, breast cancer, and prostate cancer.
COP-coated vesicles are small, membrane-bound sacs that play a crucial role in the transport of molecules within cells. The acronym COP stands for coat protein complex, which refers to a group of proteins that are involved in the formation and function of these vesicles. COP-coated vesicles are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including the transport of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus, the transport of lipids and other molecules between organelles, and the transport of materials out of the cell. The formation of COP-coated vesicles involves the interaction of several proteins, including COP I and COP II, which are responsible for the assembly and disassembly of the vesicle coat. Once a vesicle is formed, it is transported along the cytoskeleton to its destination, where it fuses with the target membrane and releases its contents. Disruptions in the function of COP-coated vesicles can have a range of effects on cellular processes and can contribute to the development of various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, lysosomal storage diseases, and certain types of cancer.
The cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin, flexible barrier that surrounds and encloses the cell. It is composed of a phospholipid bilayer, which consists of two layers of phospholipid molecules arranged tail-to-tail. The hydrophobic tails of the phospholipids face inward, while the hydrophilic heads face outward, forming a barrier that separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment. The cell membrane also contains various proteins, including channels, receptors, and transporters, which allow the cell to communicate with its environment and regulate the movement of substances in and out of the cell. In addition, the cell membrane is studded with cholesterol molecules, which help to maintain the fluidity and stability of the membrane. The cell membrane plays a crucial role in maintaining the integrity and function of the cell, and it is involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell signaling, cell adhesion, and cell division.
In the medical field, a cyst is a closed, fluid-filled sac that forms in or on an organ or tissue. Cysts can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, liver, kidneys, ovaries, and brain. Cysts can be classified based on their location, size, and contents. Some common types of cysts include: 1. Epidermoid cysts: These are the most common type of cyst, and they form in the skin or hair follicles. They are usually benign and can be removed surgically. 2. Cystic acne: This is a type of cyst that occurs on the skin and is caused by the blockage of hair follicles. 3. Pancreatic cysts: These are cysts that form in the pancreas and can be either benign or malignant. 4. Kidney cysts: These are cysts that form in the kidneys and can be either benign or malignant. 5. Ovarian cysts: These are cysts that form in the ovaries and can be either benign or malignant. Treatment for cysts depends on their size, location, and type. Small cysts may not require treatment, while larger cysts or cysts that cause symptoms may need to be removed surgically. In some cases, medication may be used to treat cysts.
Testosterone Propionate is a synthetic form of the male sex hormone testosterone. It is a type of anabolic steroid that is used to treat conditions such as low testosterone levels, delayed puberty, and certain types of breast cancer in men. Testosterone Propionate is usually administered through injection and is available only with a prescription from a healthcare provider. It is important to note that the use of anabolic steroids, including Testosterone Propionate, can have serious side effects and should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.
Tuberculosis of the male genital organs is a rare form of tuberculosis that affects the male reproductive system. It is caused by the same bacterium that causes tuberculosis in other parts of the body, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The infection can affect any part of the male genital system, including the testicles, epididymis, prostate gland, and seminal vesicles. Symptoms of tuberculosis of the male genital organs may include pain or discomfort in the testicles or scrotum, swelling or enlargement of the testicles, difficulty urinating, and pain during sexual intercourse. In some cases, there may be no symptoms at all. Diagnosis of tuberculosis of the male genital organs typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. A biopsy of the affected tissue may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment for tuberculosis of the male genital organs typically involves a long course of antibiotics, usually for at least six months. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue or drain abscesses. It is important to complete the full course of treatment to prevent the development of drug-resistant strains of tuberculosis.
Flutamide is a medication that is used to treat prostate cancer in men. It is a type of drug called an androgen receptor antagonist, which means that it blocks the effects of male hormones (androgens) on the prostate gland. Flutamide is usually used in combination with other medications or surgery to treat prostate cancer. It can help to slow the growth of cancer cells and reduce the risk of the cancer spreading to other parts of the body. Flutamide is usually taken by mouth as tablets, and the dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the individual patient's condition and response to the medication. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare professional when taking flutamide, as it can cause side effects such as breast tenderness, breast enlargement, and hot flashes.
Proteins are complex biomolecules made up of amino acids that play a crucial role in many biological processes in the human body. In the medical field, proteins are studied extensively as they are involved in a wide range of functions, including: 1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the body, such as digestion, metabolism, and energy production. 2. Hormones: Proteins that regulate various bodily functions, such as growth, development, and reproduction. 3. Antibodies: Proteins that help the immune system recognize and neutralize foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. 4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across cell membranes, such as oxygen and nutrients. 5. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide support and shape to cells and tissues, such as collagen and elastin. Protein abnormalities can lead to various medical conditions, such as genetic disorders, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of proteins is essential for developing effective treatments and therapies for these conditions.
Androgen antagonists are a class of drugs that block the effects of androgens, which are male sex hormones such as testosterone. These drugs are often used to treat conditions such as prostate cancer, acne, and hirsutism (excessive hair growth in women) by reducing the levels of androgens in the body. They work by binding to androgen receptors, preventing androgens from binding to these receptors and exerting their effects. Examples of androgen antagonists include flutamide, bicalutamide, and spironolactone.
Clathrin-coated vesicles are small, membrane-bound sacs that are involved in the transport of materials within cells. They are formed by the assembly of a protein lattice called clathrin on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane, which then invaginates to form a vesicle. The vesicle is then pinched off from the plasma membrane and transported to its destination within the cell. Clathrin-coated vesicles are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including the uptake of nutrients and the transport of proteins and lipids within the cell. They are also involved in the secretion of materials from the cell, such as hormones and neurotransmitters. Disruptions in the formation or function of clathrin-coated vesicles can lead to a variety of diseases, including neurological disorders, immune system disorders, and certain types of cancer.
Cyproterone is a synthetic progestin medication that is used in combination with an androgen receptor blocker, such as ethinylestradiol, to treat acne vulgaris in women. It is also used to treat hirsutism (excessive hair growth) in women and to treat advanced prostate cancer in men. Cyproterone works by blocking the production of testosterone and other androgens in the body, which can help to reduce the symptoms of these conditions. It is typically taken orally in the form of tablets.
Infertility, male refers to the inability of a man to produce viable sperm or to deliver them to his partner in a way that can result in pregnancy. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic abnormalities, hormonal imbalances, infections, injuries to the reproductive organs, or certain medications or environmental factors. Male infertility can be diagnosed through a series of tests, including semen analysis, hormone testing, and imaging studies. Treatment options for male infertility may include medications, surgery, or assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).
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- In the male, under the influence of testosterone, the mesonephric duct proliferates, forming the epididymis, ductus deferens and, via a small outpouching near the developing prostate, the seminal vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
- The mesonephric duct ultimately forms the epididymis, ductus deferens, seminal vesicles, and ejaculatory ducts by way of the mesonephric ductal system. (medscape.com)
- Testis , the ductus deferens , and the seminal vesicles are parts of male reproductive organs . (osmosis.org)
- Each ductus deferens is supplied by the artery of vas deferens, which branches out of the superior vesicle artery. (healthline.com)
Prostate and seminal vesicles1
- It's worth noting that both the prostate and seminal vesicles can develop issues such as infections, inflammation or cancer, which can affect their function and may require medical attention. (qchowk.com)
- The seminal vesicles (also called vesicular glands, or seminal glands) are a pair of convoluted tubular glands that lie behind the urinary bladder of some male mammals. (wikipedia.org)
- The seminal vesicles are a pair of glands in males that are positioned below the urinary bladder and at the end of the vasa deferentia, where they enter the prostate. (wikipedia.org)
- The tissue of the seminal vesicles is full of glands, spaced irregularly. (wikipedia.org)
- As well as glands, the seminal vesicles contain smooth muscle and connective tissue. (wikipedia.org)
- Of these organs, the seminal vesicles, prostate, and bulbourethral glands are considered accessory glandular structures. (medscape.com)
- The seminal vesicles are bilateral, lobulated glands (see the following image). (medscape.com)
- Accessory glands, such as the seminal vesicles and prostate gland , secrete seminal fluid that provides lubrication and nutrients for the spermatozoa. (osmosis.org)
- The seminal vesicles are two small glands located behind the bladder. (qchowk.com)
- On its way, the sperm collects secretions from the prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, and seminal vesicles, all male accessory sex glands. (healthline.com)
- Major seminal plasma proteins are secretory proteins from the male sex accessory glands, such as the SEMINAL VESICLES and the PROSTATE. (bvsalud.org)
- Seminal vesiculitis can cause pain in the lower abdomen, scrotum, penis or peritoneum, painful ejaculation, and blood in the semen. (wikipedia.org)
- The seminal vesicles are two sac-shaped structures that produce part of the thick fluid (semen) that contains sperm. (stlukesonline.org)
- The seminal vesicles and the prostate gland are part of the male reproductive system and they play important roles in the production and storage of semen. (qchowk.com)
- Both the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland work together to produce semen, which is the fluid that carries the sperm during ejaculation. (qchowk.com)
- Fluid from the seminal vesicles and prostate gland combine with sperm to make semen. (mayoclinic.org)
- Proteínas que se encuentran en el SEMEN. (bvsalud.org)
- The prostate is a part of the male reproductive system, which includes the penis, prostate, seminal vesicles, and testicles. (cdc.gov)
- The following image depicts the seminal vesicles, ejaculatory ducts, and the prostate. (medscape.com)
- The short ducts of the seminal vesicles join the lateral aspects of the ductus deferentes at an acute angle, creating the ejaculatory ducts at the base of the prostate gland. (medscape.com)
- Seminal vesicle cysts are either congenital or acquired and usually develop on basis of a ejaculatory duct obstruction. (urology-textbook.com)
- Fructose is normally produced in the seminal vesicles and secreted through the ejaculatory ducts. (msdmanuals.com)
- Estrogen receptors in the human prostate, seminal vesicle, epididymis, testis, and genital skin: A marker for estrogen-responsive tissues? (johnshopkins.edu)
- The finding of estrogen receptors in the human epididymis, seminal vesicle, and prostatic carcinoma suggests that estrogen, in addition to androgen, may act in the physiological regulation of these organs. (johnshopkins.edu)
- Dive into the research topics of 'Estrogen receptors in the human prostate, seminal vesicle, epididymis, testis, and genital skin: A marker for estrogen-responsive tissues? (johnshopkins.edu)
- The seminal vesicles lie below the inferior-most aspect of the peritoneum in the pelvic cavity. (medscape.com)
- Pathological staging is determined following prostatectomy and depends on factors such as tumor burden, status of surgical margins, extracapsular disease, and seminal vesicle and pelvic lymph node involvement. (medscape.com)
- [ 8 ] Despite higher TT, transgenic mice had hypogonadal features, including a weight reduction in seminal vesicles and of androgen-dependent pelvic floor muscles. (medscape.com)
- Primary carcinoma of the seminal vesicles is very rare. (medscape.com)
- The seminal vesicle is a small organ near the base of the bladder that produces a fluid that helps to nourish and transport sperm. (osmosis.org)
- Another cause for cysts of the seminal vesicles is the autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) . (urology-textbook.com)
- The vesicles are 5-10 cm in size, 3-5 cm in diameter, and are located between the bladder and the rectum. (wikipedia.org)
- We report 5 new cases of seminal vesicle agenesis in men presenting with hypospermia and azoospermia.Imaging showed seminal vesicle unilateral agenesis in all patients.The remaining seminal vesicle was hypoplastic in 3 cases, dilatedin 1 case and with abnormally thick content in another case. (cuaj.ca)
- Important anatomic structures in cases of malignant diseases are the neurovascular bundles, the rectoprostatic angle and the seminal vesicles. (ispub.com)
- The seminal vesicles contain 5α-reductase, which metabolizes testosterone into its much more potent metabolite, dihydrotestosterone (DHT). (wikipedia.org)
- The seminal fluid is also slightly alkaline, or basic. (osmosis.org)
- [ 1 ] Cystic masses of the seminal vesicles may also be felt on palpation and are typically embryologic remnants of the paramesonephric ducts. (medscape.com)
- Inflammation of the seminal vesicles is called seminal vesiculitis and most often is due to bacterial infection as a result of a sexually transmitted disease or following a surgical procedure. (wikipedia.org)
- The vesicles receive blood supply from the vesiculodeferential artery, and also from the inferior vesical artery. (wikipedia.org)
- The seminal vesicles have also been found to contain luteinizing hormone receptors, and hence may also be regulated by the ligand of this receptor, luteinizing hormone. (wikipedia.org)
- The seminal vesicles are paired organs of the male genitourinary system. (medscape.com)
- Las principales proteínas del plasma seminal son proteínas secretadas por las glándulas sexuales masculinas accesorias, como las VESÍCULAS SEMINALES y la PRÓSTATA. (bvsalud.org)
- The development and maintenance of the seminal vesicles, as well as their secretion and size/weight, are highly dependent on androgens. (wikipedia.org)
- Anterior aspect of the seminal vesicles, terminal parts of the deferent ducts, and the prostate. (medscape.com)
- The seminal vesicles have been described as early as the second century AD by Galen, although the vesicles only received their name much later, as they were initially described using the term from which the word prostate is derived. (wikipedia.org)
- The seminal vesicles receive their arterial supply in a way that is similar to that of the prostate gland. (medscape.com)
- High magnification micrograph of seminal vesicle. (wikipedia.org)
- The vesicles are blind pouches and are rounded on their most superior aspects and taper to their inferior aspects, where they constrict to ultimately form short ducts. (medscape.com)
- The ureters pass in between the superior, rounded aspects of the seminal vesicles and the superior portions of the ampullae of the ductus deferentes. (medscape.com)
- Other conditions may affect the vesicles, including congenital abnormalities such as failure or incomplete formation, and, uncommonly, tumours. (wikipedia.org)
- In case of an ectopic ureter, open or laparoscopic nephroureterectomy with removal of seminal vesicles is the most common treatment alternative, since renal function is often absent. (urology-textbook.com)
- The vesicles are between 5-10 cm in size, 3-5 cm in diameter, and have a volume of around 13 mL. (wikipedia.org)
- Each vesicle is a coiled and folded tube, with occasional outpouchings termed diverticula in its wall. (wikipedia.org)