Organoselenium Compounds: Organic compounds which contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.Selenium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.Selenium: An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.Cyanates: Organic salts of cyanic acid containing the -OCN radical.Selenic Acid: A strong dibasic acid with the molecular formula H2SeO4. Included under this heading is the acid form, and inorganic salts of dihydrogen selenium tetraoxide.Benzene DerivativesSodium Selenite: The disodium salt of selenious acid. It is used therapeutically to supply the trace element selenium and is prepared by the reaction of SELENIUM DIOXIDE with SODIUM HYDROXIDE.Selenomethionine: Diagnostic aid in pancreas function determination.Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Clostridium acetobutylicum: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, used for the industrial production of SOLVENTS.Drug Antagonism: Phenomena and pharmaceutics of compounds that inhibit the function of agonists (DRUG AGONISM) and inverse agonists (DRUG INVERSE AGONISM) for a specific receptor. On their own, antagonists produce no effect by themselves to a receptor, and are said to have neither intrinsic activity nor efficacy.Sulfur Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.Selenocysteine: A naturally occurring amino acid in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. It is found in tRNAs and in the catalytic site of some enzymes. The genes for glutathione peroxidase and formate dehydrogenase contain the TGA codon, which codes for this amino acid.9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene: 7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Thioredoxin-Disulfide Reductase: A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of THIOREDOXINS to thioredoxin disulfide in the presence of NADP+. It was formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.5Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Metallothionein: A low-molecular-weight (approx. 10 kD) protein occurring in the cytoplasm of kidney cortex and liver. It is rich in cysteinyl residues and contains no aromatic amino acids. Metallothionein shows high affinity for bivalent heavy metals.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Selenoproteins: Selenoproteins are proteins that specifically incorporate SELENOCYSTEINE into their amino acid chain. Most selenoproteins are enzymes with the selenocysteine residues being responsible for their catalytic functions.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Glutathione Peroxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.PeroxidasesSelenious Acid: A selenium compound with the molecular formula H2SO3. It used as a source of SELENIUM, especially for patients that develop selenium deficiency following prolonged PARENTERAL NUTRITION.Selenoprotein P: An extracellular selenoprotein that contains most of the SELENIUM in PLASMA. Selenoprotein P functions as an antioxidant and appears to transport selenium from the LIVER to peripheral tissues.Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.Chromans: Benzopyrans saturated in the 2 and 3 positions.Tocopherols: A collective name for a group of closely related lipids that contain substitutions on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus and a long hydrocarbon chain of isoprenoid units. They are antioxidants by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen. Tocopherols react with the most reactive form of oxygen and protect unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation.Diet, Mediterranean: A diet typical of the Mediterranean region characterized by a pattern high in fruits and vegetables, EDIBLE GRAIN and bread, potatoes, poultry, beans, nuts, olive oil and fish while low in red meat and dairy and moderate in alcohol consumption.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
  • Via its incorporation into more than two dozen selenoproteins throughout the body, 2,3 selenium provides potent defense against cancer-causing DNA damage , 4,5 facilitates removal of dangerous toxins from the body, 6 supports optimal thyroid function, 7 maintains immune system activity, 3,8,9 and much more. (lifeextension.com)
  • The biological effects of selenium are largely mediated by selenium-containing proteins (selenoproteins) that are present in all three domains of life. (nih.gov)
  • Compounds possessing L-stereochemistry were at least as active with respect to GPx induction as was sodium selenite (2.2-fold increase at 15 μM). (elsevier.com)
  • Although this amount of selenium is adequate, it is below the average daily intake in the U.S., which is 125 mcg. (webmd.com)
  • Many cancer researchers now propose that the level of selenium required to reduce cancer risk exceeds the intake level (55 mcgs), upon which the RDA is based. (dynamicchiropractic.com)
  • The aim of this work was to indentify some plasmatic proteins that respond to supranutritional doses of selenium, which could be proposed as new protein markers of selenium intake. (bvsalud.org)
  • We postulate that the protein patterns observed in this work could be proposed as new molecular biology-based markers of selenium intake. (bvsalud.org)
  • For the study, researchers evaluated the plasma selenium levels of 446 elderly participants living in these areas of notable longevity in China. (lifeextension.com)
  • Plasma selenium levels appear to predict mortality in humans as well. (lifeextension.com)
  • In a nine-year study of older adults living in France, those with the highest plasma selenium levels at the beginning of the study were more likely to remain alive at the end. (lifeextension.com)
  • In fact one of the compounds showed 4.66 times higher potential than the classical standard i.e. , diphenyl diselenide. (mdpi.com)
  • We evaluated the potential neuroprotective effect of 1-100 µM of four organoselenium compounds: diphenyl diselenide, 3'3-ditri-fluoromethyldiphenyl diselenide, p-methoxy-diphenyl diselenide, and p-chloro-diphenyl diselenide, against methylmercury-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in mitochondrial-enriched fractions from adult Swiss mouse brain. (bvsalud.org)
  • Diphenyl diselenide showed a higher thiol peroxidase activity compared to the other three compounds. (bvsalud.org)
  • Our results show that diphenyl diselenide and potentially other organoselenium compounds may represent important molecules in the search for an improved therapy against the deleterious effects of methylmercury as well as other mercury compounds. (bvsalud.org)
  • The compound showed potent protective effects in a mouse model of CDI, supporting its translation into clinical studies as a new non-antibiotic treatment for CDI. (sciencemag.org)
  • In general, we found that the selenium-containing derivatives were more potent than their isosteric sulfur analogs. (ox.ac.uk)
  • On the basis of its potent activity, compound 1g was selected for further biological evaluation in different colon cancer cell lines. (ox.ac.uk)
  • New insights into the metabolism of organomercury compounds: Mercury-containing cysteine S-conjugates are substrates of human glutamine transaminase K and potent inactivators of cystathionine g-lyase. (columbia.edu)
  • A related selenium-containing enzyme in some plants and in animals (thioredoxin reductase) generates reduced thioredoxin, a dithiol that serves as an electron source for peroxidases and also the important reducing enzyme ribonucleotide reductase that makes DNA precursors from RNA precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is possible that these cell lines may have only a modest ability to generate a monomethylated selenium species from Se-methylselenocysteine via theβ -lyase enzyme. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It rarely occurs in its elemental state or as pure ore compounds in the Earth's crust. (wikipedia.org)
  • Selenium dioxide is formed by the reaction of elemental selenium with oxygen: Se8 + 8 O2 → 8 SeO2 It is a polymeric solid that forms monomeric SeO2 molecules in the gas phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Selenous acid can also be made directly by oxidizing elemental selenium with nitric acid: 3 Se + 4 HNO3 + H2O → 3 H2SeO3 + 4 NO Unlike sulfur, which forms a stable trioxide, selenium trioxide is thermodynamically unstable and decomposes to the dioxide above 185 °C: 2 SeO3 → 2 SeO2 + O2 (ΔH = −54 kJ/mol) Selenium trioxide is produced in the laboratory by the reaction of anhydrous potassium selenate (K2SeO4) and sulfur trioxide (SO3). (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, for the first time, it is shown that small, cyclic selenium compounds can account for a quantitatively-relevant fraction of the total elemental selenium present. (trentu.ca)
  • Selenium also exists in many nonconductive forms: a black glass-like allotrope, as well as several red crystalline forms built of eight-membered ring molecules, like its lighter chemical cousin sulfur. (chemeurope.com)
  • In soils, selenium most often occurs in soluble forms like selenate (analogous to sulfate), which are leached into rivers very easily by runoff. (chemeurope.com)
  • Therefore, novel compounds are needed that could be used to augment existing preventive strategies and one approach is the development of topical agents, which could moderate key pathways involved in development of melanocytic lesions or melanoma in skin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Skunks, rotten eggs, burning tires - they all have delightful sulfurous tang, and we have sulfur compounds in the lab that are worse yet. (sciencemag.org)
  • Selenium also plays a role in the functioning of the thyroid gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research shows that taking 200 mcg of selenium daily along with thyroid hormone might decrease antibodies in the body that contribute to this condition. (webmd.com)
  • Selenium 200 mcg tablets are promoted to help fight cell-damaging free radicals, support healthy cholesterol levels and support thyroid hormone function. (nootriment.com)
  • An organoselenium compound that is a selenium analogue of methanol, comprising a methyl group covalently bound to a selenol group. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In this study, a selenium containing isosteric analogue of PBIT [S, S′-1,4-phenylenebis(1,2-ethanediyl)bis-isothiourea] called PBISe [Se, Se′-1,4-phenylenebis(1,2-ethanediyl)bis-isoselenourea] is shown to moderate these 2 major signaling pathways to prevent cutaneous melanocytic lesion or melanoma development. (aacrjournals.org)