Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or group of atoms with a valence of plus 1, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Peptide neurotoxins from the marine fish-hunting snails of the genus CONUS. They contain 13 to 29 amino acids which are strongly basic and are highly cross-linked by disulfide bonds. There are three types of conotoxins, omega-, alpha-, and mu-. OMEGA-CONOTOXINS inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane and therefore the release of ACETYLCHOLINE. Alpha-conotoxins inhibit the postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor. Mu-conotoxins prevent the generation of muscle action potentials. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
An auditory orientation mechanism involving the emission of high frequency sounds which are reflected back to the emitter (animal).
The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.
Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The posterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which contain centers for auditory function.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Kappa opioid receptors bind dynorphins with a higher affinity than endorphins which are themselves preferred to enkephalins.
The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Rhodium. A hard and rare metal of the platinum group, atomic number 45, atomic weight 102.905, symbol Rh. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Solution titration in which the end point is read from the electrode-potential variations with the concentrations of potential determining ions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
Metals that constitute group 1(formerly group Ia) of the periodic table. They are the most strongly electropositive of the metals. Note that HYDROGEN is not considered an alkali metal even though it falls under the group 1 heading in the periodic table.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Delta opioid receptors bind endorphins and enkephalins with approximately equal affinity and have less affinity for dynorphins.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that are highly expressed in the LIMBIC SYSTEM of the brain.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Sounds used in animal communication.
An actinomycete used for production of commercial ANTIBIOTICS and as a host for gene cloning.
A computer simulation technique that is used to model the interaction between two molecules. Typically the docking simulation measures the interactions of a small molecule or ligand with a part of a larger molecule such as a protein.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.
Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.
Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
Phenolic metacyclophanes derived from condensation of PHENOLS and ALDEHYDES. The name derives from the vase-like molecular structures. A bracketed [n] indicates the number of aromatic rings.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Drug agonism involving selective binding but reduced effect. This can result in some degree of DRUG ANTAGONISM.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.
Part of the DIENCEPHALON inferior to the caudal end of the dorsal THALAMUS. Includes the lateral geniculate body which relays visual impulses from the OPTIC TRACT to the calcarine cortex, and the medial geniculate body which relays auditory impulses from the lateral lemniscus to the AUDITORY CORTEX.
The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A methodology for chemically synthesizing polymer molds of specific molecules or recognition sites of specific molecules. Applications for molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) include separations, assays and biosensors, and catalysis.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Organic salts or esters of methanesulfonic acid.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A family of inwardly-rectifying potassium channels that are activated by PERTUSSIS TOXIN sensitive G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. GIRK potassium channels are primarily activated by the complex of GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS and GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
A specific subtype of muscarinic receptor that has a high affinity for the drug PIRENZEPINE. It is found in the peripheral GANGLIA where it signals a variety of physiological functions such as GASTRIC ACID secretion and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION. This subtype of muscarinic receptor is also found in neuronal tissues including the CEREBRAL CORTEX and HIPPOCAMPUS where it mediates the process of MEMORY and LEARNING.
Metals that constitute the group 2 (formerly group IIa) of the periodic table.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A hard, brittle, grayish-white rare earth metal with an atomic symbol Ru, atomic number 44, and atomic weight 101.07. It is used as a catalyst and hardener for PLATINUM and PALLADIUM.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.
A group of TETRAHYDRONAPHTHALENES containing a keto oxygen.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Compounds containing the PhCH= radical.
The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Yarrow JF, McCoy SC, Borst SE (2010). "Tissue selectivity and potential clinical applications of trenbolone (17beta- ... "Testosterone and trenbolone enanthate increase mature myostatin protein expression despite increasing skeletal muscle ... "Effect of Trenbolone enanthate on protein degradation in levator ani/bulbocavernosus (LABC) muscle in orchiectomized rats" ...
Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit (also known as Cav1.2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by ... Tang S, Mikala G, Bahinski A, Yatani A, Varadi G, Schwartz A (Jun 1993). "Molecular localization of ion selectivity sites ... Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective Wikipedia articles. [§ 1] ... protein binding. • alpha-actinin binding. • voltage-gated calcium channel activity. • voltage-gated calcium channel activity ...
TATA-binding protein (TBP) can be recruited in two ways, by SAGA, a cofactor for RNA polymerase II, or by TFIID.[11] When ... "Core promoter-specific gene regulation: TATA box selectivity and Initiator-dependent bi-directionality of serum response ... "TATA-binding protein recognition and bending of a consensus promoter are protein species dependent". Biochemistry. 47 (27): ... The TATA-binding protein (TBP) could also be targeted by viruses as a means of viral transcription.[6] ...
Graczyk, Piotr (2007). "Gini Coefficient: A New Way To Express Selectivity of Kinase Inhibitors against a Family of Kinases". ... Dalam bidang kimia telah digunakan untuk menyatakan selektivitas protein inhibitor kinase terhadap panel kinase.[20] In ...
3) are the most common positively charged moieties in proteins, specifically in the amino acid lysine.[16] The anionic polymer ... Selectivity can be improved via the Delépine reaction, although this is rarely employed on an industrial scale. ... Dill, Ken A. (1990). "Dominant forces in protein folding". Biochemistry. 29 (31): 7133-55. doi:10.1021/bi00483a001. PMID ... Andrade, Miguel A.; O'Donoghue, Seán I.; Rost, Burkhard (1998). "Adaptation of protein surfaces to subcellular location". ...
Origins of Cell Selectivity of Cationic Steroid Antibiotics J. Am. Chem. Soc., 126(42), 13642 -13648, 2004. ...
Ovaj protein je G protein spregnuti receptor sa sedam transmembranskih domena. On je komponenta heterodimernog aminokiselinskog ... 1999). „Putative mammalian taste receptors: a class of taste-specific GPCRs with distinct topographic selectivity.". Cell. 96 ( ... TAS1R2 protein nije samostalno funkcionalan.[2]. TAS1R2 i TAS1R1 su spontanano aktivni u odsustvu njihovih ekstracelularnih ... Receptor ukusa tip 2 član 2 je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran TAS1R2 genom.[1] ...
6,0 6,1 Colley NJ, Trench RK (1983) Selectivity in phagocytosis and persistence of symbiotic algae by the scyphistoma stage of ... I. Isoenzyme and soluble protein patterns of axenic cultures of S. microadriaticum. Proc R Soc Lond B 207:405-27 ... Iglesias-Prieto R, Govind NS, Trench RK (1993) Isolation and characterization of three membrane-bound chlorophyll-protein ... Heat stress causes inhibition of de novo synthesis of antenna proteins and photobleaching in cultured Symbiodinium. Proc Nat ...
Isoyama T, Thwaites D, Selzer MG, Carey RI, Barbucci R, Lokeshwar VB (January 2006). "Differential selectivity of hyaluronidase ... Available protein structures:. Pfam structures / ECOD PDB. RCSB PDB; PDBe; PDBj. PDBsum. structure summary. ...
CCR5 protein pripada familiji beta hemokinskih receptora, integralnih membranskih proteina.[2][3] On je G protein spregnuti ... The BBXB motif of RANTES is the principal site for heparin binding and controls receptor selectivity". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (14 ... CCR5 (C-C hemokinski receptor tip 5, CD195) je protein na površini belih krvnih zrnca. On je komponenta imunskog sistema koja ... aktivnost G-protein spregnutog receptora. • aktivnost hemokinskog receptora. • proteinsko vezivanje. • koreceptorska aktivnost ...
Since sequencing of the human genome which allowed rapid cloning and synthesis of large quantities of purified proteins, it has ... selectivity (to reduce the potential of side effects), efficacy/potency, metabolic stability (to increase the half-life), and ... which include recombinant proteins, vaccines, blood products used therapeutically (such as IVIG), gene therapy, monoclonal ... which include recombinant proteins, vaccines, blood products used therapeutically (such as IVIG), gene therapy, and cell ...
"for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity"[79] ... "for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form"[38] ... "for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin"[50] ... "for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"[101] ...
"Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein regulates the expression of aldose reductase and protein kinase C δ in a mouse ... 2acu: TYROSINE-48 IS THE PROTON DONOR AND HISTIDINE-110 DIRECTS SUBSTRATE STEREOCHEMICAL SELECTIVITY IN THE REDUCTION REACTION ... Protein[edit]. AKR1B1 consists of 316 amino acid residues and weighs 35853Da. It does not possess the traditional dinucleotide ... stress-activated protein kinase signaling cascade. • cellular response to peptide. • daunorubicin metabolic process. • ...
Contributions of protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions toward complex formation". The Journal of Biological ... The S1 subpocket determines the major component of selectivity and binding. The S2 sub-pocket is small, shallow and not well ... The affinity of this protein for factor Xa is increased 1000-fold by the presence of protein Z, while it does not require ... protein binding. • serine-type peptidase activity. • serine-type endopeptidase activity. • phospholipid binding. • hydrolase ...
"for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity"[86] ... "for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form"[45] ... "for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin"[57] ... especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins"[47] ...
Selectivity of antidepressant agents are based on the neurotransmitters that are thought to influence symptoms of depression.[ ... TCAs have substantially more affinity for norepinephrine reuptake proteins than the SSRIs. This is because of a formation of ... The human serotonin transporter (SERT) and norepinephrine transporter (NET) are membrane transport proteins that are ... Inhibiting the reuptake transport protein results in increased concentrations of serotonin and norepinephrine in the synaptic ...
... which contain residues that can be directly modified by a series of protein kinases and protein phosphatases, as well as ... Receptor subunit selectivity was discovered in the early 1990s, which led to recognition of a new class of compounds that ... The NMDA receptor is a glutamate and ion channel protein receptor that is activated when glycine and glutamate bind to it.[2] ... The NMDA receptor is ionotropic, meaning it is a protein which allows the passage of ions through the cell membrane.[4] The ...
The HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein 7 (NCp7) is the protein targeted by zinc ejectors. NCp7 is initially formed as part of the gag ... Experimentation and modeling of the selectivity of DIBA-1, ADA, and other zinc ejectors found that this safety concern was ... protein-protein interactions, and DNA replication. If these zinc ejectors unintentionally bind to the wrong zinc finger domains ... HIV Agents That Selectively Target Retroviral Nucleocapsid Protein Zinc Fingers without Affecting Cellular Zinc Finger Proteins ...
Jacobs MD, Caron PR, Hare BJ (Mar 2008). "Classifying protein kinase structures guides use of ligand-selectivity profiles to ... a b c d e f g h i j k l m Petsko, GA and Ringe, D 2009, 'Protein Structure and Function', Oxford University Press Inc., New ... It exerts its effect by phosphorylating target proteins such as P53, MDM2 and chk2. Activation of ATM is facilitated by ... This receptor is a protein with an (αβ)2 quaternary structure. The two large α-subunits are extracellular, while the smaller β- ...
Western blot and protein analysis were conducted to determine the relative amounts of VGCC subunit expression. α1C, α1D, and α2 ... class of compounds and are an intermediate class between phenylalkylamine and dihydropyridines in their selectivity for ... "The involvement of actin, calcium channels and exocytosis proteins in somato-dendritic oxytocin and vasopressin release" ...
This fusion protein has enzyme activity that can be inhibited by imatinib, a small molecule drug.[119][120][121][122] ... Nanoparticles are 1-1000 nanometer (nm) sized particles that can promote tumor selectivity and aid in delivering low-solubility ... As different proteins are utilised by different cancer types, the targeted therapy drugs are used on a cancer type specific, or ... Now it is clear that there is often a range of protein targets that the drug can bind. An example target for targeted therapy ...
Cisteinil leukotrienski receptor 1 je protein koji je kod ljudi kodiran CYSLTR1 genom.[1][2][3] ... 2001). „Selectivity of recombinant human leukotriene D(4), leukotriene B(4), and lipoxin A(4) receptors with aspirin-triggered ... Ovaj receptor je član superfamilije G protein spregnutih receptora. Aktivacija ovog receptora LTD4 ligandom dovodi kontrakcija ... Farmakološke studije su utvrdile da cisteinil leukotrieni aktiviraju najmanje 2 receptora, protein kodiran ovim genom i CYSLTR2 ...
Consequently, fields of a particular frequency can manipulate particles with great selectivity. This has allowed, for example, ... proteins and viruses. DEP can be used to separate particles with different sign polarizabilities as they move in different ... a model for the dielectric behaviour of cell suspensions and protein solutions]. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung B. 14 (2): 125- ...
This will cause desired proteins to be eluted out of the column. Proteins that have a low net charge will be eluted out first ... Despite this selectivity, excess amounts of an ion with a lower selectivity introduced to the column would cause the lesser ion ... The isoelectric point is the pH at which a compound - in this case a protein - has no net charge. A protein's isoelectric point ... Alternatively a peptide tag can be genetically added to the protein to give the protein an isoelectric point away from most ...
Two broad classes of theories have emerged: (1) Changes in protein phosphorylation, gene expression, and protein translation ... Kimmel, HL; O'Connor, JA; Carroll, FI; Howell, LL (2007). "Faster onset and dopamine transporter selectivity predict stimulant ...
... (ADORA2B) je G-protein spregnuti adenozinski receptor. Ovaj protein je kodiran humanim ADORA2B genom.[ ... structure-affinity and structure-selectivity relationships". Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 16: 9780. PMID 18938084. doi: ... signalni put G-protein spregnutog receptora. • aktivnost adenilat ciklaze. • JNK kaskada. • izlučivanje. ... "Role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase kinase in adenosine A2B receptor ...
... low host selectivity and wide range of habitats". Hydrobiologia. 734 (1): 187-199. doi:10.1007/s10750-014-1879-4. hdl:10261/ ... Their teeth consist of a meshwork of keratin filaments and other proteins.[15] ...
LSD exhibits functional selectivity at the 5-HT2A and 5HT2C receptors in that it activates the signal transduction enzyme ... β-arrestin over activating G proteins.[78][79] LSD also has an exceptionally long residence time when bound to serotonin ... "Functional selectivity and classical concepts of quantitative pharmacology". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental ...
... amino acid in a protein. Their natural selectivity and relative bioorthogonality is thus valuable in developing probes specific ... If the quantification of non-1,2-aminothiol-bearing protein is desired, the protein of interest can be cleaved to yield a ... SPAAC between a cyclooctyne-modified fluorophore and azide-tagged proteins allowed the selection of these proteins in cell ... Lang, K.; Chin, J. (2014). "Bioorthogonal Reactions for Labeling Proteins". ACS Chem. Biol. 9 (1): 16-20. doi:10.1021/cb4009292 ...
... structural proteins, polyamines, and proteins involved in nuclear import.[3] Acetylation of these proteins can alter their ... Lysine selectivity[edit]. Different HATs, usually in the context of multisubunit complexes, have been shown to acetylate ... Protein Chem. Advances in Protein Chemistry. 67: 181-99. doi:10.1016/S0065-3233(04)67007-0. ISBN 9780120342679. PMID 14969728. ... In addition, since contacts between CoA and protein facilitate the formation of favorable histone-protein contacts, it is ...
The normal development and functioning of plastids require import of particular subsets of nuclear encoded proteins. Most ... Border control: selectivity of chloroplast protein import and regulation at the TOC-complex - Demarsy, Emilie et al ...
Of the ten proteins, two were proteins (OX40 and TIGIT) whose relevance for Treg cells biology has been shown (Joller et?al., ... If a focus on gene (or proteins) or a couple of relevant genes (or protein) are regarded as involved with mediating a toxicant- ... B) The manifestation level of Cyclin D1 protein was measured by western-blot in HONE1-Vector and HONE1-EBV cells. (C, D, E) ... Furthermore, EBV genes are involved in the rules of the cell cycle-related protein cyclin D1. Intro of the EBV genome improved ...
Beijersbergen RL, Hijmans EM, Zhu L, Relationship of e-myc using the pRb-related proteins p107 leads to inhibition of c-myc ... with B-cell lymphoma, BCL5, encodes a Krupel-like zinc-finger protein. Blood 1994;83:26C32. [PubMed] 36. Ye BH, Cattoretti G, ... Leoncini L, Bellan C, Cossu A, Retinoblastoma-related p107 and pRb2/p130 proteins in malignant lymphomas: specific systems of ...
Protein Ser/Thr Phosphatases *PTP *Retinoid X Receptors *Serotonin (5-ht1E) Receptors ... Tissue-selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) demonstrate tissue selectivity in both castrated. Tissue-selective ... reduced both prostate and levator ani muscle weights without the selectivity and improved plasma hormone amounts inside a dose- ... androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) demonstrate tissue selectivity in both castrated and unchanged male rats, behaving as ...
SV Small-molecule ligands of methyl-lysine binding proteins: optimization of selectivity for L3MBTL3. J Med Chem56:7358-71 ( ... Lethal(3)malignant brain tumor-like protein 3 (L3MBTL3). Synonyms:. H-l(3)mbt-like protein 3 , L(3)mbt-like protein 3 , Lethal( ... Lethal(3)malignant brain tumor-like protein 3 (L3MBTL3). Name:. ... 3)malignant brain tumor-like protein 3 , MBT-1. Type:. Protein ...
To test the selectivity, a selection of O-glycosylated, N-glycosylated and non-glycosylated proteins were incubated with ... Identified O-glycosylated proteins and other proteins with ,12 matching peptides and a MASCOT score ,200 are listed. ... since only O-glycosylated proteins are eluted and the resin shows negligible binding to non- and N-glycosylated proteins (Fig. ... 4a). The sample was digested with trypsin and analyzed using RP-LC-MS/MS, and a list of proteins was identified using the Swiss ...
Researchers have discovered a protein profile in the blood that predicts which lung cancer patients will profit from targeted ... But this selectivity makes these therapies effective only for the subset of patients whose tumours are "driven" by the targeted ... They affect proteins and signalling pathways that are selectively activated in certain malignant cells and not in normal cells ... identified a pattern of eight proteins that was correlated with survival, and developed a prediction algorithm. They then ...
... facilitating the high efficiency and selectivity required for the separation of complex peptides and proteins. ... for nano-LC and trapping columns provide an advantage developing fast and efficient separations for complex peptide and protein ...
Any suggestions? ,Steve, the Cyclop-eeze is a pretty good diet high in protein. You dont mention how long youve had the ... so I dont think his selectivity is a matter of not being hungry. Im worried that eating only Cyclop-eeze will not sustain him ...
However, the ability to activate protein function through aptamer-protein interaction has not been well-elucidated. To ... However, the ability to activate protein function through aptamer-protein interaction has not been well-elucidated. To ... However, the ability to activate protein function through aptamer-protein interaction has not been well-elucidated. To ... However, the ability to activate protein function through aptamer-protein interaction has not been well-elucidated. To ...
Selectivity of Membrane Proteins Towards Individual Phospholipids. Dr. Arthur Laganowsky Assistant Professor, Texas A&M ...
... drug-like molecules with high target specificity and selectivity, even to novel protein target sequences, and does not need ... for designing new drug-like small molecules targeting novel viral proteins with high affinity and off-target selectivity. ... receptor-binding domain of the spike protein, and non-structural protein 9 replicase. The generated candidates are novel at ... CogMol leverages a protein-molecule binding affinity predictor that is trained using SMILES VAE embeddings and protein sequence ...
Current diagnostic tests dont have the level of sensitivity and selectivity to detect protein binding. Our goal was to see if ... Protein structure prediction tools AlphaFold and RoseTTAFold take the latest steps towards maturity and make their software ... However, on a cellular level, aggregates of the proteins beta-amyloid and alpha-synuclein have been linked to AD and PD, ... They found that the sensor could distinguish between the samples based on the protein aggregates present, suggesting that it ...
... proven selectivity and low protein binding attributes. Preconfigured, holder-less modules include a tubing set that connects to ...
... as well as a high degree of selectivity versus a wide range of 256 other protein kinases. ... Fadraciclib is a leading dual inhibitor of two cancer-driving proteins from the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) family, CDK2 and ... a protein involved in cancer cell survival and drug resistance. To exploit this effect further, they evaluated fadraciclib in ... which is often co-opted in blood cancers to drive the production of other cancer-causing proteins. ...
Fekete was the first to evaluate the impact of operating pressure on proteins retention and selectivity in reversed-phase LC, ... and has also published valuable work on the retention modelling of large proteins (monoclonal antibodies) using computer ...
Atomwise can screen billions of compounds and has demonstrated success using homology-modeled proteins. With Atomwise, ... selectivity, toxicity, efficacy, safety, and patentability. Brute force physical screening is no longer a solution, with ...
Heat shock proteins in the IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY. ... in a purine-scaffold compound series with selectivity for the ... heat shock protein 70.2 , heat shock protein alpha 2 , HSP70A2 , Hst70 , heat shock 70kDa protein 2 , heat shock protein 2 , ... Heat shock 70 kDa protein 1A/1B , heat shock 70kDa protein 1A , heat shock protein 1A , heat shock protein family A member 1A ... heat shock 70 kDa protein 1A/1B , HSP70A1 , HSP72 , heat shock 70kDa protein 1B , heat shock protein 1B , heat shock protein ...
Selectivity and matrix effect. *Sensitivity. *Spiking recovery. *Dilution linearity. *Stability of target molecules in the ... Measurement of protein/nucleic acid level with ELISA. Aim:. The aim of the assay is to detect and quantify the target molecules ... Home - Download - Auri Knowledge - Measurement of protein/nucleic acid level with ELISA ...
... like protein-protein interactions. The AI and ML components of Sanoosas technology achieve a high degree of selectivity for ... RAS-proteins as Oncology Targets. Mutations in Ras protein family members are found in approximately 30% of human cancers. K- ... RAS proteins interact with several downstream effectors, primarily Raf protein kinases and phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks). ... The RAF protein family has emerged as an extremely promising and validated target for protein-directed anticancer therapies. ...
the FXYD accessory proteins phospholemman (PLM)[1C3]. Unphosphorylated PLM tonically inhibits Na/K-ATPase which inhibition can ...
Our work provides the first mechanistic cues as to how transglutaminase activity could affect protein secretion and matrix ... Some of them are matricellular cell adhesion proteins such as laminin, fibronectin, thrombospondin and osteopontin [21]C[26]; ... between substrate protein [17]C[20]. This enzymatic reaction is usually exclusively performed by TGs and can take place at the ... currently comprising nine proteins; TG1, TG2, TG3, TG4, TG5, TG6, TG7, Factor XIIIA and inactive erythrocyte TG) of widely ...
... small molecules that rapidly and specifically bind and inhibit electrophile-sensitive DEAD-box proteins with high selectivity ... DEAD-box proteins are an essential class of enzymes involved in all stages of RNA metabolism. The study of DEAD-box proteins is ... The union of G12D over wildtype selectivity and GTP state/GDP state selectivity is particularly desirable, considering that ... We identify a residue of low conservation within the P-loop of the nucleotide-binding site of DEAD-box proteins and show that ...
Neuroactive insecticides: targets, selectivity, resistance, and secondary effects. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 2013;58:99.. Badawy MEI, ... The highest predicted ligand/protein affinity was with Hesperidin followed by A-Naringin. Molecular docking and protein-protein ... of protein structures: patterns of nonbonded atomic interactions. Protein Sci.2:1511-19. Bhattacharya D, Cheng J. 3drefine: ... The strong binding ability of the six compounds to the T. urticae proteins. The selected proteins participate in vital pathways ...
Phosphorylation at CDK1, CDK4, and CDK9 sites on, respectively, protein phosphatase 1, retinoblastoma protein, and RNA ... Protein kinases represent promising anticancer drug targets. We describe here the meriolins, a new family of inhibitors of ... A selectivity study done on 32 kinases showed that, compared with variolin B, meriolins display enhanced specificity toward ... Meriolins, a new class of cell death-inducing kinase inhibitors with enhanced selectivity for cyclin-dependent kinases. ...
Off target protein and potency (cells): BRD9. Probe Selectivity in Cell: In a proteomic selectivity profile assessing HL60 cell ... Probe Selectivity in Vitro: At 10 uM, I-BET151 had minimal activity (,40%) against a broad panel of pharmacologically active ... This molecule (like JQ1) is very well characterized, with wide selectivity building confidence that this probe will act on the ... they inhibit all of the BET family proteins with equal potency. ...
ZIF-8 acts as a protective host for enzymes, proteins, and drugs from degradation induced due to temperature, solvents, and ... ZIF-8 based materials enhanced the selectivity and sensitivity for analytes biosensing, ensuring their potential for ... ZIF-8 acts as a protective host for enzymes, proteins, and drugs from degradation induced due to temperature, solvents, and ... Targeting the Nucleotide Metabolism Proteins of the NUDIX Family and SAMHD1 in Cancer. Current Medicinal Chemistry ...
G couple proteins and ion gated channels are proteins in the cell membrane that regulate the opening and closing of ... Inverse Agonism and Functional Selectivity. The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology, 21(10), 962-977. https://doi. ... The g couple protein responds to diverse stimuli such as neurotransmitters, hormones, drugs, and light (Wulff & Christophersen ... Proteins and Ion Gated ChannelsReceptors in neurotransmitters can be grouped into two classes which are the g couple protein ...
View Proteins belonging to: The Raffinose Porin (RafY) Family. References associated with 1.B.15 family:. Andersen, C., D. ... However, it has been shown to transport ions with slight selectivity for cations over anions. It appears to have a relatively ... The gene order is: rafR (regulatory protein), rafA (α-galactosidase), rafB (permease), rafD (invertase) and rafY (porin). The ... The RafY family consists of a single porin protein, RafY, encoded within the E. coli plasmid pRSD2. pRSD2 also encodes the ...
Lu X, Malley KR, Brenner CC, Koroleva O, Korolev S, Downes BP (2016) A MUB E2 structure reveals E1 selectivity between cognate ... Downes BP, Saracco SA, Lee SS, Crowell DN, Vierstra RD (2006) MUBs: a unique family of ubiquitin-fold proteins that are ... The lab is studying new layers of specificity for the ubiquitin system, which is a major selector for regulatory protein ... Downes and his colleagues are currently focused on a small ubiquitin-fold protein, which they named MUB, short for Membrane- ...
  • GlycOCATCH ® is an affinity resin that specifically binds to O-glycosylated (mucin-type) proteins and peptides, allowing an easy workflow to enrich and purify proteins and peptides carrying O-glycans. (genovis.com)
  • Nano- and Microflow LC-MS Columns LC columns that fully exploit the separation power of sub-2-µm stationary phases, facilitating the high efficiency and selectivity required for the separation of complex peptides and proteins. (waters.com)
  • The straightforward synthesis of ZIF-8 at mild conditions improved the biomineralization of several biomolecules, e.g., protein, peptides, carbohydrate, and biological cells, such as viruses and bacterial cells. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The cargo can be small molecules, peptides, proteins or mRNA. (theuncoverreality.in)
  • These columns are excellent for the separation of proteins, peptides and other various cationic compounds. (separationmethods.com)
  • The recent availability of four fungal and one bacterial-derived protease preparations has led to the investigation reported in this thesis of their potential meat tenderising properties and their ability to produce bioactive peptides from meat myofibrillar and connective tissue protein extracts. (otago.ac.nz)
  • The peptides detected are then run against a database of expected peptides created from knowing both the sequence of the protein and where the protease would have cut and then allowing for the possibility of modifications such as phosphorylation. (openlabnotebooks.org)
  • In this work, we describe a chemical genetic strategy for the specific inactivation of individual DEAD-box proteins with small molecule inhibitors using covalent complementarity. (escholarship.org)
  • Guido Zaman and Suzanne van Gerwen will attend and present at the 8th International Conference on Protein Kinase Inhibitors (IPK2014) held in Warsaw, Poland, from September 21st to 25th. (oncolines.com)
  • TPD is of interest in drug development as it can address previously considered undruggable targets (80% of the human proteome) that cannot be inhibited with traditional small molecule inhibitors, such as scaffold proteins and transcription factors. (discoverx.com)
  • A novel class of potent PI3Kδ inhibitors with >1000-fold selectivity against other class I PI3K isoforms is described. (rcsb.org)
  • In summary, CogMol can handle multi-constraint design of synthesizable, low-toxic, drug-like molecules with high target specificity and selectivity, even to novel protein target sequences, and does not need target-dependent fine-tuning of the framework or target structure information. (nips.cc)
  • A selectivity study done on 32 kinases showed that, compared with variolin B, meriolins display enhanced specificity toward CDKs, with marked potency on CDK2 and CDK9. (edu.au)
  • The lab is studying new layers of specificity for the ubiquitin system, which is a major selector for regulatory protein modification and degradation. (slu.edu)
  • This combination of high specificity and selectivity allows the active substances to be transported and with extreme precision. (theuncoverreality.in)
  • This non-symmetrical water polarization affects our understanding of ion-differentiation mechanisms such as ion selectivity and ion specificity. (eurekalert.org)
  • Affinity Chromatography (AFC) offers the greatest potential specificity and selectivity for the isolation or purification of biomolecules. (tosohbioscience.com)
  • However, it has been shown to transport ions with slight selectivity for cations over anions. (tcdb.org)
  • Four identical protein subunits surround two potassium ions in the "selectivity pore. (colostate.edu)
  • Synergistic activation of G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels by the betagamma subunits of G proteins and Na(+) and Mg(2+) ions. (omicsdi.org)
  • These results could influence the future design of membranes for selective ion adsorption used in environmental technologies, like water purification processes, batteries and capacitors for electric energy storage, and the characterization of biomolecules, like proteins and DNA. (eurekalert.org)
  • Sanoosa's technology comprises an agile process and is focused on difficult to drug disease targets, like protein-protein interactions. (epichem.com.au)
  • unique selectivity with polar and π-π interactions, ideal for separating halogenated compounds and polar analytes. (teknokroma.es)
  • Graphene is a regular surface, but these findings can help explain electrostatic interactions in more complex molecules, like proteins," said Jimenez-Angeles. (eurekalert.org)
  • Purification of several thousand-fold may be obtained due to the high selectivity of the affinity interactions. (tosohbioscience.com)
  • In these simulations we focused on distortions of the selectivity filter, and on the presence/absence of water molecules lying behind the filter, which form interactions with the filter and the remainder of the protein. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Current diagnostic tests don't have the level of sensitivity and selectivity to detect protein binding. (chemistryworld.com)
  • In the new paper the researchers also found an association between sensitivity to fadraciclib and levels of the MCL1 and BCL2 proteins in cancer cells, and also the presence of 'rearranged' copies of a gene called MLL (mixed lineage leukaemia), which is often co-opted in blood cancers to drive the production of other cancer-causing proteins. (ddw-online.com)
  • The study of DEAD-box proteins is challenging in a native setting since they are structurally similar, often essential and display dosage sensitivity. (escholarship.org)
  • ZIF-8 based materials enhanced the selectivity and sensitivity for analytes' biosensing, ensuring their potential for electronic devices. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Fekete was the first to evaluate the impact of operating pressure on proteins retention and selectivity in reversed-phase LC, and has also published valuable work on the retention modelling of large proteins (monoclonal antibodies) using computer simulation, suggesting a generic method development approach and platform methods that are very important for pharmaceutical industrial laboratories. (chromatographyonline.com)
  • Identifying nonpolar transbilayer helices in amino acid sequences of membrane proteins. (wikidata.org)
  • we have created a structural model of the E2 protein core (residues 421C645) that contains the three amino acid segments that are not present in either Etoposide structure. (tg-101348.info)
  • Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) is one of recognized option to evaluate protein's quality. (globalfoodforums.com)
  • Diets based solely on plant protein sources could have advantages over fish-based diets because of the cost and ecological effects of the latter, but plant proteins lack the amino acid taurine. (pubfacts.com)
  • TG1, TG2, TG3, TG4, TG5, TG6, TG7, Factor XIIIA and inactive erythrocyte TG) of widely distributed enzymes that catalyze a Ca2+-dependent acyl-transfer reaction between polypeptide-bound glutamine residues and primary amines, producing in the formation of a covalent -(glutamyl)-lysyl bond (an isopeptide crosslink) between substrate protein [17]C[20]. (tg-101348.info)
  • In addition, we present E3scan assays for individual substrate domains to screen for E3 ligase substrate selectivity. (discoverx.com)
  • Although affinity chromatography is not specific, in that no enzyme interacts with only one substrate, it is the most selective method for separating proteins. (tosohbioscience.com)
  • They affect proteins and signalling pathways that are selectively activated in certain malignant cells and not in normal cells. (compamed-tradefair.com)
  • But this selectivity makes these therapies effective only for the subset of patients whose tumours are "driven" by the targeted pathways. (compamed-tradefair.com)
  • Molecular docking and protein-protein interaction also showed the probability of the six ligands to bind to the T. urticae proteins and the relationship of the proteins with the vital pathways in the T. urticae. (ikprress.org)
  • The selected proteins participate in vital pathways in the T. urticae confirm our previous study and identify the compounds of extract and essential oils of mentha plants and their interaction and which compounds are responsible for causing the death of the T. urticae. (ikprress.org)
  • Bacterial virulence proteins as tools to rewire kinase pathways in yeast and immune cells. (gentaur.ch)
  • including its structure, drugs that act at the CB1 receptor, G-protein and ß-arrestin mediated signaling pathways, as well as, CB1 receptor regulation by other proteins. (uncg.edu)
  • HBV is a DNA virus that can integrate DNA into host genome thereby increases the yield of trans-activator protein HBxAg that may deregulate many pathways involving in metabolism of cells causing Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) development. (bmmj.org)
  • DEAD-box proteins are an essential class of enzymes involved in all stages of RNA metabolism. (escholarship.org)
  • ZIF-8 acts as a protective host for enzymes, proteins, and drugs from degradation induced due to temperature, solvents, and proteolytic agents. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Dowil RT, Lu X, Saracco SA, Vierstra RD, Downes BP (2011) Arabidopsis Membrane-Anchored Ubiquitin-Fold (MUB) Proteins Localize A Specific Subset of Ubiquitin-Conjugating (E2) Enzymes to the Plasma Membrane. (slu.edu)
  • Dr Ram Vishwakarma, highlighting the R&D carried out, informed that the anti-cancer screening against NCI-60 cancer cell lines panel and clinically validated protein kinase enzymes involved in cancer provided in 2011, provided an initial potent hit (rohitukine, a pure molecule natural product from the leaves of a tree from the Western Ghats Dysoxylum binectariferum,commonly known as Indian white cedar). (indiaeducationdiary.in)
  • AZ6102 shows good inhibition of TNK1/2 with selectivity against other related enzymes of the PARP family. (chemicalprobes.org)
  • Data about other potential off targets (e.g., other NAD+-dependent enzymes or protein kinases) are not shown. (chemicalprobes.org)
  • Frye, SV Small-molecule ligands of methyl-lysine binding proteins: optimization of selectivity for L3MBTL3. (bindingdb.org)
  • Docking score for ligands beside each protein was intended to estimate the binding open power. (ikprress.org)
  • In addition, biased mutants developed here should assist structure-based drug design of CB1 receptor ligands with ß-arrestin functional selectivity. (uncg.edu)
  • These structural design modifications led to a 20-fold more potent activity against the CDK2 and CDK9 targets and an equivalent 30-fold increase in therapeutic potency against a panel of human cancer cells, as well as a high degree of selectivity versus a wide range of 256 other protein kinases. (ddw-online.com)
  • Historically, the challenge has been finding the right drug among the trillions of possibilities that meets their needs for potency, selectivity, toxicity, efficacy, safety, and patentability. (biomedreports.com)
  • they inhibit all of the BET family proteins with equal potency. (chemicalprobes.org)
  • We identify a residue of low conservation within the P-loop of the nucleotide-binding site of DEAD-box proteins and show that it can be mutated to cysteine without a substantial loss of enzyme function to generate electrophile-sensitive mutants. (escholarship.org)
  • DNA replication relies on nucleotide selectivity of replicative DNA polymerase, exonucleolytic proofreading, and postrep-licative DNA mismatch repair (MMR). (investorzahumny.cz)
  • Crystal structures of a ddATP-, ddTTP-, ddCTP, and ddGTP- trapped ternary complex of Klentaq1: insights into nucleotide incorporation and selectivity. (neb.com)
  • Beijersbergen RL, Hijmans EM, Zhu L, Relationship of e-myc using the pRb-related proteins p107 leads to inhibition of c-myc mediated transactivation. (plant-finder.com)
  • Chemical genetic inhibition of DEAD-box proteins using covalent complementarity. (escholarship.org)
  • Thus, this approach can be used to systematically generate small molecule-sensitive alleles of DEAD-box proteins, allowing for pharmacological inhibition and functional characterization of members of this enzyme family. (escholarship.org)
  • The covalent binding to the targeted proteins was confirmed by MS and time-dependent inhibition. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Extensive hydrolysis of natural product proteins to produce short peptide sequences has been shown to generate a range of bioactivities including the inhibition of angiotensin I-converting enzyme and antioxidant properties. (otago.ac.nz)
  • We applied the CogMol framework to three SARS-CoV-2 target proteins: main protease, receptor-binding domain of the spike protein, and non-structural protein 9 replicase. (nips.cc)
  • HT protease showed the least selectivity and most efficient hydrolysis for both the meat myofibrillar and connective tissue substrates. (otago.ac.nz)
  • The g couple protein binds extracellular substances and acts as molecular switches in cells by transmitting signals from diverse stimuli from outside to the interior of the cell. (nursingpaper.org)
  • After injection, Tauvid binds to sites in the brain where abnormal tau protein accumulates, which will become visible during a PET scan imaging. (alzheimersnewstoday.com)
  • A potential solution to this selectivity problem was previously found in a high-throughput screening hit that binds in a nonconserved allosteric site. (rcsb.org)
  • Second, encodes a genuine variety of potential adhesins that could donate to cell connection, including another GAG-binding proteins, Bgp, which binds to dermatan sulfate and heparin (31), the integrin-binding proteins p66 (32), as well as the fibronectin-binding proteins BBK032 (33). (tg-101348.info)
  • I have used Tm shift analysis (which is where you look at the change in melting point of a protein caused by the binding of a ligand, the tighter it binds the more it stabilises the protein and thus the larger the shift) to look at the binding of TNIK to all the M4K compounds and compared it to the shifts seen in ALK2. (openlabnotebooks.org)
  • Making Sense of Pharmacology: Inverse Agonism and Functional Selectivity. (nursingpaper.org)
  • Core discoveries are typically recapitulated with human proteins to determine the extent of functional conservation. (slu.edu)
  • Targeted protein degradation (TPD) utilizes small molecules to hijack the cellular degradation machinery through recruitment of E3 ubiquitin ligases to proteins of interest. (discoverx.com)
  • This induces the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of these target proteins. (discoverx.com)
  • In general, the fungal proteases demonstrated slower and potentially more controllable degradation of the protein components as assessed by 1D-SDS-PAGE, however their overall effectiveness was reduced. (otago.ac.nz)
  • In in vitro ADP ribosylation assays, talazoparib was only 15-20-fold selective for PARP1/2 over other PARP proteins (IC50: PARP10=7800 nM, PARP14=25500 nM, PARP15=47400 nM, PAPR16=1900 nM). (chemicalprobes.org)
  • Downes and his colleagues are currently focused on a small ubiquitin-fold protein, which they named MUB, short for Membrane-anchored Ubiquitin-fold. (slu.edu)
  • As modulators of the ubiquitin system, understanding MUB function may reveal new mechanisms used in eukaryotic protein modification and inform efforts to improve our agricultural and medical practices. (slu.edu)
  • Lu X, Malley KR, Brenner CC, Koroleva O, Korolev S, Downes BP (2016) A MUB E2 structure reveals E1 selectivity between cognate ubiquitin E2s in eukaryotes. (slu.edu)
  • Downes BP , Saracco SA, Lee SS, Crowell DN, Vierstra RD (2006) MUBs: a unique family of ubiquitin-fold proteins that are membrane-anchored by prenylation. (slu.edu)
  • Downes BP , Stupar RM, Gingerich DJ, Vierstra RD (2003) The HECT ubiquitin-protein ligase (UPL) family in Arabidopsis: UPL3 has a specific role in trichome development. (slu.edu)
  • Liposomes, proteins, LNPs (lipid nanoparticles) or other microparticles serve as the vehicles. (theuncoverreality.in)
  • To generate novel and optimal drug-like molecules for unseen viral targets, CogMol leverages a protein-molecule binding affinity predictor that is trained using SMILES VAE embeddings and protein sequence embeddings learned unsupervised from a large corpus. (nips.cc)
  • Protein kinases represent promising anticancer drug targets. (edu.au)
  • This molecule (like JQ1) is very well characterized, with wide selectivity building confidence that this probe will act on the BRD4-related bromodomains rather than on other targets. (chemicalprobes.org)
  • leadXpro AG , Michael Hennig (CEO) - a lead discovery company focussing on membrane protein drug targets. (gruenden.ch)
  • On the other hand, the compound has been profiled against a set of unrelated protein targets in and against the related protein PARG and was found to be inactive. (chemicalprobes.org)
  • Surface plasmon resonance detection was used to screen the ligand set for binding to recombinant E2 protein, and the best binders were subsequently tested to identify compounds that inhibit the infection of Huh-7 cells by HCV. (tg-101348.info)
  • Third, although an acceptable approach to a multiplicity of binding mechanisms is the analysis of purified recombinant proteins, the binding activities of such recombinant derivatives do not usually reflect their activities when expressed in their native environments within the bacterial cell surface (34, 35). (tg-101348.info)
  • Native and recombinant G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels are directly activated by the betagamma subunits of GTP-binding (G) proteins. (omicsdi.org)
  • A revolutionary approach for the measurement of molecular weight (MW) and radius of gyration (Rg) of synthetic polymers, polysaccharides, proteins, and biopolymers. (teknokroma.es)
  • A new generation of protein display scaffolds for molecular recognition. (gentaur.ch)
  • Evaluation of the average person steps from the complicated metastatic process can't be achieved using patient tissues or assays, but mouse versions predicated on inoculation of isogenic individual cell lines with different phenotypes may enable studies of the processes aswell as supply the opportinity for comparative molecular testing and useful evaluation of applicant metastasis-related genes and proteins. (tg-101348.info)
  • A new family of outwardly rectifying potassium channel proteins with two pore domains in tandem. (wikidata.org)
  • In this study, we propose an end-to-end framework, named CogMol (Controlled Generation of Molecules), for designing new drug-like small molecules targeting novel viral proteins with high affinity and off-target selectivity. (nips.cc)
  • Docking reveals favorable binding of generated molecules to the target protein structure, where 87--95\% of high affinity molecules showed docking free energy $ (nips.cc)
  • We then present a series of small molecules that rapidly and specifically bind and inhibit electrophile-sensitive DEAD-box proteins with high selectivity over the wild-type enzyme. (escholarship.org)
  • Computational design of ligand-binding proteins with high affinity and selectivity. (dagstuhl.de)
  • To this point, high-pressure homogenization is the usual technique for cell disintegration earlier than the extraction of cytosolic and periplasmic protein from E. coli. (helicase.net)
  • 2009). These specific features likely rely on the power of S-cells to keep a high metabolic rate, proteins synthesis, and intracellular transportation. (tg-101348.info)
  • To exploit this effect further, they evaluated fadraciclib in combination with drugs that target other cancer survival and drug resistance proteins in the BCL2 family and observed synergistic anticancer activity. (ddw-online.com)
  • G couple proteins and ion gated channels are proteins in the cell membrane that regulate the opening and closing of postsynaptic ion channels (Johnson & Lovinger, 2016). (nursingpaper.org)
  • A new publication appeared in December 2016 (PMID 28001384) indicating that veliparib and niraparib are more selective than talazoparib among PARP family proteins. (chemicalprobes.org)
  • It works by altering gene expression, which in turn causes a tremendous boost in protein synthesis and body anabolism. (direct-sarms.com)
  • It works by altering gene expression, which subsequently creates a tremendous boost in protein synthesis as well as body anabolism. (direct-sarms.com)
  • Further medicinal chemistry designed to address efficacy/selectivity against a class of cell-cycle regulatory kinases (i.e. cyclin-dependent kinases) identified this preclinical candidate IIIM-290 showing excellent pharmacokinetics, oral bioavailability and potent anticancer activity in a number of animal xenograft models, with the best activity against the pancreatic cancer model. (indiaeducationdiary.in)
  • These are cellular machines, specific for synthesis and transportation of Uroplakins, a family group of essential membrane protein that assemble right into a crystalline apical plaque that addresses a lot of the urothelial apical surface area (Lin et al. (tg-101348.info)
  • ÄKTA go protein purification system has been developed for automated chromatography from the heritage of our fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) technology. (cytivalifesciences.com)
  • Here we describe an antibody purification as well as purification of two tagged proteins using a histidine tag (his tag) and a Strep-tag® II. (cytivalifesciences.com)
  • In the first step, affinity purification using a HiTrap Protein G HP antibody purification column was used. (cytivalifesciences.com)
  • His-tagged protein purification simplified protein purification and enabled the use of standard protocols. (cytivalifesciences.com)
  • book of the good Selectivity Valley Approach for the Linearity of the % of product efforts. (kowatronik.de)
  • Protein and gene manifestation of NM-2C5 and M-4A4 cells have been extensively analyzed [21C28]. (tg-101348.info)
  • As agonists stimulate an action, the antagonists sit idle only to respond after the agonists have carried out their action (Berg & Clarke, 2018).Actions of G Couple Proteins and Ion Gated ChannelsReceptors in neurotransmitters can be grouped into two classes which are the g couple protein and ion gated channels. (nursingpaper.org)
  • Proteins and nucleic acids carry numerous ionizable groups. (colostate.edu)
  • Phosphorylation at CDK1, CDK4, and CDK9 sites on, respectively, protein phosphatase 1, retinoblastoma protein, and RNA polymerase II is inhibited in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells exposed to meriolins. (edu.au)
  • US scientists have developed a biosensor that could detect the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) by measuring low concentrations of protein aggregates in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). (chemistryworld.com)
  • Proteins concentrations were assessed utilizing a bicinchoninic acidity (BCA) Proteins Assay package (Pierce, Rockland, IL, USA). (tg-101348.info)
  • Changes in ionic concentrations and/or G protein subunits in the local environment of these K(+) channels could provide a rapid amplification mechanism for generation of graded activity, thereby adjusting the level of excitability of the cells. (omicsdi.org)
  • Finally, we'll explore the fascinating topic of K + diffusion through an ion channel and learn how inner shell exchange reactions are decisive to selectivity of biological ion channels. (colostate.edu)
  • Atomwise can screen billions of compounds and has demonstrated success using homology-modeled proteins. (biomedreports.com)
  • Thus, the application of plant extracts determined to be a talented alternative plan for pest management, but the mechanism of mentha plants is unfamiliar with the effect of the compounds of extract or essential oils which exert considerable after effects on protein sequence in the T. urticae. (ikprress.org)
  • Software's were used to survey plant natural compounds for their binding ability with the T. urticae protein. (ikprress.org)
  • The compounds showed a strong ability to bind with the T. urticae proteins (the Caffeic acid, Cinnamic acid, Ferulic acid, Hesperidin, Naringin, and Rosmarinic acid) were used to predict its docking model and binding regions of T. urticae protein. (ikprress.org)
  • The strong binding ability of the six compounds to the T. urticae proteins. (ikprress.org)
  • TNIK is a protein kinase that Ros has previously talked about as being a potential off target hit for many of the M4K compounds along with DDR1. (openlabnotebooks.org)
  • G-protein subunits, the central signalling complex that links G-protein-coupled receptor stimulation to K(+) channel activity. (omicsdi.org)
  • G-protein subunits at the interfaces between four K(+) channel subunits, inducing a pre-open state of the channel. (omicsdi.org)
  • Juvabis GmbH , Sven Hobbie (CEO) - designs next-generation aminoglycoside antibiotics that withstand mechanisms of bacterial drug-resistance and at the same time display superior tolerability due to increased target selectivity by rational design. (gruenden.ch)
  • Host cell binding can be an essential part of colonization simply by many bacterial pathogens, as well as the Lyme disease agent, surface area proteins. (tg-101348.info)
  • Attachment of bacteria to host cells is thought to be a critical step leading to colonization of a particular tissue, and bacterial pathogens typically express adhesins, i.e., bacterial surface proteins that promote host cell attachment (6, 7). (tg-101348.info)
  • the remaining 10% is usually composed of bone matrix noncollagenous proteins and small proteoglycans, many still having unassigned functions [1], [6]. (tg-101348.info)
  • Proteoglycans consist of a core protein covalently linked to one or more glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains (for review, observe ref. 17). (tg-101348.info)
  • The RAF protein family has emerged as an extremely promising and validated target for protein-directed anticancer therapies. (epichem.com.au)
  • Site-specific mutations in a minimal voltage-dependent K+ channel alter ion selectivity and open-channel block. (wikidata.org)
  • When compared against a 1:1 line, anything below the line is likely to be more selective for ALK2, anything above the line is likely to be selective for TNIK and anything close to the line shows minimal selectivity. (openlabnotebooks.org)
  • Exchange rates at the lipid-protein interface of the myelin proteolipid protein determined by saturation transfer electron spin resonance and continuous wave saturation studies. (mpg.de)
  • In the fluid phase, the conventional ESR spectra consist of a fluid and a motionally restricted (i.e., protein-associated) component, whose relative proportions can be determined by spectral subtractions and depend on the selectivity of the particular spin-labeled lipid for the protein. (mpg.de)
  • For lipid spin labels with different selectivities for the protein in complexes of fixed lipid/protein ratio, the data in the fluid phase are consistent with a constant (diffusion-controlled) on-rate for exchange at the lipid-protein interface. (mpg.de)
  • Values ranging between 1 and 9 x 10(6) s-1 are estimated for the intrinsic off-rates for exchange of spin-labeled stearic acid and phosphatidylcholine, respectively, at 30 degrees C. Conventional continuous wave saturation experiments lead to similar conclusions regarding the lipid exchange rates in the fluid and gel phases of the lipid/protein recombinants. (mpg.de)
  • The ESR saturation studies therefore demonstrate exchange on the time scale of the nitroxide spin-lattice relaxation at the lipid-protein interface of myelin proteolipid/dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine complexes in the fluid phase but not in the gel phase. (mpg.de)
  • Crystal structure of the mammalian GIRK2 K+ channel and gating regulation by G proteins, PIP2, and sodium. (omicsdi.org)
  • No activity to 10 uM was detected against two panels of off-target proteins: Hit Profile Screening Panel and Adverse Reaction Enzyme Panel (MDS Pharma). (chemicalprobes.org)
  • However, the ability to activate protein function through aptamer-protein interaction has not been well-elucidated. (elsevier.com)
  • Fadraciclib is a leading dual inhibitor of two cancer-driving proteins from the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) family, CDK2 and CDK9. (ddw-online.com)
  • Mutations in Ras protein family members are found in approximately 30% of human cancers. (epichem.com.au)
  • The RafY family consists of a single porin protein, RafY, encoded within the E. coli plasmid pRSD2. (tcdb.org)
  • Conductance and ion selectivity of a mesoscopic protein nanopore probed with cysteine scanning mutagenesis. (gentaur.ch)
  • rafR (regulatory protein), rafA ( α -galactosidase), rafB (permease), rafD (invertase) and rafY (porin). (tcdb.org)
  • MUBs from diverse organisms are modified with a hydrophobic prenyl tail that allows MUBs to move specific components of the ubiquitylation system to the plasma membrane, which is adjacent to a multitude of critical regulatory proteins. (slu.edu)

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