Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A subclass of cyclooxygenase inhibitors with specificity for CYCLOOXYGENASE-2.
Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.
An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is found predominantly in inflammatory cells and may play a role in the regulation of CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. The enzyme family includes over twenty different variants that occur due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA of at least four different genes.
A phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor with antidepressant properties.
Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
A constitutively-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A class of organic compounds containing two ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Compounds that bind to and inhibit that enzymatic activity of LIPOXYGENASES. Included under this category are inhibitors that are specific for lipoxygenase subtypes and act to reduce the production of LEUKOTRIENES.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of a PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 enzyme.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily. The three members of this family are referred to as type 1A, type 1B, and type 1C and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition, multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. Although the type 1 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), some members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of oxo-pyrrolidines. A member of this group is 2-oxo pyrrolidine, which is an intermediate in the manufacture of polyvinylpyrrolidone. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
BENZOIC ACID amides.
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.
Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 4.
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) with antipyretic and analgesic actions. It is primarily available as the sodium salt.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is inhibited by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme and through phosphorylation by regulatory kinases such as PROTEIN KINASE A and PROTEIN KINASE B. The two members of this family are referred to as type 3A, and type 3B, and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing.
An undecenyl THIOUREA which may have topical anti-inflammatory activity.
A tricyclo bridged hydrocarbon.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Azoles with an OXYGEN and a NITROGEN next to each other at the 1,2 positions, in contrast to OXAZOLES that have nitrogens at the 1,3 positions.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Benzo-indoles similar to CARBOLINES which are pyrido-indoles. In plants, carbazoles are derived from indole and form some of the INDOLE ALKALOIDS.
Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 3.
Compounds that inhibit the enzyme activity or activation of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)
Ethers that are linked to a benzene ring structure.
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
A sodium-glucose transporter that is expressed in the luminal membrane of the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULES.
Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.
An anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Both the acid and its sodium salt are used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic or musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and acute gout.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Inorganic or organic derivatives of phosphinic acid, H2PO(OH). They include phosphinates and phosphinic acid esters.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glycerol monoesters of long-chain fatty acids EC 3.1.1.23.
Keto-pyrans.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A selective, irreversible inhibitor of Type B monoamine oxidase. It is used in newly diagnosed patients with Parkinson's disease. It may slow progression of the clinical disease and delay the requirement for levodopa therapy. It also may be given with levodopa upon onset of disability. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p385) The compound without isomeric designation is Deprenyl.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in vascular tissue and plays an important role in regulating VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction.
Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A low-affinity 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase found in a variety of tissues, most notably in LIVER; LUNG; ADIPOSE TISSUE; vascular tissue; OVARY; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The enzyme acts reversibly and can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors.
A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is activated by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme. Multiple enzyme variants of this subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. The subfamily is expressed in a broad variety of tissues and may play a role in mediating cross-talk between CYCLIC GMP and CYCLIC CMP pathways. Although the type 2 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
A computer simulation technique that is used to model the interaction between two molecules. Typically the docking simulation measures the interactions of a small molecule or ligand with a part of a larger molecule such as a protein.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC AMP. Several isoforms of the enzyme type exist, each with its own tissue localization. The isoforms are encoded by at least two genes and are a product of multiple alternative splicing of their mRNAs.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
Inhibitor of phosphodiesterases.
Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.
Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
A sulfonilamide anti-infective agent.
A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
A water-soluble extractive mixture of sulfated polysaccharides from RED ALGAE. Chief sources are the Irish moss CHONDRUS CRISPUS (Carrageen), and Gigartina stellata. It is used as a stabilizer, for suspending COCOA in chocolate manufacture, and to clarify BEVERAGES.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase which has been shown to prevent glutamate toxicity. Nitroarginine has been experimentally tested for its ability to prevent ammonia toxicity and ammonia-induced alterations in brain energy and ammonia metabolites. (Neurochem Res 1995:200(4):451-6)
Four carbon unsaturated hydrocarbons containing two double bonds.
Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Compounds with a core of fused benzo-pyran rings.
Pyridines substituted in any position with an amino group. May be hydrogenated, but must retain at least one double bond.
Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.
Monosaccharide transport proteins that function as active symporters. They utilize SODIUM or HYDROGEN IONS to transport GLUCOSE across CELL MEMBRANES.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.
Five-membered heterocyclic ring structures containing an oxygen in the 1-position and a nitrogen in the 3-position, in distinction from ISOXAZOLES where they are at the 1,2 positions.
Enzymes catalyzing the oxidation of arachidonic acid to hydroperoxyarachidonates. These products are then rapidly converted by a peroxidase to hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. The positional specificity of the enzyme reaction varies from tissue to tissue. The final lipoxygenase pathway leads to the leukotrienes. EC 1.13.11.- .
A subcategory of structurally-related phospholipases A2 that do not require calcium for activity.
A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
The physiologically active and stable hydrolysis product of EPOPROSTENOL. Found in nearly all mammalian tissue.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.
Aryl CYCLOPENTANES that are a reduced (protonated) form of INDENES.
Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 16-alpha-hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme is encoded by a number of genes from several CYP2 subfamilies.
Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.
A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).
Eicosatetraenoic acids substituted in any position by one or more hydroxy groups. They are important intermediates in a series of biosynthetic processes leading from arachidonic acid to a number of biologically active compounds such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase subclass that includes enzymes formed through the association of a p110gamma catalytic subunit and one of the three regulatory subunits of 84, 87, and 101 kDa in size. This subclass of enzymes is a downstream target of G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to yield guanosine-5'-phosphate.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the therapy of rheumatism and arthritis.
Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
A ubiquitously-expressed cysteine protease that plays an enzymatic role in POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of proteins within SECRETORY GRANULES.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors[edit]. Pharmaceutical treatments for GAD include selective serotonin reuptake ... reported that the preferred first-line pharmacological treatments of GAD were selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) ( ... Certain monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as moclobemide and, rarely, phenelzine.. Other drugs[edit]. *Hydroxyzine - ... Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), such as venlafaxine and duloxetine.. *Newer, atypical serotonergic ...
Aromatase inhibitors. *Non-selective: Aminoglutethimide. *Testolactone. *Selective: Anastrozole. *Exemestane. *Fadrozole. * ... Acolbifene (INN) (developmental code names EM-652, SCH-57068) is a nonsteroidal selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) ... a pure selective estrogen receptor modulator. Study of nitrogen substitution". Journal of enzyme inhibition and medicinal ...
... , a pathway inhibitor in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter dopamine, was used to determine the effects of ... 3-Iodotyrosine is a reversible inhibitor of the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase.[2] ... Monoamine reuptake inhibitors • Monoamine releasing agents • Monoamine neurotoxins ...
Aromatase inhibitors. *Non-selective: Aminoglutethimide. *Testolactone. *Selective: Anastrozole. *Exemestane. *Fadrozole. * ... Kuhl, H.; Schneider, H. P. G. (2013). "Progesterone - promoter or inhibitor of breast cancer". Climacteric. 16 Suppl 1: 54-68. ... It has been suggested by some that the absence of significant effect in some of these studies could be due to selective ... such as bisphosphonates or selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) for osteoporosis, cholesterol-lowering agents and ...
Older examples of inhibitors mentioned in the literature include oudenone[45] and aquayamycin.[46] ... Ono M, Okamoto M, Kawabe N, Umezawa H, Takeuchi T (Mar 1971). "Oudenone, a novel tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor from microbial ... Monoamine reuptake inhibitors • Monoamine releasing agents • Monoamine neurotoxins ...
Aromatase inhibitors. *Non-selective: Aminoglutethimide. *Testolactone. *Selective: Anastrozole. *Exemestane. *Fadrozole. * ... Norethisterone is a substrate for and is known to be an inhibitor of 5α-reductase, with 4.4% and 20.1% inhibition at 0.1 and 1 ... Norethisterone is a very weak inhibitor of CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 (IC50 = 46 μM and 51 μM, respectively), but these actions require ... 5α-Reductase plays an important role in the metabolism of norethisterone, and 5α-reductase inhibitors such as finasteride and ...
Aromatase inhibitors. *Non-selective: Aminoglutethimide. *Testolactone. *Selective: Anastrozole. *Exemestane. *Fadrozole. * ...
Aromatase inhibitors. *Non-selective: Aminoglutethimide. *Testolactone. *Selective: Anastrozole. *Exemestane. *Fadrozole. * ... PEP is a strong inhibitor of several enzymes, including acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and hyaluronidase.[37][38][39] ... Cytochrome P450 inhibitors, especially of CYP3A4, can reduce the metabolism of estradiol and thereby increase estradiol levels ... John's wort; in addition, while ritonavir and nelfinavir are known as strong inhibitors, they have an inducing effect in ...
Aromatase inhibitors. *Non-selective: Aminoglutethimide. *Testolactone. *Selective: Anastrozole. *Exemestane. *Fadrozole. * ... estrogenic compounds with selective properties-the next generation of therapeutics". Endocrine. 28 (3): 235-42. doi:10.1385/ ...
It acts as a selective, reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA) and serotonin reuptake inhibitor.[1][3] ... a new selective and reversible MAO-A and 5-HT-uptake inhibitor, in the treatment of depressive patients". Drug Development ... Monoamine reuptake inhibitors • Monoamine releasing agents • Monoamine neurotoxins ...
Aromatase inhibitors. *Non-selective: Aminoglutethimide. *Testolactone. *Selective: Anastrozole. *Exemestane. *Fadrozole. * ...
Priest, RG; Gimbrett, R; Roberts, M; Steinert, J (1995). "Reversible and selective inhibitors of monoamine oxidase A in mental ... While moclobemide or the irreversible MAO-B selective inhibitor selegiline taken alone has very little pressor effect, and ... Baumann P (December 1996). "Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors". Clin ... a reversible and selective inhibitor". Br J Clin Pharmacol. 37 (5): 433-9. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.1994.tb05710.x. PMC 1364898 ...
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin receptor modulators: Etoperidone. *Litoxetine. *Lubazodone. *LY-393558 ... is an antidepressant of the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) class developed and marketed by Wyeth (now part ... and is categorized as a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI). When most normal metabolizers take venlafaxine, ... "Desvenlafaxine succinate: A new serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor" (PDF). The Journal of Pharmacology and ...
... , also known as NLX-101, is a potent and selective 5-HT1A receptor full agonist.[1][2] It displays functional ... Serotonin antagonists and reuptake inhibitors (e.g., etoperidone, hydroxynefazodone, lubazodone, mepiprazole, nefazodone, ... November 2010). "F15599, a highly selective post-synaptic 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist: in-vivo profile in behavioural models of ... "A selective 5-HT1a receptor agonist improves respiration in a mouse model of Rett syndrome". Journal of Applied Physiology ...
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin receptor modulators: Etoperidone. *Litoxetine. *Lubazodone. *LY-393558 ... Serotonin antagonists and reuptake inhibitors (e.g., etoperidone, hydroxynefazodone, lubazodone, mepiprazole, nefazodone, ... phenylpiperazine related to trazodone and nefazodone in chemical structure and is a serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitor ...
... (Lu 5-005 or Lu 5-003[1]) is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI) which was investigated as an ... "Effects of acute and chronic administration of selective monoamine re-uptake inhibitors in the rat forced swim test". ... it is structurally related to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram.[5] ... selective noradrenaline-or 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake inhibitors, on apomorphine-induced hypothermia in mice". ...
... (CGP-15,210-G) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) which was investigated as an antidepressant in the ... Burrows GD, McIntyre IM, Judd FK, Norman TR (August 1988). "Clinical effects of serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the treatment ...
... the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, moclobemide and numerous others ... coadministration of tianeptine and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine inhibited the effect of tianeptine on ... Amineptine, the most closely related drug to have been widely studied, is a dopamine reuptake inhibitor with no significant ... Treatment with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) 14 days or less prior to treatment with tianeptine. Due to the potential ...
... is a high affinity and selective 5-HT6 receptor full agonist.[1][2] It induces robust increases in extracellular ... Serotonin antagonists and reuptake inhibitors (e.g., etoperidone, hydroxynefazodone, lubazodone, mepiprazole, nefazodone, ... November 2007). "Discovery of N1-(6-chloroimidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazole-5-sulfonyl)tryptamine as a potent, selective, and orally ... May 2008). "Neuropharmacological profile of novel and selective 5-HT6 receptor agonists: WAY-181187 and WAY-208466". ...
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin receptor modulators: Etoperidone. *Litoxetine. *Lubazodone. *LY-393558 ... effectively making it a broad-spectrum monoamine transporter inhibitor or "triple reuptake inhibitor."[11] ... Bicifadine (DOV-220,075) is a serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (SNDRI) discovered at American Cyanamid as ... inhibitor, it also has effects at the dopamine transporter (DAT), ...
Relative to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), SB-649,915 has a faster onset of action and may also have ... SB-649,915 is a serotonin reuptake inhibitor and 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptor antagonist which is being investigated for its ... Serotonin antagonists and reuptake inhibitors (e.g., etoperidone, hydroxynefazodone, lubazodone, mepiprazole, nefazodone, ... a novel 5-HT1A/B autoreceptor antagonist and serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is anxiolytic and displays fast onset activity in ...
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin receptor modulators: Etoperidone. *Litoxetine. *Lubazodone. *LY-393558 ... Nomifensine (Merital, Alival) is a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor, i.e. a drug that increases the amount of ... 2012). "4-Phenyl tetrahydroisoquinolines as dual norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitors". Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 22 ...
... (E-4424) is a selective full agonist of the 5-HT1A receptor which is structurally related to the azapirones.[1] In ... Serotonin antagonists and reuptake inhibitors (e.g., etoperidone, hydroxynefazodone, lubazodone, mepiprazole, nefazodone, ...
Matthews PR, Horder J, Pearce M (January 2018). "Selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors for schizophrenia". The Cochrane ... Reboxetine is a fairly selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI) with approximately 20-fold selectivity for the ... a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for panic disorder". The Journal of ... systematic review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished placebo and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor controlled ...
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin receptor modulators: Etoperidone. *Litoxetine. *Lubazodone. *LY-393558 ... Pipofezine has been shown to act as a potent inhibitor of the reuptake of serotonin.[7][8] In addition to its antidepressant ... Serotonin antagonists and reuptake inhibitors (e.g., etoperidone, hydroxynefazodone, lubazodone, mepiprazole, nefazodone, ...
... , sold under the brand name Nardil, among others, is a non-selective and irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor ( ... Phenelzine is a non-selective and irreversible inhibitor of the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO). It inhibits both of the ... Along with tranylcypromine and isocarboxazid, phenelzine is one of the few non-selective and irreversible MAOIs still[when?] in ... result from an interaction with certain drugs which increase serotonin activity such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors ...
354: Treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during pregnancy". Obstetrics and Gynecology. 108 (6): 1601-3. doi: ... See also: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor § Sexual dysfunction. Sexual dysfunction, including loss of libido, anorgasmia ... Paroxetine is the most potent and one of the most specific selective serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) reuptake inhibitors ... Sindrup SH, Gram LF, Brøsen K, Eshøj O, Mogensen EF (August 1990). "The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine is ...
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin receptor modulators: Etoperidone. *Litoxetine. *Lubazodone. *LY-393558 ... LR-5182 is a stimulant drug which acts as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor, structurally related to the better ... alkane Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 42 (5): 882-895. doi:10.1021/jm980566m. PMID 10072685.. ... an inhibitor of uptake into dopamine and norepinephrine neurons". Neuropharmacology. 18 (5): 497-501. doi:10.1016/0028-3908(79) ...
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin receptor modulators: Etoperidone. *Litoxetine. *Lubazodone. *LY-393558 ... 2600x and 4600x selective over NET and 5-HTT respectively) and is one of the most DAT-selective compounds in the RTI series.[1] ... New high-affinity and selective compounds for the dopamine transporter". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 38 (2): 379-88. doi: ...
COX-2 selective inhibitors Celecoxib. Comes in free form; practically insoluble in water, fairly soluble in organic solvents. ... Selective COX-2 inhibitor.. PO.. Protein binding = 97%; hepatic metabolism, mostly via CYP2C9; faeces (57%), urine (27%).[81]. ... COX-2 inhibitors[edit]. Main article: COX-2 inhibitor. These drugs have been derived from NSAIDs. The cyclooxygenase enzyme ... "Cardiovascular safety of Cox-2 inhibitors and non-selective NSAIDs". MHRA. 26 July 2013. Archived from the original on April 13 ...
It is a selective MAOB inhibitor at normal clinical doses. MAOB is an enzyme that metabolizes dopamine, the neurotransmitter ... Levomethamphetamine crosses the blood-brain-barrier and acts as a TAAR1 agonist,[3] functioning as a selective norepinephrine ... Levomethamphetamine is the active metabolite of the antiparkinson's drug selegiline.[9] Selegiline, a selective monoamine ... Tabakman R, Lecht S, Lazarovici P (2004). "Neuroprotection by monoamine oxidase B inhibitors: a therapeutic strategy for ...
Ezetimibe is a selective inhibitor of dietary cholesterol absorption.. *Lomitapide is a microsomal triglyceride transfer ... PCSK9 inhibitors[5][6] are monoclonal antibodies for refractory cases. They are used in combination with statins. ... Apoprotein-B inhibitor mipomersen (approved by the FDA in 2013 homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.[7][8]). ... CETP inhibitors (cholesteryl ester transfer protein), 1 candidate is in trials. It is expected that these drugs will mainly ...
Traxoprodil (CP-101606); NR2A-selective antagonists: MPX-004. *MPX-007. *TCN-201 ...
Biodiversity As A Source of Selective Inhibitors of CHIKV Replication». Antiviral Research. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2011.03.048 ...
At times of immobility, muscle wasting in bears is also suppressed by a proteolytic inhibitor that is released in circulation. ... selective androgen receptor modulators) are being investigated with promising results. They would have fewer side-effects, ... as a potent stimulator of protein synthesis as well as an inhibitor of protein breakdown in the extreme case of cachexia.65, 72 ...
... the high risk of birth defects with 5α-reductase inhibitors limits their use in women.[1][138] However, 5α-reductase inhibitors ... Duarte FH, Jallad RS, Bronstein MD (November 2016). "Estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators in acromegaly". ... Azzouni F, Zeitouni N, Mohler J (February 2013). "Role of 5α-reductase inhibitors in androgen-stimulated skin disorders". ... and inhibitors of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 enzyme are also a focus of research efforts.[10][91] Particles that release ...
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. *Sharia. *Simplified molecular input line entry specification. *Stickleback ...
Hence quercetin is somewhat ERβ selective (9 fold) and is roughly two to three orders of magnitude less potent than the ... quercetin is a non-specific protein kinase enzyme inhibitor.[17][20] Quercetin has also been reported to have estrogenic ( ... It is a naturally occurring polar auxin transport inhibitor.[5] ... "Quercetin: a pleiotropic kinase inhibitor against cancer" (PDF ...
DAT Inhibitors. Piperazines: DBL-583 • GBR-12,935 • Nefazodone • Vanoxerine; Piperidines: BTCP • Desoxypipradrol • ... MAO-A Selective: Amiflamine • Bazinaprine • Befloxatone • Befol • Brofaromine • Cimoxatone • Clorgiline • Esuprone • Harmala ... MAO Inhibitors. Nonselective: Benmoxin • Caroxazone • Echinopsidine • Furazolidone • Hydralazine • Indantadol • Iproclozide • ... MAO-B Selective: D-Deprenyl • L-Deprenyl (Selegiline) • Ladostigil • Lazabemide • Milacemide • Mofegiline • Pargyline • ...
Psychiatric therapy, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors Difficulty swallowing. Difficult time swallowing. Common. Common. ... and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (used to treat major depression). When affected individuals display ...
"The hunt for a selective 17,20 lyase inhibitor; learning lessons from nature". J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 163: 136-46. doi ... 5α-Reductase inhibitorsEdit. 5α-Reductase inhibitors such as finasteride and dutasteride are inhibitors of 5α-reductase, an ... Androgen synthesis inhibitorsEdit. Androgen synthesis inhibitors are enzyme inhibitors that prevent the biosynthesis of ... androgen synthesis inhibitors can be further divided mostly into CYP17A1 inhibitors and 5α-reductase inhibitors; and ...
Moždano specifični angiogenezni inhibitor (1, 2, 3) • Kadherin (1, 2, 3) • Kalcitonin • CALCRL • CD97 • Kortikotropin- ... 2003). „Selective gamma-hydroxybutyric acid receptor ligands increase extracellular glutamate in the hippocampus, but fail to ... 2008). „Novel High-Affinity and Selective Biaromatic 4-Substituted gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) Analogues as GHB Ligands: ...
... is relatively highly selective for the CB2 receptor, with a Ki of 0.09 nM and 167x selectivity over the related CB1 ... inactivation inhibitors). *4-Nonylphenylboronic acid. *AM-404. *Arachidonoyl serotonin. *Arvanil. *BIA 10-2474 ...
Direct Xa inhibitors. *Dual serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. *Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors ... An α2, α3 and/or α5 selective positive allosteric agonist, like L-838,427 for example, might be useful as an analgesic drug ... Certain metabolites of progesterone and deoxycorticosterone are potent and selective positive allosteric modulators of the γ- ... enhanced both stimulus-evoked inhibition and the effects of exogenously applied muscimol which is a GABAA selective agonist.[5] ...
... selective PDE3 inhibitor) are used for the treatment of intermittent claudication.[5] However, medications will not remove the ... Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, adrenergic agents such as alpha-1 blockers and beta-blockers and alpha-2 agonists, ...
The section only lists compounds that are selective for NET and DAT relative to the serotonin transporter (SERT). For a list of ... A norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI) is a drug that acts as a reuptake inhibitor for the neurotransmitters ... Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors are used for clinical depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), ... Amphetamine and many of the other substituted amphetamines are inhibitors of VMAT2 and potent agonists of the trace amine- ...
Graczyk, Piotr (2007). "Gini Coefficient: A New Way To Express Selectivity of Kinase Inhibitors against a Family of Kinases". ... Wittebolle, Lieven (2009). "Initial community evenness favours functionality under selective stress". Nature. 458 (7238): 623- ... Dalam bidang kimia telah digunakan untuk menyatakan selektivitas protein inhibitor kinase terhadap panel kinase.[20] In ...
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitorsEdit. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors inhibit the enzyme carbonic anhydrase which is found in the ... Selective vasopressin V2 antagonist (sometimes called aquaretics) tolvaptan,[15] conivaptan Competitive vasopressin antagonism ... Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors acetazolamide,[17] dorzolamide Inhibits H+ secretion, resultant promotion of Na+ and K+ excretion ... a Selective Oral Vasopressin V2-Receptor Antagonist, for Hyponatremia". New England Journal of Medicine. 355 (20): 2099-2112. ...
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. *Self-injury. *Serbia and Montenegro at the Olympics ...
... mesylate (Corlopam) is a drug and synthetic benzazepine derivative which acts as a selective D1 receptor partial ... Hughes AD, Sever PS (1989). "Action of fenoldopam, a selective dopamine (DA1) receptor agonist, on isolated human arteries". ... fenoldopam is a selective D1 receptor agonist with no effect on beta adrenoceptors, although there is evidence that it may have ...
Chaenomeles speciosa, also contains a constituent that acts as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor ... with selective antagonistic properties". Biochem. Pharmacol. 66 (1): 125-32. doi:10.1016/s0006-2952(03)00233-8. PMID 12818372. ... as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor).[28][29][30] As such, these compounds and actions, save oroxylin A, are likely to underlie ... "GABA A receptor subtype selectivity underlying selective anxiolytic effect of baicalin". Neuropharmacology. 55 (7): 1231-7. ...
Milder forms of primary immunodeficiency, such as selective immunoglobulin A deficiency, are fairly common, with random groups ... C1-inhibitor deficiency (hereditary angioedema) Factor I deficiency (pyogenic infections) Factor H deficiency (haemolytic- ... selective immunoglobulin A deficiency Specific antibody deficiency to specific antigens with normal B cell and normal Ig ... deficiency Membrane attack complex inhibitor (CD59) deficiency Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria Immunodeficiency associated ...
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. *Escitalopram. *Fluoxetine. *Fluvoxamine. *Paroxetine. *Sertraline. *Citalopram. * ...
Blockading BDNF signaling with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor or a PKC inhibitor in wild type mice produced significant reductions ... BDNF is a short-term promoter,[96] but a long-term inhibitor of pain sensitivity, as a result of its effect as inducer of ... an effect that was abolished in either the presence of a specific NR2B antagonist or a trk receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor.[ ... NMDA receptor activation triggers the release of the regulatory inhibitor, allowing for BDNF exon IV upregulation to take place ...
The influence of isotretinoin and 5-a reductase inhibitors in metaloproteases of connective tissue in patients with ance] (in ... Problems with the meibomian and salivary glands are likely due to the non-selective apoptosis of the cells of the exocrine ... the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases).[69] It is already known that metalloproteases play an important role in the ...
"Persistent sexual dysfunction after discontinuation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors". The Journal of Sexual Medicine ... phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, and alpha-2 receptor blockers like yohimbine.[13] ...
... is a drug developed by Abbott, which acts as an agonist at neural nicotinic acetylcholine receptors selective for the ... heptanes as Novel α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Selective Agonists". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 50 (22): 5493-5508 ... heptane α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor selective agonist: Synthesis, analgesic efficacy and tolerability profile in ...
Two chemical compounds called Pitstop 1 and Pitstop 2, selective clathrin inhibitors, can interfere with the pathogenic ... "Pitstop 2 is a potent inhibitor of clathrin-independent endocytosis". PLoS ONE. 7 (9): e45799. doi:10.1371/journal.pone. ... "Pitstop 2 is a potent inhibitor of clathrin-independent endocytosis". PLoS ONE. 7 (9): e45799. doi:10.1371/journal.pone. ...
... a selective PDE4D inhibitor, in the treatment of Fragile X syndrome (FXS) and possibly other autism spectrum disorders. Daily ... Selective PDE4D inhibitor shows potential to treat Fragile X autism spectrum disorder Daily treatment with BPN14770 in a mouse ... Selective PDE4D inhibitor shows potential to treat Fragile X autism spectrum disorder. Kureczka/Martin Associates ... 7, 2017) - New preclinical research suggests the potential utility of BPN14770, a selective PDE4D inhibitor currently under ...
... was the first of a class of drugs known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) to be introduced for the treatment of ... prozac Trade name for one of a small group of antidepressants, known as selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs). They ... PROZAC (or fluoxetine) was the first of a class of drugs known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) to be ... Prozac is one of a group of "designer" drugs known as Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs). These drugs work by ...
Find breaking news, commentary, and archival information about Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors From The latimes ... 25: Greg Critser has it exactly right that the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (antidepressants) reflects a ... both from a class of drugs called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors -- caused no more suicidal tendencies than two ... both from a class of drugs called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors -- caused no more suicidal tendencies than two ...
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs): What to Know. Medically reviewed by Darren Hein, PharmD on September 29, 2016 ... A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) is a type of antidepressant medication. SSRIs are the most commonly prescribed ... "Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are very safe drugs, generally speaking," says Danny Carlat, MD, Associate Clinical ...
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors? The serotonin syndrome, seen in patients on selective serotonin. reuptake inhibitors, ... might selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors steal nutrients from the. foetus or even cannabalize the foetus to provide that ... 4. Chambers C. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and. congenital malformations. The small risk of harm must be balanced ... 1.Chalmers C. Selective Serotonin reuptake inhibitors and congenital. malformations. The small risk of harm must be balanced ...
Effectiveness of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Corrado Barbui, Toshiaki A. Furukawa and Andrea Cipriani ... pattern of use after admission of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for reimbursement. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2004;59:825- ...
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). This commonly prescribed type of antidepressant can help you overcome ... Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most commonly prescribed antidepressants. They can ease symptoms of ... www.fda.gov/drugs/information-drug-class/selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-ssris-information. Accessed Aug. 19, 2019. ... Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: Pharmacology, administration, and side effects. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/ ...
The arrival of the SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), such as Prozac, in the early 1990s was greeted by the ... Fresh evidence suggests that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) taken for depressive illness are not safe in ...
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in pregnancy and lactation.. Gupta S1, Masand PS, Rangwani S. ... Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have become the agents of first choice in the treatment of depression because ...
Compare selective phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors. View important safety information, ratings, user reviews, popularity and more ... Selective phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors. What are Selective phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors?. Selective phosphodiesterase-4 ... Selective phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors are used in the treatment of severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) to ... List of Selective phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors:. Filter by: -- all conditions --. COPD. COPD, Maintenance. ...
Novel mutant-selective EGFR kinase inhibitors against EGFR T790M.. Zhou W1, Ercan D, Chen L, Yun CH, Li D, Capelletti M, Cortot ... These mutant-selective irreversible EGFR kinase inhibitors may be clinically more effective and better tolerated than ... Here we identify a covalent pyrimidine EGFR inhibitor by screening an irreversible kinase inhibitor library specifically ... Comparison of EGFR inhibitors on EGFR phosphorylation in 3T3 cells expressing del E746_A750/T90M. The cells were treated with ...
The word `selective has special pharmacology,pharmacological meaning, and, in context, refers t... ... Antidepressants Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Whats the deal with SSRIs??. The SSRI drugs are used in treatment ... In vitro studies in animals also suggest that sertraline is a potent and selective inhibitor of neuronal serotonin reuptake and ... The word `selective has special pharmacological meaning, and, in context, refers to the ability of a drug to inhibit the ...
Most likely the recommended antidepressant will fall into the family of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or SSRIs ...
Prescribing selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors as strategy for prevention of suicide BMJ 1994; 309 :249 ... Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: meta-analysis of efficacy and acceptability. BMJ 1993;306:683-7. ... Similarly, as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are often prescribed with sedatives3 it is unclear what the additional ... Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for depression? Drug Ther Bull 1993;31:57-8. ...
Molero Y, Lichtenstein P, Zetterqvist J, Gumpert CH, Fazel S. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and violent crime: a ... Systematic review and meta-analysis: dose-response relationship of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in major depressive ... Clinically relevant pharmacology of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. An overview with emphasis on pharmacokinetics and ... Sex Differences in Reported Adverse Drug Reactions of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. ...
... and selective (ranging from 140 to 20 000 times more selective compared with trypsin) inhibitors of thrombin. The binding modes ... SELECTIVE NON ELECTROPHILIC THROMBIN INHIBITORS WITH CYCLOHEXYL MOIETIES.. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1C4V/pdb ... Structure of thrombin complexed with selective non-electrophilic inhibitors having cyclohexyl moieties at P1.. Krishnan, R., ... The other inhibitors generally mimic arginyl binding at S1. This group of inhibitors combines the non-electrophilicity and ...
... selective serotonin re uptake inhibitors), is associated with extrapyramidal reactions (the part of the ... ... Manufactured by SmithKline Beecham, it is part of the SSRI (selective ser ... ...
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), widely prescribed medications for the treatment of depression, obsessive- ... encoded search term (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Toxicity) and Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Toxicity What ... Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Toxicity. Updated: Apr 24, 2018 * Author: Tracy A Cushing, MD, MPH, FACEP, FAWM; Chief ... Relative toxicity of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in overdose. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2004. 42(3):277-85. [ ...
J. Wang, S. M. Soisson, K. Young et al., "Platensimycin is a selective FabF inhibitor with potent antibiotic properties," ... A Review on Platensimycin: A Selective FabF Inhibitor. Manik Das, Partha Sakha Ghosh, and Kuntal Manna ... isolation of platensimycin as a selective FabF inhibitor, complex synthesis of tetracyclic cage, and enhancement of its ... cerulenin is a powerful inhibitor of polyketide synthesis). An organism producing a fatty acid synthesis inhibitor must retain ...
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors maintain levels of the excitatory neurohormone serotonin in the brain. They do not ... They do not share the same risks as the non-selective MAO inhibitors. rash. fainting. nervousness. blurred vision. decreased ... Paxil), and sertraline (Zoloft) • monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO inhibitors), such as phenelzine (Nardil), and ... selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs or serotonin boosters), such as fluoxetine (Prozac), paroxetine ...
This topic contains 9 study abstracts on Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) indicating it may contribute to ... Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) Related Articles. Pine Bark Extract May Solve Antidepressant-Induced Sexual ... Problem Substances : Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), Zolpidem (trade name Ambien). Adverse Pharmacological ... 25 Abstracts with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) Research. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ...
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (thing). See all of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, there are 2 more in this ...
... Aronov A.M., Baker C., Bemis G.W., Cao J., ... We have identified a novel series of pyrazolylpyrroles as inhibitors of ERK. Aided by the discovery of two distinct binding ... a potent and selective inhibitor of ERK. ...
... and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) used during pregnancy. This study used... ... Autism spectrum disorders Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors Pregnancy Depression This work was presented at the Society ... 2012). Exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and the risk of congenital malformations: A nationwide cohort study ... 2012). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during pregnancy and risk of persistent pulmonary hypertension in the newborn: ...
Safety of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in pregnancy: a review of current evidence. CNS Drugs. 2016;30(6):499-515pmid ... Prenatal Paternal Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors Use and Risk of ADHD in Offspring. Fen Yang, Hong Liang, Jianping ... selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Whats Known on This Subject:. Recent studies have shown that certain pharmacological ... OBJECTIVES: It has been shown that maternal prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may be a risk ...
... a class of highly selective inhibitors was found to bind to an active state of PI3Kγ breaking a conformational lock important ... Discovery of triazole aminopyrazines as a highly potent and selective series of PI3Kδ inhibitors. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 27, ... A class of highly selective inhibitors bind to an active state of PI3Kγ. *Gangadhara Gangadhara ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0001-7297 ... Discovery of a selective phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)-γ inhibitor (IPI-549) as an immuno-oncology clinical candidate. ACS ...
Discovery of novel benzylidene-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-diones as potent and selective inhibitors of the PIM-1, PIM-2, and PIM-3 ... Novel substituted benzylidene-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-diones (TZDs) have been identified as potent and highly selective inhibitors ... Novel substituted benzylidene-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-diones (TZDs) have been identified as potent and highly selective inhibitors ...
Thus, it common to see patients with tinnitus on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). SSRIs are believed to ...
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Risk for Major Congenital Anomalies. Malm, Heli MD, PhD; Artama, Miia MSc, PhD; ... Home , October 2011 - Volume 118 - Issue 4 , Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Risk for Major C... ... Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Risk for Major Congenital Anomalies Obstetrics & Gynecology118(4):960, October 2011 ...
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for premenstrual syndrome. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a common cause of ... Marjoribanks J, Brown J, OBrien P, Wyatt K. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for premenstrual syndrome. Cochrane ... Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are increasingly used as first line therapy for PMS. SSRIs can be taken either ... The Cochrane Collaboration reviewed the evidence about the effectiveness and safety of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors ...
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a widely used type of antidepressant . (www.nhs.uk)
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most commonly prescribed antidepressants. (mayoclinic.org)
  • SSRIs are called selective because they mainly affect serotonin, not other neurotransmitters. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The arrival of the SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), such as Prozac, in the early 1990s was greeted by the medical profession as the final solution to depression. (healthy.net)
  • Fresh evidence suggests that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) taken for depressive illness are not safe in overdose, contrary to the belief of some doctors. (healthy.net)
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have become the agents of first choice in the treatment of depression because of their safe side effect profile. (nih.gov)
  • Prozac (fluoxetine) is part of a group of relatively newer antidepressant medications called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) . (goodtherapy.org)
  • The aim of this explorative study was to investigate whether differences exist in reported ADRs of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for men and women in the database of the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb. (springer.com)
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors ( SSRIs ), widely prescribed medications for the treatment of depression , obsessive-compulsive disorder , bulimia , anorexia nervosa , panic disorder , anxiety, and social phobia, have a high therapeutic to toxicity ratio. (medscape.com)
  • We investigated whether there is an association between increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) used during pregnancy. (springer.com)
  • It has been shown that maternal prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may be a risk factor for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in offspring. (aappublications.org)
  • However, little is known about the effect of paternal use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). (aappublications.org)
  • Thus, it common to see patients with tinnitus on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). (audiology.org)
  • Researchers in The Cochrane Collaboration reviewed the evidence about the effectiveness and safety of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for treating PMS. (cochrane.org)
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are increasingly used as first line therapy for PMS. (cochrane.org)
  • To study the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on pregnancy outcome. (nih.gov)
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine and paroxetine are prescribed to relieve clinical depression and a variety of other disorders. (dovepress.com)
  • We found that widely used antiinflammatory drugs antagonize both biochemical and behavioral responses to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). (pnas.org)
  • Approximately one-third of patients suffering from MDD are refractory to any kind of antidepressant treatment including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are a group of medications commonly used to treat conditions such as depression and anxiety (including generalized anxiety and obsessive compulsive disorder). (ementalhealth.ca)
  • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) belong to a group of medications called antidepressants. (ementalhealth.ca)
  • The introduction of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which are, in general, safer and more easily tolerated than conventional antidepressants, has had a profound effect on the treatment of affective illnesses and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). (psychiatrist.com)
  • According to a systematic review on the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in adult depression that was recently published in BMC Psychiatry, the results of which have been widely disseminated in lay media, these drugs increase the risk for serious adverse events (SAEs) while exerting poor antidepressant efficacy. (cambridge.org)
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor [ 1 ] ( SSRIs ) are a class of compounds typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of depression , anxiety disorders , and some personality disorders . (thefullwiki.org)
  • SSRIs form a subclass of serotonin uptake inhibitors, which includes other non-selective inhibitors as well. (thefullwiki.org)
  • One major contraindication of SSRIs is the concomitant use of MAOIs ( monoamine oxidase inhibitors ). (thefullwiki.org)
  • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) is a name of pharmacological group of drugs used to treat depression and anxiety disorders. (ahefv.com)
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and other psychological conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 2008 meta-analysis combined 35 clinical trials submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) before licensing of four newer antidepressants (including the SSRIs paroxetine and fluoxetine, the non-SSRI antidepressant nefazodone, and the serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) venlafaxine). (wikipedia.org)
  • Do antidepressant selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) increase the density of nerve-impulse-carrying axons? (biopsychiatry.com)
  • The study on rats, led by Vassilis E. Koliatsos, M.D., a neuropathologist at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, found that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) increase the density of nerve-impulse-carrying axons in the frontal and parietal lobes of the neocortex and part of the limbic brain which control the sense of smell, emotions, motivation, and organs that work reflexively such as the heart, intestines and stomach. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • QUESTION: In women with severe premenstrual syndrome (PMS), are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) effective? (bmj.com)
  • Medications frequently prescribed include tricyclic anti-depressants, high-potency benzodiazepines, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MOAIs) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Whether celebrated as depression-busting happy pills or dismissed as overrated and apt to cause dangerous side effects, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have taken pharmaceutical firms on a financial joy fide. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Antidepressants known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) including Prozac and Zoloft are commonly prescribed to treat anxiety disorders. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In a case-control study involving more than 11,000 subjects, both selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) increased the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, particularly when taken together with NSAIDs or antiplatelet drugs, reported, Dr. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Over the last decade, numerous studies on the reproductive safety of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been published. (womensmentalhealth.org)
  • For the treatment of menopausal vasomotor symptoms (VMS), such as hot flashes and night sweats, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are effective and well-tolerated. (womensmentalhealth.org)
  • Studies of relevant databases, editorials, and various reviews have addressed the reproductive safety concerns of antidepressant treatments, particularly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on one hand, and the impact of untreated maternal psychiatric illness on fetal and maternal well-being on the other. (womensmentalhealth.org)
  • Background: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) versus tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) on cerebrovascular events in patients with depression or anxiety. (ahajournals.org)
  • A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) is a type of antidepressant medication. (healthline.com)
  • MAO inhibitors should be stopped for 14 days before beginning SSRI therapy, and SSRI therapy should be stopped for 14 days prior to starting MAO inhibitor therapy. (everything2.com)
  • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) is a type of drug that is used to treat depression. (news-medical.net)
  • A multidisciplinary team of Johns Hopkins researchers has developed two new strategies to treat depression in young people using the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class of medications. (news-medical.net)
  • A University of Pennsylvania researcher has discovered that the common selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram arrested the growth of amyloid beta, a peptide in the brain that clusters in plaques that are thought to trigger the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). (news-medical.net)
  • Kostev K, Rex J, Eith T, Heilmaier C. Which adverse effects influence the dropout rate in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment? (springer.com)
  • St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) is an antidepressant and a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI. (rainbow.coop)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of LY2216684 on heart rate and blood pressure in research participants with MDD who are being treated with an SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Prozac hit the market in 1988, the first selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant approved by the FDA for the treatment of depression. (womensmentalhealth.org)
  • METHOD: The MediPlus UK Primary Care Database was used to identify patients treated for depression with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). (rti.org)
  • While earlier antidepressants-such as the tricyclics and monoamine oxidase inhibitors-were effective in controlling depressive symptoms, they were less selective in their action, making them cumbersome to use and difficult to monitor. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Newer antidepressant medications like Prozac were developed to produce fewer side effects than older antidepressant medications such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) , tricyclics , and tetracyclics. (goodtherapy.org)
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (phenelzine [Nardil]. (scribd.com)
  • This group of inhibitors combines the non-electrophilicity and selectivity of DAPA-like compounds and the more optimal binding features of the S1-S3 sites of thrombin for peptidic molecules, which results in highly potent (binding constants 12 nM-16 pM, one being 1.1 microM) and selective (ranging from 140 to 20 000 times more selective compared with trypsin) inhibitors of thrombin. (rcsb.org)
  • Two compounds, platensimycin and platencin, were found as potent inhibitors of fatty acid biosynthesis. (hindawi.com)
  • These compounds were evaluated as h AChE and h BChE inhibitors, and some derivatives showed IC 50 values in the micro-molar range and were remarkably selective towards h AChE. (mdpi.com)
  • After the structure optimization of the lead compounds identified by high throughput screening, two compounds were identified as SphK inhibitors: 3-(4-Chlorophenyl)adamantane-1-carboxylic acid (pyridin-4-ylmethyl)amide hydrochloride salt - termed ABC294640 and 3-(4-Chlorophenyl)adamantane-1-carboxylic acid [2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl]amide - termed ABC294735. (aacrjournals.org)
  • According to activity results, some of the synthesized compounds displayed selective and significant h MAO-B enzyme inhibitor activity. (mdpi.com)
  • Then, we performed structure-based virtual screening and filtered compounds based on their pharmacological interactions and identified compound NSC13626 as a potential JAK2 inhibitor. (frontiersin.org)
  • To discover new inhibitors, the company's researchers spanned computer-based molecular modelling with chemical synthesis of compounds, which were further tested in vitro to investigate their ability to bind to and affect the activity of CK2. (hum-molgen.org)
  • Some recently discovered novel patent-free inhibitors were organised in clusters of similar compounds: ProHit compound sets. (hum-molgen.org)
  • over 50 patents have been issued detailing compounds and strategies for selective 11β-HSD1 inhibition. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Molecular Devices, Sunnyvale, CA) was used to screen a 200,000-compound mixture (10 compounds per sample) library for inhibitors of K V 2.1 channels. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Using Nav1.7 as an example, we show that this challenge could be attributed to poor design in ion channel assays, which fail to detect most potent and selective compounds and are biased toward nonselective mechanisms. (genedata.com)
  • By exploiting different drug binding sites and modes of channel gating, we successfully direct a membrane potential assay toward non-pore-blocking mechanisms and identify Nav1.7-selective compounds. (genedata.com)
  • Novel mutant-selective EGFR kinase inhibitors against EGFR T790M. (nih.gov)
  • The clinical efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitors in EGFR-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is limited by the development of drug-resistance mutations, including the gatekeeper T790M mutation. (nih.gov)
  • These mutant-selective irreversible EGFR kinase inhibitors may be clinically more effective and better tolerated than quinazoline-based inhibitors. (nih.gov)
  • Our findings demonstrate that functional pharmacological screens against clinically important mutant kinases represent a powerful strategy to identify new classes of mutant-selective kinase inhibitors. (nih.gov)
  • This is the first example of a Class I PI3K inhibitor achieving its selectivity by affecting the DFG motif in a manner that bears similarity to DFG in/out for type II protein kinase inhibitors. (nature.com)
  • Rational design of highly selective spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We report the structure-guided identification of three series of selective spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitors that support our hypothesis, and offer useful guidance to other researchers in the field. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Recently, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as gefitinib and erlotinib, have demonstrated clinical activity in patients with NSCLC. (sbir.gov)
  • It is thought that increasing selectivity of kinase inhibitors may reduce the side effects seen with current treatment options. (frontiersin.org)
  • A combinatorial screen of DDR1-IN-1 with a library of annotated kinase inhibitors revealed that inhibitors of PI3K and mTOR such as GSK2126458 potentiate the antiproliferative activity of DDR1-IN-1 in colorectal cancer cell lines. (harvard.edu)
  • Based on about 160,000 doctors' records from Britain in the 1990s, the researchers found that Prozac and Paxil -- both from a class of drugs called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors -- caused no more suicidal tendencies than two antidepressants from a class known as tricyclics. (latimes.com)
  • Prescriptions of antidepressants in primary care in Italy: pattern of use after admission of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for reimbursement. (cmaj.ca)
  • To evaluate a policy to reduce the incidence of suicide by means of changing the prescribing of antidepressants from the older tricyclic antidepressants to the routine first line use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or newer tricyclic and related antidepressants. (bmj.com)
  • Interventions - Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or newer tricyclic and related antidepressants compared with the use of older tricyclics. (bmj.com)
  • There has been considerable debate over the past couple of years about the efficacy, effectiveness, tolerability, side effects, and role in the routine management of depression of a new class of antidepressants, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. (bmj.com)
  • O BJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and tolerability of tricyclic antidepressants with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in depression in primary care. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors , serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors and selective serotonin reuptake enhancers are also serotonergic antidepressants. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (sNRIs) are a class of drugs that have been marketed as antidepressants and are used for various mental disorders, mainly depression and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (wikipedia.org)
  • Washington, July 05 (ANI): A new study has suggested that children born to women who take certain antidepressants, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors , during the first trimester of pregnancy may modestly increase the risk of developing autism spectrum disorder (ASD). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Strategies targeting EGFR T790M with irreversible inhibitors have had limited success and are associated with toxicity due to concurrent inhibition of wild-type EGFR. (nih.gov)
  • The ICERs ability to recognize selective ligands and its use for characterization of the inhibition mechanisms of the hits consolidates the approach here reported. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Inhibition of apoptosis and promotion of normal cell survival by caspase inhibitors would be a tremendous benefit for reducing the side effects of cancer therapy and for control of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's diseases. (dovepress.com)
  • These studies demonstrate for the first time that selective pharmacological inhibition of HDAC2 is feasible and that inhibition of the catalytic activity of this enzyme may serve as a therapeutic approach towards enhancing the learning and memory processes that are affected in many neurological and psychiatric disorders. (rsc.org)
  • The therapeutic indications described herein more specifically relate to the non-selective inhibition of RTKs associated with vascular and pulmonary disorders. (patents.com)
  • However, achieving selective inhibition of human SGLT1 or SGLT2 remains challenging. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We are able to report for the first time the preclinical profile and structure of the very potent and highly selective GLUT-1 inhibitor BAY-876 representing an ideal tool to further evaluate the scope and limitations of GLUT-1 inhibition as new therapeutic option. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, COX-2 selective NSAIDs have lost the cardiovascular protective effects of non-selective NSAIDs, effects which are mediated through COX-1 inhibition (in addition, COX-2 has a role in sustaining vascular prostacyclin production). (eurekaselect.com)
  • Conclusions: At oral doses that were generally safe and well-tolerated, ABX-1431 plasma concentrations and magnitude of inhibition of PBMC MGLL enzyme activity were similar to those associated with efficacy in preclinical models, supporting the continued clinical evaluation of this first-in-mechanism MGLL inhibitor. (frontiersin.org)
  • The present study was conducted to compare the effect of PKC inhibition by a PKC-beta-selective inhibitor, LY333531 (LY), on diabetic nerve dysfunction with that of an aldose reductase inhibitor, NZ-314 (NZ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We identified multiple genes along the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling axis that, when suppressed, either genetically or pharmacologically, sensitized cells to the selective RAF inhibitor through sustained inhibition of MAPK signaling. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Combinations of selective RAF inhibitors, such as PLX4720 or dabrafenib, with MEK inhibitors did not incur such profound synergy, suggesting that inhibition of CRAF by pan-RAF inhibitors plays a key role in determining cellular response. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Released in December 1987 by the Eli Lilly Company, Prozac was the first in a new class of antidepressant medications: the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In the Hopkins study, Koliatsos and his team gave either the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (Prozac), the selective serotonin reuptake enhancer tianeptine (a drug approved only for human use in France) or the selective norepineprine reuptake inhibitor desipramine, a so-called tricyclic antidepressant, to groups of rats for four weeks and studied anatomical patterns of serotonin stimulation on various parts of the brain. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • Beware of taking atomoxetine in combination with: CYP2D6 inhibitors (e.g., fluoxetine, paroxetine and quinidine) can increase exposure for atomoxetine and it can also increase atomoxetine steady-state plasma concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have discovered a class of PI3Kγ inhibitors exhibiting over 1,000-fold selectivity over PI3Kα and PI3Kβ. (nature.com)
  • Through a systematic evaluation of the kinome, we identified Pro455 and Asn457 in the Syk ATP binding site as a rare combination among sequence aligned kinases and hypothesized that optimizing the interaction between them and a Syk inhibitor molecule would impart high selectivity for Syk over other kinases. (biomedsearch.com)
  • JNJ-7706621 is pan- CDK inhibitor with the highest potency on CDK1/2 with IC50 of 9 nM/4 nM and showing >6-fold selectivity for CDK1/2 than CDK3/4/6. (selleckchem.com)
  • LDC000067 is a highly selective CDK9 inhibitor with IC50 of 44 nM, 55/125/210/ >227/ >227-fold selectivity over CDK2/1/4/6/7. (selleckchem.com)
  • Y-27632 2HCl is a selective ROCK1 (p160ROCK) inhibitor with K i of 140 nM, exhibits >200-fold selectivity over other kinases, including PKC, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, MLCK and PAK. (selleckchem.com)
  • Results of enzymatic assays revealed that against a panel of kinases, compound NSC13626 is a JAK2 inhibitor and has high selectivity toward the JAK2 and JAK3 isozymes. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2. The method of claim 1 wherein the cyclooxgenase-2 selective inhibitor has a selectivity ratio of COX-1 IC 50 to COX-2 IC 50 not less than about 50. (google.es)
  • The selectivity and mechanism of action for the NRI drugs remain mostly unresolved and, to date, only a limited number of NRI-selective inhibitors are available. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on our first identified GLUT-1 inhibitors (1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines) with modest selectivity profile, a high throughput screen (HTS) was performed to identify new potent lead structures with unique selectivity against the other members of the GLUT-1 family (GLUT-2,-3 and -4). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Based on the structural novelty and selectivity index, we have suggested 15 selective MAO-B inhibitors for further synthesis and pharmacological screening. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The word ` selective ' has special pharmacological meaning, and, in context, refers to the ability of a drug to inhibit the neural / glial uptake of serotonin , over, say, noradrenaline . (everything2.com)
  • In order to confirm the results from the genetic approach, we developed pharmacological approaches that used SphK isoenzymes selective inhibitors to dissect the functions of SphK isoenzymes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We first identified key pharmacological interactions in the JAK2 binding site by analyzing known JAK2 inhibitors. (frontiersin.org)
  • The assessment of the roles of K V 2.1 and K V 2.2 channels in tissues where they are expressed, and the consequences of channel modulation in vivo, has been hampered by the lack of selective pharmacological tools. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 2006) Risk of upper gastrointestinal ulcer bleeding associated with selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors, traditional non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aspirin and combinations. (scirp.org)
  • Venlafaxine (Effexor) and duloxetine (Cymbalta) are serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) that are also associated with serotonin toxicity, as is the tetracyclic drug mirtazapine (Remeron), an alpha-2 adrenergic heteroreceptor blocking agent that causes increased norepinephrine and serotonin release in addition to blocking serotonin receptors. (medscape.com)
  • Reboxetine is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and acts by binding to the NET and block the reuptake of norepinephrine in the extracellular fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors , serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and benzodiazepines. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There might be an argument that if fatty acid synthesis is an attractive target for antibacterials, why there have not many drugs or natural inhibitors targeting this pathway been isolated? (hindawi.com)
  • One of the reasons may be that the Streptomyces and related Actinomyces , the organisms that have delivered most of the existing antibiotics, are constrained in their ability to produce fatty acid synthesis inhibitors by the adjacent relationship between the synthetic pathways of fatty acids and polyketides. (hindawi.com)
  • These pathways share many chemical, mechanistic, and structural features, and, thus, fatty acid synthesis inhibitors recurrently inhibit polyketide synthesis (e.g., cerulenin is a powerful inhibitor of polyketide synthesis). (hindawi.com)
  • An organism producing a fatty acid synthesis inhibitor must retain not only a resistant form of the fatty acid synthetic enzyme but also a resistant form of the antibiotic-producing polyketide synthase. (hindawi.com)
  • Such precincts seem likely to severely narrow the opportunities to evolve fatty acid synthesis inhibitors and may account for the scarceness of such antibiotics. (hindawi.com)
  • In this work, we reported the synthesis and biological evaluation of a library of new tacrine-donepezil hybrids, as a potential dual binding site AChE inhibitor, containing a triazole-quinoline system. (mdpi.com)
  • This master thesis includes synthesis of the c-Met inhibitor 1, in a low scale suited for labora-tory work. (uio.no)
  • Fluorine-Directed Glycosylation Enables the Stereocontrolled Synthesis of Selective SGLT2 Inhibitors for Type II Diabetes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Synthesis and inhibitory studies of a set of seven polyoxotungstates against two major isozymes of alkaline phosphatase i.e. tissue specific and tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase revealed their promising activity as alkaline phosphatase inhibitors . (rsc.org)
  • Ibrutinib, a first-in-class Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor taken once daily, is approved in the United States for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma and allows for. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Masitinib (AB1010), a potent and selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting KIT. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Masitinib is a potent and selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting KIT that is active, orally bioavailable in vivo, and has low toxicity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In many clinical studies, rofecoxib use was associated with significantly more elevated CV risk when compared with celecoxib and non selective NSAIDs. (experts.com)
  • Such important findings led to the development and subsequent introduction of the selective COX-2 inhibitors celecoxib, valdecoxib and rofecoxib, which have considerably reduced GI ulcerogenicity potential when compared with the older, non-selective NSAIDs [5]. (experts.com)
  • Highly selective, small-molecule inhibitors of K V 2 channels would be useful in this regard, but the reported number of these molecules is quite limited. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The new tricyclics and related drugs are of similar toxicity to the serotonin reuptake inhibitors but are considerably cheaper and so are more cost effective for this purpose. (bmj.com)
  • Clinical implementation of first-generation, nonselective CDK inhibitors, designed to inhibit this proliferation, was originally hampered by the high risk of toxicity and lack of efficacy noted with these agents. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, selective and traditional NSAIDs have also been associated with increased frequency of cardiovascular toxicity, especially in susceptible patients. (experts.com)
  • All COX inhibitors had shown this CV toxicity. (experts.com)
  • The COX inhibitors associated CV toxicity has multiple manifestations, which include the induction of myocardial infarction (MI), edema, thrombosis, blood pressure destabilization and death. (experts.com)
  • To overcome the T790M resistance mutation, the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries have focused on developing a new class of EGFR inhibitors that irreversibly bind EGFR and have the capacity to inhibit EGFR T790M. (sbir.gov)
  • Selective NSAIDs were specifically designed to preferentially inhibit the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an inducible enzyme mediating the production of inflammatory eicosanoids in the joints but sparing the endogenous protective eicosanoids in the stomach. (experts.com)
  • Using this assay, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5i) and selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) were identified to significantly inhibit myofibroblast transformation. (urotoday.com)
  • Clinically relevant pharmacology of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. (springer.com)
  • The overall objective of this SBIR Phase II CompetingRenewal research plan is to advance the positive results of our prior Phase II program to enable development of the first oral- and CNS-active and isoform-selective PKCe inhibitor, VMD-2202 through an Investigational New Drug (IND) application to the FDAfor the treatment of alcohol use disorders. (sbir.gov)
  • The overall objective of this SBIR Phase II Competing Renewal research plan is to enable preclinical development of the first oral- and CNS-active and isoform-selective PKCepsilon inhibitor through an Investigational New Drug (IND) application to the FDA for the treatment of alcohol use disorders. (sbir.gov)
  • Additional comprehensive, long-term, prospective investigations comparing the CV and GI safety profile of marketed NSAIDs against each other and against selective inhibitors are needed to address the controversy of COX inhibitors. (experts.com)
  • However, one must ask why would we choose selective COX-2 inhibitors instead of conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for patients taking anti-platelet therapy? (nps.org.au)
  • Published reports also show that patients taking COX-2 inhibitors appear to have only slightly fewer upper gastrointestinal symptoms (such as dyspepsia) than patients treated with conventional NSAIDs. (nps.org.au)
  • Background- The selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors and other nonselective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but the risk in patients with established cardiovascular disease is unknown. (ahajournals.org)
  • We analyzed the risk of rehospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (MI) and death related to the use of NSAIDs including selective COX-2 inhibitors in patients with prior MI. (ahajournals.org)
  • The risk of death and rehospitalization for MI associated with the use of selective COX-2 inhibitors and nonselective NSAIDs was studied with the use of multivariable proportional hazards models and case-crossover analysis. (ahajournals.org)
  • There were trends for increased risk of rehospitalization for MI associated with the use of both the selective COX-2 inhibitors and the nonselective NSAIDs. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusions- Selective COX-2 inhibitors in all dosages and nonselective NSAIDs in high dosages increase mortality in patients with previous MI and should therefore be used with particular caution in these patients. (ahajournals.org)
  • Little is known about the extent to which the cardiovascular risk of selective COX-2 inhibitors relates to this population and whether other nonselective NSAIDs are also associated with increased risk. (ahajournals.org)
  • Therefore, we used nationwide administrative registers of hospitalization and drug dispensing from pharmacies in Denmark to study the risk of recurrent MI and death related to the use of selective COX-2 inhibitors and nonselective NSAIDs in patients discharged after first-time acute MI between 1995 and 2002. (ahajournals.org)
  • With the advent of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors to treat depression, more medically ill patients can be treated without the complicating cardiovascular side effects of the previous drugs available. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • RESULTS: 11 studies (2951 participants) compared a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor with a tricyclic antidepressant. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • All current EGFR inhibitors possess a structurally related quinazoline-based core scaffold and were identified as ATP-competitive inhibitors of wild-type EGFR. (nih.gov)
  • This mutation leads to increased affinity of EGFR for ATP, thereby rendering gefitinib and erlotinib ineffective competitive inhibitors. (sbir.gov)
  • Lineweaver-Burk plots using the data from recombinant SphK1/2 active enzymes and kinase assay kit revealed ABC294640, ABC294735 and SKI-II were SphK competitive inhibitors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The discovery of selective inhibitors for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) or butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is extremely important for the development of drugs that can be used in the treatment of patients diagnosed with the Alzheimer's disease (AD). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The oncogenic potential of protein kinase CK2 and its involvement in virally mediated pathologies and inflammatory disorders has led to an increasing number of studies aimed at the discovery of selective CK2 inhibitors. (hum-molgen.org)
  • The similarity between the ATP binding site of protein kinases has made development of specific inhibitors difficult. (frontiersin.org)
  • OTAVA offers ProHit Sets of CK2 inhibitors to academic and commercial laboratories worldwide to use in drug discovery programmes targeting protein kinases. (hum-molgen.org)
  • In vitro studies in animal s also suggest that sertraline is a potent and selective inhibitor of neuron al serotonin reuptake and has only very weak effects on noradrenaline and dopamine neuron al reuptake . (everything2.com)
  • Efficacy of selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors in premenstrual syndrome: a systematic review. (bmj.com)
  • In patients with severe premenstrual syndrome, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors reduce symptoms. (bmj.com)
  • 5] Search for protein kinase CK2 inhibitors among 3-carboxy-4-aminoquinoline derivatives. (hum-molgen.org)
  • 6] Search for kasein kinase 2 inhibitors among 4 aminoquinazoline derivatives. (hum-molgen.org)
  • Platensin is a balanced dual inhibitor of both FabF and FabH (fatty acid acyl carrier protein synthase III) [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 1] Evaluation of 4,5,6,7-tetrahalogeno-1H-isoindole-1,3(2H)-diones as inhibitors of human protein kinase CK2. (hum-molgen.org)
  • 3] Evaluation of 3-Carboxy-4(1H)-quinolones as Inhibitors of Human Protein Kinase CK2. (hum-molgen.org)
  • 4] Evaluation of 4H-4-chromenone derivatives as inhibitors of protein kinase CK2. (hum-molgen.org)
  • 7] Inhibitors of protein kinase CK2. (hum-molgen.org)
  • A protein kinase C-beta-selective inhibitor ameliorates neural dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 5-14 This caused the pharmaceutical company Merck to withdraw their COX-2 inhibitor rofecoxib (Vioxx) from the market, and health authorities in several countries have issued a warning about the cardiovascular risk associated with the use of COX-2 inhibitors. (ahajournals.org)
  • A recent meta-analysis of comparative clinical trials of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and tricyclic and related drugs found little difference in efficacy or overall drop out between the drugs. (bmj.com)
  • Unfortunately, all the current second generation irreversible EGFR inhibitor under clinical development for overcoming the acquired T790M mutations have demonstrated unimpressive efficacy. (sbir.gov)
  • There is limited amount of data available on the comparative efficacy of ibrutinib and idelalisib, the B-cell receptor inhibitors (BCRi) newly approved for relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leuk. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Herein, we disclose the influence of molecular editing with fluorine at the C2 position of the pyranose ring of Phlorizin analogues Remogliflozin Etabonate and Dapagliflozin (Farxiga®) to concurrently direct β-selective glycosylation, as is required for biological efficacy, and enhance aspects of the physicochemical profile. (bioportfolio.com)
  • These results suggested dotinurad is characterized as a selective urate reabsorption inhibitor (SURI), which is defined as a potent URAT1 inhibitor with minimal effect on urate secretion transporters, including ABCG2 and OAT1/3, because of its high efficacy in decreasing plasma urate levels compared with that of other uricosuric agents. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The selective nature of this compound, which targets only PDE4D, also greatly improves the tolerability of the drug over past-studied, general PDE4 inhibitors, which should facilitate clinical trials in this difficult-to-treat population. (eurekalert.org)
  • Fostamatinib, a Syk inhibitor that successfully completed Phase II clinical trials, also exhibits some undesirable side effects. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Thus, we believe that compound NSC13626 has potential to be further optimized as a selective JAK2 drug. (frontiersin.org)
  • 1 We previously reported that the compound O-2093 is a selective inhibitor of the reuptake of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA). (rti.org)
  • Mechanisms of acquired resistance to CDK4/6 inhibitors are beginning to emerge that, although unwelcome, might enable rational post-CDK4/6 inhibitor therapeutic strategies to be identified. (nih.gov)
  • The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors relative to metformin for reducing subsequent cardiovascular events in pa. (bioportfolio.com)
  • However, the use of the COX-2 inhibitors and the associated excess cardiovascular risk has caused increasing concern since the publication of the Vioxx Gastrointestinal Outcomes Research (VIGOR) study 1 in 2000. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although some studies have reported mixed results with regard to the cardiovascular risk, 2-4 several recently published randomized trials and population-based studies have established an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and thromboembolic events related to the use of most COX-2 inhibitors. (ahajournals.org)
  • Research has suggested that it also inhibits the reuptake of serotonin by binding to the selective serotonin transporter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we identify a covalent pyrimidine EGFR inhibitor by screening an irreversible kinase inhibitor library specifically against EGFR T790M. (nih.gov)
  • ABX-1431 is a first-in-class, orally-available, selective, and potent covalent inhibitor of MGLL being developed for the treatment of diseases like multiple sclerosis, movement disorders and pain. (frontiersin.org)
  • These agents are 30- to 100-fold more potent against EGFR T790M, and up to 100-fold less potent against wild-type EGFR, than quinazoline-based EGFR inhibitors in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • In aim 1, we will evaluate WZ-4002, the lead mutant specific EGFR inhibitor, for in vitro and in vivo ADME properties. (sbir.gov)
  • O-3246, which exhibits only a very subtle structural difference with O-2093, is the most potent inhibitor of AEA uptake reported in vitro under our experimental conditions (IC(50) = 1.4 mu M) and is 12-fold more potent than O-2093. (rti.org)
  • On the other hand, platensimycin had shown selective FabF inhibitory activity on S. aurous and E. coli with IC 50 value of 48 nM and 68 nM [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • As a therapeutic proof of principle, the hypoacetylation in brain and the corresponding cognitive deficits in these mice can be rescued through the administration of SAHA, a non-selective Class I, IIb HDAC inhibitor. (rsc.org)
  • Recently, several studies proposed that HDAC inhibitors are involved in modulating innate immune activity [ 6 , 7 ] and could be potentially applied in various human diseases [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • However, previous used broad-spectrum HDAC inhibitors target several HDACs and it is difficult to define exact role of each subtype. (hindawi.com)
  • Thus, it is necessary to focus on the specific HDAC inhibitor. (hindawi.com)
  • Are selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (NRIs) effective for treating the symptoms, particularly the negative symptoms, of schizophrenia? (cochrane.org)
  • Noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (such as reboxetine or atomoxetine) are medicines that might help with the negative symptoms of schizophrenia in particular. (cochrane.org)
  • Selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (NRIs) increase prefrontal dopamine and noradrenaline levels without significantly affecting subcortical dopamine levels, making them an attractive candidate for treating cognitive and negative symptoms. (cochrane.org)
  • More particularly, the invention provides a combination therapy for the treatment of pain, inflammation or inflammation mediated disorders comprising the administration to a subject of a potassium ion channel modulator in combination with a cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitor. (google.es)
  • b) administering to the subject a combination comprising a cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitor or an isomer, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, or prodrug thereof and a potassium ion channel modulator or an isomer, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, ester, or prodrug thereof. (google.es)
  • This report suggests that the combination of a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor and a selective oestrogen receptor modulator may be efficacious in treating Peyronie's disease in its active phase. (urotoday.com)
  • Grand Rapids, MI (Nov. 7, 2017) - New preclinical research suggests the potential utility of BPN14770, a selective PDE4D inhibitor currently under development by Tetra Discovery Partners as a prospective treatment for memory and cognitive problems associated with Alzheimer's disease, in the treatment of Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) and possibly other autism spectrum disorders. (eurekalert.org)
  • LEE011 is an orally available, and highly specific CDK4/6 inhibitor. (selleckchem.com)
  • Selective NRIs are generally well tolerated but the most common side effects reported are headache, dry mouth, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting and drowsiness. (wikipedia.org)
  • To gain additional insights into this difference, we performed a genome-scale pooled shRNA enhancer screen in a BRAF -mutant, RAF inhibitor-resistant colorectal cancer cell line exposed to the selective RAF inhibitor PLX4720. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Therefore, to enable an unbiased and global assessment of potential RAF inhibitor combination therapies for BRAF -mutant cancers, we performed a pooled shRNA enhancer screen configured to identify genes, which when suppressed, sensitized cells to the effects of the selective RAF inhibitor PLX4720 ( 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • To evaluate the effects of treatment with the potent mutant BRAF inhibitors GSK2118436 or vemurafenib (PLX4720) on immune responses to metastatic melanoma in tissues taken before and after treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • D . Comparison of EGFR inhibitors on EGFR phosphorylation in 3T3 cells expressing del E746_A750/T90M. (nih.gov)
  • A . EGFR vIII Ba/F3 cells treated with WZ or quinazoline EGFR inhibitors. (nih.gov)
  • B. Comparison of EGFR inhibitors on EGFR phosphorylation in 3T3 cells expressing wild type EGFR. (nih.gov)
  • This first in class and best in class mutant EGFR inhibitor will eventually benefit lung cancer patients and prolong their survival. (sbir.gov)