Adrenergic beta-3 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.Lymphotoxin beta Receptor: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. It has specificity for LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA1, BETA2 HETEROTRIMER and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR LIGAND SUPERFAMILY MEMBER 14. The receptor plays a role in regulating lymphoid ORGANOGENESIS and the differentiation of certain subsets of NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC BETA-1 RECEPTORS.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Propanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Adrenergic beta-3 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-1: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-1 RECEPTORS.Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta: A PDGF receptor that binds specifically to the PDGF-B chain. It contains a protein-tyrosine kinase activity that is involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.Ethanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.Procaterol: A long-acting beta-2-adrenergic receptor agonist.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.Atenolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.Butoxamine: A beta-2 selective adrenergic antagonist. It is used primarily in animal and tissue experiments to characterize BETA-2 ANDRENERGIC RECEPTORS.Terbutaline: A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Bisoprolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker. It is effective in the management of HYPERTENSION and ANGINA PECTORIS.Betaxolol: A cardioselective beta-1-adrenergic antagonist with no partial agonist activity.Dioxolesbeta 2-Microglobulin: An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Specific receptors on cell membranes that react with PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR, its analogs, or antagonists. The alpha PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA) and the beta PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR BETA) are the two principle types of PDGF receptors. Activation of the protein-tyrosine kinase activity of the receptors occurs by ligand-induced dimerization or heterodimerization of PDGF receptor types.Clenbuterol: A substituted phenylaminoethanol that has beta-2 adrenomimetic properties at very low doses. It is used as a bronchodilator in asthma.Pindolol: A moderately lipophilic beta blocker (ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS). It is non-cardioselective and has intrinsic sympathomimetic actions, but little membrane-stabilizing activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmocopoeia, 30th ed, p638)Practolol: A beta-1 adrenergic antagonist that has been used in the emergency treatment of CARDIAC ARRYTHMIAS.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Receptors, Adrenergic: Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.Bupranolol: An adrenergic-beta-2 antagonist that has been used for cardiac arrhythmia, angina pectoris, hypertension, glaucoma, and as an antithrombotic.Iodocyanopindolol: A highly selective and specific beta antagonist that is used to characterize beta-adrenoceptors.Integrin beta3: An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.Metoprolol: A selective adrenergic beta-1 blocking agent that is commonly used to treat ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.Phenoxypropanolamines: Compounds based on a propanolamine attached via an OXYGEN atom to a phenoxy ring. The side chain is one carbon longer than PHENYLETHYLAMINES.Fenoterol: An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta: A ubiquitously expressed heterodimeric receptor that is specific for both INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA. It is composed of two subunits referred to as IFNAR1 and IFNAR2. The IFNAR2 subunit is believed to serve as the ligand-binding chain; however both chains are required for signal transduction. The interferon alpha-beta receptor signals through the action of JANUS KINASES such as the TYK2 KINASE.Echothiophate Iodide: A potent, long-acting cholinesterase inhibitor used as a miotic in the treatment of glaucoma.Celiprolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic antagonist that has intrinsic symopathomimetic activity. It is used in the management of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.Benzopyrans: Compounds with a core of fused benzo-pyran rings.Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 14: A member of tumor necrosis factor superfamily found on activated LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It occurs as transmembrane protein that can be cleaved to release a secreted form that specifically binds to LYMPHOTOXIN BETA RECEPTOR and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR SUPERFAMILY, MEMBER 14.Carteolol: A beta-adrenergic antagonist used as an anti-arrhythmia agent, an anti-angina agent, an antihypertensive agent, and an antiglaucoma agent.Adrenergic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate adrenergic receptors.Nadolol: A non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist with a long half-life, used in cardiovascular disease to treat arrhythmias, angina pectoris, and hypertension. Nadolol is also used for MIGRAINE DISORDERS and for tremor.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Activin Receptors, Type I: One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS or activin receptor-like kinases (ALK'S). There are several type I activin receptors. The major active ones are ALK-2 (ActR-IA) and ALK-4 (ActR-IB).p-Hydroxyamphetamine: Amphetamine metabolite with sympathomimetic effects. It is sometimes called alpha-methyltyramine, which may also refer to the meta isomer, gepefrine.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Lymphotoxin-beta: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on LYMPHOCYTES. It can form a heterotrimer (LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA1, BETA2 HETEROTRIMER) with the soluble ligand LYMPHOTOXIN-ALPHA and anchor it to the cell surface. The membrane-bound complex is specific for the LYMPHOTOXIN BETA receptor.Receptors, Interferon: Specific molecular sites or structures on or in cells with which interferons react or to which they bind in order to modify the function of the cells. Interferons exert their pleiotropic effects through two different receptors. alpha- and beta-interferon crossreact with common receptors, while gamma-interferon initiates its biological effects through its own specific receptor system.Integrin alpha5beta1: An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Integrin beta4: Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.Integrin alpha6beta4: This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.Integrin beta Chains: Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.beta 2-Glycoprotein I: A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.Xamoterol: A phenoxypropanolamine derivative that is a selective beta-1-adrenergic agonist.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Lymphotoxin-alpha: A tumor necrosis factor family member that is released by activated LYMPHOCYTES. Soluble lymphotoxin is specific for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR TYPE I; TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR TYPE II; and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTOR SUPERFAMILY, MEMBER 14. Lymphotoxin-alpha can form a membrane-bound heterodimer with LYMPHOTOXIN-BETA that has specificity for the LYMPHOTOXIN BETA RECEPTOR.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Lymphotoxin alpha1, beta2 Heterotrimer: A heterotrimer complex consisting of one molecule of LYMPHOTOXIN-ALPHA and two molecules of the LYMPHOTOXIN-BETA. It is anchored to the cell surface via the transmembrane domains of the lymphotoxin-beta component and has specificity for the LYMPHOTOXIN BETA RECEPTOR. The lymphotoxin alpha1, beta2 heterotrimer plays a role in regulating lymphoid ORGANOGENESIS and the differentiation of certain subsets of NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Integrin alpha2beta1: An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Integrin alpha6beta1: A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.Bovine papillomavirus 1: A species of DELTAPAPILLOMAVIRUS infecting cattle.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Mice, Inbred C57BLBinding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Interferon-beta: One of the type I interferons produced by fibroblasts in response to stimulation by live or inactivated virus or by double-stranded RNA. It is a cytokine with antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulating activity.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Phenethylamines: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Integrin alpha1beta1: Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Dobutamine: A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.Estrogen Receptor beta: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Interferon Type I: Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Oncogene Proteins, Viral: Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the sis gene (GENES, SIS). c-sis proteins make up the B chain of PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR. Overexpression of c-sis causes tumorigenesis.Transforming Growth Factor beta2: A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Adipose Tissue, Brown: A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Beta Rhythm: Brain waves with frequency between 15-30 Hz seen on EEG during wakefulness and mental activity.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta: High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRB gene (also known as NR1A2, THRB1, or ERBA2 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing. Mutations in the THRB gene cause THYROID HORMONE RESISTANCE SYNDROME.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.DNA Polymerase beta: A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC 184.108.40.206.Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic: A myelodysplastic-myeloproliferative disease characterized by monocytosis, increased monocytes in the bone marrow, variable degrees of dysplasia, but an absence of immature granulocytes in the blood.Antibodies, Phospho-Specific: Antibodies directed against immunogen-coupled phosphorylated PEPTIDES corresponding to amino acids surrounding the PHOSPHORYLATION site. They are used to study proteins involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathways. (From Methods Mol Biol 2000; 99:177-89)Smad2 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. It regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein: A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Transforming Growth Factors: Hormonally active polypeptides that can induce the transformed phenotype when added to normal, non-transformed cells. They have been found in culture fluids from retrovirally transformed cells and in tumor-derived cells as well as in non-neoplastic sources. Their transforming activities are due to the simultaneous action of two otherwise unrelated factors, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Interferon-alpha: One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Receptors, Vitronectin: Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Mice, Inbred BALB CFlow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.beta Karyopherins: Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS in the CYTOSOL and are involved in transport of molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Once inside the CELL NUCLEUS beta karyopherins interact with RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN and dissociate from alpha karyopherins. Beta karyopherins bound to RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN are then re-transported to the cytoplasm where hydrolysis of the GTP of RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN causes release of karyopherin beta.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Phentolamine: A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Phospholipase C beta: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Member 14: A novel member of the tumor-necrosis factor receptor family that can also mediate HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 1 entry into cells. It has specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR LIGAND SUPERFAMILY MEMBER 14 and the homotrimeric form of LYMPHOTOXIN-ALPHA. The receptor is abundantly expressed on T-LYMPHOCYTES and may play a role in regulating lymphocyte activation. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Chemokine CCL21: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Receptors, Interleukin-1: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
... a non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor inhibitor. Elevated IOP is considered the only modifiable risk factor in the ... It is a combination of brimonidine (an α2 adrenergic agonist) and timolol (a β adrenergic blocker), in concentrations of 0.2% ... Combigan is composed of brimonidine, a selective alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist, and timolol, ... 21 (2): 14. 2008. PMID 18326089. Lee, AJ; McCluskey, P (2008). "Fixed combination of topical brimonidine 0.2% and timolol 0.5% ...
Examples of drugs that can raise the serum potassium are non-selective beta-blockers such as propanolol and labetalol. Beta-1 ... Beta2-adrenergic agonists act on beta-2 receptors to drive potassium into the cells. Therefore, beta blockers can raise ... Examples of medications that can cause hyperkalemia include ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta blockers, and ... Patiromer is a selective sorbent that is taken by mouth and works by binding free potassium ions in the gastrointestinal tract ...
... is able to bind to both beta-1 adrenergic receptors and beta-2 adrenergic receptors (the two subtypes), thus making ... Strategies for the Development of Selective Serotonergic Agents. Chapter 4 in The Serotonin Receptors: From Molecular ... Penbutolol is able to bind to both beta-1 adrenergic receptors and beta-2 adrenergic receptors (the two subtypes), thus making ... Penbutolol acts on the β1 adrenergic receptors in both the heart and the kidney. When β1 receptors are activated by a ...
... is highly selective for postsynaptic alpha1- adrenergic, and non-selective for beta-adrenergic receptors. It is about ... Labetalol is a dual alpha (α1) and beta (β1/β2) adrenergic receptor blocker and competes with other Catecholamines for binding ... Labetalol was the first drug created that combined both alpha- and beta- adrenergic receptor blocking properties. It was ... Labetalol acts by blocking alpha and beta adrenergic receptors, resulting in decreased peripheral vascular resistance without ...
Nisoli E, Tonello C, Landi M, Carruba MO (Jan 1996). "Functional studies of the first selective beta 3-adrenergic receptor ... Beta adrenergic receptor kinase Beta adrenergic receptor kinase-2 Cannon WB, Rosenbluth A (31 May 1933). "Studies On Conditions ... a Gq coupled receptor) and α2 (a Gi coupled receptor). Phenylephrine is a selective agonist of the α receptor. β receptors have ... Basic Neurochemistry: α- and β-Adrenergic Receptors Brief overview of functions of the β3 receptor Theory of receptor ...
Beta-2 adrenergic antagonist
... like the non-selective betablocker Propranolol. ICI-118,551 Butaxamine Propranolol Betablocker Beta-2 adrenergic receptor Beta2 ... is an adrenergic antagonist which blocks the beta-2 adrenergic receptors of cells, with either high specificity (an antagonist ... adrenergic agonist Bilski, AJ; Halliday, SE; Fitzgerald, JD; Wale, JL (1983). "The pharmacology of a beta 2-selective ... which is selective for β2 adrenoceptors) like Butaxamine and ICI-118,551, or non-specifically (an antagonist for β2 and for β1 ...
Beta-2 adrenergic receptor
... non-selective) β-blockers ICI-118,551* Propranolol * denotes selective antagonist to the receptor. Beta-2 adrenergic receptor ... "Insulin stimulates sequestration of beta-adrenergic receptors and enhanced association of beta-adrenergic receptors with Grb2 ... Other adrenergic receptors Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor Beta-1 adrenergic receptor Beta-3 adrenergic ... "Cloning and sequence analysis of the human brain beta-adrenergic receptor. Evolutionary relationship to rodent and avian beta- ...
Beta-3 adrenergic receptor
"Potent and selective human beta(3)-adrenergic receptor antagonists". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics ... Beta-3 adrenergic receptor has been shown to interact with Src. Other adrenergic receptors Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor Alpha-2 ... The beta-3 adrenergic receptor (β3 adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRB3, is a beta-adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the ... adrenergic receptor Beta-1 adrenergic receptor Beta-2 adrenergic receptor Beta Blocker GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
Beta-3 adrenergic antagonist
... like the non-selective betablocker Carvedilol. SR 59230A Carvedilol Betablocker Beta-3 adrenergic receptor Candelore MR, Deng L ... A Beta-3 adrenergic antagonist (β3-adrenoceptor antagonist) is an adrenergic antagonist which blocks the Beta-3 adrenergic ... "Potent and selective human beta(3)-adrenergic receptor antagonists". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics ... receptors of cells, with either high specificity (an antagonist which is selective for β3 adrenoceptors) like L-748,328, L- ...
... is a selective antagonist of the beta-3 adrenergic receptor, but was subsequently shown to also act at α1 ... "Role of alpha-adrenergic receptors in the effect of the beta-adrenergic receptor ligands, CGP 12177, bupranolol, and SR 59230A ... Nisoli E, Tonello C, Landi M, Carruba MO (1996). "Functional studies of the first selective β3-adrenergic receptor antagonist ... Bellantuono V, Cassano G, Lippe C (August 2008). "The adrenergic receptor subtypes present in frog (Rana esculenta) skin". Comp ...
... as regadenoson vasodilates via the adenosine pathway without stimulating beta adrenergic receptors. One side ... The selective nature of the drug makes it preferable to other stress agents such as adenosine, which are less selective and ... Cerqueira MD (July 2004). "The future of pharmacologic stress: selective A2A adenosine receptor agonists". Am. J. Cardiol. 94 ( ... A2A adenosine receptor modulates drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein at the blood-brain barrier. Journal of Clinical ...
... is a non-selective beta blocker or β-adrenergic receptor antagonist with partial agonist activity and also possesses ... "Comparative pharmacology of human beta-adrenergic receptor subtypes--characterization of stably transfected receptors in CHO ... Pindolol has modest beta-adrenergic agonist activity and is therefore used with caution in angina pectoris. ... By blocking 5-HT1A autoreceptors at doses that are selective for them over postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors, pindolol may be able ...
Both of these medications activate alpha-1 adrenergic receptors that result in smooth muscle constriction. Non-selective beta ... Beta blockers bind into the β2 receptors and block the action of epinephrine and norepinephrine from binding to its receptors, ... all of which act as receptor antagonists of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors) are effective for treating asthma and COPD- ... Beta2-adrenergic agonists are recommended for bronchospasm. Short acting (SABA) Terbutaline Salbutamol Levosalbutamol Long ...
"Requirement of a macromolecular signaling complex for beta adrenergic receptor modulation of the KCNQ1-KCNE1 potassium channel ... ML277: potent and selective channel activator KvLQT1 has been shown to interact with PRKACA, PPP1CA and AKAP9. KvLQT1 can also ... Mutations in either the alpha subunit of this complex, KvLQT1 or the beta subunit, KCNE1, can lead to Long QT Syndrome or other ... potent and selective K(v)7.1 (KCNQ1) potassium channel activator". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 22 (18): 5936-5941 ...
... β-adrenergic receptors and others are selective for one of the three known types of beta receptors, designated β1, β2 and β3 ... beta-blockers, β-blockers, beta-adrenergic blocking agents, beta antagonists, beta-adrenergic antagonists, beta-adrenoreceptor ... Beta blockers must not be used in the treatment of selective alpha-adrenergic agonist overdose. The blockade of only beta ... Beta blockers, due to their antagonism at beta-1 adrenergic receptors, inhibit both the synthesis of new melatonin and its ...
"Human fat cell beta-adrenergic receptors: beta-agonist-dependent lipolytic responses and characterization of beta-adrenergic ... "Administration of a selective β2 adrenergic receptor antagonist exacerbates neuropathology and cognitive deficits in a mouse ... September 1989). "Molecular characterization of the human beta 3-adrenergic receptor". Science. 245 (4922): 1118-21. doi: ... Hillman KL, Doze VA, Porter JE (August 2005). "Functional characterization of the beta-adrenergic receptor subtypes expressed ...
Most agonists of the beta receptors are selective for one or more beta-adrenoreceptors. For example, patients with low heart ... "The beta-adrenergic receptors". Yoo, B.; et al. "Beta1-adrenergic receptors stimulate cardiac contractility and CaMKII ... In general, pure beta-adrenergic agonists have the opposite function of beta blockers. Beta adrenoreceptor agonist ligands ... Beta adrenergic agonists or beta agonists are medications that relax muscles of the airways, which widen the airways and result ...
9 Beta Adrenergic Drugs beta-Adrenergic Receptor Agonists at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH ... Salbutamol: Uses: It is a selective β² agonist and is mainly used as a bronchodilator in the treatment of asthma for this ... adrenergic receptor agonists, also known as adrenergic β2 receptor agonists, are a class of drugs that act on the β2 adrenergic ... Activation of β adrenergic receptors leads to relaxation of smooth muscle in the lung, and dilation and opening of the airways ...
It is a non-selective beta blocker which works by blocking β-adrenergic receptors. Propranolol was discovered in 1964. It is on ... Propranolol, sold under the brand name Inderal among others, is a medication of the beta blocker type. It is used to treat high ... the role for beta blockers was downgraded in June 2006 in the United Kingdom to fourth-line, as they do not perform as well as ... or stroke compared to an angiotensin receptor blocker was noted in one study. Propranolol is occasionally used to treat ...
Beta-1 adrenergic receptor
Selective agonists to the beta-1 receptor are: Denopamine Dobutamine (in cardiogenic shock) Xamoterol (cardiac stimulant) (Beta ... The beta-1 adrenergic receptor (β1 adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRB1, is a beta-adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the ... "The cardiac beta-adrenergic receptor. Structural similarities of beta 1 and beta 2 receptor subtypes demonstrated by ... "beta 1-adrenergic receptor association with PSD-95. Inhibition of receptor internalization and facilitation of beta 1- ...
Discovery and development of beta2 agonists
Beta2-adrenergic agonist Alpha-adrenergic agonist Asthma Beta blocker Beta-1 adrenergic receptor Beta-2 adrenergic receptor ... Adrenergic agonists that are selective for the β2 subtype cause bronchial dilation and might be expected to relieve the ... β1 receptors make up to 75% of all beta receptors and are predominantly located in the heart. β2 receptors are found in ... It also influences the specificity for the β-receptor subtypes. Direct-acting analog binds the β-adrenergic receptors directly ...
... is a β2-selective beta blocker. Its primary use is in experimental situations in which blockade of β2 receptors is necessary to ... "Functional characterization of the beta-adrenergic receptor subtypes expressed by CA1 pyramidal cells in the rat hippocampus". ... the given effect is not a characteristic of the β2 receptor). It has no clinical use. An alternative name is α-(1-[tert- ... determine the activity of the drug (i.e. if the β2 receptor is completely blocked, but the given effect is still present, ...
Prostaglandin DP1 receptor
Asapiprant (S-555739) and Laropiprant are selective receptor antagonists of DP1 whereas Vidupiprant is a receptor antagonist ... also known as β-Adrenergic receptor kinase 2 [BARK1]) and arrestin 2 (also known as Arrestin beta 1 [ARRB1]). These agents act ... Prostaglandin receptors Prostanoid receptors Prostaglandin DP2 receptor Eicosanoid receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... is primarily a receptor for prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). The receptor is a member of the Prostaglandin receptors belonging to the ...
Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome
In these patients the selective Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor agonist midodrine may increase venous return, enhance stroke volume ... beta-blockers (Selective) Metoprolol (Toprol), Bisoprolol Selective sinus node blockade Directly reducing ... Antibodies against the Alpha 1 adrenergic receptor and muscarinic acetylcholine M4 receptor. ... Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor agonist Constrict the peripheral blood vessels aiding venous return. Midodrine ...
Jefferson, James W. (1974). "Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blocking Drugs in Psychiatry". Archives of General Psychiatry. 31 (5): ... Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of compounds typically ... Beta-receptor blockers such as propranolol and oxprenolol, although not anxiolytics, can be used to combat the somatic symptoms ... Noyes, Russell (1982). "Beta-blocking drugs and anxiety". Psychosomatics. 23 (2): 155-70. doi:10.1016/s0033-3182(82)73433-4. ...
... also exhibits no anticholinergic, antidopaminergic, alpha1-adrenergic, beta-adrenergic, muscarinic or 5-HT1-receptor ... Fluparoxan is a very selective α2-adrenergic blocker, that readily cross the blood-brain barrier. Blockade of α2- ... Gibbs AA, Naudts KH, Azevedo RT, David AS (April 2010). "Deletion variant of α2b-adrenergic receptor gene moderates the effect ... Cottingham C, Wang Q (November 2012). "α2 Adrenergic receptor dysregulation in depressive disorders: implications for the ...
Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis
The effects of excess thyroid hormone typically respond to the administration of a non-selective beta blocker, such as ... as most of the symptoms are driven by increased levels of adrenaline and its effect on the β-adrenergic receptors). Subsequent ... 68 (2): 282-92. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2010.10.008. PMID 20955935. Fontaine B (2008). "Periodic paralysis". Adv. Genet. Advances ... 25 (2): 71-7. doi:10.1177/0885066609358849. PMID 20089526. Ryan DP, Ptácek LJ (October 2010). "Episodic neurological ...
5-Alpha-reductase inhibitor Angiotensin II receptor antagonist ACE inhibitor Alpha-adrenergic agonist Beta blocker Dopamine ... cyclooxygenase inhibitor Proton-pump inhibitor Renin inhibitor Selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator Selective serotonin ... For receptors, these activities include agonist, antagonist, inverse agonist, or modulator. Enzyme target mechanisms include ... 22 (5): 263-7. doi:10.1007/s10787-014-0211-2. PMID 25064056. Buer JK (Aug 2015). "A history of the term "DMARD"". ...
A non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist … A non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist with a long half-life, used in ... Like propranolol and timolol, nadolol binds at beta(1)-adrenergic receptors in the heart and vascular smooth muscle, inhibiting ... PubChem) Pharmacology: Nadolol is a nonselective beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist with a long half-life, and is structurally ... Mechanism of action: Like other beta-adrenergic antagonists, nadolol competes with adrenergic neurotransmitters such as ...
Beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptors display subtype-selective coupling to Gs. | Molecular Pharmacology
beta-Adrenergic receptor (beta AR) subtypes differ in their affinities for some agonists and antagonists and thus may ... compared with beta 1AR. We conclude that coupling to Gs by beta 1- and beta 2ARs is subtype selective and is a potentially ... compared with the beta 1AR (KH for beta 2AR, 11.8 +/- 3.1 nM; KH for beta 1AR, 61.7 +/- 18.3 nM; p less than 0.05). In addition ... Beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptors display subtype-selective coupling to Gs.. S A Green, B D Holt and S B Liggett ...
Beta-3 adrenergic receptor - Wikipedia
"Potent and selective human beta(3)-adrenergic receptor antagonists". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics ... Beta-3 adrenergic receptor has been shown to interact with Src. Other adrenergic receptors Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor Alpha-2 ... The beta-3 adrenergic receptor (β3 adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRB3, is a beta-adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the ... adrenergic receptor Beta-1 adrenergic receptor Beta-2 adrenergic receptor Beta Blocker GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
Beta-3 adrenergic antagonist - Wikipedia
... like the non-selective betablocker Carvedilol. SR 59230A Carvedilol Betablocker Beta-3 adrenergic receptor Candelore MR, Deng L ... A Beta-3 adrenergic antagonist (β3-adrenoceptor antagonist) is an adrenergic antagonist which blocks the Beta-3 adrenergic ... "Potent and selective human beta(3)-adrenergic receptor antagonists". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics ... receptors of cells, with either high specificity (an antagonist which is selective for β3 adrenoceptors) like L-748,328, L- ...
Salmeterol (Professional Patient Advice) - Drugs.com
Of particular concern with nonselective beta-blockers or higher doses of the beta1 selective beta-blockers. Monitor therapy ... Adrenergic bronchodilators. Related Drugs. albuterol, montelukast, Symbicort, Singulair, ProAir HFA, Ventolin, Spiriva, Breo ... Relaxes bronchial smooth muscle by selective action on beta-2 receptors with little effect on heart rate; salmeterol acts ... Beta-Blockers (Beta1 Selective): May diminish the bronchodilatory effect of Beta2-Agonists. ...
Removal of phosphorylation sites from the beta 2-adrenergic receptor delays onset of agonist-promoted desensitization. -...
We also show that selective replacement of these serine and threonine residues by alanine and glycine delays desensitization ... Highly specific receptor kinases, such as rhodopsin kinase and beta-adrenergic receptor kinase, which show stimulus-dependent ... Here we report that prevention of agonist-stimulated beta 2-adrenergic receptor (beta 2AR) phosphorylation by truncation of its ... These data provide the first direct evidence that one molecular mechanism of desensitization of G-protein-coupled receptors ...
Metoprolol (Professional Patient Advice) - Drugs.com
Beta-Blocker, Beta-1 Selective. Pharmacology. Selective inhibitor of beta1-adrenergic receptors; competitively blocks beta1- ... Prinzmetal variant angina: Beta-blockers without alpha1-adrenergic receptor blocking activity should be avoided in patients ... Of particular concern with nonselective beta-blockers or higher doses of the beta1 selective beta-blockers. Monitor therapy ... Management: Monitor for reduced theophylline efficacy during concomitant use with any beta-blocker. Beta-1 selective agents are ...
Receptors and Centrally Acting Drugs Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism - 1st Edition
Purchase Receptors and Centrally Acting Drugs Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN ... Stress, Adrenergic Agents and Infection. Clinical Pharmacology Of Mabuterol; A New Beta-2-Sympathomimetic Drug with ... Selective α1 Receptor Blocker Prazosin and Liver Functions. List of Contributors. Subject Index. Section 4 Pharmacokinetics and ... The Effect of Novel Psychotropic Drugs on Rat Brain Dopamine- and Alpha-Adrenergic Receptor Binding In Vitro. ...
DailyMed - METOPROLOL TARTRATE- metoprolol tartrate tablet, film coated
Metoprolol is a beta1-selective (cardioselective) adrenergic receptor blocker. This preferential effect is not absolute, ... metoprolol reduces FEV1 and FVC significantly less than a nonselective beta-blocker, propranolol, at equivalent beta1-receptor ... alpha-methyldopa or clonidine may be potentiated by beta-blockers including metoprolol. Beta- adrenergic blockers may also ... On the contrary, beta-adrenergic blockers may also potentiate the hypertensive response to withdrawal of clonidine in patients ...
Exam 3 Flashcards by Megan tunstill | Brainscape
Propranolol (lnderal) is more selective for beta-1 adrenergic receptors than. is metoprolol (LoPressor). ... B. Prevention of cardiac beta-1 adrenergic receptor activation. C. Blockade of aldosterone receptors. D.ALL OF THE ABOVE ... Combination anti-anginal therapy can include using beta-adrenergic receptor. antagonists with either nitrovasodilators or ... A. prevent ATI angiotensin receptors from being activated.. B. reduce the synthesis of angiotensin ll.. C. increase levels of ...
Effects of clenbuterol on central beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic receptors of the rat. | Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental...
The increase in cAMP induced by isoproterenol in the cortex was significantly reduced in the presence of the selective beta-1 ... Effects of clenbuterol on central beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic receptors of the rat.. G A Ordway, J M ODonnell and A Frazer ... Effects of clenbuterol on central beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic receptors of the rat.. G A Ordway, J M ODonnell and A Frazer ... Effects of clenbuterol on central beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic receptors of the rat.. G A Ordway, J M ODonnell and A Frazer ...
The Adrenergic System Flashcards by Jennifer Butler | Brainscape
Study The Adrenergic System flashcards from Jennifer Butler ... High potency for beta receptors. No potency for alpha receptors ... The beta2 selective agonist has very high potency for beta 2 and low potency at other adrenergic receptors. The result is only ... Drugs that bind to the receptors of the SNS (i.e., alpha and/or beta receptors) - direct acting. Drugs that have amphetamine ... beta 1 receptor effects can be observed (like increased heart rate). At sufficiently high doses, effects from alpha receptors ...
The beta(2)-adrenergic receptor mediates extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation via assembly of a multi-receptor...
Adrenergic receptor (beta(2)AR) stimulation of COS-7 cells induces EGFR dimerization, tyrosine autophosphorylation, and EGFR ... adrenergic receptor mediates extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation via assembly of a multi-receptor complex with the ... beta(2)AR-dependent signaling to ERK1/2, like direct EGF stimulation of ERK1/2 activity, is sensitive to inhibitors of clathrin ... beta(2)AR-mediated EGFR phosphorylation and subsequent beta(2)AR stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 ...
Frontiers in Bioscience 5, d720-734, August 1, 2000]
Mg2+ extrusion can be inhibited by the administration of non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist (propranolol or ... Mg2+ extrusion following beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation, and role of cAMP 4.2 Is there a role for alpha-adrenergic ... adrenergic receptor are schematically illustrated in the cartoon. The stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptor by proper ... and beta-adrenergic receptors or distinct beta-adrenoceptor subtypes, modality, rate and duration of drug infusion are but a ...
ANORO ELLIPTA 55 micrograms/22 micrograms inhalation powder, pre-dispensed - Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) - (eMC)
Concurrent use of either non-selective or selective beta-adrenergic blockers should be avoided unless there are compelling ... Umeclidinium/vilanterol is a combination inhaled long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist/long-acting beta2-adrenergic ... Beta-adrenergic blockers Medicinal products containing beta-adrenergic blockers may weaken or antagonise the effect of beta2- ... Vilanterol is a selective long-acting, beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist (beta2-adrenergic agonist). ...
Browse our beta 2 Adrenergic Receptor ELISA Kits
Compare beta 2 Adrenergic Receptor ELISA Kits and find the right product on antibodies-online.com. ... Order beta 2 Adrenergic Receptor ELISA Kits for many Reactivities. Chicken, Cow, Dog and more. ... Beta-adrenergic receptor 1 selective antagonism inhibits norepinephrine-mediated TNF-alpha downregulation in experimental liver ... receptor, surface , catecholamine receptor , beta2-adrenergic receptor , Adrenergic beta 2- receptor surface , adrenergic ...
Publications | J. Craig Venter Institute
Selective interaction of beta 2- and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors with stimulatory and inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding ... Site-directed mutagenesis of the rat m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Role of conserved cysteines in receptor function. ... promoter element is located between alternative exons of a gene encoding the human gamma-aminobutyric acid-type A receptor beta ... Cross-talk between m1 muscarinic acetylcholine and beta 2-adrenergic receptors. cAMP and the third intracellular loop of m1 ...
Glaucoma Medications: Eye Drops, Pills & Side Effects
... is a selective beta-1 receptor antagonist. Its mechanism of action is similar to timolol, but since it is a selective beta-1 ... Most adrenergic beta-blockers are nonselective and block both the beta-1 and beta-2 receptors. A nonselective blocker inhibits ... Beta adrenergic blockers, administered as eyedrops, became available in the late 1970s and quickly became the most commonly ... Selective prostanoid FP-receptor (sensitive to prostaglandin F) agonists became generally available as eyedrops for the ...
A Study to Evaluate Annual Rate of Exacerbations and Safety of 3 Dosage Strengths of Fluticasone Furoate (FF)/GW642444...
Hyperkalemia - Wikipedia
Examples of drugs that can raise the serum potassium are non-selective beta-blockers such as propanolol and labetalol. Beta-1 ... Beta2-adrenergic agonist acts on beta-2 receptor to drive potassium into the cells. Therefore, beta blockers can cause the rise ... Examples of medications are: ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressants ... Patiromer is a selective sorbent that is taken by mouth and works by binding free potassium ions in the gastrointestinal tract ...
Epinephrine HCl | ≥99%(HPLC) | Selleck | Adrenergic Receptor agonist ...
Isoprenaline is a non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor agonist, used for the treatment of bradycardia and heart block. ... Propranolol HCl is a competitive non-selective beta-adrenergic receptors inhibitor with IC50 of 12 nM. ... Related Adrenergic Receptor Products. * SB225002 New SB225002 is a potent, and selective CXCR2 antagonist with IC50 of 22 nM ... Phentolamine Mesylate is a reversible and nonselective alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist, used for the prevention or control ...
Alpha adrenergic receptor | definition of Alpha adrenergic receptor by Medical dictionary
What is Alpha adrenergic receptor? Meaning of Alpha adrenergic receptor medical term. What does Alpha adrenergic receptor mean? ... Looking for online definition of Alpha adrenergic receptor in the Medical Dictionary? Alpha adrenergic receptor explanation ... Selective agonist, beta receptor Isoprenaline. Beta receptor effects Increased cardiac output, increased renin secretion from ... adrenergic receptor. (redirected from Alpha adrenergic receptor) adrenergic receptor. Etymology: L, ad + ren, kidney; Gk, ergon ...
Beta-2 adrenergic receptor antibody | acris-antibodies.com
... are the receptors for the catecholamines adreline and noradreline (called epinephrine and… ... Selective agonists of Ã?2-Adrenoceptors are used to treat asthma and other related bronchospastic conditions such as Chronic ... Adrenoceptors (also called adrenergic receptors) are the receptors for the catecholamines adreline and noradreline (called ... Western blot analysis of Adrenergic Receptor beta2 expression in NIH-3T3 whole cell lysates,The lane on the left is treated ...
Community Academic Profiles - Faculty & Researchers - Stanford Medicine
Several beta-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) antagonists have been shown to have neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia ... selective antagonist to test the effect of loss of beta(2)ARs on outcome from transient focal cerebral ischemia.Ischemia was ... Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAchRs) are not only key receptors in the autonomic nervous system, but also are present on ... Adrenergic Receptor ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA Han, R., Ouyang, Y., Xu, L., Agrawal, R., Patterson, A. J., Giffard, R. G. 2009; ...
Magiran | Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences، Volume:18 Issue:4, 2019
... increased by all beta adrenergic agonists. The present study showed that various beta1 and beta2 adrenergic receptor agonists ... beta2 and less selective beta2 adrenergic receptor agonists, respectively; on body weight gain, feed conversion rate, ... Effects of three beta adrenergic receptor agonists on growth performance, blood biochemical parameters, fatty acids composition ... The serum concentrations of phosphorus and albumin were also significantly increased by all beta adrenergic agonists and ...
Beta-Blockers - Clinical Advisor
The predominant receptor in the ventricle is the beta-1 adrenergic receptor, with approximately 20% of the total receptor ... some beta-blockers are selective for the beta-1 receptors (e.g., metoprolol) and some nonspecifically block both the beta-1 and ... Beta-blockers: efficacy in cardiovascular diseases. Drugs blocking beta adrenergic receptors (beta-blockers) have become ... Agents that block both beta adrenergic receptors and alpha adrenergic receptors (prototypes include labetalol, carvedilol). ...
Clenbuterol for sale Canada - Steroids Store
DailyMed - ATENOLOL- atenolol tablet
Atenolol is a beta 1-selective (cardioselective) beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agent without membrane stabilizing or ... Beta-adrenergic blockade may mask certain clinical signs (e.g., tachycardia) of hyperthyroidism. Abrupt withdrawal of beta- ... Miscellaneous: There have been reports of skin rashes and/or dry eyes associated with the use of beta-adrenergic blocking drugs ... Atenolol, a synthetic, beta 1-selective (cardioselective) adrenoreceptor blocking agent, may be chemically described as ...
Evidence for selective coupling of alpha 1-adrenergic receptors to phospholipase C-beta 1 in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes |...
... adrenergic receptor response, PLC-beta(1) and PLC-beta(3) were overexpressed in NCM using adenoviral infection (Ad-PLC-beta(1) ... alpha(1)-Adrenergic receptor activation caused phosphorylation of PLC-beta(1) but not PLC-beta(3), whereas stimulation by ATP ... The reduced NE response was associated with a selective loss of PLC-beta(1) expression in Ad-PLC-delta(1) NCM. ... showing that effects of the two PLC-beta isoforms were specific for particular receptor types. PLC-delta(1) overexpression ...
Tota L[au] - PubMed - NCBI
Potent and selective human beta(3)-adrenergic receptor antagonists.. Candelore MR, Deng L, Tota L, Guan XM, Amend A, Liu Y, ... Potent, selective benzenesulfonamide agonists of the human beta 3 adrenergic receptor.. Weber AE, Mathvink RJ, Perkins L, ... 3-Pyridylethanolamines: potent and selective human beta 3 adrenergic receptor agonists.. Naylor EM, Colandrea VJ, Candelore MR ... Discovery of a potent, orally bioavailable beta(3) adrenergic receptor agonist, (R)-N-[4-[2-[[2-hydroxy-2-(3-pyridinyl)ethyl] ...
Preferred beta-blockers for the treatment of heart failure
a selective beta-1 adrenergic receptor blocker with nitric oxide dependent vasodilator and antioxidant effects. It is a mixture ... Nebivolol is a novel beta-blocker with both a greater degree of selectivity for beta-1 adrenergic receptors than other agents ... Bucindolol is a non-selective and lipophilic beta blocker with a higher affinity then beta receptors. Vasodilator effects seem ... The first example of this group, labetolol is non-selective.. *Carvedilol blocks the beta-1 receptors 2-3 times more than alpha ...
AgonistsBlockadeBlockerCardioselectivePropranololADRB2Beta3-adrenergic receptor agonistAdrenoreceptorAdenylate cyclaseMediateSelectivityHypertensionSkeletalBeta2Partial agonistNorepinephrine and epinephrineIncreasesIsoproterenolMetoprololIntracellularPhosphorylationPeripheralVascular smoothGenesLigandLabetalolRegulationTypes of beta receptorsSympathomimeticStimulatory and inhibitorySubtype-selectiveBindsVentricular myocytesHighly selectiveEpidermal growth fMechanismsMechanismDosesInhibitsNoradrenaline
- beta-Adrenergic receptor (beta AR) subtypes differ in their affinities for some agonists and antagonists and thus may potentially impart different cellular effects based on this ligand-binding specificity. (aspetjournals.org)
- For asthma control, long acting beta-2 agonists (LABAs) should be used in combination with inhaled corticosteroids and not as monotherapy. (drugs.com)
- Because long-acting beta 2 -agonists (LABAs) may disguise poorly controlled persistent asthma, frequent or chronic use of LABAs for exercise-induced bronchospasm is discouraged by the NAEPP Asthma Guidelines (NAEPP 2007). (drugs.com)
- Selective prostanoid FP-receptor (sensitive to prostaglandin F) agonists became generally available as eyedrops for the treatment of glaucoma in 1996. (emedicinehealth.com)
- Different beta 1 and 2 adrenergic receptors agonists might have various biological and physiological effects on fish species. (magiran.com)
- 0.05) increased by all beta adrenergic agonists. (magiran.com)
- The present study showed that various beta1 and beta2 adrenergic receptor agonists had same physiological effects on rainbow trout but it seems ractopamine, as a beta1 adrenergic receptor, had more potential on fatty acid metabolism and growth response of rainbow trout. (magiran.com)
- They are in effect weak agonists that stimulate the beta receptors to a lesser degree than endogenous catecholamines. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Selective agonists of Ã?2-Adrenoceptors are used to treat asthma and other related bronchospastic conditions such as Chronic obstructive pulmory disease (COPD). (acris-antibodies.com)
- The synthesis of melatonin in mammalian pineal glands is stimulated by beta 1-adrenergic receptor agonists and is potentiated by alpha 1-adrenergic receptor agonists, whereas in the avian pineal gland alpha 2-adrenergic receptor agonists inhibit its synthesis. (aspetjournals.org)
- Recent studies have examined the effectiveness of alpha-2 adrenergic agonists for controlling delirium and agitation. (frontiersin.org)
- ii) BRL37344 and CGP12177 (beta 3 agonists) were less potent in fa/fa than in Fa/fa rats (Kact. (portlandpress.com)
- At the high-affinity site (mainly beta 1) these two agonists were more potent in fa/fa than in Fa/fa rats (Kact. (portlandpress.com)
- Our screens identified several classes of molecules that include inhibitors of the bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) family of proteins and agonists of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor. (biomedcentral.com)
- Betaxolol: Beta-Blockers (Beta1 Selective) like betaxolol may diminish the bronchodilator effect of Beta2-Agonists like orciprenaline. (pediatriconcall.com)
- The present invention relates to cycloalkyl, cycloalkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl and cycloalkenylmethyl (2-hydroxy)ethylthioureas and their use as specific or selective agonists of &agr;2B adrenergic receptors. (justia.com)
- Apart from oxytocin, other molecules such as arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin agonists or antagonists are able, because of their similar structure, to bind to the receptor. (hindawi.com)
- Metoprolol has no intrinsic sympathomimetic activity, and membrane-stabilizing activity is detectable only at doses much greater than required for beta-blockade. (nih.gov)
- Reduced heart rate resulting from beta blockade may increase diastolic filling times, which can lower diastolic filling pressure and alleviate pulmonary congestion. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- The sustained delivery of beta blockade may account for the superior benefit of extended release metoprolol. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- The vasodialtor effect of these three agents is obtained via the blockade of the alpha receptors. (escardio.org)
- has S and R enantiomeres and both have equal alpha blocking effects but S enantiomere shows stronger beta blockade (2). (escardio.org)
- Beta-1 selective agents (eg, atenolol, metoprolol) act only upon the heart and may be preferred over non-selective agents in asthmatic patients because beta-2 blockade increases airway resistance. (ashp.org)
- Cheng et al (2012) Cytoskeletal role in protection of the failing heart by β-adrenergic blockade. (tocris.com)
- Bristow MR (2000) Beta-adrenergic receptor blockade in chronic heart failure. (springer.com)
- At dosages day greater than delivery required for beta blockade, propranolol also exerts a quinidine -like or anesthetic -like membrane action, which affects the cardiac action potential. (dresdencodak.com)
- Inderal is indicated as an adjunct to alpha-adrenergic blockade to control blood pressure and reduce symptoms of catecholamine -secreting tumors. (rxlist.com)
- Metoprolol is a beta 1 -selective (cardioselective) adrenergic receptor blocker. (nih.gov)
- 2) In asthmatic patients, metoprolol reduces FEV 1 and FVC significantly less than a nonselective beta-blocker, propranolol, at equivalent beta 1 -receptor blocking doses. (nih.gov)
- Not only the class but the formulation of the beta-blocker is of clinical significance. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Carvedilol is a non-selective beta-blocker with additional alpha1-blocking and antioxidant activities. (escardio.org)
- Nebivolol is a novel beta-blocker with both a greater degree of selectivity for beta-1 adrenergic receptors than other agents in this class and an ability to stimulate endothelial nitric oxide production, leading to vasodilation and other potential clinical effects. (escardio.org)
- is a third generation lipophylic beta blocker with antioxydant properties which block both beta-1 and alpha-1 adrenergic receptors(1). (escardio.org)
- In this randomised, double-blind multicenter study, the effects of two widely used antihypertensive agents--moxonidine (MOX) and the beta (1)-selective adrenergic receptor blocker metoprolol (MET)--on blood pressure and metabolic control were directly compared in hypertensive subjects with type 2 diabetes. (nih.gov)
- Inderal is a non selective beta blocker which means it blocks the action of both epinephrine and norepinephrine on adrenergic receptors. (psyweb.com)
- Start therapy with an oral beta-adrenergic blocker as soon as possible. (ashp.org)
- It is a nonselective beta-adrenergic blocker with negative inotropic, chronotropic, and dromotropic properties. (medscape.com)
- In a DNA subanalysis of the Beta-Blocker Evaluation of Survival Trial (BEST), the [beta]-blocker bucindolol improved survival and decreased hospitalizations in heart failure (HF) patients with the adrenergic receptor variant known as Arg 389, compared with placebo. (thefreedictionary.com)
- To reduce blood pressure, beta blocker antihypertensive drugs are intended to inhibit specific, cardioselective, beta-1 adrenergic receptors in the heart and vascular walls. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The research team found for patients receiving any beta-blocker, the median overall survival was 47.8 months, vs 42 months for nonusers. (ascopost.com)
- In a first-of-its-kind study, researchers demonstrated a benefit in overall survival among patients with epithelial ovarian cancer receiving generic beta-blocker heart medications. (ascopost.com)
- Dr. Sood added that beta-blocker users in the study presented at a higher stage of disease, had an increased average body mass index, and were more likely to be hypertensive. (ascopost.com)
- Further examination revealed that nonselective beta-blocker users had improved overall survival, regardless of the presence of such prognostic factors or comorbidities. (ascopost.com)
- Future trials will seek to identify patients who would benefit most from beta-blocker use, and the best beta-blocker for a specific tumor type based on adrenergic receptor expression. (ascopost.com)
- There are currently two clinical trials evaluating the combination of chemotherapy and propranolol (a nonselective beta-blocker) on cancer biology and on stress modulators in patients with newly diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer. (ascopost.com)
- These agents, therefore, may be useful in individuals exhibiting excessive bradycardia with sustained beta blocker therapy. (wikidoc.org)
- A beta blocker sounds about right. (study.com)
- Overall, beta-blocker users lived about 6 months longer than did nonusers. (medpagetoday.com)
- The improved survival of beta-blocker users is consistent with previous research," his group concluded in a poster presentation. (medpagetoday.com)
- Propranolol, a nonselective beta-blocker, has been shown to inhibit the stimulatory effects of norepinephrine on epithelial ovarian cancer cells. (medpagetoday.com)
- Nonselective agents accounted for 195 (72%) of the beta-blocker users. (medpagetoday.com)
- More than 90% of beta-blocker users had hypertension, compared with 30% of the 1,158 patients who did not receive the drugs. (medpagetoday.com)
- Demographics, disease stage, and surgical outcomes did not differ significantly between beta-blocker users and nonusers. (medpagetoday.com)
- Beta-blocker users also had superior disease-specific survival (DFS), a median of 48.4 months versus 42.4 months for nonusers ( P =0.02). (medpagetoday.com)
- The administration of propranolol was associated with significant reductions in fentanyl equivalents (65%, p = 0.009), midazolam equivalents (57%, p = 0.048), propofol (16%, p = 0.009), and haloperidol (44%, p = 0.024) on day 2 after starting propranolol compared with baseline. (frontiersin.org)
- Propranolol, 1 of 2 medications of choice for essential tremor, has been shown to be effective in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. (medscape.com)
- On www.antibodies-online.com are 46 Adrenergic, beta-2-, Receptor, Surface (ADRB2) ELISA Kits from 13 different suppliers available. (antibodies-online.com)
- Western Blot analysis of ADRB2 expression in transfected 293T cell line ( H00000154-T02 ) by ADRB2 MaxPab polyclonal antibody.Lane 1: ADRB2 transfected lysate(45.43 KDa).Lane 2: Non-transfected lysate. (acris-antibodies.com)
- Porcine adrenergic receptor beta 2 (ADRB2) gene exhibits differential allelic expression in skeletal muscle, and its genetic variation has been associated with muscle pH. (springer.com)
Beta3-adrenergic receptor agonist1
- The beta-3 adrenergic receptor (β3 adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRB3, is a beta-adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it. (wikipedia.org)
- Metoprolol tartrate is a selective beta 1 -adrenoreceptor blocking agent, available as 25 mg, 37.5 mg, 50 mg, 75 mg and 100 mg tablets for oral administration. (nih.gov)
- Sotalol has both beta-adrenoreceptor blocking (Vaughan Williams Class I) and cardiac action potential duration prolongation (Vaughan Williams Class I) antiarrhythmic properties. (hmdb.ca)
- Beta adrenergic receptors are involved in the epinephrine- and norepinephrine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of the G proteins of the type Gs. (wikipedia.org)
- Beta receptors are divided into beta1, beta2, beta3, which are linked to Gs, and adenylate cyclase, increasing cAMP, which in turn drives cAMP-dependent protein kinase that mediates intracellular events. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The Beta-2 adrenergic receptor is a member of the G protein coupled receptors and mediates the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. (neb.com)
- The present experiments evaluate a number of beta adrenergic antagonists, including several recently developed drugs, for their ability to block rabbit and human ciliary process and heart beta adrenergic receptors activating adenylate cyclase. (aspetjournals.org)
- Jane-Wit et al (2007) β 1-adrenergic receptor autoantibodies mediate dilated cardiomyopathy by agonistically inducing cardiomyocyte apoptosis. (tocris.com)
- It is therefore likely that brain adrenergic alpha-2-receptors mediate the orexigenic effects of neuropeptide Y and beta-endorphin in layer-type chicks. (biomedsearch.com)
- Despite sharing the same receptor, CD80 and CD86 appear to mediate different mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
- Subjects with type 2 diabetes experience an increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, related to a high prevalence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity. (nih.gov)
- Among other indications, such as the treatment of glaucoma, hypertension, sexual dysfunction, and depression, certain compounds having alpha 2 adrenergic receptor agonist activity are known analgesics. (justia.com)
- beta2-AR deletion is associated to selective hepatic insulin (show INS ELISA Kits ) resistance and preserved skeletal muscle insulin (show INS ELISA Kits ) sensitivity. (antibodies-online.com)
- β 2 -adrenergic receptors are located mainly in the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, liver, uterus, vascular smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle. (wikipedia.org)
- Metaproterenol is a moderately selective beta(2)-adrenergic agonist that stimulates receptors of the smooth muscle in the lungs, uterus, and vasculature supplying skeletal muscle, with minimal or no effect on alpha-adrenergic receptors. (pediatriconcall.com)
- Beta-2 receptors are found in the smooth muscle of the body, especially the smooth muscle surrounding the airways of the lungs and the blood vessels of your skeletal muscles. (study.com)
- When epinephrine stimulates beta-2 receptors, the airways and the blood vessels (especially in skeletal muscle) dilate. (study.com)
- When stimulated, β2-adrenergic receptors cause bronchial dilation and blood vessel constriction, except in skeletal muscle. (physio-pedia.com)
- S1928A KI mice failed to induce long-term potentiation in response to prolonged theta-tetanus (PTT- LTP (show SCP2 ELISA Kits )), a form of synaptic plasticity that requires Cav1.2 (show CACNA1C ELISA Kits ) and enhancement of its activity by the beta2-adrenergic receptor ( beta2AR )-cAMP-PKA cascade. (antibodies-online.com)
- The action is hypothesized to be mediated primarily by peripheral beta2 adrenoreceptors, but some evidence indicates that beta1-receptor antagonists such as metoprolol also have some efficacy. (medscape.com)
- In general, beta1-receptor antagonists are more effective than placebo but are not as effective as beta2-receptor antagonists. (medscape.com)
Norepinephrine and epinephrine1
-  It increases the overall risk of death by at least ten times. (wikipedia.org)
- Beta-2 adrenergic receptor activation also appears to be important in the MSA and MPOA, resulting in dose-dependent increases in time spent awake ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Adrenergic receptors in Alzheimer's disease brain: Selective increases in the cerebella of aggressive patients. (thefreedictionary.com)
- When epinephrine stimulates beta-1 receptors, the heart rate increases, and the force of contraction of the heart increases as well. (study.com)
- Thus, at the submaximal isoproterenol concentration of 30 nM, the beta 2AR stimulated adenylyl cyclase approximately 50% more than did the beta 1AR. (aspetjournals.org)
- This finding was not due to a difference in the affinities of isoproterenol for these receptors, which were found to be the same, as determined by competition binding studies with 125I-cyanopindolol in the presence of GTP. (aspetjournals.org)
- Repeated administration of the centrally acting beta adrenoceptor agonist, clenbuterol, to rats reduced the ability of isoproterenol to increase the concentration of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in slices of cerebellum. (aspetjournals.org)
- Coincident with EGFR transactivation, isoproterenol exposure induces the formation of a multireceptor complex containing both the beta(2)AR and the "transactivated" EGFR. (uniprot.org)
- Denopamine (beta1-selective adrenergic receptor agonist) and isoproterenol (non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor agonist) equally increase heart rate and myocardial oxygen consumption in dog heart. (nii.ac.jp)
- In isolated nuclei, the non-selective βAR agonist isoproterenol (ISO) and the β3AR-selective ligand BRL37344, but not the β1AR-selective xamoterol, stimulated transcription initiation in a pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive manner. (umontreal.ca)
- The binding affinity of adrenergic receptors for these compounds forms one basis of the classification: alpha receptors tend to bind norepinephrine more strongly than epinephrine and much more strongly than the synthetic compound isoproterenol. (justia.com)
- 2% other populations) have several-fold higher metoprolol plasma concentrations. (drugs.com)
- Metoprolol tartrate is (±)-1-(isopropylamino)-3-[ p- 2-methoxyethyl)phenoxy]-2-propanol (2:1) dextro -tartrate salt. (nih.gov)
- This preferential effect is not absolute, however, and at higher plasma concentrations, metoprolol also inhibits beta 2 adrenoreceptors, chiefly located in the bronchial and vascular musculature. (nih.gov)
- Metoprolol: 5 mg rapid intravenous push, then repeat dose every 2 to 5 minutes for a total of 3 doses (15 mg total dose). (ashp.org)
- When discontinuing chronically administered metoprolol, particularly in patients with ischemic heart disease, gradually reduce the dosage over a period of 1 to 2 weeks and carefully monitor the patient. (medicine.com)
- Activation of phospholipase C (PLC) in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NCM) generates primarily inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P(3)) in response to rises in intracellular Ca(2+), or inositol 1,4-bisphosphate (Ins(1,4)P(2)) in response to norepinephrine (NE) (Matkovich, S. J. and Woodcock, E. A. (2000) J. Biol. (garvan.org.au)
- Recently several G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been shown to localize to intracellular membranes, in particular the nuclear membrane. (umontreal.ca)
- Activation of oxytocin receptor causes myometrial contractions by increasing intracellular Ca +2 and production of prostaglandins. (hindawi.com)
- Binding of OT to the cell surface transmembrane OTR activates the receptor which subsequently activates various intracellular signal pathways, this triggering the numerous effects of the hormone, including contraction (Figure 1 ). (hindawi.com)
- Removal of phosphorylation sites from the beta 2-adrenergic receptor delays onset of agonist-promoted desensitization. (nih.gov)
- It has been speculated that phosphorylation-dephosphorylation reactions, which are known to regulate the catalytic activities of enzymes, also regulate the function of receptors. (nih.gov)
- Highly specific receptor kinases, such as rhodopsin kinase and beta-adrenergic receptor kinase, which show stimulus-dependent phosphorylation of receptors have been described. (nih.gov)
- Direct evidence for a causal relationship between receptor phosphorylation and desensitization has been lacking however. (nih.gov)
- Here we report that prevention of agonist-stimulated beta 2-adrenergic receptor (beta 2AR) phosphorylation by truncation of its serine and threonine-rich phosphate acceptor segment delays the onset of desensitization. (nih.gov)
- These data provide the first direct evidence that one molecular mechanism of desensitization of G-protein-coupled receptors involves their agonist-induced phosphorylation. (nih.gov)
- In some systems, GPCRs stimulate tyrosine phosphorylation by inducing the "transactivation" of a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK). (uniprot.org)
- We identify the relevant components of NM receptor regulation (receptor phosphorylation, receptor trafficking and sensitization of second-messenger pathways) gained from studies on cultured cells. (cogprints.org)
- β2-adrenergic receptors are located primarily in the bronchial musculature and vascular smooth muscle. (physio-pedia.com)
- Sotalol inhibits response to adrenergic stimuli by competitively blocking β 1 -adrenergic receptors within the myocardium and β 2 -adrenergic receptors within bronchial and vascular smooth muscle. (hmdb.ca)
- Identification of new human receptor and transporter genes by high throughput cDNA (EST) sequencing. (jcvi.org)
- Chromosomal organization of adrenergic receptor genes. (thefreedictionary.com)
- These include defects in the genes causing familial syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome, Carney-Stratakis, and the inherited PGL syndromes which are due to succinate dehydrogenase (SDHx) defects. (cancertherapyadvisor.com)
- Agents that block both beta adrenergic receptors and alpha adrenergic receptors (prototypes include labetalol, carvedilol). (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Trandate (labetalol) Tablets are adrenergic receptor blocking agents that have both selective alpha1-adrenergic and nonselective beta-adrenergic receptor blocking actions in a single substance. (rxlist.com)
- Trandate (labetalol) Tablets should be stored between 2° and 30°C (36° and 86°F). Trandate (labetalol) Tablets in the unit dose boxes should be protected from excessive moisture. (rxlist.com)
- The results also show that despite the low portion of β2 receptors out of total cardiac β-adrenergic receptors, their contribution in the activation of hypertrophic mediators and regulation of β-adrenergic-induced hypertrophy is noticeable and variations in β1/β2 receptors ratio greatly affect the ISO-induced hypertrophic response. (springer.com)
- Barnes PJ (1995) Beta-adrenergic receptors and their regulation. (springer.com)
- Even though NM receptor regulation is implicated in the pharmacological action of many drugs, and is also known to be influenced by various environmental factors, its functional consequences and modes of action are not well understood. (cogprints.org)
- In this paper we summarize relevant experimental evidence on NM receptor regulation (specifically dopamine D1 and D2 receptors) in order to explore its significance for neural and synaptic plasticity. (cogprints.org)
- Key principles in the regulation and control of short-term plasticity (sensitization) are identified, and a model is presented which employs direct and indirect feedback regulation of receptor efficacy. (cogprints.org)
- Finally, we discuss the implications of NM receptor regulation for models of brain plasticity and memorization.We emphasize that a realistic model of brain plasticity will have to go beyond Hebbian models of long-term potentiation and depression to include plasticity in the distribution and efficacy of NM receptors. (cogprints.org)
- The present study was designed to investigate the role of brain adrenergic alpha-2-receptors on feeding regulation of layer-type chicks. (biomedsearch.com)
Types of beta receptors2
- Some block activation of all types of β-adrenergic receptors and others are selective for one of the three known types of beta receptors, designated β 1 , β 2 and β 3 receptors. (wikipedia.org)
- There are three major types of beta receptors stimulated by epinephrine: beta-1, beta-2, and beta-3. (study.com)
Stimulatory and inhibitory1
- Selective interaction of beta 2- and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors with stimulatory and inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. (jcvi.org)
- Beta 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptors display subtype-selective coupling to Gs. (aspetjournals.org)
- We conclude that coupling to Gs by beta 1- and beta 2ARs is subtype selective and is a potentially important distinguishing feature among these members of the beta AR family. (aspetjournals.org)
- The subtype-selective antagonists betaxolol (beta 1), practolol (beta 1), and zinterol (beta 2) compete for [125I]iodocyanopindolol-binding sites on intact myocytes in monophasic manners with dissociation constants of 46, 845, and 923 nM, respectively. (ahajournals.org)
- It binds to (CysLT) type-1 receptors found in human airway (smooth muscle cells and macrophages), which prevents airway edema, smooth muscle contraction and other respiratory inflammation. (studystack.com)
- One of the best-characterized costimulatory molecules is CD28, which binds to two costimulatory ligands, B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86), on APCs. (biomedcentral.com)
- Bondarenko VE (2014) A compartmentalized mathematical model of the β 1-adrenergic signaling system in mouse ventricular myocytes. (springer.com)
- These data demonstrate that purified adult ventricular myocytes possess only beta 1-receptors, and that the beta 2-receptors found in rat ventricle are located on nonmyocyte cell types. (ahajournals.org)
- Kitagawa et al (1995) Determination of β-adrenoceptor subtype on rat isolated ventricular myocytes by use of highly selective β-antagonists. (tocris.com)
- However nebivolol shows a highly selective beta-1 blocking effects and confers an endothelium dependent vasodilatation via activation of L-arginin/NO pathway. (escardio.org)
- Currently MediciNova's MN-221, a highly selective beta(2)-adrenergic receptor agonist, is in a Phase 2 clinical trial for acute exacerbations of asthma. (bio-medicine.org)
Epidermal growth f1
- The mechanisms for such processes, collectively referred to as desensitization, often involve alterations in the properties and number of cell-surface hormone receptors. (nih.gov)
- Andersson L (2012) How selective sweeps in domestic animals provide new insight into biological mechanisms. (springer.com)
- The alpha adrenergic receptor system, which responds to the neurotransmitter adrenaline, is an important signaling mechanism in the body and is believed to be involved in such diverse therapeutic indications as cardiovascular disease, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), pain and glaucoma. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The effect on exercise tachycardia of a single 10 mg intravenous dose is largely dissipated by 12 hours, whereas beta-blocking activity of single oral doses of 50 mg and 100 mg is still evident beyond 24 hours following administration. (nih.gov)
- 2 years: 0.4 mg/kg/dose in 3 to 4 divided doses a day. (pediatriconcall.com)