A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Recurrent conditions characterized by epileptic seizures which arise diffusely and simultaneously from both hemispheres of the brain. Classification is generally based upon motor manifestations of the seizure (e.g., convulsive, nonconvulsive, akinetic, atonic, etc.) or etiology (e.g., idiopathic, cryptogenic, and symptomatic). (From Mayo Clin Proc, 1996 Apr;71(4):405-14)
A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)
Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.
A subtype of epilepsy characterized by seizures that are consistently provoked by a certain specific stimulus. Auditory, visual, and somatosensory stimuli as well as the acts of writing, reading, eating, and decision making are examples of events or activities that may induce seizure activity in affected individuals. (From Neurol Clin 1994 Feb;12(1):57-8)
A clinically diverse group of epilepsy syndromes characterized either by myoclonic seizures or by myoclonus in association with other seizure types. Myoclonic epilepsy syndromes are divided into three subtypes based on etiology: familial, cryptogenic, and symptomatic (i.e., occurring secondary to known disease processes such as infections, hypoxic-ischemic injuries, trauma, etc.).
Seizures that occur during a febrile episode. It is a common condition, affecting 2-5% of children aged 3 months to five years. An autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance has been identified in some families. The majority are simple febrile seizures (generally defined as generalized onset, single seizures with a duration of less than 30 minutes). Complex febrile seizures are characterized by focal onset, duration greater than 30 minutes, and/or more than one seizure in a 24 hour period. The likelihood of developing epilepsy (i.e., a nonfebrile seizure disorder) following simple febrile seizures is low. Complex febrile seizures are associated with a moderately increased incidence of epilepsy. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p784)
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
A disorder characterized by recurrent partial seizures marked by impairment of cognition. During the seizure the individual may experience a wide variety of psychic phenomenon including formed hallucinations, illusions, deja vu, intense emotional feelings, confusion, and spatial disorientation. Focal motor activity, sensory alterations and AUTOMATISM may also occur. Complex partial seizures often originate from foci in one or both temporal lobes. The etiology may be idiopathic (cryptogenic partial complex epilepsy) or occur as a secondary manifestation of a focal cortical lesion (symptomatic partial complex epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317-8)
A disorder characterized by the onset of myoclonus in adolescence, a marked increase in the incidence of absence seizures (see EPILEPSY, ABSENCE), and generalized major motor seizures (see EPILEPSY, TONIC-CLONIC). The myoclonic episodes tend to occur shortly after awakening. Seizures tend to be aggravated by sleep deprivation and alcohol consumption. Hereditary and sporadic forms have been identified. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p323)
A generalized seizure disorder characterized by recurrent major motor seizures. The initial brief tonic phase is marked by trunk flexion followed by diffuse extension of the trunk and extremities. The clonic phase features rhythmic flexor contractions of the trunk and limbs, pupillary dilation, elevations of blood pressure and pulse, urinary incontinence, and tongue biting. This is followed by a profound state of depressed consciousness (post-ictal state) which gradually improves over minutes to hours. The disorder may be cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (caused by an identified disease process). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p329)
A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by seizures which arise in the FRONTAL LOBE. A variety of clinical syndromes exist depending on the exact location of the seizure focus. Frontal lobe seizures may be idiopathic (cryptogenic) or caused by an identifiable disease process such as traumatic injuries, neoplasms, or other macroscopic or microscopic lesions of the frontal lobes (symptomatic frontal lobe seizures). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp318-9)
Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.
An abnormal response to a stimulus applied to the sensory components of the nervous system. This may take the form of increased, decreased, or absent reflexes.
Recurrent seizures causally related to CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Seizure onset may be immediate but is typically delayed for several days after the injury and may not occur for up to two years. The majority of seizures have a focal onset that correlates clinically with the site of brain injury. Cerebral cortex injuries caused by a penetrating foreign object (CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, PENETRATING) are more likely than closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED) to be associated with epilepsy. Concussive convulsions are nonepileptic phenomena that occur immediately after head injury and are characterized by tonic and clonic movements. (From Rev Neurol 1998 Feb;26(150):256-261; Sports Med 1998 Feb;25(2):131-6)
An autosomal dominant inherited partial epilepsy syndrome with onset between age 3 and 13 years. Seizures are characterized by PARESTHESIA and tonic or clonic activity of the lower face associated with drooling and dysarthria. In most cases, affected children are neurologically and developmentally normal. (From Epilepsia 1998 39;Suppl 4:S32-S41)
A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. (From N Engl J Med 1998 Apr 2;338(14):970-6; Neurologia 1997 Dec;12 Suppl 6:25-30)
A pathological process consisting of hardening or fibrosis of an anatomical structure, often a vessel or a nerve.
A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.
An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.
Substances that act in the brain stem or spinal cord to produce tonic or clonic convulsions, often by removing normal inhibitory tone. They were formerly used to stimulate respiration or as antidotes to barbiturate overdose. They are now most commonly used as experimental tools.
A compound suggested to be both a nootropic and a neuroprotective agent.
A pharmaceutical agent that displays activity as a central nervous system and respiratory stimulant. It is considered a non-competitive GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID antagonist. Pentylenetetrazole has been used experimentally to study seizure phenomenon and to identify pharmaceuticals that may control seizure susceptibility.
The repeated weak excitation of brain structures, that progressively increases sensitivity to the same stimulation. Over time, this can lower the threshold required to trigger seizures.
A neurosurgical procedure that removes the anterior TEMPORAL LOBE including the medial temporal structures of CEREBRAL CORTEX; AMYGDALA; HIPPOCAMPUS; and the adjacent PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS. This procedure is generally used for the treatment of intractable temporal epilepsy (EPILEPSY, TEMPORAL LOBE).
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Intra-aural contraction of tensor tympani and stapedius in response to sound.
A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.
Conditions characterized by recurrent paroxysmal neuronal discharges which arise from a focal region of the brain. Partial seizures are divided into simple and complex, depending on whether consciousness is unaltered (simple partial seizure) or disturbed (complex partial seizure). Both types may feature a wide variety of motor, sensory, and autonomic symptoms. Partial seizures may be classified by associated clinical features or anatomic location of the seizure focus. A secondary generalized seizure refers to a partial seizure that spreads to involve the brain diffusely. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317)
A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.
Abnormalities in the development of the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These include malformations arising from abnormal neuronal and glial CELL PROLIFERATION or APOPTOSIS (Group I); abnormal neuronal migration (Group II); and abnormal establishment of cortical organization (Group III). Many INBORN METABOLIC BRAIN DISORDERS affecting CNS formation are often associated with cortical malformations. They are common causes of EPILEPSY and developmental delay.
Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
Constriction of the pupil in response to light stimulation of the retina. It refers also to any reflex involving the iris, with resultant alteration of the diameter of the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A heterogeneous group of primarily familial disorders characterized by myoclonic seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, ataxia, progressive intellectual deterioration, and neuronal degeneration. These include LAFORA DISEASE; MERRF SYNDROME; NEURONAL CEROID-LIPOFUSCINOSIS; sialidosis (see MUCOLIPIDOSES), and UNVERRICHT-LUNDBORG SYNDROME.
Treatment of chronic, severe and intractable psychiatric disorders by surgical removal or interruption of certain areas or pathways in the brain, especially in the prefrontal lobes.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The abrupt cessation of all vital bodily functions, manifested by the permanent loss of total cerebral, respiratory, and cardiovascular functions.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
An epileptic syndrome characterized by the triad of infantile spasms, hypsarrhythmia, and arrest of psychomotor development at seizure onset. The majority present between 3-12 months of age, with spasms consisting of combinations of brief flexor or extensor movements of the head, trunk, and limbs. The condition is divided into two forms: cryptogenic (idiopathic) and symptomatic (secondary to a known disease process such as intrauterine infections; nervous system abnormalities; BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC, INBORN; prematurity; perinatal asphyxia; TUBEROUS SCLEROSIS; etc.). (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp744-8)
A condition marked by recurrent seizures that occur during the first 4-6 weeks of life despite an otherwise benign neonatal course. Autosomal dominant familial and sporadic forms have been identified. Seizures generally consist of brief episodes of tonic posturing and other movements, apnea, eye deviations, and blood pressure fluctuations. These tend to remit after the 6th week of life. The risk of developing epilepsy at an older age is moderately increased in the familial form of this disorder. (Neurologia 1996 Feb;11(2):51-5)
A course of food intake that is high in FATS and low in CARBOHYDRATES. This diet provides sufficient PROTEINS for growth but insufficient amount of carbohydrates for the energy needs of the body. A ketogenic diet generates 80-90% of caloric requirements from fats and the remainder from proteins.
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.
An analogue of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. It is an irreversible inhibitor of 4-AMINOBUTYRATE TRANSAMINASE, the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
An adjunctive treatment for PARTIAL EPILEPSY and refractory DEPRESSION that delivers electrical impulses to the brain via the VAGUS NERVE. A battery implanted under the skin supplies the energy.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Heterocyclic rings containing three nitrogen atoms, commonly in 1,2,4 or 1,3,5 or 2,4,6 formats. Some are used as HERBICIDES.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Infection of the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal structures with the larval forms of the genus TAENIA (primarily T. solium in humans). Lesions formed by the organism are referred to as cysticerci. The infection may be subacute or chronic, and the severity of symptoms depends on the severity of the host immune response and the location and number of lesions. SEIZURES represent the most common clinical manifestation although focal neurologic deficits may occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp46-50)
A disorder characterized by recurrent localized paroxysmal discharges of cerebral neurons that give rise to seizures that have motor manifestations. The majority of partial motor seizures originate in the FRONTAL LOBE (see also EPILEPSY, FRONTAL LOBE). Motor seizures may manifest as tonic or clonic movements involving the face, one limb or one side of the body. A variety of more complex patterns of movement, including abnormal posturing of extremities, may also occur.
An anticonvulsant especially useful in the treatment of absence seizures unaccompanied by other types of seizures.
A surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
A childhood seizure disorder characterized by rhythmic electrical brain discharges of generalized onset. Clinical features include a sudden cessation of ongoing activity usually without loss of postural tone. Rhythmic blinking of the eyelids or lip smacking frequently accompanies the SEIZURES. The usual duration is 5-10 seconds, and multiple episodes may occur daily. Juvenile absence epilepsy is characterized by the juvenile onset of absence seizures and an increased incidence of myoclonus and tonic-clonic seizures. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p736)
GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A variety of neuromuscular conditions resulting from MUTATIONS in ION CHANNELS manifesting as episodes of EPILEPSY; HEADACHE DISORDERS; and DYSKINESIAS.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
Registered nurses who hold Master's degrees in nursing with an emphasis in clinical nursing and who function independently in coordinating plans for patient care.
A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.
A monosynaptic reflex elicited by stimulating a nerve, particularly the tibial nerve, with an electric shock.
A characteristic symptom complex.
An antiepileptic agent related to the barbiturates; it is partly metabolized to PHENOBARBITAL in the body and owes some of its actions to this metabolite. Adverse effects are reported to be more frequent than with PHENOBARBITAL. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p309)
Involuntary shock-like contractions, irregular in rhythm and amplitude, followed by relaxation, of a muscle or a group of muscles. This condition may be a feature of some CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; (e.g., EPILEPSY, MYOCLONIC). Nocturnal myoclonus is the principal feature of the NOCTURNAL MYOCLONUS SYNDROME. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp102-3).
The instinctive tendency (or ability) to assume a normal position of the body in space when it has been displaced.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Change of heartbeat induced by pressure on the eyeball, manipulation of extraocular muscles, or pressure upon the tissue remaining in the orbital apex after enucleation.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.
The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.
A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.
Autosomal dominant neurocutaneous syndrome classically characterized by MENTAL RETARDATION; EPILEPSY; and skin lesions (e.g., adenoma sebaceum and hypomelanotic macules). There is, however, considerable heterogeneity in the neurologic manifestations. It is also associated with cortical tuber and HAMARTOMAS formation throughout the body, especially the heart, kidneys, and eyes. Mutations in two loci TSC1 and TSC2 that encode hamartin and tuberin, respectively, are associated with the disease.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
Axons of certain cells in the DENTATE GYRUS. They project to the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus and to the proximal dendrites of PYRAMIDAL CELLS of the HIPPOCAMPUS. These mossy fibers should not be confused with mossy fibers that are cerebellar afferents (see NERVE FIBERS).
Automatic, mechanical, and apparently undirected behavior which is outside of conscious control.
Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)
Organic mental disorders in which there is impairment of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment and to respond to environmental stimuli. Dysfunction of the cerebral hemispheres or brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION may result in this condition.
A reflex found in normal infants consisting of dorsiflexion of the HALLUX and abduction of the other TOES in response to cutaneous stimulation of the plantar surface of the FOOT. In adults, it is used as a diagnostic criterion, and if present is a NEUROLOGIC MANIFESTATION of dysfunction in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.
Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.
Impairment of the ability to perform smoothly coordinated voluntary movements. This condition may affect the limbs, trunk, eyes, pharynx, larynx, and other structures. Ataxia may result from impaired sensory or motor function. Sensory ataxia may result from posterior column injury or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES. Motor ataxia may be associated with CEREBELLAR DISEASES; CEREBRAL CORTEX diseases; THALAMIC DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; injury to the RED NUCLEUS; and other conditions.
A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.
Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Contractions of the abdominal muscles upon stimulation of the skin (superficial abdominal reflex) or tapping neighboring bony structures (deep abdominal reflex). The superficial reflex may be weak or absent, for example, after a stroke, a sign of upper (suprasegmental) motor neuron lesions. (Stedman, 25th ed & Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p1073)
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
Neoplasms composed of neuroepithelial cells, which have the capacity to differentiate into NEURONS, oligodendrocytes, and ASTROCYTES. The majority of craniospinal tumors are of neuroepithelial origin. (From Dev Biol 1998 Aug 1;200(1):1-5)
An infant during the first month after birth.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Potential cavity which separates the ARACHNOID MATER from the DURA MATER.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.
Rare indolent tumors comprised of neoplastic glial and neuronal cells which occur primarily in children and young adults. Benign lesions tend to be associated with long survival unless the tumor degenerates into a histologically malignant form. They tend to occur in the optic nerve and white matter of the brain and spinal cord.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Defects in the SCN2A gene which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel are associated with benign familial infantile seizures type 3, and early infantile epileptic encephalopathy type 11.
An act of employing sorcery (the use of power gained from the assistance or control of spirits), especially with malevolent intent, and the exercise of supernatural powers and alleged intercourse with the devil or a familiar. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
A condition where seizures occur in association with ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) without other identifiable causes. Seizures usually occur within the first 6-48 hours after the cessation of alcohol intake, but may occur during periods of alcohol intoxication. Single generalized tonic-clonic motor seizures are the most common subtype, however, STATUS EPILEPTICUS may occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1174)
Contraction of the muscle of the PHARYNX caused by stimulation of sensory receptors on the SOFT PALATE, by psychic stimuli, or systemically by drugs.
Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Reflex Seizures and Reflex Epilepsies. International Symposium on Reflex Seizures and Reflex Epilepsies, Genève, Juin 1988. ... Bull Acad R Méd Belg 1981; 136: 540-555 Gastaut H. A new type of epilepsy: benign partial epilepsy of childhood with occipital ... The Physiopathogenesis of the Epilepsies. Springfield, Illinois, C. C. Thomas 1969 Gastaut H, Broughton R. Epileptic Seizures. ... Among others, Gastaut was awarded as "Ambassador for Epilepsy" by the ILAE and International Bureau for Epilepsy in 1968 and ...
Destina Yalçin, A.; Kaymaz, A.; Forta, H. (2000). "Reflex occipital lobe epilepsy". Seizure. 9 (6): 436-441. doi:10.1053/seiz. ... Idiopathic occipital epilepsy usually starts in childhood. Occipital epilepsies account for approximately 5% to 10% of all ... these seizures are referred to as photo-sensitivity seizures. Patients having experienced occipital seizures described their ... Occipital lobe epilepsies are etiologically idiopathic, symptomatic, or cryptogenic. Symptomatic occipital seizures can start ...
... is a type of epilepsy. It is one of the most distinctive reflex syndromes of idiopathic generalized epilepsy ... Self-induced seizures in Jeavons syndrome are rare. Eyelid myoclonia is a seizure and not an attempt for self-induced seizures ... Based on anecdotal evidence, the drugs of choice are those used for other idiopathic generalized epilepsies. Valproate alone, ... Reflex seizures and related epileptic syndromes. In: A Clinical Guide to Epileptic Syndromes and Their Treatment. Revised 2nd ...
Reflex Epilepsies and Reflex Seizures (Advances in Neurology, Vol 75). Philadelphia - New York Lippincott - Raven 1998 Stefan H ... "The Causes of Epilepsy. Common and Uncommon Causes in Adults and Children". Cambridge - New York - Melbourne, et al, Cambridge ... Occipital Seizures and Epilepsies in Children. Colloquium of the Pierfranco e Luisa Mariano Foundation. Mariana Foundation ... Frontal Lobe Seizures and Epilepsies in Children (Mariani Foundation Paediatric Neurology: 11). Montrouge, J. Libbey Eurotext ...
Cortical triggers in generalized reflex seizures and epilepsies" (PDF). Oxford University Press. "Pokemon on the Brain". ... even if the person had no previous history of epilepsy. This incident is a common focus of Pokémon-related parodies in other ... It was determined the seizures were caused by watching an episode of Pokémon "Dennō Senshi Porygon", (most commonly translated ... It was determined in subsequent research that these strobing light effects cause some individuals to have epileptic seizures, ...
In reflex epilepsies, myoclonic seizures can be brought on by flashing lights or other environmental triggers (see ... reticular reflex, sleep and stimulus-sensitive. Cortical reflex myoclonus is thought to be a type of epilepsy that originates ... Reticular reflex myoclonus is thought to be a type of generalized epilepsy that originates in the brainstem, the part of the ... JME is among the most common types of epilepsy and can affect one of every 14 people with the disease. These seizures typically ...
The epileptic origin of PKC has long been a matter of debates and PD have been classified as reflex epilepsies. Indeed, attacks ... Partial epileptic seizures started with a psychomotor arrest and a deviation of the head and eyes to one side, followed ... It is characterized by the association of benign familial infantile epilepsy (BIFE) at age 3-12 months and later in life with ... Benign focal epilepsies in infancy, childhood and adolescence. Paris. John Libbey Eurotext : 51-62 Szepetowski, P; Rochette, J ...
About 6% of those with epilepsy have seizures that are often triggered by specific events and are known as reflex seizures. ... In contrast to the classification of seizures which focuses on what happens during a seizure, the classification of epilepsies ... ISBN 978-1-933864-04-4. Xue LY, Ritaccio AL (March 2006). "Reflex seizures and reflex epilepsy". American Journal of ... Those with reflex epilepsy have seizures that are only triggered by specific stimuli. Common triggers include flashing lights ...
Focal motor seizures Gelastic seizures Hemiclonic seizures Secondarily generalized seizures Reflex seizures in focal epilepsy ... In 1997, the ILAE began work on revising the classification of seizures, epilepsies and epileptic syndromes. This revision ... Myoclonic atonic seizures Negative myoclonus Atonic seizures Reflex seizures in generalized epilepsy syndromes Seizures of the ... 1 Typical absence seizures 2 Atypical absence seizures B Myoclonic seizures C Clonic seizures D Tonic seizures, E Tonic-clonic ...
... known as reflex seizures. A number of epilepsy syndromes, known as reflex epilepsies, have seizures that are only triggered by ... Catamenial epilepsy is the term denoting seizures linked to the menstrual cycle. Primary reading epilepsy is a reflex epilepsy ... Xue, LY; Ritaccio, AL (March 2006). "Reflex seizures and reflex epilepsy". American Journal of Electroneurodiagnostic ... Classification of seizures and epilepsy syndromes" (PDF). The Epilepsies: The diagnosis and management of the epilepsies in ...
Epilepsy syndromes characterized by repeated reflex seizures are known as reflex epilepsies. Photosensitive seizures are often ... In reflex epilepsy generalized seizures are more common than focal seizures. Generalized seizures are seizures that arise in ... Reflex Seizures and Reflex Epilepsies. Bladon Medical Publishing. Okudan ZV, Özkara Ç (2018-01-18). "Reflex epilepsy: triggers ... Determining if this seizure or seizures are a part of a specific epilepsy syndrome or disease. The treatment of reflex epilepsy ...
... vestibular epilepsy, vestibular seizures, and vestibulogenic seizures in different cases, but vertiginous epilepsy is the ... Vertiginous epilepsies are included in the category of the partial epilepsy in which abnormal electrical activity in the brain ... Caloric reflex testing was developed and used for testing vestibular function of deaf children and in diagnosis of childhood ... There are a range of ways to manage vertiginous epilepsy depending on the severity of the seizures. For simple partial seizures ...
Xue, LY; Ritaccio, AL (March 2006). "Reflex seizures and reflex epilepsy.". American journal of electroneurodiagnostic ... Classification of seizures and epilepsy syndromes". The Epilepsies: The diagnosis and management of the epilepsies in adults ... Seizure : the journal of the British Epilepsy Association 19 (10): 630-6. PMID 21075013. doi:10.1016/j.seizure.2010.10.017.. ... Magiorkinis E; Kalliopi S; Diamantis A (January 2010). "Hallmarks in the history of epilepsy: epilepsy in antiquity". Epilepsy ...
Classification of seizures and epilepsy syndromes" (PDF). The Epilepsies: The diagnosis and management of the epilepsies in ... "acute symptomatic seizures" or "reactive seizures". Unprovoked seizures may also be known as "reflex seizures". Depending on ... Epilepsy and Other Seizure Disorders). New York: McGraw-Hill. Lowenstein DH. Seizures and Epilepsy. In: Jameson J, Fauci AS, ... Of those who have a seizure, about 25% have epilepsy. A number of conditions are associated with seizures but are not epilepsy ...
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is responsible for 7% of cases of epilepsy.[unreliable medical source?] Seizures usually begin ... Reticular reflex myoclonus is a generalized form of epilepsy originating from the brain stem. Jerks associated with the ... Myoclonic epilepsy refers to a family of epilepsies that present with myoclonus. When myoclonic jerks are occasionally ... Seizures can be stimulus-selective, with flashing lights being one of the most common triggers. Progressive myoclonus epilepsy ...
... epilepsy, reflex MeSH C10.228.140.490.535 - landau-kleffner syndrome MeSH C10.228.140.490.631 - seizures MeSH C10.228.140.490. ... epilepsies, partial MeSH C10.228.140.490.360.260 - epilepsy, complex partial MeSH C10.228.140.490.360.270 - epilepsy, frontal ... epilepsy MeSH C10.228.140.490.250 - epilepsies, myoclonic MeSH C10.228.140.490.250.300 - myoclonic epilepsy, juvenile MeSH ... epilepsy, rolandic MeSH C10.228.140.490.360.290 - epilepsy, temporal lobe MeSH C10.228.140.490.370 - epilepsy, benign neonatal ...
Classification of seizures and epilepsy syndromes" (PDF). The Epilepsies: The diagnosis and management of the epilepsies in ... "acute symptomatic seizures" or "reactive seizures".[5] Uprovoked seizures may also be known as "reflex seizures".[5] Depending ... Gelastic seizure. Epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy. Frontal lobe epilepsy. Rolandic epilepsy. Nocturnal epilepsy. ... Main article: Causes of seizures. Seizures have a number of causes. Of those who have a seizure, about 25% have epilepsy.[23] A ...
Destina Yalçin, A.; Kaymaz, A.; Forta, H. (2000). "Reflex occipital lobe epilepsy". Seizure. 9 (6): 436-441. ... Chilosi, Anna Maria; Brovedani (November 2006). "Neuropsychological Findings in Idiopathic Occipital Lobe Epilepsies". ... Occipital lobe epilepsy: clinical characteristics, seizure spread patterns, and results of surgery. Annals of Neurology: ...
Dahlin MG, Amark PE, Nergårdh AR (January 2003). "Reduction of seizures with low-dose clonazepam in children with epilepsy". ... Clonazepam is mainly prescribed for the acute management of epilepsies. Clonazepam has been found to be effective in the acute ... Clonazepam has been found effective in treating epilepsy in children, and the inhibition of seizure activity seemed to be ... SeizuresEdit. Clonazepam, like other benzodiazepines, while being a first-line treatment for acute seizures, is not suitable ...
... simple partial seizures, and complex partial seizures, and myoclonic seizures.[8] In juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), it is a ... The most common symptoms of primidone overdose are coma with loss of deep tendon reflexes and, during the recovery period, if ... Primidone and phenobarbital were prescribed in combination with phenytoin in diffuse epilepsies. They were third and fourth ... EpilepsyEdit. Licensed for generalized tonic-clonic and complex partial seizures in the United Kingdom.[8] In the United States ...
G40.7) Petit mal, unspecified, without grand mal seizures. *(G40.8) Other epilepsy *Epilepsies and epileptic syndromes ... Early-onset cerebellar ataxia with retained tendon reflexes. *Friedreich's ataxia (autosomal recessive) ... Gelastic seizure. Epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy. Frontal lobe epilepsy. Rolandic epilepsy. Nocturnal epilepsy. ... Seizure types. Epilepsy types. Focal. Seizures. Simple partial. Complex partial. ...
... has been found effective in treating epilepsy in children, and the inhibition of seizure activity seemed to be ... As a result, clonazepam is sometimes used for certain rare childhood epilepsies; however, it has been found to be ineffective ... Excess doses may result in: Difficulty staying awake Mental confusion Nausea Impaired motor functions Impaired reflexes ... Dahlin MG, Amark PE, Nergårdh AR (January 2003). "Reduction of seizures with low-dose clonazepam in children with epilepsy". ...
Mutations in the CDKL5 (cyclin-dependent kinase-like-5) gene are known to determine early-onset drug resistant epilepsies and ... Mots-clés : reflex seizure, diaper changing-induced reflex seizure, rub epilepsy, CDKL5-related encephalopathy ... Diaper changing-induced reflex seizures in CDKL5-related epilepsy Volume 20, numéro 5, October 2018 *PDF ... Accueil , Revues , Epileptic Disorders , Diaper changing-induced reflex seizures in CDKL5-related epilepsy ...
Make research projects and school reports about epilepsy easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... and epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures only. *reflex epilepsies. *idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe ... Epilepsies induced by sensory stimuli are also known as reflex epilepsies.. Absence epilepsy (e.g., non-convulsive epilepsy) ... Epilepsy UXL Complete Health Resource COPYRIGHT 2001 The Gale Group, Inc.. EPILEPSY. DEFINITION. Epilepsy is a seizure disorder ...
Reflex Seizures and Reflex Epilepsies. International Symposium on Reflex Seizures and Reflex Epilepsies, Genève, Juin 1988. ... Bull Acad R Méd Belg 1981; 136: 540-555 Gastaut H. A new type of epilepsy: benign partial epilepsy of childhood with occipital ... The Physiopathogenesis of the Epilepsies. Springfield, Illinois, C. C. Thomas 1969 Gastaut H, Broughton R. Epileptic Seizures. ... Among others, Gastaut was awarded as "Ambassador for Epilepsy" by the ILAE and International Bureau for Epilepsy in 1968 and ...
Seizures in this type of reflex epilepsy are usually focal seizures.. Other types of reflex epilepsy. Researchers have written ... Seizure types. There are many different types of epileptic seizure. Any type of seizure can happen in reflex epilepsy, but ... Epilepsy Action has more information about epilepsy medicines.. Research into reflex epilepsies. Despite the fact that reflex ... Different types of reflex epilepsies. Photosensitive epilepsy. Photosensitive epilepsy is a type of epilepsy where flickering ...
At least two seizures in a setting of reflex epilepsy. *Child has a diagnosis of Localization Related Epilepsy (LRE) with or ... Epilepsy. Epilepsies, Partial. Brain Diseases. Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System Diseases. Etiracetam. ... Seizures that arise in specific areas in the brain are called Localization Related Epilepsy (LRE) and are the most common ... Epilepsy, Partial Epilepsy, Localization Related Drug: Oxcarbazepine Drug: Levetiracetam Drug: Lamotrigine Phase 3 ...
Electro-cortical activity in patients with epilepsy may show abnormal rhythmic transients in response to stimulation. Even when ... Electro-cortical activity in patients with epilepsy may show abnormal rhythmic transients in response to stimulation. Even when ... Koepp, M. J., Caciagli, L., Pressler, R. M., Lehnertz, K., and Beniczky, S. (2016). Reflex seizures, traits, and epilepsies: ... application to epilepsy seizure evolution. Neuroimage 59, 2374-2392. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.08.111 ...
Reflex Seizures and Reflex Epilepsies. Pages 475-485. Striano, Salvatore (et al.) ... He is President of the Italian League against Epilepsy (LICE), member of the executive committee of the Italian Society of ...
Pure sleep epilepsies: prognostic features. In: Epilepsy: an update on research and therapy. Edited by Nistico Giuseppe, Di ... Certainly any epileptic seizure could have a deleterious impact on attention, cognition and reflex response times. Uncontrolled ... Sleep-related epilepsy. The relationship between sleep and epilepsy is both intricate and complex. Seizures from sleep have ... Sleep seizures may be relatively benign-for example, the childhood partial epilepsy syndromes: benign Rolandic epilepsy (three- ...
The effects of AMPA receptor antagonists on kindled seizures and on reflex epilepsy in rodents and primates. Epilepsy Res Suppl ... Cortical triggers in generalized reflex seizures and epilepsies. Brain. 2005;128:700-710. [CrossRef] [PubMed] ... Photic- and pattern-induced seizures: a review for the Epilepsy Foundation of America Working Group. Epilepsia. 2005;46:1426- ... healthy subjects who have never had epilepsy but who do have PPR, and patients with epilepsy and PPR). They had been assessed ...
Xue, LY; Ritaccio, AL (March 2006). "Reflex seizures and reflex epilepsy.". American journal of electroneurodiagnostic ... Classification of seizures and epilepsy syndromes". The Epilepsies: The diagnosis and management of the epilepsies in adults ... Seizure : the journal of the British Epilepsy Association 19 (10): 630-6. PMID 21075013. doi:10.1016/j.seizure.2010.10.017.. ... Magiorkinis E; Kalliopi S; Diamantis A (January 2010). "Hallmarks in the history of epilepsy: epilepsy in antiquity". Epilepsy ...
From here to epilepsy: the risk of seizure in patients with Alzheimers disease Nicolas Nicastro, Frédéric Assal, Margitta ... Reflex operculoinsular seizures Handsun Xiao, Thi Phuoc Yen Tran, Myriam Pétrin, Olivier Boucher, Ismail Mohamed, Alain ... Idiopathic focal epilepsies: the "lost tribe" Deb K. Pal, Colin Ferrie, Laura Addis, Tomoyuki Akiyama, Giuseppe Capovilla, ... Characteristic phasic evolution of convulsive seizure in PCDH19 related epilepsy Hiroko Ikeda, Katsumi Imai, Hitoshi Ikeda, ...
Herskowitz J, Rosman NP, Geschwind N. Seizures induced by singing and recitation. A unique form of reflex epilepsy in childhood ... Seizures and seizure-like states in the child: an approach to emergency management. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 1983 Apr; 1(1):125 ... Do partial seizures predict an increased risk of seizure recurrence after antiepilepsy drugs are withdrawn? J Child Neurol. ... Myoclonic seizures in Krabbe disease: a unique presentation in late-onset type. Pediatr Neurol. 2006 Aug; 35(2):154-7. PMID: ...
... reflex epilepsies are rare, but epileptic seizures can be caused by, for example, bathing in hot water.) If seizures recur when ... Infantile seizures and epilepsies are covered during days 1 and 2 of the paediatric epilepsy training level 2 training course ... However, some epilepsies can be reflex, such as photic-stimulation-induced or reading epilepsies. In infants, ... Treatment of infantile epilepsy. Clearly, the first steps to effective treatment are correctly recognising epilepsy, seizure ...
Patients with epilepsy have a mortality rate significantly higher than that of the general population. ... Mortality due to epilepsy is a significant concern. ... Seizure control and mortality in epilepsy. Ann Neurol. 1999 Jul ... In a study of the cardiovascular reflexes in 24 patients with epilepsy, Devinsky et al documented increased heart rate ... Benign Childhood Epilepsy * Localization-Related Epilepsies on EEG * Identification of Potential Epilepsy Surgery Candidates ...
  • After the second world war he was influential in reactivating the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). (wikipedia.org)
  • The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) defines sleep seizures as 'seizures occurring exclusively or predominantly (more than 90%) from sleep. (bmj.com)
  • If we consider the first question to encompass a detailed and chronological description of the events (the 'phenomenology' or 'semiology'), and the final question to deal with behaviour, cognition and emotional and social functioning, then we can consider these five questions to have a useful correspondence with the five 'axes' proposed as a classification scheme by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) in 2001. (bmj.com)
  • In 1981, the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) proposed a classification scheme for individual seizures that remains in common use. (bionity.com)
  • In 2005, the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) defined epilepsy as "a disorder of the brain characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures, and by the neurobiologic, cognitive, psychological, and social consequences of this condition" [ 3 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • This website is owned by the International League Against Epilepsy. (epilepsydiagnosis.org)
  • Text on this website, last updated March 30, 2020, is available under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , EXCEPTING all videos and images, which remain copyrighted by the International League Against Epilepsy. (epilepsydiagnosis.org)
  • Preventing febrile seizures in children with oral diazepam: can a controlled trial truly be "double-blind? (harvard.edu)
  • It is not the remit of this paper to discuss the detailed management of febrile seizures. (bmj.com)
  • Most febrile seizures occur between 6 months and 3 years of age with the peak incidence at 18 months. (bmj.com)
  • Many febrile seizures occur early in the illness and may be the presenting feature, but others occur during or after the onset of fever, 8, 9 observations that may in part reflect the difficulties in both taking and accurately recording the temperature of young children. (bmj.com)
  • 14 Antipyretics have not been shown to reduce the risk of febrile seizures, 15, 16 suggesting that it may not be the fever itself that causes an FS. (bmj.com)
  • In addition he was Chairman of the Commission on Terminology of the ILAE in 1963 which resulted in the publication of a Dictionary of Epilepsy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among others, Gastaut was awarded as "Ambassador for Epilepsy" by the ILAE and International Bureau for Epilepsy in 1968 and with the Lennox Award of the American Epilepsy Society (AES) in 1977. (wikipedia.org)
  • More information about epilepsy and the ILAE may be found at the ILAE web site, www.ilae.org . (verticalresponse.com)
  • In 1989, the ILAE proposed a classification scheme for epilepsies and epileptic syndromes. (bionity.com)
  • Since 1997, the ILAE have been working on a new scheme that has five axes: ictal phenomenon, seizure type, syndrome, etiology and impairment. (bionity.com)
  • Sleep seizures may be relatively benign-for example, the childhood partial epilepsy syndromes: benign Rolandic epilepsy (three-quarters occur from non-REM sleep, mainly at sleep onset or just before awakening) or Panayiotopoulos syndrome (two-thirds arise from sleep). (bmj.com)
  • This review considers epilepsies that have an onset in infancy but after the perinatal period, outlines the commoner epilepsy syndromes occurring in this age group and describes paroxysmal events that can mimic epilepsy. (bmj.com)
  • In particular, we outline paroxysmal events that mimic epilepsy and we describe the more common epilepsy syndromes occurring in this age group. (bmj.com)
  • Not all epilepsy syndromes are lifelong - some forms are confined to particular stages of childhood. (bionity.com)
  • Epilepsy should not be understood as a single disorder, but rather as a group of syndromes with vastly divergent symptoms but all involving episodic abnormal electrical activity in the brain. (bionity.com)
  • However, in some epilepsy syndromes, the provocant can reasonably be considered to be part of normal daily life. (bionity.com)
  • Early evidence for the involvement of macroscopic networks in epilepsy syndromes arises from EEG studies ( 1 ) and, for the last decade, several authors have developed a framework based on brain networks to explain various features of epilepsy ( 2 - 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • There is a growing body of evidence pointing toward large-scale networks, often bihemispheric and involving several lobes, underlying seizures in different epileptic syndromes ( 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The most widespread classification of the epilepsies [ 9 ] divides epilepsy syndromes by location or distribution of seizures (as revealed by the appearance of the seizures and by EEG ) and by cause. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Such stimuli will constantly elicit a reflex seizure in a patient with reflex epilepsy, in contrast to facilitating stimuli that may facilitate EEG discharges or evoke a seizure (but not constantly) in other epilepsy syndromes. (epilepsydiagnosis.org)
  • It affects around three in every 100 people with epilepsy. (epilepsy.org.uk)
  • However, the risk of sudden death in epilepsy is greater for those with recurrent unmedicated seizures, particularly if they sleep without a bed partner, and there are published reports of people with epilepsy dying alone in their sleep. (bmj.com)
  • [ 6 ] SUDEP accounts for 8-17% of deaths in people with epilepsy. (medscape.com)
  • Although assumed to be a common trigger for epilepsy, among both patients and the public, only around 5% of people with epilepsy are affected by flickering lights. (bionity.com)
  • However, over 30% of people with epilepsy do not have seizure control even with the best available medications. (thefullwiki.org)
  • People with epilepsy who do not respond well to AEDs may benefit from a biofeedback technique, where biological monitoring (eg, EEG readings) is used to help identify how their body responds to different situations. (lifeextension.com)
  • Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological disorder that is characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures . (bionity.com)
  • Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases in the world, and is characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures (fits) that can occur at all ages. (intechopen.com)
  • Epilepsy (from the Ancient Greek ἐπιληψία ( epilēpsía ) - "to seize") is a common chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures . (thefullwiki.org)
  • The condition of epilepsy has many causes and the kinds of seizures that occur can vary widely. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In order for epilepsy to occur, there must be an underlying physical problem in the brain. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Notably, evidence of a recent seizure does not exclude the diagnosis of SUDEP as long as death did not occur during the seizure. (medscape.com)
  • We propose a framework for the investigation of network connectivity in patients with epilepsy that can integrate epileptic processes that occur across different time scales such as epileptic transients and disease duration and the implications of this approach are discussed. (frontiersin.org)
  • 60 years of age, almost 50% of seizures occur for the first time in their life as a consequence of ischemic stroke. (dovepress.com)
  • [ 4 ] Epilepsy is more likely to occur in young children, or people over the age of 65 years, however it can occur at any time. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Conversion disorder can be distinguished from epilepsy because the episodes never occur during sleep and do not involve incontinence or self-injury. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Reflex seizures may occur in epilepsies of varied etiologies (e.g. in structural brain abnormality and in genetic/idiopathic generalized epilepsies ), however these are not categorized as reflex epilepsies as spontaneous seizures occur in addition to reflex seizures. (epilepsydiagnosis.org)
  • In 1957 he described the hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy(HHE) syndrome, in 1961 and 1966 the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, and in 1981 and 1982 the late variant of the benign childhood epilepsy with occipital paroxysms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: An epileptic condition with onset in childhood with nighttime myoclonic seizures, head nodding, and drop attacks especially prominent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Startle epilepsy is characterized by seizures that may start in childhood or early adolescence (1-16 years). (epilepsydiagnosis.org)
  • Epilepsies in infancy may be the manifestation of a genetic predisposition associated with a benign course and good prognosis for neurodevelopment. (bmj.com)
  • Benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) is the most common pediatric epilepsy syndrome. (stanford.edu)
  • Epilepsy has many causes that, in part, have an affect on the clinical presentation of symptoms. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These types of epilepsy are very rare and are often the subject of clinical and scientific interest. (epilepsy.org.uk)
  • He is President of the Italian League against Epilepsy (LICE), member of the executive committee of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology (SINC) and member of the Italian Society of Neurology (SIN). (springer.com)
  • Guidance from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence suggests early referral of cases of infantile epilepsy to a tertiary centre. (bmj.com)
  • No single clinical or historical feature is diagnostic of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. (aafp.org)
  • In the late 1800s, Charcot first described non-epileptic seizure as a clinical disorder, calling it "hysteroepilepsy" and "epileptiform hysteria. (aafp.org)
  • It is characterized by repetitive, unprovoked epileptic seizures which vary widely in their clinical presentations. (intechopen.com)
  • Although a meticulous patient history complemented by sound clinical/paraclinical investigations often unveil the underlying cause of epilepsy, the exact etiology remains unknown in about half of cases [ 2 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Operational (practical) clinical definition of epilepsy [ 4 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Comprehension of the complex mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis and seizure generation in temporal lobe epilepsy and other forms of epilepsy cannot be fully acquired in clinical studies with humans. (dovepress.com)
  • 3 Usually, these models intend to mimic TLE, and therefore rodents must display a similar "clinical history" as the human counterpart, including an initial precipitant injury afflicting the hippocampus and/or the temporal lobe (eg, status epilepticus [SE]), a latent period between the injury and the occurrence of spontaneous seizures, chronic manifestation of spontaneous seizures (usually partial and tonic-clonic seizures), and histopathological changes deemed characteristic of TLE. (dovepress.com)
  • Conventional treatment for epilepsy is primarily based on anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), and often, epilepsy patients must endure significant clinical experimentation to find a regimen that works for them. (lifeextension.com)
  • the laboratory of Dr. Wade Regehr conducts research on axon terminals in the brain to further understanding of disorders such as epilepsy , schizophrenia , and clinical depression ? (thefullwiki.org)
  • Her clinical efforts focus on caring for children with epilepsy. (stanford.edu)
  • She returned to Stanford for epilepsy fellowship and now serves as an attending in child neurology. (stanford.edu)
  • numerous types of epilepsy have been described. (lifeextension.com)
  • There are many types of epilepsy, with seizures ranging from mild sensory disruptions to convulsions and unconsciousness. (lifeextension.com)
  • Do partial seizures predict an increased risk of seizure recurrence after antiepilepsy drugs are withdrawn? (harvard.edu)
  • It was observed that the relative risk of seizure occurring within 24 hours after stroke was 18 times higher in pediatric patients than in adults. (dovepress.com)
  • Seizures that arise in specific areas in the brain are called Localization Related Epilepsy (LRE) and are the most common seizure disorder in children. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that causes abnormal brain activity, resulting in unusual behavior, loss of awareness, and seizures. (rwjbh.org)
  • Affected children typically have a mild seizure disorder, but yet have moderate difficulties with language, learning and attention that impact quality of life more than the seizures. (stanford.edu)
  • Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by the periodic occurrence of seizures-disruptions in electrical signaling in the brain. (lifeextension.com)
  • Photosensitive epilepsy is a type of epilepsy where flickering or flashing lights, and sometimes strong patterns (usually stripes), trigger seizures. (epilepsy.org.uk)
  • In this type of epilepsy, reading triggers brief jerks (myoclonic seizures) around the jaw and mouth. (epilepsy.org.uk)
  • Less commonly, people outside India may have this type of epilepsy. (epilepsy.org.uk)
  • To evaluate and manage epileptic seizures and other paroxysmal events in infants, it is necessary to ask five key questions: (1) Is this a type of epilepsy? (bmj.com)
  • Each type of epilepsy presents with its own unique combination of seizure type, typical age of onset, EEG findings, treatment, and prognosis. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Treatment involves discontinuation of antiepileptic drugs in patients without concurrent epilepsy and referral for appropriate psychiatric care. (aafp.org)
  • Standard conventional treatments for epilepsy often rely on antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), which may need to be taken for many years. (lifeextension.com)
  • Comparative effectiveness of antiepileptic drugs in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. (nih.gov)
  • Reflex seizures are epileptic events triggered by specific stimuli and diaper changing is a very rare triggering event, previously described in individual cases of both focal and unclassified epilepsy, as well as in Dravet syndrome. (jle.com)
  • Genève, Editions Médicine et Hygiene 1989 Gastaut's syndrome: Photosensitive epilepsy with heliotropism and arm rocking. (wikipedia.org)
  • EEG , brain MRI, SPECT , PET , and magnetoencephalography may be useful to discover an etiology for the epilepsy, discover the affected brain region, or classify the epileptic syndrome, but these studies are not useful in making the initial diagnosis. (bionity.com)
  • A full medical diagnosis requires a definite categorisation of seizure and syndrome types. (bionity.com)
  • Rage Syndrome is a neurological condition similar to epilepsy that causes a dog to suddenly act aggressively? (thefullwiki.org)
  • This is an abnormal event that, depending on the location in the brain, will correspond to the particular symptoms of a seizure. (encyclopedia.com)
  • What are Signs and Symptoms of a Seizure? (lifeextension.com)
  • Mutations in the CDKL5 (cyclin-dependent kinase-like-5) gene are known to determine early-onset drug resistant epilepsies and severe cognitive impairment with absent language, hand stereotypies, and deceleration of head growth. (jle.com)
  • Younger age at stroke onset but not thrombolytic treatment predicts poststroke epilepsy: An updated meta-analysis. (nih.gov)
  • Myoclonic seizures in Krabbe disease: a unique presentation in late-onset type. (harvard.edu)
  • In this review, we consider epilepsies that have an onset in infancy but exclude seizures occurring in the perinatal and early neonatal period, which is a large subject in its own right. (bmj.com)
  • Early PSS (EPSS) occurring up to 7 days after AIS, late PSS (LPSS) occurring up to 2 years after the onset of AIS, as well as poststroke epilepsy (PSE) can be distinguished. (dovepress.com)
  • More accurate knowledge on risk factors for PSS and PSE as well as possible prediction of epileptic seizures after the onset of AIS may have an impact on improving the prevention and treatment of PSE. (dovepress.com)
  • Seizure types are organized firstly according to whether the source of the seizure within the brain is localized ( partial or focal onset seizures) or distributed ( generalized seizures). (thefullwiki.org)
  • Epileptic seizures are typically marked by abnormal rhythmic discharges of electrical activity in the human brain. (frontiersin.org)
  • Abnormal rhythmic discharges can also often be induced in patients with epilepsy by stimulation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Nonepileptic seizures are involuntary episodes of movement, sensation, or behaviors (e.g., vocalizations, crying, other expressions of emotion) that do not result from abnormal cortical discharges. (aafp.org)
  • Neale suffered from a rare condition called audiogenic epilepsy, in which specific sounds mysteriously trigger excessive discharges in the brain. (unisci.com)
  • As communication between nerve cells in the brain is largely dependent on electrical signals carried by ion flow, problems with these channels could explain the electric discharges that accompany an epileptic seizure. (unisci.com)
  • Separate from the seizures, these children have very frequent abnormal activity in their brain known as interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs, or spikes), which physicians currently do not treat. (stanford.edu)
  • Seizures in this type of reflex epilepsy are usually focal seizures. (epilepsy.org.uk)
  • Epilepsy can be acquired from other health problems or can be idiopathic, meaning the cause is unknown. (lifeextension.com)
  • Electro-cortical activity in patients with epilepsy may show abnormal rhythmic transients in response to stimulation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Patients with epilepsy have a mortality rate significantly higher than that of the general population. (medscape.com)
  • Natural interventions such as coenzyme Q10 and magnesium may provide benefit for patients with epilepsy. (lifeextension.com)
  • A form of magnesium, called magnesium-L-threonate , penetrates the brain effectively and may offer more protection for patients with epilepsy. (lifeextension.com)
  • Melatonin helps calm neural signaling and has been shown to be beneficial for patients with epilepsy. (lifeextension.com)
  • Any type of seizure can happen in reflex epilepsy, but generalised seizures, particularly myoclonic seizures, appear to be most common. (epilepsy.org.uk)
  • My 17 year old daughter suffers from myoclonic seizures and tonic clonic seizures (myoclonic every day and tonic clonic averaging at about one a week, has been known to be more or less). (epilepsy.org.uk)
  • The famous English neurologist John Hughlings Jackson explained epilepsy as "a sudden, excessive, and rapid discharge of gray matter of some part of the brain" that would correspond to the patient's experience. (encyclopedia.com)
  • However, only a very small area of dysfunctional brain tissue is necessary to create a persistent generator of seizures and, hence, epilepsy. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Any of the above conditions have the potential for causing the brain or a portion of it to be dysfunctional and produce recurrent seizures. (encyclopedia.com)
  • His major interests involved research of electroencephalography and brain functionality in epilepsy. (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] [2] These seizures are transient signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal, excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain. (bionity.com)
  • By the location in the brain where the seizures originate. (bionity.com)
  • Epilepsy is a chronic disease of the brain estimated to affect 50 million people worldwide according to World Health Organization (WHO) [ 1 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • An epileptic seizure, on the other hand, refers to "a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain" [ 3 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Most genetic epilepsies are related to mutations in genes coding for proteins called ion channels that are responsible for regulating the flow of ions in the brain. (unisci.com)
  • In this review, we summarize the most frequently used models of chronic epilepsy and models of acute seizures induced by chemoconvulsants, traumatic brain injury, and electrical or sound stimuli. (dovepress.com)
  • Genetic models of absence seizures and models of seizures and status epilepticus in the immature brain were also examined. (dovepress.com)
  • The quest for seizure mechanisms can provide insights into overall brain functions and consciousness, and animal models of epilepsy will continue to promote the progress of both epilepsy and neurophysiology research. (dovepress.com)
  • Seizures , which are characterized by transient behavioral changes, are due to abnormal electrical activity within the brain. (lifeextension.com)
  • In this protocol, you will learn how irregular electrical activity in the brain causes seizures, and how several variables influence neuronal excitability. (lifeextension.com)
  • A partial seizure may spread within the brain - a process known as secondary generalization . (thefullwiki.org)
  • She has completed post-doctoral work in the labs of Dr. Robert Fisher and Dr. Amit Etkin, focusing on using transcranial magnetic stimulation paired with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) to study brain dynamics in children with epilepsy. (stanford.edu)
  • Dr. Baumer's research focuses on understanding the impact of abnormal brain activity (called spike waves) on brain network connectivity to determine if spike waves contribute to cognitive comorbidities in children with epilepsy. (stanford.edu)
  • and (2) if brain stimulation may be a treatment option for children with epilepsy. (stanford.edu)
  • Some of these models replicate the natural history of symptomatic focal epilepsy with an initial epileptogenic insult, which is followed by an apparent latent period and by a subsequent period of chronic spontaneous seizures. (dovepress.com)
  • Convulsive or other seizure-like activity, non-epileptic in origin, can be observed in many other medical conditions. (bionity.com)
  • Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of epilepsy in humans, in which seizures spread to neighboring cortices and hippocampal neuron loss and other neuropathological changes may take place. (dovepress.com)
  • The MORTality in Epilepsy Monitoring Unit Study (MORTEMUS) is a collaborative project that aims to quantify the risk of death, SUDEP, and near-SUDEP in patients with drug-resistant partial epilepsy during long-term video EEG monitoring. (medscape.com)
  • Audiogenic epilepsy is a subset of the broader class of reflex epilepsies which can be triggered by stimuli such as flashing lights, reading, writing, startle hot baths, difficult puzzles or simple math. (unisci.com)
  • Position paper of the Italian League against Epilepsy. (nih.gov)
  • Seizures and epilepsy are quite a common outcome of arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) both in pediatric and adult patients, with distinctly higher occurrence in children. (dovepress.com)
  • Thus, due to all these discrepancies, more accurate knowledge on risk factors for PSS and epilepsy as well as the possibility to predict the occurrence of epileptic seizures may have an impact on improving the prevention and treatment of poststroke epilepsy (PSE). (dovepress.com)
  • It takes into account an individual's risk of recurrent seizures. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In this case, these individuals have a risk for recurrent seizures and, hence, epilepsy. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Epilepsy is a chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent seizures that affects millions of people worldwide. (dovepress.com)
  • Rodents with spontaneous recurrent seizures have been generated by using chemoconvulsants, primarily pilocarpine and kainic acid. (dovepress.com)
  • There is a growing body of evidence pointing toward large-scale networks underlying the core phenomena in epilepsy, from seizure generation to cognitive dysfunction or response to treatment. (frontiersin.org)
  • These factors include different aspects of epilepsy ranging from treatment effects, cognitive processes, or transition between different alertness states (i.e., awake-sleep transition). (frontiersin.org)
  • Seizure generation, spread and termination as well as therapeutic response and cognitive impairment may be explained by the interactions between, and dysfunction of, large-scale networks. (frontiersin.org)
  • Epilepsy, cerebral calcifications, and gluten-related disorders: Are anti-transglutaminase 6 antibodies the missing link? (nih.gov)
  • Epilepsy is one of the most common of the serious neurological disorders. (bionity.com)
  • The rapid expansion in the number of encephalitis disorders associated with autoantibodies against neuronal proteins has led to an incremental increase in use of the term "autoimmune epilepsy," yet has occurred with limited attention to the physiopathology of each disease and genuine propensity to develop epilepsy. (jci.org)
  • The risk of epilepsy is higher for disorders in which the antigens are intracellular (often T cell-mediated) compared with disorders in which the antigens are on the cell surface (antibody-mediated). (jci.org)
  • Then, we focus on several antibody-mediated encephalitis disorders that associate with seizures and review the synaptic alterations caused by patients' antibodies, with emphasis on those that have been modeled in animals (e.g., antibodies against NMDA, AMPA receptors, LGI1 protein) or in cultured neurons (e.g., antibodies against the GABAb receptor). (jci.org)
  • The identification of the mass1 mutation and protein is significant for defining the first naturally occurring genetic defect responsible for reflex epilepsy and promises to yield unique insights into the mechanism of this rare form of inherited seizure disorders. (unisci.com)
  • The role of cerebrovascular disorders is observed in the development of 11% of all cases of epilepsy. (dovepress.com)
  • Other important contributors to epilepsy include oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction (Rahman 2012). (lifeextension.com)
  • As mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to epileptic seizures, protectants such as coenzyme Q10 and pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) may offer benefits. (lifeextension.com)
  • Earlier genetic mapping studies had shown that unlike other genetically more complex mouse models of sound-induced epilepsy which have mutations at multiple sites, the inherited mutation in the Frings mouse could be mapped to a single locus named mass1 on chromosome 13. (unisci.com)
  • In humans, there is an analog of this gene on chromosone 5 at a site implicated in some families with genetic epilepsy. (unisci.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 12451109 Epilepsy is a debilitating disease with a strong genetic component. (jove.com)
  • Mouse models of epilepsy can further this analysis by eliminating genetic background heterogeneity and enabling the production of sufficient numbers of offspring. (jove.com)
  • however, the genetics of common human epilepsies are too complex to be analyzed easily by current techniques. (jove.com)
  • In general, any behavior that resulted in a loss of consciousness or convulsions was labeled a seizure. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Epileptic seizures range in severity from mild sensory disruption to a short period of staring or unconsciousness to convulsions. (lifeextension.com)
  • Pt cek's group was working with a strain of mice called Frings, which carry a spontaneous mutation that causes them to have seizures in response to loud noise. (unisci.com)
  • Reflex epilepsies are characterized by the presence of reflex seizures and the absence of spontaneous seizures. (epilepsydiagnosis.org)
  • Specific emphasis must be laid on low and middle income countries, where about 80% of all persons with epilepsy reside. (intechopen.com)
  • Early epilepsy diagnosis and proper anti-epileptic treatment usually result in satisfactory seizure control, and enable persons with epilepsy to lead a normal life. (intechopen.com)
  • Proper diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy are paramount to achieve seizure control and ensure an optimal quality of life for affected individuals. (intechopen.com)
  • Even in specialist centres, there are high false-positive rates for the diagnosis of epilepsy. (bmj.com)
  • The diagnosis of epilepsy requires that the seizures be unprovoked, with the implication that the provocant is assumed to be something obviously harmful. (bionity.com)
  • Mortality due to epilepsy is a significant concern. (medscape.com)
  • Poststroke seizure (PSS) may also increase mortality in patients with AIS. (dovepress.com)
  • 3 Poststroke seizure (PSS) increases mortality in patients (both short term and long term), disability at discharge, as well as extended hospital stay. (dovepress.com)
  • 5 However, results from a study based on Italian patients showed that early seizures were not related to increased mortality or disability. (dovepress.com)
  • For example, special dietary regimens, such as the ketogenic diet , have the capacity to provide benefit for epilepsy patients and represent a potential adjuvant to mainstream therapies. (lifeextension.com)
  • The ketogenic diet (or modified versions) can be effective at reducing the number of seizures. (lifeextension.com)
  • Table 1 shows some of the commoner non-epileptic paroxysmal events that can mimic infantile epilepsies. (bmj.com)
  • 3 This phenomenon also plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of photosensitive epilepsy, which is the most frequent form of the reflex epilepsies. (arvojournals.org)
  • This last provocant is a special type of reflex epilepsy called photosensitive epilepsy . (bionity.com)
  • Seizures in infancy are relatively rare and there is a wide range of underlying causes, some of which require specific treatments to avoid preventable neurodevelopmental damage. (bmj.com)
  • Lacosamide-Induced Dyskinesia in Children With Intractable Epilepsy. (stanford.edu)
  • 1 2 The PPR is a genetically determined neurophysiologic phenomenon representing an increased risk for mostly generalized epilepsies. (arvojournals.org)
  • In most cases within 3 minutes after a seizure, a so-called shutdown of the EEG was noted, followed by asystole and, finally, apnea was the terminal phenomenon. (medscape.com)
  • This is attributable to a phenomenon known as sudden unexplained death in epilepsy patients (SUDEP). (lifeextension.com)
  • Of course, depending on the age group being studied, the cause of epilepsy will vary. (encyclopedia.com)
  • For RS-fMRI to become a more effective tool to investigate clinically relevant aspects of epilepsy it is necessary to understand connectivity changes associated with epileptic transients, those associated with other clinically relevant factors and the interaction between them, which represents a gap in the current literature. (frontiersin.org)
  • Research has shed light on aspects of epilepsy that remain underappreciated by the conventional establishment. (lifeextension.com)
  • Consensual international norms have been established for the proper diagnosis and management of epilepsy, including specificities for vulnerable populations such as children and pregnant women. (intechopen.com)
  • For the first time, a gene that could be responsible for an audiogenic form of reflex epilepsy has been mapped by Louis Pt cek and colleagues at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City. (unisci.com)
  • In a related preview, Daniel Burgess of the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston discusses the potential functional roles of the mass1 protein and lays out the important future questions in determining how mutations at this locus lead to audiogenic epilepsy. (unisci.com)
  • Identification of a Monogenic Locus (jams1) Causing Juvenile Audiogenic Seizures in Mice The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. (jove.com)
  • Here, we report that Black Swiss mice have a heretofore unrecognized specific susceptibility to audiogenic seizures. (jove.com)
  • Ictal polygraphic recording during diaper changing (upper panel and lower panel are consecutive): the seizure starts with paroxysmal low-voltage rhythmic theta activity in the left centro-parietal and vertex regions (arrows), followed by generalized delta activity and a series of spasms, characterized by high-voltage slow complexes related to EMG periodic contractions of the four limbs (arrowheads). (jle.com)
  • If you have one of these epilepsies, the same, specific, thing always triggers your seizures. (epilepsy.org.uk)
  • Wherever possible, you should try to avoid the thing that triggers your seizures. (epilepsy.org.uk)
  • When one has reflex epilepsy, would they only seizures due to a specific trigger, or can they also have seizures due to several unknown triggers? (epilepsy.org.uk)
  • By the event that triggers the seizures, as in primary reading epilepsy. (bionity.com)
  • The seizures can mimic any kind of epileptic seizure and thus can be mistaken for generalized tonicclonic seizure, absence seizure, and simple or complex partial seizures. (aafp.org)
  • 6 In contrast, some seizures in nocturnal frontal-lobe epilepsy (NFLE) are not only recurrent but challenging to diagnose, frequently mimicking parasomnias and having a high seizure reoccurrence rate after discontinuing AEDs. (bmj.com)
  • 7 Pure sleep-related epilepsy may be more likely to respond to antiepileptic medication, 8 but equally some people with infrequent sleep-only seizures not interfering with lifestyle do not necessarily require AEDs. (bmj.com)
  • Magnesium deficiency is associated with seizures, as it acts as a natural calcium channel blocker similar to some AEDs. (lifeextension.com)