Conscious Sedation: A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Analgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.Deep Sedation: Drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposely following repeated painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Analgesia, Epidural: The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.Analgesia, Obstetrical: The elimination of PAIN, without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, during OBSTETRIC LABOR; OBSTETRIC DELIVERY; or the POSTPARTUM PERIOD, usually through the administration of ANALGESICS.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Analgesia, Patient-Controlled: Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Midazolam: A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Meperidine: A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.Acupuncture Analgesia: Analgesia produced by the insertion of ACUPUNCTURE needles at certain ACUPUNCTURE POINTS on the body. This activates small myelinated nerve fibers in the muscle which transmit impulses to the spinal cord and then activate three centers - the spinal cord, midbrain and pituitary/hypothalamus - to produce analgesia.Sufentanil: An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.Anesthesia, Epidural: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.Dexmedetomidine: A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Anesthetics, Intravenous: Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)Anesthesia Recovery Period: The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.Preanesthetic Medication: Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.Labor Pain: Pain associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR in CHILDBIRTH. It is caused primarily by UTERINE CONTRACTION as well as pressure on the CERVIX; BLADDER; and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Labor pain mostly occurs in the ABDOMEN; the GROIN; and the BACK.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Anesthesia, Intravenous: Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.Ketamine: A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.Anesthetics, Combined: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Anesthesia, Obstetrical: A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.Adjuvants, Anesthesia: Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.Tramadol: A narcotic analgesic proposed for severe pain. It may be habituating.Alfentanil: A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Chloral Hydrate: A hypnotic and sedative used in the treatment of INSOMNIA.Anesthetics, Dissociative: Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.Dental Anxiety: Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.Clonidine: An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Consciousness Monitors: Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.Butorphanol: A synthetic morphinan analgesic with narcotic antagonist action. It is used in the management of severe pain.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Anesthesia, Conduction: Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Naloxone: A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.Droperidol: A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)Hydroxyzine: A histamine H1 receptor antagonist that is effective in the treatment of chronic urticaria, dermatitis, and histamine-mediated pruritus. Unlike its major metabolite CETIRIZINE, it does cause drowsiness. It is also effective as an antiemetic, for relief of anxiety and tension, and as a sedative.Ambulatory Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Hydromorphone: An opioid analgesic made from MORPHINE and used mainly as an analgesic. It has a shorter duration of action than morphine.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Ketorolac: A pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative structurally related to INDOMETHACIN. It is an NSAID and is used principally for its analgesic activity. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Interpleural Analgesia: Injection of ANALGESICS; LOCAL ANESTHETICS; or NARCOTICS into the PLEURAL CAVITY between the two pleural membranes.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Pain Management: A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.Anesthesia, Caudal: Epidural anesthesia administered via the sacral canal.Receptors, Opioid, mu: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.Pirinitramide: A diphenylpropylamine with intense narcotic analgesic activity of long duration. It is a derivative of MEPERIDINE with similar activity and usage.Nalbuphine: A narcotic used as a pain medication. It appears to be an agonist at kappa opioid receptors and an antagonist or partial agonist at mu opioid receptors.Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Intensive Care: Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Labor Stage, First: Period from the onset of true OBSTETRIC LABOR to the complete dilatation of the CERVIX UTERI.Pruritus: An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief.Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Receptors, Opioid: Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.Medetomidine: An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Anesthesia and Analgesia: Medical methods of either relieving pain caused by a particular condition or removing the sensation of pain during a surgery or other medical procedure.Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Pain, Intractable: Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Nurse Anesthetists: Professional nurses who have completed postgraduate training in the administration of anesthetics and who function under the responsibility of the operating surgeon.Anesthesiology: A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Lorazepam: A benzodiazepine used as an anti-anxiety agent with few side effects. It also has hypnotic, anticonvulsant, and considerable sedative properties and has been proposed as a preanesthetic agent.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Morphine Derivatives: Analogs or derivatives of morphine.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Promethazine: A phenothiazine derivative with histamine H1-blocking, antimuscarinic, and sedative properties. It is used as an antiallergic, in pruritus, for motion sickness and sedation, and also in animals.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Premedication: Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.Thoracotomy: Surgical incision into the chest wall.Pentazocine: The first mixed agonist-antagonist analgesic to be marketed. It is an agonist at the kappa and sigma opioid receptors and has a weak antagonist action at the mu receptor. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1991, p97)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Opioid Peptides: The endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity. The three major classes currently recognized are the ENKEPHALINS, the DYNORPHINS, and the ENDORPHINS. Each of these families derives from different precursors, proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, respectively. There are also at least three classes of OPIOID RECEPTORS, but the peptide families do not map to the receptors in a simple way.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Hysterectomy: Excision of the uterus.Electroacupuncture: A form of acupuncture with electrical impulses passing through the needles to stimulate NERVE TISSUE. It can be used for ANALGESIA; ANESTHESIA; REHABILITATION; and treatment for diseases.Administration, Rectal: The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.Mepivacaine: A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)Prilocaine: A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.Oxycodone: A semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE.Ketoprofen: An IBUPROFEN-type anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic. It is used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.Oxymorphone: An opioid analgesic with actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE, apart from an absence of cough suppressant activity. It is used in the treatment of moderate to severe pain, including pain in obstetrics. It may also be used as an adjunct to anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1092)Benzodiazepines: A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Delirium: A disorder characterized by CONFUSION; inattentiveness; disorientation; ILLUSIONS; HALLUCINATIONS; agitation; and in some instances autonomic nervous system overactivity. It may result from toxic/metabolic conditions or structural brain lesions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp411-2)Acepromazine: A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.Injections, Epidural: The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.Infusion Pumps: Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.Pain Perception: The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Placebo Effect: An effect usually, but not necessarily, beneficial that is attributable to an expectation that the regimen will have an effect, i.e., the effect is due to the power of suggestion.Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Vomiting: The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.Periaqueductal Gray: Central gray matter surrounding the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT in the MESENCEPHALON. Physiologically it is probably involved in RAGE reactions, the LORDOSIS REFLEX; FEEDING responses, bladder tonus, and pain.Critical Illness: A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.Psychomotor Agitation: A feeling of restlessness associated with increased motor activity. This may occur as a manifestation of nervous system drug toxicity or other conditions.Oral Surgical Procedures: Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.Neostigmine: A cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the effects of muscle relaxants such as gallamine and tubocurarine. Neostigmine, unlike PHYSOSTIGMINE, does not cross the blood-brain barrier.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Anesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Anesthesia, Rectal: Procedure involving the instillation of an anesthetic into the rectum.Endoscopy, Digestive System: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.Molar, Third: The aftermost permanent tooth on each side in the maxilla and mandible.Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Laryngismus: A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.Codeine: An opioid analgesic related to MORPHINE but with less potent analgesic properties and mild sedative effects. It also acts centrally to suppress cough.Hypnosis, Anesthetic: Procedure in which an individual is induced into a trance-like state to relieve pain. This procedure is frequently performed with local but not general ANESTHESIA.Manifest Anxiety Scale: True-false questionnaire made up of items believed to indicate anxiety, in which the subject answers verbally the statement that describes him.Methohexital: An intravenous anesthetic with a short duration of action that may be used for induction of anesthesia.Pediatric Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of children, proper maintenance, and treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Opium: The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few - MORPHINE; CODEINE; and PAPAVERINE - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic.Perioperative Care: Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.Xylazine: An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.Flumazenil: A potent benzodiazepine receptor antagonist. Since it reverses the sedative and other actions of benzodiazepines, it has been suggested as an antidote to benzodiazepine overdoses.Heroin: A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Surgical Procedures, Minor: Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Critical Care: Health care provided to a critically ill patient during a medical emergency or crisis.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Nausea: An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses.Triazolam: A short-acting benzodiazepine used in the treatment of insomnia. Some countries temporarily withdrew triazolam from the market because of concerns about adverse reactions, mostly psychological, associated with higher dose ranges. Its use at lower doses with appropriate care and labeling has been reaffirmed by the FDA and most other countries.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Receptors, Opioid, kappa: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Kappa opioid receptors bind dynorphins with a higher affinity than endorphins which are themselves preferred to enkephalins.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Colonoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Morphinans: Compounds based on a partially saturated iminoethanophenanthrene, which can be described as ethylimino-bridged benzo-decahydronaphthalenes. They include some of the OPIOIDS found in PAPAVER that are used as ANALGESICS.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Obstetric Labor Complications: Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.Buprenorphine: A derivative of the opioid alkaloid THEBAINE that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than MORPHINE. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Nociceptive Pain: Dull or sharp aching pain caused by stimulated NOCICEPTORS due to tissue injury, inflammation or diseases. It can be divided into somatic or tissue pain and VISCERAL PAIN.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Extraction, Obstetrical: Extraction of the fetus by means of obstetrical instruments.Surgery, Oral: A dental specialty concerned with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of disease, injuries, and defects of the human oral and maxillofacial region.Dipyrone: A drug that has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. It is the sodium sulfonate of AMINOPYRINE.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Antiemetics: Drugs used to prevent NAUSEA or VOMITING.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Subarachnoid Space: The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Crying: To utter an inarticulate, characteristic sound in order to communicate or express a feeling, or desire for attention.Pentobarbital: A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)Tolmetin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AGENTS, NON-STEROIDAL) similar in mode of action to INDOMETHACIN.Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Euthanasia: The act or practice of killing or allowing death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy, i.e., in order to release a person from incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death. (from Beauchamp and Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 5th ed)Nefopam: Non-narcotic analgesic chemically similar to ORPHENADRINE. Its mechanism of action is unclear. It is used for the relief of acute and chronic pain. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p26)Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Gynecologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the female genitalia.Dental Care for Disabled: Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Apgar Score: A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.
Sedation and analgesia. Undertreatment of cancer pain in elderly patients. JAMA. 1998;279(23):1914-5. doi:10.1001/jama.279.23. ... Episodic analgesia may occur under special circumstances, such as in the excitement of sport or war: a soldier on the ... Inadequate analgesia in emergency medicine. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 2004;43(4):494-503. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2003.11 ... June 2010). "Efficacy of sweet solutions for analgesia in infants between 1 and 12 months of age: a systematic review". Arch. ...
Selbst, SM; Fein, JA (2006). "Sedation and analgesia". In Fleisher, GR; Ludwig, S; Henretig, FM. Textbook of pediatric ... Fishman, Scott M. (July 2007). "Recognizing Pain Management as a Human Right: A First Step". Anesthesia & Analgesia. 105 (1): 8 ... Rupp, T; Delaney, KA (April 2004). "Inadequate analgesia in emergency medicine" (PDF). Annals of Emergency Medicine. 43 (4): ...
Hall LW, Clarke KW, Trim CM (2001). "Principles of sedation, analgesia and premedication". Veterinary anaesthesia. Philadelphia ... to reverse xylazine-induced sedation. Bowen JS, Davis GB, Kearney TE, Bardin J. Diffuse vascular spasm associated with 4-bromo- ...
Analgesia Neuromuscular Blockade Working Group (2006). "Consensus guidelines on sedation and analgesia in critically ill ... "Sedation and analgesia in children submitted to mechanical ventilation could be overestimated?". Jornal de Pediatria. 79 (4): ... "Benzodiazepine withdrawal reaction in two children following discontinuation of sedation with midazolam". Annals of ... United Kingdom Paediatric Intensive Care Society Sedation; ...
I. Diuresis, sedation, analgesia and discriminative stimulus effects. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. ... While tifluadom has several effects which might have potential uses in medicine such as analgesia and appetite stimulation, κ- ...
A method of sedation analgesia in routine dentistry". Journal of the Dental Association of South Africa. 29 (2): 77-80. PMID ... The Analgizer was widely utilized for analgesia and sedation until the early 1970s, in a manner that foreshadowed the patient- ... used for producing analgesia and sedation. As of 2010, methoxyflurane was listed under the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits ... Babl F, Barnett P, Palmer G, Oakley E, Davidson A (2007). "A pilot study of inhaled methoxyflurane for procedural analgesia in ...
A method of sedation analgesia in routine dentistry". Journal of the Dental Association of South Africa. 29 (2): 77-80. PMID ... The Analgizer was widely utilized for analgesia and sedation until the early 1970s, in a manner that foreshadowed the patient- ... Babl F, Barnett P, Palmer G, Oakley E, Davidson A (2007). "A pilot study of inhaled methoxyflurane for procedural analgesia in ... When used for labor analgesia, the Analgizer allows labor to progress normally and with no apparent adverse effect on Apgar ...
A method of sedation analgesia in routine dentistry". Journal of the Dental Association of South Africa. 29 (2): 77-80. PMID ... The Analgizer was widely utilized for analgesia and sedation until the early 1970s, in a manner that foreshadowed the patient- ... used for producing analgesia and sedation. Due to the risk of organ (especially renal) toxicity, methoxyflurane is ... providing sedation and analgesia well into the postoperative period. There is substantial data to indicate that methoxyflurane ...
Kost, Michael (2004). Moderate sedation/analgesia : core competencies for practice (2nd ed.). St. Louis, Missouri.: Saunders. p ...
It induces sedation, hypothermia, ptosis, and (in higher doses) catalepsy; it inhibits spontaneous motor activity, conditioned ... Nuciferine may also potentiate morphine analgesia. The median lethal dose in mice is 289 mg/kg. It is structurally related to ...
Its primary actions of therapeutic value are analgesia and sedation. Activation of the μ-opioid receptors is associated with ... inhibit morphine analgesia, and σ-antagonists enhance morphine analgesia, suggesting downstream involvement of the σ-receptor ... Its duration of analgesia is about three to seven hours. However, concerns exist that morphine may increase mortality in the ... δ-Opioid is thought to play a role in analgesia. Although morphine does not bind to the σ-receptor, it has been shown that σ- ...
Pentobarbital is used as a hypnotic when analgesia is not required. It´s often used in CT imaging when sedation is needed. It ... Hans Selye demonstrated in the 1940 that certain pregnane steroids could cause both anesthesia and sedation but 40 years later ...
It is used for sedation, anesthesia, muscle relaxation, and analgesia in animals such as horses, cattle and other non-human ... Xylazine administration is used for sedation, anesthesia, muscle relaxation, and analgesia. It causes a significant reduction ... and tolazoline in tissues from yearling cattle and milk from mature dairy cows after sedation with xylazine hydrochloride and ...
Mencía SB, López-Herce JC, Freddi N (May 2007). "Analgesia and sedation in children: practical approach for the most frequent ... Rawicz M (Oct-Dec 2008). "[Recommendations for analgesia and sedation in neonatal intensive care]". Medycyna Wieku Rozwojowego ... for preoperative sedation, for the induction of general anesthesia, and for sedation of people who are ventilated in critical ... Sedation, respiratory depression and hypotension due to a reduction in systematic vascular resistance, and an increase in heart ...
It has similar effects to morphine, including analgesia, sedation, and respiratory depression. However, its addiction liability ...
An Opiate That Induces Sedation and Analgesia without Respiratory Depression" (pdf). Anesthesia and Analgesia. 62 (5): 483-488 ...
... has similar effects to other opioids, and produces analgesia, sedation and euphoria. Side effects can include itching, ... subcutaneous dose of alphaprodine for obstetric analgesia. A case report". Journal of Reproductive Medicine. 32 (2): 149-151. ... "Alphaprodine for continuous intravenous obstetric analgesia". Obstetrics & Gynecology. 27 (4): 472-477. doi:10.1097/00006250- ...
It has similar effects to morphine, such as sedation, analgesia, and respiratory depression. Chloromorphide does not appear ...
... produces similar effects to other opioids, including analgesia, sedation, dizziness and nausea. It was sold by ...
... produces similar effects to other opioids, including analgesia, sedation, dizziness and nausea. Metheptazine is ...
... produces similar effects to other opioids, including analgesia, sedation, dizziness and nausea. ...
... presumably has similar effects to other opioids, producing analgesia, sedation and euphoria. Side effects can include ...
... analgesia" and "Hypothermia is also unacceptable as a sedation technique for painful procedures". Veterinary articles have been ... Morphine analgesia in frogs is blocked by both naloxone and naltrexone, indicating that the effect is mediated at least ... Analgesia in amphibians can be measured using heart rate and respiratory rate. Amphibians exhibit classic wiping and withdrawal ... The threshold to Von Frey hairs and response to nociceptive withdrawal can be used to measure the effectiveness of analgesia. ...
... has similar effects to other opioids, and produces analgesia, sedation and euphoria. Side effects can include itching ...
... has similar effects to other opioids, and produces analgesia, sedation and euphoria. Side effects can include ... It was used particularly for obstetric analgesia and in dental procedures and, like pethidine, could be combined with ...
"The rate of adverse events during IV conscious sedation". General Dentistry. 60 (5): e341-4. PMID 23032244.. ...
Safety and efficacy of procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) conducted by medical officers in a level 1 hospital in Cape Town ... Comparison of chloral hydrate and midazolam for sedation of neonates for neuroimaging studies.. ...
... recommendation for standardized terminology and reporting adverse events during procedural sedation and analgesia, we only ... Dexmedetomidine sedation: uses in pediatric procedural sedation outside the operating room. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2012;28(3):292- ... Adverse sedation events in pediatrics: analysis of medications used for sedation. Pediatrics. 2000;106(4):633-644. ... Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium. The incidence and nature of adverse events during pediatric sedation/anesthesia with ...
Procedural sedation used to be referred to as conscious sedation. References. *^ a b c d e f g Walls, Ron M., MD; ... Minimal Sedation. Moderate Sedation. Deep Sedation. General Anesthesia Responsiveness. Normal to verbal stimulus. Purposeful ... "Continuum of Depth of Sedation; Definition of General Anesthesia and Levels of Sedation/Analgesia". American Society of ... "Procedural Sedation and Analgesia." CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Emergency Medicine, 8e Eds. C. Keith Stone, and Roger L. ...
Procedural sedation and analgesia, previously referred to as conscious sedation, is defined as "a technique of administering ... Procedural Sedation at eMedicine "Continuum of Depth of Sedation; Definition of General Anesthesia and Levels of Sedation/ ... Procedural sedation used to be referred to as conscious sedation. When the patient is adequately sedated this is known as a (+) ... Krauss B, Green SM (March 2006). "Procedural sedation and analgesia in children". Lancet. 367 (9512): 766-80. doi:10.1016/S0140 ...
... , Procedural Sedation, Procedural Anesthesia, Conscious Sedation, Deep Sedation, Sedative, ... Procedural Sedation and Analgesia. Procedural Sedation and Analgesia Aka: Procedural Sedation and Analgesia, Procedural ... Sedation procedure, sedation, sedation [procedure], Sedative therapy (procedure), SEDATION, Sedation, Administration of ... Conscious Sedation, Sedation, Conscious, Moderate Sedation, Sedation, Moderate, Conscious sedation (procedure), Induction of ...
... , Sedation and Analgesia in Ventilated Patients. ... Post-Intubation Sedation and Analgesia. Post-Intubation Sedation and Analgesia Aka: Post-Intubation Sedation and Analgesia, ... Protocol: Analgesia AND Sedation. *Approach: Lead with analgesia and titrate sedation as needed ... Analgesia (e.g. Fentanyl) should accompany sedation (e.g. Propofol) in intubated patients. *Concurrent analgesia relieves pain ...
The course will provide particiants with the ability to provide safe and effective sedation to patients in the ED. ... This is a blended learning educational session for any doctor involved in performing procedural sedation. A 3 hour pre-course ... Procedural Sedation & Analgesia. Overview. This is a blended learning educational session for any doctor involved in performing ... The course will provide particiants with the ability to provide safe and effective sedation to patients in the ED. ...
During procedural sedation and analgesia, a nurse or other qualified individual should be present for continuous monitoring of ... During procedural sedation and analgesia, a nurse or other qualified individual should be present for continuous monitoring of ... Etomidate can be safely administered to adults for procedural sedation and analgesia in the ED. A combination of propofol and ... Etomidate can be safely administered to adults for procedural sedation and analgesia in the ED. A combination of propofol and ...
In Response: Sedation After Cardiac Surgery With Propofol or Dexmedetomidine Between Scylla and Charybdis?. Liu, Hong MD, FASE ... Home , November 2017 - Volume 125 - Issue 5 , In Response: Sedation After Cardiac Surgery With Propofol o... ... In Response: Sedation After Cardiac Surgery With Propofol or Dexmedetomidine Between Scylla and Charybdis? ... Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at Anesthesia & Analgesia.. ...
... analgesia, or both. Although there is a large clinical experience with midazolam in the PICU population and it remains the most ... Various clinical situations may arise in the PICU that necessitate the use of sedation, ... Analgesia / methods*. Analgesics / administration & dosage*. Conscious Sedation / methods*. Education, Continuing. Humans. ... Various clinical situations may arise in the PICU that necessitate the use of sedation, analgesia, or both. Although there is a ...
The invention further includes methods for incorporating trend analysis into a sedation and analgesia system. ... The present invention includes a sedation and analgesia system capable of gathering data from a single monitor associated with ... where sedation and analgesia system 22 is operated by user 13 in order to provide sedation and/or analgesia to patient 18. An ... 1. A sedation and analgesia system, comprising: at least one patient health monitor device adapted so as to be coupled to a ...
Comparison of Sedation/Analgesia: Midazolam/Morphine Vs Propofol/Remifentanil. This study has been terminated. ... We intend to provide sedation with propofol, 0.5 mg/Kg, and analgesia with remifentanil 0.5 microgram/Kg for reduction of ... Dunn MJ, Mitchell R, Souza CD, Drummond G. Evaluation of propofol and remifentanil for intravenous sedation for reducing ... For reduction of dislocated shoulder, sedation with propofol and remifentanil should give satisfactory operating conditions and ...
Kwo J. (2001) Analgesia and Sedation. In: ODonnell J.M., Nácul F.E. (eds) Surgical Intensive Care Medicine. Springer, Boston, ... Practice parameters for intravenous analgesia and sedation for adult patients in the intensive care unit: an executive summary ... Wu CL, Jani ND, Perkins FM, Barquist E. Thoracic epidural analgesia versus intravenous patient- controlled analgesia for the ... Postoperative epidural analgesia and oral anticoagulant therapy. Anesth Analg 1994; 79: 89-93.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
The Brussels sedation scale: use of a simple clinical sedation scale can avoid excessive sedation in patients undergoing ... Practice guidelines for sedation and analgesia by non-anesthesiologists. Anesthesiology. 2002;96(4):1004-17.CrossRefGoogle ... Sedation and analgesia in paediatric intensive care units: a guide to drug selection and use. Paediatr Drugs. 1999;1(2): 109-26 ... Lambert R.L., Brink L.W., Maffei F.A. (2012) Sedation and Analgesia. In: Lucking S., Maffei F., Tamburro R., Thomas N. (eds) ...
... of Emergency Physicians is the revision of a 2005 clinical policy evaluating critical questions related to procedural sedation ... Clinical Policy: Procedural Sedation and Analgesia in the Emergency Department Ann Emerg Med. 2014 Feb;63(2):247-58.e18. doi: ... Inpatients undergoing procedural sedation and analgesia in the emergency department, can ketamine, propofol, etomidate, ... In patients undergoing procedural sedation and analgesia in the emergency department, what is the minimum number of personnel ...
Sedation and Analgesia: Practical Drug Selection and Pharmacology. This is a presentation from the 2016 Multiprofessional ...
Improved ICU Outcomes With Protocolized Management of Analgesia, Sedation and Delirium. The safety and scientific validity of ... and anti-psychotics based on observed scores to manage sedation, analgesia and delirium. ... Comparison of no Protocol vs Protocolized Approach to Pain, Sedation and Delirium Management in the ICU. ...
b>Moderate Procedural Sedation and Analgesia: A Question and Answer Approach focuses on the preprocedural, procedural, and ... Additionally, this user-friendly text is written by well-known sedation/analgesia expert, Michael Kost and recommended by ... provide all the content and tools nurses and other clinicians need to demonstrate competency in moderate sedation and analgesia ... resource designed for practitioners working in the rapidly expanding area of moderate procedural sedation and analgesia ...
Fasting is a consideration--not a necessity--for emergency department procedural sedation and analgesia. [Ann Emerg Med. 2003] ... Fifty-six percent of children undergoing ED procedural sedation and analgesia were not fasted in accordance with established ... One thousand fourteen patients underwent procedural sedation and analgesia, and data on fasting status were available for 905 ( ... The percentage of patients undergoing procedural sedation and analgesia who did not meet fasting guidelines was determined. ...
Intranasal Midazolam and Fentanyl for Analgesia and Sedation in Infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Lawrence C. Ku, ... Intranasal Midazolam and Fentanyl for Analgesia and Sedation in Infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit ... Intranasal Midazolam and Fentanyl for Analgesia and Sedation in Infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit ... Intranasal Midazolam and Fentanyl for Analgesia and Sedation in Infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit ...
Statement on Patient Safety Principles for Office-Based Surgery Utilizing Moderate Sedation/Analgesia, Deep Sedation/Analgesia ... Core Principle #10 - Physicians administering or supervising moderate sedation/analgesia, deep sedation/analgesia, or general ... Statement on Patient Safety Principles for Office-Based Surgery Utilizing Moderate Sedation/Analgesia, Deep Sedation/Analgesia ... "Continuum of Depth of Sedation" statement dated October 13, 1999, excluding local anesthesia or minimal sedation.1 ...
Minimal Sedation Anxiolysis. Moderate Sedation/ Analgesia ("Conscious Sedation"). Deep Sedation/ Analgesia. General Anesthesia ... patients who enter a state of Deep Sedation/Analgesia, while those administering Deep Sedation/Analgesia should be able to ... Moderate Sedation/Analgesia ("Conscious Sedation") is a drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond ... Continuum of Depth of Sedation: Definition of General Anesthesia and Levels of Sedation/Analgesia. Developed By: Committee on ...
The level of sedation must be adjusted in such a way that it allows.. ... Procedural sedation and analgesia is one of the common clinical practices in the emergency department. ... Moderate sedation and analgesia: It is deeper level of sedation than mild sedation; patients are sleepy, but easily aroused by ... Procedural sedation is also described as conscious sedation. A stage of sedation is a continuum from minimal or mild sedation, ...
A device for inducing anaesthesia, analgesia and/or sedation is described which comprises a container holding an inert gas- ... analgesia and/or sedation - Google Patents. Device for controlled anaesthesia, analgesia and/or sedation Download PDF Info. ... The invention also provides a device for inducing sedation, especially analgesia/sedation, with (a) a facility which provides ... analgesia and/or sedation US09037793 US6328708B1 (en) 1997-03-10. 1998-03-10. Device for controlled anaesthesia, analgesia and ...
Patient-targeted sedation protocols (the first category) rely on structured assessments to guide a careful schema of titrated ... Successful sedation protocols have three basic components: frequent assessments for pain, anxiety, and agitation using a ... In recent years, two broad categories of sedation protocols have achieved clinical success in terms of decreasing duration of ... Achieving adequate but not excessive sedation in critically ill, mechanically ventilated patients is a complex process. ...
PediatricMidazolamDexmedetomidineChloral hydrateAdverseDoseDeep SedationAnesthesiaLevel of sedationAnalgesicsMinimal SedationSedativesDepth of SedationLevels of SedationDexmedetomidineKetaminePatients undergoing procedural sedation anFentanyl for analgesiaPostoperative analgesiaInfusionPost-Intubation SedationAnaesthesiaSedativePropofol sedationPracticeAnxiolysisDissociative sedationOpioidDecreasing durationExcessive sedationGuidelines for sedationManagement of AnalgesiaEffective sedationBenzodiazepinesPurposefulAnesthesiologyOpioidsDeliriumAdultsGoals of SedationNurse-administered procedural sedationGuidelinePatient'sAgitationModerate Procedural SedationProtocolsPainAirwayNitrousCapnographyIntensiveIntubationProcedural sedation should be monitoredMechanically ventilatedClinicalAdequate analgesiaCritically ill childrenEtomidateTitrateEpiduralIntravenous sedation
- Satisfactory conditions for auditory brainstem responses (ABR) screening tests for pediatric hearing loss are usually achieved with oral chloral hydrate (CH) sedation. (aappublications.org)
- 1 In the large database of the Pediatric Sedation Research Consortium, chloral hydrate was the drug used in ∼25% of 11 822 cases in which sedation was provided by pediatricians. (aappublications.org)
- During the procedure, children are monitored by a dedicated nurse in keeping with the American Academy of Pediatrics' updated guidelines for monitoring and management of pediatric patients during and after sedation for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. (aappublications.org)
- Deep sedation with propofol by non-anesthesiologists. (springer.com)
- Deep Sedation/Analgesia is a drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposefully** following repeated or painful stimulation. (asahq.org)
- Individuals administering Moderate Sedation/Analgesia ("Conscious Sedation") should be able to rescue*** patients who enter a state of Deep Sedation/Analgesia, while those administering Deep Sedation/Analgesia should be able to rescue*** patients who enter a state of General Anesthesia. (asahq.org)
- A stage of sedation is a continuum from minimal or mild sedation, moderate sedation, and deep sedation to fully unconsciousness which is consistent with general anaesthesia where all protective reflexes get lost [ 1 - 3 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- Current definition of moderate to deep sedation is considered as gray zone. (omicsonline.org)
- The resulting deep sedation may have significant unintended consequences. (biomedcentral.com)
- This survey suggested that sedation for EPL procedures was sometimes allowed to progress to deep sedation and general anesthesia and that selection of anesthesia provider frequently was made based on availability, operating room efficiency, and economic reasons before patient safety issues. (nih.gov)
- Depth of sedation occurs across a continuum from minimal sedation to moderate sedation/analgesia, deep sedation/analgesia , and finally general anesthesia. (aornguidelines.org)
- therefore, practitioners who administer moderate sedation/analgesia should be able to rescue a patient who enters deep sedation/analgesia. (aornguidelines.org)
- Deep sedation" patients are not easily aroused yet repeated painful stimulation yields purposeful response, at doses "not likely" to depress ventilatory function. (mhmedical.com)
- In the ICU, light sedation resulted in better outcomes than deep sedation , and was at least as good as daily sedation vacations. (emottawablog.com)
- A recent study suggested that deep sedation within 4 hours of intubation was an independent predictor of increased mortality . (emottawablog.com)
- These populations should all likely receive deep sedation. (emottawablog.com)
- PSAA should be viewed as a continuum ranging from light to deep sedation, with the depth of sedation easily titrated by selective administration of sedatives and analgesics. (aafp.org)
- 20% (n = 12) indicated that deep sedation is purposefully induced for defibrillation threshold testing and cardioversion without a second medical practitioner present. (edu.au)
- Amornyotin S, Leelakusolvong S, Chalayonnawin W, Kongphlay S. Age-dependent safety analysis of propofol-based deep sedation for ERCP and EUS procedures at an endoscopy training center in a developing country. (medscape.com)
- Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at Anesthesia & Analgesia. (lww.com)
- Incidence and nature of adverse events during pediatric sedation/anesthesia for procedures outside the operating room: report from the pediatric sedation research consortium. (springer.com)
- Follows the latest TJC Sedation/Anesthesia Guidelines ensuring you are ready for medication administration in clinical practice. (elsevier.com)
- Core Principle #1 - Guidelines or regulations should be developed by states for office-based surgery according to levels of anesthesia defined by the American Society of Anesthesiologists' (ASA's) "Continuum of Depth of Sedation" statement dated October 13, 1999, excluding local anesthesia or minimal sedation. (facs.org)
- Monitored Anesthesia Care ("MAC") does not describe the continuum of depth of sedation, rather it describes "a specific anesthesia service in which an anesthesiologist has been requested to participate in the care of a patient undergoing a diagnostic or therapeutic procedure. (asahq.org)
- To investigate sedation and anesthesia trends and practice patterns for procedures in the cardiac electrophysiology laboratory (EPL). (nih.gov)
- The survey questions included the use of anesthesia professional (MD/CRNA) and nonanesthesia professional (RN) services, medications administered, commonly performed airway interventions, satisfaction with anesthesia services, and reasons that anesthesia professionals are not used when RNs administer sedation. (nih.gov)
- The main reasons cited for having RN-administered sedation were the lack of availability of anesthesia professionals, difficulty with scheduling, and increased operating room suite turnover times. (nih.gov)
- Programs using exclusively RN sedation (13%) reported all levels of anesthesia including general anesthesia (patient unarousable to repeated deep stimulation). (nih.gov)
- The implications of the survey must be explored further in a larger-scale sample population before more definitive statements can be made, but results suggested that sedation in the EPL is an area that would benefit from updated guidelines specific to the current practice as well as attention from the anesthesia community to address the deficiency in provision of anesthesia care. (nih.gov)
- Sedation and anesthesia are important risk factors for morbidity and mortality during operative or invasive procedures. (hccsonline.com)
- My name is Rick Hines and today I would like to speak with you about sedation and anesthesia in the prolonged field care, or austere environment. (prolongedfieldcare.org)
- Optimizing Use of Sedation During Bronchoscopy In the November 2011 issue of Chest, my colleagues at the American College of Chest Physicians and I had a consensus statement published on the optimal use of topical anesthesia, analgesia, and sedation during flexible bronchoscopy in adults. (physiciansweekly.com)
- The SmartTots program is a multi-year collaborative effort designed to increase the safety of anesthetic and sedative drugs for the millions of children who undergo anesthesia and sedation each year. (smarttots.org)
- 2001 Sedation and Anesthesia Care Standards. (medscape.com)
- Minimal sedation is typically used for minor procedures that require patient cooperation and for those in which pain is controlled by local or regional anesthesia. (mhmedical.com)
- For this reason, a physician who is performing PSA should be prepared to care for a patient at least one level of sedation greater than that intended. (wikipedia.org)
- In order to do this, a practitioner must be able to recognize the level of sedation and understand the increasing cardiopulmonary risk that is associated with deeper sedation. (wikipedia.org)
- Comparison of bispectral index monitor with the comfort score in assessing level of sedation of critically ill children. (springer.com)
- Hence, practitioners intending to produce a given level of sedation should be able to rescue*** patients whose level of sedation becomes deeper than initially intended. (asahq.org)
- Rescue of a patient from a deeper level of sedation than intended is an intervention by a practitioner proficient in airway management and advanced life support. (asahq.org)
- The qualified practitioner corrects adverse physiologic consequences of the deeper-than-intended level of sedation (such as hypoventilation, hypoxia and hypotension) and returns the patient to the originally intended level of sedation. (asahq.org)
- It is not appropriate to continue the procedure at an unintended level of sedation. (asahq.org)
- The level of sedation must be adjusted in such a way that it allows patient to tolerate unpleasant procedures while maintaining normal physiologic reflexes and consciousness and able to understand and respond to verbal or light tactile stimulus. (omicsonline.org)
- Conscious sedation is popular and widely use term, but it is a misused or vague term as the level of sedation at per definition of conscious sedation by American Association of physician (AAP) in 1985 is insufficient for most painful procedures, specially in children [ 7 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- The optimal level of sedation for most patients is that which offers comfort while allowing for interaction with the environment. (powershow.com)
- Of 166 patients, 140 (84.3%) showed a good level of sedation, 14 (8.4%) were inadequately sedated, 5 (3%) were too deeply sedated but showed no signs of respiratory compromise, and 7 (4.2%) developed respiratory side-effects. (scielo.org.za)
- The desired effect is a level of sedation with or without analgesia that enables the patient to tolerate diagnostic, therapeutic, and invasive procedures through relief from anxiety and pain. (aornguidelines.org)
- From the 39 studies that were included in the review, 39 different sedation algorithms and twenty different scoring systems were used to evaluate the level of sedation. (pedsurglibrary.com)
- therefore, safety and monitoring guidelines focus on the ability to rescue a patient from a deeper level of sedation than intended. (mhmedical.com)
- The level of sedation can be controlled by the concentration given to the patient by the dentist, and sedation can be terminated and reversed anytime by flushing the patient with oxygen. (sedationdental.com.au)
- 6 Although these are the currently accepted definitions of levels of sedation, sedation is a continuum, and responsiveness alone is not a perfect tool to judge the level of sedation. (mhmedical.com)
- Procedural sedation and analgesia ( PSA ) is a technique in which a sedating/dissociative medication is administered often in combination with analgesics. (wikipedia.org)
- Procedural sedation and analgesia, previously referred to as conscious sedation, is defined as "a technique of administering sedatives or dissociative agents with or without analgesics to induce a state that allows the patient to tolerate unpleasant procedures while maintaining cardiorespiratory function. (wikipedia.org)
- Clinician performing procedural sedation should have through knowledge of action, dose, side effects and antidote of commonly used sedative analgesics. (omicsonline.org)
- Procedural sedation may be defined as the administration of sedative or dissociative agents, with or without analgesics, to induce a state that allows the patient to tolerate unpleasant procedures while maintaining cardiorespiratory function. (medscape.com)
- Minimal Sedation (Anxiolysis) is a drug-induced state during which patients respond normally to verbal commands. (asahq.org)
- 3 Anxiolysis or "minimal sedation" impairs coordination and cognitive function, but allows patients to respond appropriately to verbal stimuli. (mhmedical.com)
- Minimal sedation is characterized by anxiolysis but with normal or slowed responses to verbal stimuli. (mhmedical.com)
- This guideline is not intended for patients receiving inhalational anesthetics, patients who receive analgesia for pain control without sedatives, patients who receive sedation solely for the purpose of managing anxiolysis and behavioral emergencies, and patients who are intubated. (acep.org)
- The goal of moderate sedation/analgesia is drug-induced, mild depression of consciousness achieved with the use of sedatives or a combination of sedatives and analgesic medications, most often administered intravenously, and titrated to achieve a desired effect. (aornguidelines.org)
- Deeper levels of sedation and the procedure occurring overnight were identified as risk factors for complications. (bmj.com)
- Complications are more likely at deeper levels of sedation and at night. (bmj.com)
- Levels of sedation are defined by the patient's level of responsiveness and cardiopulmonary function, not by the agents used ( Table 37-1 ). (mhmedical.com)
- In Response: Sedation After Cardiac Surgery With Propofol or Dexmedetomidine Between Scylla and Charybdis? (lww.com)
- Prolonged dexmedetomidine infusion as an adjunct in treating sedation-induced withdrawal. (springer.com)
- So the eggheads got to work isolating a more precise form that emphasized the sedation while minimizing the hemodynamic impact-and thus came the IV agent dexmedetomidine. (critcon.org)
- Purpose of the work: To assess the applicability of a new protocol of sedation and antagonism using dexmedetomidine (DEX) and atipamezole (ATZ) to perform diagnostic analgesia in fractious horses. (unimi.it)
- This study aims to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of sedation and analgesia using dexmedetomidine for the endovenous treatment of varicose veins. (amegroups.com)
- At the beginning of sedation, dexmedetomidine was administered intravenously to all patients with a loading dose of 1 μg/kg over 15 minutes, which was followed by a maintenance dose of 0.2 μg/kg/h throughout the procedure. (amegroups.com)
- The present study was conducted to comparatively analyse the postoperative pain and sedation using intravenous dexmedetomidine and intravenous esmolol during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. (msjonline.org)
- The inference authors drew was that dexmedetomidine is better analgesic with aurousable sedation. (msjonline.org)
- Postoperative analgesia with intravenous paracetamol and Dexmedetomidine in laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgeries: a prospective randomized comparative study. (msjonline.org)
- Málek J, Marecek F, Hess L, Kurzová A, Ocadlík M, Votava M. A combination of dexmedetomidine with ketamine and opioids results in significant inhibition of hemodynamic changes associated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy and in prolongation of postoperative analgesia. (msjonline.org)
- Effect of sedation with dexmedetomidine vs lorazepam on acute brain dysfunction in mechanically ventilated patients: the MENDS randomized controlled trial. (qxmd.com)
- Ketamine is a commonly used drug that can cause this type of sedation. (wikipedia.org)
- This review concluded that there is insufficient evidence to recommend the routine use of low-dose ketamine combined with propofol for procedural sedation in the emergency department setting. (york.ac.uk)
- To evaluate the safety and efficacy of low-dose intravenous ketamine with intravenous propofol for sedation and analgesia during emergency department procedures. (york.ac.uk)
- Prospective controlled studies that compared ketamine and propofol with an appropriate comparator regimen for procedural sedation were eligible for inclusion. (york.ac.uk)
- In three studies children in the ketamine-propofol group were statistically significantly less likely to need additional sedation. (york.ac.uk)
- Fewer patients in the ketamine-propofol groups than in the comparator groups required additional sedation, but total cumulative doses were rarely reported. (york.ac.uk)
- López-Álvarez S, Mayo-Moldes M, Zaballos M, Iglesias BG, Blanco-Dávila R. Esmolol versus ketamine-remifentanil combination for early postoperative analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized controlled trial. (msjonline.org)
- Green SM, Roback MG, Kennedy RM, Krauss B. Clinical practice guideline for emergency department ketamine dissociative sedation: 2011 update . (abem.org)
- In the above mentioned article , the authors describe a small series of patients (n= 20) ranging in age from 4-12 years undergoing bone marrow aspirations after receiving procedural sedation with a 1:1 admixture of propofol (10mg/ml) and Ketamine (10 mg/ml)[Ketofol]. (pedsedation.org)
- Comparison of caudal ropivacaine, ropivacaine plus ketamine and ropivacaine plus tramadol administration for postoperative analgesia in children. (nih.gov)
- Ropivacaine (0.4%), ropivacaine (0.2%) plus ketamine (0.25 mg x kg(-1)) and ropivacaine (0.2%) plus tramadol (0.5 mg x kg(-1)) provided sufficient analgesia in children, but the duration of analgesia was longer in the RT group. (nih.gov)
- Bleiberg AH, Salvaggio CA, Roy LC, Kassutto Z. Low-dose ketamine: efficacy in pediatric sedation. (medscape.com)
- Messenger DW, Murray HE, Dungey PE, van Vlymen J, Sivilotti ML. Subdissociative-dose ketamine versus fentanyl for analgesia during propofol procedural sedation: a randomized clinical trial. (medscape.com)
- In patients undergoing procedural sedation and analgesia in the emergency department, does preprocedural fasting demonstrate a reduction in the risk of emesis or aspiration? (acep.org)
- In patients undergoing procedural sedation and analgesia in the emergency department, does the routine use of capnography reduce the incidence of adverse respiratory events? (acep.org)
- Capnography* may be used as an adjunct to pulse oximetry and clinical assessment to detect hypoventilation and apnea earlier than pulse oximetry and/or clinical assessment alone in patients undergoing procedural sedation and analgesia in the ED. *Capnography includes all forms of quantitative exhaled carbon dioxide analysis. (acep.org)
- In patients undergoing procedural sedation and analgesia in the emergency department, what is the minimum number of personnel necessary to manage complications? (acep.org)
- The percentage of patients undergoing procedural sedation and analgesia who did not meet fasting guidelines was determined. (nih.gov)
- Published guidelines recommend cardiac and pulse-oximetry monitoring for patients undergoing procedural sedation and analgesia. (aafp.org)
- Continuous infusion of lorazepam versus medazolam in patients in the intensive care unit: sedation with lorazepam is easier to manage and is more cost-effective. (springer.com)
- Albanese J, Martin C, Lacarelle B, Saux P, Durand A, Gouin F. Pharmacokinetics of long-term propofol infusion used for sedation ICU patients. (springer.com)
- Pharmacokinetics of propofol during and after long-term continuous infusion for maintenance of sedation in ICU patients. (springer.com)
- Prolonged sedation with propofol in ICU patients: recovery and blood concentration changes during periodic interruptions in infusion. (springer.com)
- The effects of a small dose naloxone infusion on opioid induced side effects and analgesia in children and adolescents treated with intravenous patient controlled analgesia: a double blind, prospective, randomized, controlled study. (springer.com)
- Sedation scale values (COMFORT) and analgesia scores (Hartwig) during the first 72 hours of infusion of study medication were lower in the clonidine group than in the placebo group. (altmetric.com)
- Once patient's sedation is above the desired level (as defined in modified Ramsay scale above) infusions are restarted at one half the prior infusion rate. (cancertherapyadvisor.com)
- Lorazepam is preferred for the sedation of most critically ill children via intermittent IV dosing or continuous infusion. (cancertherapyadvisor.com)
- Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) is a related term describing the patient-controlled administration of analgesic medicine in the epidural space , by way of intermittent boluses or infusion pumps. (wikipedia.org)
- The Analgizer was widely utilized for analgesia and sedation until the early 1970s, in a manner that foreshadowed the patient-controlled analgesia infusion pumps of today. (wikipedia.org)
- A device for inducing anaesthesia, analgesia and/or sedation is described which comprises a container holding an inert gas-containing liquid preparation, and means for the controlled administration of the preparation to a patient. (google.com)
- Studies of training involving didactic lectures, manikin practice and following protocols, including use of sedation and anaesthesia, have shown the risk of complications and patient pain and anxiety can be reduced 4 and trainee knowledge and confidence in the procedures may be increased. (bmj.com)
- The Adult Procedural Sedation Analgesia Simulation Masterclass consists of full-scale patient-simulator with the necessary anaesthesia equipment. (esahq.org)
- Systemic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), heart rate (HR), peripheral O2 saturation (SpO2), respiratory rate (RR), sedation and pain scores were recorded at 5, 10, 15 and 30 min, 1, 3, 4 and 6 h following recovery from anaesthesia. (nih.gov)
- Assessments of the administration of sedative agents, ventilation time and sedation depth via RASS were made. (coreem.net)
- Most often, etomidate-a sedative/amnestic with no analgesic effects-is reserved for procedural sedation, particularly RSI. (critcon.org)
- CONCLUSIONS: Considering the significant reduction in propofol dose, the non-inferiority of recovery profiles and satisfaction scores of the endoscopists and patients, analgesia oriented combination sedation may be a more safe yet effective sedative method compared to conventional balanced propofol sedation during ERCP. (yonsei.ac.kr)
- Safety of propofol sedation in children with food allergy. (springer.com)
- Adults underwent ED propofol sedation with standard monitoring (pulse oximetry, cardiac and blood pressure) and capnography and were randomized into a group in which treating physicians had access to the capnography and a blinded group in which they did not. (nih.gov)
- In adults receiving ED propofol sedation, the addition of capnography to standard monitoring reduced hypoxia and provided advance warning for all hypoxic events. (nih.gov)
- This study was done to compare recovery profiles and the satisfaction of the endoscopists and patients between conventional balanced propofol sedation and analgesia-oriented combination sedation for patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). (yonsei.ac.kr)
- Shapiro BA, Warren J, Egol AB, Greenbaum DM, Jacobi J, Nasraway SA, Schein RM, Spevetz A, Stone JR. Practice parameters for intravenous analgesia and sedation for adult patients in the intensive care unit: an executive summary. (springer.com)
- Practice guidelines for sedation and analgesia by non-anesthesiologists. (springer.com)
- Introducing the definitive resource designed for practitioners working in the rapidly expanding area of moderate procedural sedation and analgesia clinical practice. (elsevier.com)
- Additionally, this user-friendly text is written by well-known sedation/analgesia expert, Michael Kost and recommended by standards of practice from the ANA, AORN, and the American Academy of Pediatrics. (elsevier.com)
- Strong safety focus throughout the book explains how technology and clinician practice can improve sedation administration. (elsevier.com)
- Pediatrics and Geriatrics chapters cover specific sedation practice recommendations that address the substantive clinical practice challenges associated with these patient populations. (elsevier.com)
- Should capnographic monitoring be standard practice during emergency department procedural sedation and analgesia? (nih.gov)
- Although routine administration of pharmacologic sedation or analgesia during mechanical ventilation in preterm neonates is not recommended, its use in clinical practice remains common. (altmetric.com)
- This document provides guidance for care of the patient receiving moderate sedation/analgesia provided by a registered nurse (RN) in the perioperative practice setting. (aornguidelines.org)
- Progressive systems have therefore returned to the practice of "just enough" sedation, and you might even see their halls darkened by patients ambulating (with ample assistance) while intubated and dragging IVs. (critcon.org)
- lished 'Practice Guidelines for Sedation and Analgesia by Non-Anesthesiologists (ASA-SED),' which was updated in 2002 . (ppcfix.com)
- Guidance can be found in the ASA Practice Guide-lines for Sedation Analgesia by Non-Anesthesiologists. (ppcfix.com)
- ARIN Clinical Practice Guideline, Moderate Sedation sedation/analgesia. (ppcfix.com)
- Background: Knowledge of current trends in nurse-administered procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) in the cardiac catheterisation laboratory (CCL) may provide important insights into how to improve safety and effectiveness of this practice. (edu.au)
- Consensus guidelines on sedation and analgesia in critically ill children are available since 2006, although clinical practice reveals variations both in pharmacological agents and regimens used. (e-journal.gr)
- Through practical methods participants will become proficient and confident in the administration of Relative Analgesia in clinical practice. (sedationdental.com.au)
- Clinical practice advisory: Emergency department procedural sedation with propofol. (medscape.com)
- Propofol is a recognised agent for sedation and remifentanil is a short acting opioid analgesic. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Assessment of sedation and pain scores with initial titration of the opioid to effect, monitoring of haemodynamics. (isrctn.com)
- Oral naloxone, given at a dose of at least 10% that of concurrent opioid analgesia, reversed constipation without reversing analgesia [Lancet 337: 1475, (openanesthesia.org)
- The course will provide particiants with the ability to provide safe and effective sedation to patients in the ED. (rcsi.ie)
- Updated and compete Moderate Sedation/Analgesia A Guide for Safe and Effective Sedation, 10 hours of course instruction. (mycecredit.com)
- Patient-administered nitrous oxide/oxygen inhalation provides effective sedation and analgesia for colonoscopy. (ox.ac.uk)
- However, repeated administration of opioids in order to achieve sufficient analgesia may carry the risk of delayed recovery after propofol based sedation. (yonsei.ac.kr)
- Randomized clinical trial of the effect of supplemental opioids in procedural sedation with propofol on serum catecholamines. (medscape.com)
- This is a bit remarkable, since delirium tends to beget sedation (for safety) which begets more delirium, and a way to exit that cycle is welcome. (critcon.org)
- An analgesia-delirium-sedation protocol for critically ill trauma patients reduces ventilator days and hospital length of stay. (qxmd.com)
- I-SAVE study: impact of sedation, analgesia, and delirium protocols evaluated in the intensive care unit: an economic evaluation. (qxmd.com)
- The primary goal of moderate sedation/analgesia is to reduce the patient's anxiety and discomfort. (aornguidelines.org)
- Ideally, procedural sedation minimizes the patient's awareness and discomfort while maintaining the patient's safety. (aafp.org)
- The phrase procedural sedation refers to the techniques of managing a patient's pain and anxiety to facilitate appropriate medical care in a safe, effective, and humane fashion. (aafp.org)
- Prospective evaluation of the Sedation-Agitation Scale for adult critically ill patients. (springer.com)
- However for those subjects who achieved a Sedation Agitation Scale (SAS) score of four, variability was significantly lower when using REMI. (isrctn.com)
- Between-subject variability around the mean percentage of hours of optimal sedation (Sedation Agitation Scale [SAS] score of 4). (isrctn.com)
- Those with anxiety or agitation need sedation. (critcon.org)
- The three main protocol updates were: (1) requirement to document Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS) scores every 4 hours, (2) requirement to document Confusion Assessment Method-ICU (CAM ICU) twice daily, and (3) systematic, protocolized deescalation of excess sedation. (qxmd.com)
- Procedural sedation can be safely performed in an emergency department if structured sedation protocols are followed. (wikipedia.org)
- As a result, the need to establish comprehensive sedation and analgesia protocols is essential to reduce potential developmental morbidity related to their use . (pedsurglibrary.com)
- Effective use of procedural sedation not only alleviate pain and suffering and alloy anxiety for patients during diagnostic or therapeutic procedure, but also enhances the performance of these procedures. (omicsonline.org)
- Pain and sedation were regularly assessed using COMFORT-B and visual analog scale (VAS) scores. (eur.nl)
- 5 Intrathecal neostigmine produces analgesia to experimental pain stimuli in normal volunteers, 5 as well as in patients with chronic pain 6 and after surgery. (asahq.org)
- More recently, epidural administration of neostigmine has been suggested to produce analgesia without nausea in patients with chronic pain 8 and after surgery. (asahq.org)
- Insufficient analgesia is associated with unwanted physiological and psychological side-effects, including increased sympathetic outflow, peripheral vascular resistance, myocardial oxygen consumption, production of carbon dioxide, hypercoagulability, decreased gastric motility, decreased immune function, and the subsequent development of chronic pain. (scielo.org.za)
- Sedation and analgesia are needed in critically ill children to minimize anxiety and pain. (cancertherapyadvisor.com)
- Pain and sedation assessment tools help to quantify pain and discomfort and can aid health practitioners to optimize sedation and analgesia for their patients. (pedsurglibrary.com)
- likewise, sufficient sedation will blunt the awareness of pain, or at least limit outward signs of it. (critcon.org)
- Patients who have pain need analgesia. (critcon.org)
- Start by treating pain, then add only whatever sedation is needed. (critcon.org)
- We aimed to examine current bedside analgesia/sedation (A/S) and pain assessment (PA) practices in Italian neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in relation to the findings of an epidemiological European study and recently-introduced national guidelines. (biomedcentral.com)
- Frequency of pain was highest in group C at all post periods, followed by group A and was least in group B. The mean sedation score of group B was comparatively higher as compared to both group C and group A. (msjonline.org)
- BACKGROUND: Various methods of sedation and analgesia have been used for pain relief during oocyte recovery in IVF/ICSI procedures. (elsevier.com)
- Due to considerable heterogeneity, in terms of types and dosages of sedation or analgesia used, and tools used to assess the principal outcomes of pain and satisfaction, a meta-analysis of all the studies was not attempted. (elsevier.com)
- The function of sedation is management of anxiety, pain, and control of excessive motion. (medscape.com)
- I would caution against extrapolating the use of Ketofol for lengthy procedures when pain is a small aspect of the procedure and the need for sedation is prolonged (i.e. (pedsedation.org)
- Neonates who are in pain or are stressed during care in the intensive care unit (ICU) are often given sedation or analgesia. (smarttots.org)
- EUROPAIN (EUROpean Pain Audit In Neonates) was a prospective cohort study of the management of sedation and analgesia in patients in NICUs. (smarttots.org)
- Pain was evaluated by Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale, and sedation with a five-point sedation test. (nih.gov)
- For children, see Chapter 115 , "Pain Management and Procedural Sedation in Infants and Children. (mhmedical.com)
- We are a top medical gas supplier in Sydney and can provide gas supply for the nitrous oxide delivery as well as servicing of the analgesia system. (megamedical.com.au)
- The sedation uses 2 gases blended together, nitrous oxide and oxygen (N2O-O2). (sedationdental.com.au)
- How will I feel during nitrous oxide sedation? (sedationdental.com.au)
- Who will need nitrous oxide sedation? (sedationdental.com.au)
- Except for patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, nitrous oxide/oxygen inhalation is a safe and acceptable alternative method of sedation and analgesia during colonoscopy. (ox.ac.uk)
- All patients after procedural sedation should be monitored in a designated recovery area and should not be discharged until they meet all the discharge criteria and while sending home, proper written discharge instruction should be provided to all. (omicsonline.org)
- All patients requiring procedural sedation should be monitored by qualified staff at the bedside until they have recovered to an age-appropriate baseline mental status and function. (aafp.org)
- Analgesia should be provided to treat painful or noxious stimuli (related to their disease and/or treatment) in all critically ill children. (cancertherapyadvisor.com)
- In the field of paediatric critical care, there is considerable uncertainty and variation in the area of analgesia and sedation in critically ill children. (e-journal.gr)
- After knee arthroscopy or minor knee surgery, for example, epidural neostigmine produces up to 8 h of analgesia from doses of less than 100 μg, 11 whereas after abdominal hysterectomy, 250 μg epidural neostigmine is ineffective, and 480 μg produces less than 4 h of analgesia. (asahq.org)
- Epidural neostigmine could represent a new nonopioid adjunct for labor analgesia. (asahq.org)
- To introduce epidural neostigmine into obstetric analgesia, it is important to begin with an assessment of tolerability in the mother immediately after delivery of the baby. (asahq.org)
- Dunn MJ, Mitchell R, Souza CD, Drummond G. Evaluation of propofol and remifentanil for intravenous sedation for reducing shoulder dislocations in the emergency department. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Duration of stay after the procedure was significantly shorter in the gas inhalation group than in those receiving conventional intravenous sedation. (ox.ac.uk)