Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Privatization: Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Public-Private Sector Partnerships: An organizational enterprise between a public sector agency, federal, state or local, and a private sector entity. Skills and assets of each sector are shared to deliver a service or facility for the benefit or use of the general public.Hospitals, Public: Hospitals controlled by various types of government, i.e., city, county, district, state or federal.Private Practice: Practice of a health profession by an individual, offering services on a person-to-person basis, as opposed to group or partnership practice.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Contracts: Agreements between two or more parties, especially those that are written and enforceable by law (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). It is sometimes used to characterize the nature of the professional-patient relationship.Drugs, Essential: Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.Hospitals, Private: A class of hospitals that includes profit or not-for-profit hospitals that are controlled by a legal entity other than a government agency. (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed)Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Salaries and Fringe Benefits: The remuneration paid or benefits granted to an employee.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Cephalopelvic Disproportion: A condition in which the HEAD of the FETUS is larger than the mother's PELVIS through which the fetal head must pass during a vaginal delivery.FinlandUniversal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Employee Grievances: Formal procedures whereby the employee expresses any dissatisfaction or feeling of injustice regarding the work situation.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.IndiaAdministrative Personnel: Individuals responsible for the development of policy and supervision of the execution of plans and functional operations.Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Personnel Management: Planning, organizing, and administering all activities related to personnel.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Angola: A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.Organizational Innovation: Introduction of changes which are new to the organization and are created by management.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.CambodiaWorkplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Pharmacies: Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Sick Leave: An absence from work permitted because of illness or the number of days per year for which an employer agrees to pay employees who are sick. (Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.PakistanAnti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.United StatesMalaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Africa, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Absenteeism: Chronic absence from work or other duty.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Models, Economic: Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Guinea-Bissau: A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and west of GUINEA. Its capital is Bissau.Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Artemisinins: A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).BrazilKenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Medicaid: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.AfricaGovernment: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Organizations: Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Healthcare Financing: Methods of generating, allocating, and using financial resources in healthcare systems.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Investments: Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.CaliforniaStress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
  • Jo Webber, deputy policy director at the NHS Confederation and a member of the National Strategic Partnership Forum, concedes that the public sector's attitude to charities needs to change, particularly at a PCT level. (thirdsector.co.uk)
  • This document was developed to help businesses track the public sector's uptake of ecosystem services approaches around the world. (bsr.org)
  • Our Government & Public Sector practice aims to be the preferred partner in driving transformational change for governments around the world. (ey.com)
  • Public services as we know them today, including the NHS, were established by the Labour Government of 1945 led by Clement Atlee. (lexology.com)
  • Federal Authority for Government Human Resources, FAHR, has announced public holidays to mark Prophet Mohammad's (PBUH) birthday, the National Day, and the Commemoration Day, for employees of ministries and federal government departments, beginning on Thursday, 30th November, until Sunday, 3rd December. (emirates247.com)
  • PCS general secretary Mark Serwotka said: "The ongoing programme of industrial action with other unions we have agreed sends a clear message to government ministers that we do not accept their unnecessary plans to force public servants to pay more and work longer for less in retirement. (libcom.org)
  • Coherently with the contents of a public demand more and more focused on key-objectives such as digitalization and simplification, Bureaucracy streamlining and improvement of services to users being them citizens or companies, Cost and quality assessment, Reply supports the Central and Local Public Administration with solutions for e-government and e-health . (reply.com)
  • Reply benefits from experience gained in the more advanced on-line services by verticalising applications and skills to generate specific solutions to manage the digitalization process for the Central and Local Government and Health sectors. (reply.com)
  • The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the level of job satisfaction and its association with personal characteristics and work environment among Saudi public sector dentists in Hail region. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • When we remove our myopic US blinders, it turns out that, globally, not only are publicly owned banks quite common, but countries with strong public banking sectors generally have strong, stable economies. (truthout.org)
  • The pension campaign comes against a backdrop of public sector pay freezes, pay cuts and the prospect of regional pay. (libcom.org)
  • As the physicians leave, the conditions for patients in the public system worsen, justifying criticisms of inefficiency and further cuts. (world-psi.org)
  • From its offices in Asia, Europe, and North America, BSR™ develops sustainable business strategies and solutions through consulting, research, and cross-sector collaboration. (bsr.org)
  • Shipping hazardous materials and dangerous goods properly, meeting client's logistical needs, while providing a compliant, quality service are important challenges that face the public sector. (dhl.com)
  • 3. Rolling-out the New Education Policy (NEP): It is one of the most anticipated developments in the education sector considering the revolutionary reforms it is expected to bring in the areas of learning outcomes, curriculum renewal, teacher development, quality assurance at higher-ed level and internationalisation of education among others. (indiatimes.com)
  • The action will come a day after the Queen's Speech, which is expected to include a Parliamentary bill forcing through public sector pension changes. (libcom.org)
  • The global online knowledge library and campaign builder - learn all you need to know about the privatisation of public goods and how to stop it once and for all! (world-psi.org)
  • However, with these sectors now facing headwinds, they need new talent for emerging areas like Automation and Artificial Intelligence, and it is imperative that the Higher Education institutions realign to address this new reality. (indiatimes.com)
  • While we have seen an incremental increase in the budget allocation for the sector over the past few years, there is a definite need of a steep increase in expenditure on education to realise the long-term vision. (indiatimes.com)
  • 5. Newer order skills to form a part of Higher Education - To help infuse new talent and skills into the Indian IT and applied IT sectors, it is vital that the Higher Education sector works towards investing and repurposing existing assets to plan for the new reality of an increasingly automated and global ecosystem. (indiatimes.com)
  • Public sector debt is spiraling in many countries, and the desire to reduce budget deficits has suddenly become top priority for policy-makers around the world. (ey.com)
  • This business brief shows that leading companies-around the world and across sectors-are citing business reasons for investing in nature-based solutions and the restoration of natural systems. (bsr.org)
  • The Public Safety Council meets several times per year through virtual meetings and webinars. (cdc.gov)
  • Other public sector unions could be set to join them in what would be the largest industrial action since November 30th, with union-news.co.uk stating that another date is proposed for the end of June. (libcom.org)