The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.
The fluid containing digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to food in the duodenum.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.
Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.
Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.
A compound tubular gland, located around the eyes and nasal passages in marine animals and birds, the physiology of which figures in water-electrolyte balance. The Pekin duck serves as a common research animal in salt gland studies. A rectal gland or rectal salt gland in the dogfish shark is attached at the junction of the intestine and cloaca and aids the kidneys in removing excess salts from the blood. (Storer, Usinger, Stebbins & Nybakken: General Zoology, 6th ed, p658)
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (mos) originally isolated from the Moloney murine sarcoma virus (Mo-MSV). The proto-oncogene mos (c-mos) codes for a protein which is a member of the serine kinase family. There is no evidence as yet that human c-mos can become transformed or has a role in human cancer. However, in mice, activation can occur when the retrovirus-like intracisternal A-particle inserts itself near the c-mos sequence. The human c-mos gene is located at 8q22 on the long arm of chromosome 8.
Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.
Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.
Glucose in blood.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Two offspring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from two OVA, fertilized at about the same time by two SPERMATOZOA. Such twins are genetically distinct and can be of different sexes.
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Increased levels of PROLACTIN in the BLOOD, which may be associated with AMENORRHEA and GALACTORRHEA. Relatively common etiologies include PROLACTINOMA, medication effect, KIDNEY FAILURE, granulomatous diseases of the PITUITARY GLAND, and disorders which interfere with the hypothalamic inhibition of prolactin release. Ectopic (non-pituitary) production of prolactin may also occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp77-8)
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
An extracellular cystatin subtype that is abundantly expressed in bodily fluids. It may play a role in the inhibition of interstitial CYSTEINE PROTEASES.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
A genus of poisonous American herbs, family BERBERIDACEAE. The roots yield PODOPHYLLOTOXIN and other pharmacologically important agents. The plant was formerly used as a cholagogue and cathartic. It is different from the European mandrake, MANDRAGORA.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
Spontaneous loss of INTRAUTERINE DEVICES from the UTERUS.
The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)
An infection with TRICHINELLA. It is caused by eating raw or undercooked meat that is infected with larvae of nematode worms TRICHINELLA genus. All members of the TRICHINELLA genus can infect human in addition to TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS, the traditional etiological agent. It is distributed throughout much of the world and is re-emerging in some parts as a public health hazard and a food safety problem.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped LACTIC ACID bacteria that is frequently used as starter culture in SILAGE fermentation, sourdough, and lactic-acid-fermented types of beer and wine.

Fluid secretion by the malpighian tubules of the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans: the effects of ouabain, ethacrynic acid and amiloride. (1/1163)

The effects of three inhibitors of sodium transport on the secretion of fluid by the Malpighian tubules of Glossina morsitans have been observed. The cardiac glycoside, ouabain, affects neither the rate of secretion nor the sodium concentration of the fluid secreted when isolated tubules are bathed by solutions containing a range of sodium and potassium concentrations. Secretion is inhibited, however, by ethacrynic acid and amiloride. The results confirm that fluid secretion by the Malpighian tubules of this insect is dependent on the active transport of sodium ions and show that Na+/k+ exchange pumps are not involved in this process.  (+info)

Activation of stimulus-specific serine esterases (proteases) in the initiation of platelet secretion. I. Demonstration with organophosphorus inhibitors. (2/1163)

The effect of organophosphorus inhibitors of serine esterases (proteases) on secretion from washed rabbit platelets was examined. Five noncytotoxic stimuli were employed: collagen, thrombin, heterologous anti-platelet antibody (in the absence of complement), rabbit C3 bound to zymosan, and platelet activating factor derived from antigen-stimulated, IgE-sensitized rabbit basophils. Diisoprophyl phosphofluoridate, three series of p-nitrophenyl ethyl phosphonates, and a series of cyclohexyl phenylalkylphosphonofluridates were all found to be inhibitory to the platelet secretion. These are irreversible inhibitors of serine proteases but in this system were only inhibitory if added to the platelets concurrently with the stimuli. Pretreatment of either the platelets or the stimuli with the inhibitors followed by washing, was without effect on the subsequent reaction. This suggested the involvement of stimulus-activatable serine proteases in the secretory process. The concept was supported by finding that nonphosphorylating phosphonates or hydrolyzed phosphonates or phosphonofluoridates were without inhibitory action. The effect of a series of phosphonates or phosphonoflouridates in inhibiting each stimulus exhibited a unique activity-structure profile. The demonstration of such unique profiles with four series of inhibitors for each of the five stimuli was interpreted as demonstrating that a specific activatable serine protease was involved in the platelet secretory response to each stimulus.  (+info)

Pancreatic beta-cell-to-beta-cell interactions are required for integrated responses to nutrient stimuli: enhanced Ca2+ and insulin secretory responses of MIN6 pseudoislets. (3/1163)

The effect of cell-to-cell contact on Ca2+ influx and secretory responses in the beta-cell line MIN6 was studied using MIN6 pseudoislets, which are three-dimensional islet-like cell aggregates that develop when MIN6 cells are cultured for 6-8 days on gelatin. The formation of pseudoislets is dependent on the Ca2+-dependent adhesion molecule E-cadherin (E-CAD), since the process can be inhibited by incubation in the absence of Ca2+ or in the presence of an anti-E-CAD antibody. Glucose and alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) evoked a Ca2+ influx in only a small fraction of the MIN6 monolayer cells, whereas >80% of cell groups within the pseudoislets responded to both nutrients. In contrast, changes in the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were observed in all or most monolayer cells or pseudoislet cell groups in response to physical or pharmacological depolarizing stimuli. No significant increase in insulin release was observed from MIN6 monolayer cells in response to nutrient or nonnutrient insulin secretagogues. Conversely, pseudoislets were found to respond significantly to both nutrients and nonnutrients. These results suggest that close cell-to-cell contact improves the functional responsiveness of MIN6 cells and that pseudoislets may therefore serve as a useful research model in the study of beta-cell function.  (+info)

Exposure of human islets to cytokines can result in disproportionately elevated proinsulin release. (4/1163)

Infiltration of immunocytes into pancreatic islets precedes loss of beta cells in type 1 diabetes. It is conceivable that local release of cytokines affects the function of beta cells before their apoptosis. This study examines whether the elevated proinsulin levels that have been described in prediabetes can result from exposure of beta cells to cytokines. Human beta-cell preparations were cultured for 48 or 72 hours with or without IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, or IFN-gamma, alone or in combination. None of these conditions were cytotoxic, nor did they reduce insulin biosynthetic activity. Single cytokines did not alter medium or cellular content in insulin or proinsulin. Cytokine combinations, in particular IL-1beta plus IFN-gamma, disproportionately elevated medium proinsulin levels. This effect expresses an altered functional state of the beta cells characterized by preserved proinsulin synthesis, a slower hormone conversion, and an increased ratio of cellular proinsulin over insulin content. The delay in proinsulin conversion can be attributed to lower expression of PC1 and PC2 convertases. It is concluded that disproportionately elevated proinsulin levels in pre-type 1 diabetic patients might result from exposure of their beta cells to cytokines released from infiltrating immunocytes. This hormonal alteration expresses an altered functional state of the beta cells that can occur independently of beta-cell death.  (+info)

Secretory responses to sympathetic stimulation of the cat's salivary glands in a state of resting secretion. (5/1163)

The secretory effect of sympathetic stimulation on the cat's submaxillary gland was augmented greatly when studied against a background of slow secretion evoked by parasympathetic stimulation at a low frequency and imitating the slow resting secretion normally present in the waking state. The sympathetic secretory threshold was markedly lowered, and even at low frequencies sympathetic stimulation caused a large, well-maintained response. After an alpha-adrenoceptor blocking drug sympathetic stimulation alone lost its secretory effect, but during resting secretion part of the accelerating effect was found to remain; this effect was elicited via beta-adrenoceptors. A marked secretory effect of sympathetic stimulation was also obtained during resting secretion in the parotid gland, where the sympathetic secretory effect is normally very small.  (+info)

Sexual differentiation of oestradiol-LH positive feedback in a marsupial. (6/1163)

The surge of LH that induces ovulation in mammals showing spontaneous ovulation is precipitated by the positive feedback of increasing oestrogens from the developing follicles in the ovary. In eutherians, exogenous oestrogens can mimic this effect by eliciting an LH surge in females, but not usually in males. The absence of a positive LH response to eutherian males is either due to an acute suppression by the secretory products of the testes during adulthood or the permanent disabling of the system by testosterone during early development. This phenomenon is examined in tammar wallabies, Macropus eugenii. The results show that the oestradiol-LH positive feedback response is sexually dimorphic in this marsupial. A surge in plasma LH occurred between 15 and 28 h after injection of 2.5 micrograms oestradiol benzoate kg-1 in 13 of 16 intact females and 4 of 4 ovariectomized females, but in none of 11 intact males. Five females each implanted with a 100 mg testosterone pellet 3 months earlier failed to produce an LH surge. Four males castrated in adulthood and three adult males castrated before puberty also failed to show an LH surge. However, three males castrated 24-26 days after birth showed an unambiguous LH surge when challenged with oestradiol benzoate during adulthood. Thus, in tammar wallabies, the ability to generate an LH surge to oestradiol is a sexually dimorphic response that is suppressed in the male by the organizational effects of the testes in early life and presumably supplemented by an inhibitory effect of circulating testosterone in adulthood.  (+info)

Compensation by pulsatile GnRH infusions for incompetence for oestradiol-induced LH surges in long-term ovariectomized gilts and castrated male pigs. (7/1163)

The aim of this study was to investigate incompetence for oestradiol-induced LH surges in long-term ovariectomized gilts and male pigs. Gilts (250 days old; n = 36), which had been ovariectomized 30 (OVX 30) or 100 days (OVX 100) before the start of treatment, were challenged i.m. with oestradiol benzoate and were either given no further treatment, fed methallibure to inhibit endogenous GnRH release or fed methallibure and given i.v. pulses of 100 or 200 ng GnRH agonist at 1 h intervals during the LH surge (48-96 h after oestradiol benzoate). The same treatments were applied to long-term orchidectomized male pigs (ORC, n = 23). In addition, one ORC group was not injected with oestradiol benzoate but was fed methallibure and given pulses of 200 ng GnRH agonist. Oestradiol benzoate alone induced an LH surge in the OVX 30 group only (5/6 gilts), methallibure suppressed (P < 0.05) oestradiol benzoate-induced LH secretion, while pulses of 100 ng GnRH agonist in animals fed methallibure produced LH surges in four of six OVX 30 and four of six OVX 100 gilts. The induced LH surges were similar to those produced by oestradiol benzoate alone in OVX 30 gilts. Pulses of 200 ng GnRH agonist produced LH surges in OVX 30 (6/6) and OVX 100 (6/6) gilts and increased the magnitude of the induced LH surge in OVX 100 gilts (P < 0.05 compared with 100 ng GnRH agonist or OVX 30 control). Pulses of 200 ng GnRH agonist also induced LH surge release in ORC male pigs (5/6), but were unable to increase LH concentrations in a surge-like manner in ORC animals that had not been given oestradiol benzoate, indicating that oestradiol increases pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. These results support the hypothesis that oestradiol must inhibit secretion of LH before an LH surge can occur. It is concluded that incompetence for oestradiol-induced LH surges in long-term ovarian secretion-deprived gilts and in male pigs is due to the failure of oestradiol to promote a sufficient increase in the release of GnRH.  (+info)

Stimulation-induced factors which affect augmentation and potentiation of trasmitter release at the neuromuscular junction. (8/1163)

1. End-plate potentials (e.p.p.s) were recorded from frog sartorius neuromuscular junctions under conditions of decreased transmitter release to study the effect of repetitive stimulation on augmentation and potentiation of transmitter release. 2. The magnitudes and time constants of decay of augmentation and potentiation were determined both following a primary conditioning train and following an identical secondary conditioning train applied from 30 to 170 sec after the primary conditioning train. 3. The magnitude of augmentation following the secondary conditioning trains was increased over that following the primary conditioning trains even though augmentation, with a time constant of decay of about 7 sec, had decayed to insignificant levels before the onset of the secondary trains. This increase in augmentation was not due to a change in its rate of decay during the secondary trains. 4. The increased magnitude of augmentation can be described as arising from an expression factor which, for conditioning trains of 200 impulses at 20/sec, has an initial magnitude of 1-6 +/- 1-2 (S.D. of observation) (the magnitude of augmentation is increased 2-6 times) and decays approximately exponentially with a time constant of 90 +/- 50 (S.D. of observation) sec. The expression factor thus decays about ten times slower than augmentation. 5. Doubling the number of impulses in the primary conditioning train from 100 to 200 led to a 2-8 +/- 1-0 (S.D. of observation) times increase in the magnitude of the expression factor, estimated by placing a 200 impulse secondary conditioning train 40 sec after the primary conditioning train. 6. The expression factor, while increasing the magnitude of augmentation, had little or no effect on the magnitude of potentiation or on trasmitter release in the absence of augmentation. The expression factor decayed about twice as slowly as potentiation. 7. The time constants characterizing the decay of potentiation were greater following the secondary conditioning trains than following the primary conditioning trains. 8. The increased time constant for the decay of potentiation can be described as arising from a time constant factor which, for conditioning trains of 200 impulses at 20/sec, has an initial magnitude of 1-2 +/- 0-7 (S.D. of observation) (the time constant of potentiation is increased 2-2 times) and decays approximately exponentially with a time constant of 130 +/- 45 (S.D. of observation) sec. The time constant factor decayed about three times slower than potentiation. 9. Doubling the number of impulses in the primary conditioning train from 100 to 200 led to a 1-6 +/- 0-8 (S.D. of observation) times increase in the magnitude of the time constant factor, estimated by placing a 200 impulse secondary conditioning train 40 sec after the primary conditioning train. 10...  (+info)

The effect of smoking three cigarettes over a one-hour period on the pentagastrinstimulated submaximal plateau of acid and pepsin secretion was observed in 12 healthy human volunteers comprising men and women and smokers and non-smokers. No significant overall change in secretion was observed. In one subject, however, acid secretion was significantly inhibited (p , 0·01) and in one individual significant late stimulation (p , 0·01) of both acid and pepsin was observed.. ...
Pulsatile secretion is a biochemical phenomenon observed in a wide variety of cell types, in which chemical products are secreted in a regular pattern. The most common cellular products observed to be released in this manner are intercellular signaling molecules such as hormones or neurotransmitters. The most common examples of hormones that are secreted pulsatilely include insulin, thyrotropin, TRH, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and growth hormone (GH). In the nervous system, pulatlility is observed in oscillatory activity from pacemakers and central pattern generators. Pulsatile activity is critical to the function of many hormones in order to maintain the delicate homeostatic balance necessary for essential life processes, such as development and reproduction. Pulsatile secretion can be critical to hormone function, as evidenced by the case of GnRH agonists, which cause functional inhibition of the receptor for GnRH due to profound downregulation in response to constant stimulation. ...
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Using improved physiological and chemical methods, we have investigated the effects on bile secretion of a high fat diet, of bile salt preparations, and of
Background: Dental caries is a multifactorial disease and the important etiologic factors include streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli counts, salivary flow rate, buffer..
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cyclic adenosine monophosphate-stimulated bicarbonate secretion in rabbit cortical collecting tubules. AU - Schuster, V. L.. PY - 1985/1/1. Y1 - 1985/1/1. N2 - We studied the effects of cyclic AMP (cAMP) on HCO3- transport by rabbit cortical collecting tubules perfused in vitro. Net HCO3- secretion was observed in tubules from NaHCO3- loaded rabbits. 8-Bromo-cAMP-stimulated net HCO3- secretion, whereas secretion fell with time in control tubules. Both isoproterenol and vasopressin (ADH) are known to stimulate adenylate cyclase in this epithelium; however, only isoproterenol stimulated net HCO3- secretion. The mechanism of cAMP-stimulated HCO3- secretion was examined. If both HCO3- and H+ secretion were to occur simultaneously in tubules exhibiting net HCO3- secretion, cAMP might increase the net HCO3- secretory rate by inhibiting H+ secretion, by stimulating HCO3- secretion, or both. These possibilities were examined using basolateral addition of the disulfonic stilbene ...
Studies conducted on outpatients and in the general population show that xerostomia affects about 1 in 4 people.8 Salivary flow rate patterns demonstrate both daily and seasonal variation, with peaks in mid-afternoon and higher flow rates in the winter than in the summer. During sleep, saliva flow rate is minimal.9 People who complain of dry mouth do not necessarily have a very low flow rate; conversely, those with a low unstimulated flow rate do not always complain of dry mouth. It is therefore of greater significance to establish Whether or not the flow rate has changed adversely in a particular individual.10 ...
Flow Rat: Un-stimulated (resting). 0.3-0.4 ml/min. (Abnormal ,0.1ml/min). Simulated (chewing-taste-psychological). 1-2 ml/min. (Abnormal ,0.5). ...
Effect of exogenous cholecystokinin and secretin on pancreatic secretion of insulin and glucagon in rats. Academic Article 2001 ...
The analysis of parameters quantifying the 24-h profiles of plasma PRL and PRL secretory rates in MZ and DZ twins permitted determination of whether genetic and/or environmental factors influence the levels and temporal variability of human PRL secretion during wake and during sleep. Both nycthemeral (i.e., 24-h) and pulsatile variations were characterized from plasma concentrations measured at 15-min intervals. The results indicate that baseline daytime PRL concentrations are partially genetically determined and that the amplitude and overall waveshape of the daily PRL secretory profile also are influenced by genetic factors. In contrast, the mean concentrations and total secretory output during the sleep period appeared to be dependent on common within-pair environmental factors. Consistent with the fact that nearly one-half of the total daily production of PRL occurs during sleep, the overall 24-h concentrations and total secretion were found to be influenced by common factors in the ...
CariFree is a scientifically proven dental decay prevention system thats been proven safe for everyday use. Read What is the Evidence of Significant Reduction in Saliva Flow in Older Adults? to learn more.
Enzymes activities of the Na+K+-and the HCO3−-ATPases, alkaline phosphatase, amino peptidase and 5′ nucleotidase have been measured in 4 different preparations from the cat pancreas a) in the ducts...
A juxtaglomerular cell is a type of cell thats found in the kidneys. It creates, stores, and secretes a substance thats called...
Control of Renin Secretion: Proceedings of a Workshop Sponsored by and Held at the Kroc Foundation, Santa Ynez, California, August 26 29, 1971 by Tatiana Assaykeen full download exe or rar online without authorization for free.
Background: One of the most common causes of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto´s Thyroiditis (HT). Early detection of dry mouth is critical in preserving and promoting systemic and oral health. In this study we have assessed, for the first time, salivary function and xerostomia in HT patients who have not been involved with Sjögren´s syndrome. Material and Methods: HT was diagnosed in 40 patients based on clinical findings and positive anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO). Controls, matched by sex, age and body mass index (BMI), and with no history of thyroid disease, were selected. A questionnaire was used for diagnosis of xerostomia. Saliva samples were taken between 8 a.m. and 9 a.m., and at least 2 hours after the last intake of food or drink. The flow rate was calculated in milliliters per minute. Results: Xerostomia was significantly higher in patients with HT. Unstimulated salivary flow rate was significantly lower in the HT group. Stimulated salivary flow rate was lower in HT ...
Conventional measurement of gastric secretion is invasive and cannot assess the intra-gastric distribution of gastric contents or the effects of secretion on gastric function. This study assessed the effect of gastric secretion on gastric volume responses and emptying (GE) using a validated fast T(1) mapping magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique. Twelve healthy participants were studied in the fasted state and after 200 kcal Gadolinium-DOTA labelled glucose meal during intravenous infusion of pentagastrin or placebo in double-blind, randomized order. Total gastric volume (TGV) and gastric content volume (GCV) was assessed by MRI volume scans and secretion by fast T(1) mapping. Data was described by the kappa-coefficient (volume change after meal ingestion), by GE half time (T(50)) and maximal GE rate (GER(max)) derived all from a GE model. Pentagastrin increased GCV and TGV compared to placebo [kappa(GCV):1.6 +/- 0.1 vs 0.6 +/- 0.1; kappa(TGV): 1.6 +/- 0.1 vs 0.7 +/- 0.1; P , 0.001]. T(1) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of pregnancy on pulsatile secretion of LH and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone-induced LH release in sheep: a longitudinal study. AU - Al-Gubory, K H AU - Hervieu, J AU - Fowler, P A PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - Pulsatile LH secretion and its control throughout pregnancy have not been fully determined in sheep. Expt 1 determined the patterns of LH secretion in five ewes on days 10, 20, 60 and 120 of pregnancy and on day 10 postpartum, compared with those on day 10 of the oestrous cycle. Mean (+/- SEM) concentrations of LH declined steadily throughout pregnancy (ANOVA, P , 0.01) and were lower (P , 0.01) on day 60 (0.19 +/- 0.3 ng ml(-1)) and on day 120 (0.18 +/- 0.4 ng ml(-1)) of pregnancy than on day 10 of the oestrous cycle (0.55 +/- 0.04 ng ml(-1)). This decrease was due to a significant reduction in the number and the amplitude of LH pulses. Only on day 120 of pregnancy were progesterone concentrations higher (P , 0.01) than on day 10 of the oestrous cycle. Although ...
Evidence suggests that acute exercise and endurance training has a suppressive effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in men and women. To determine if training and acute exercise influence the neuroendocrine regulation of the HPG axis in men we examined pulsatile LH release in six …
1. Niedermeier W. et al.: Significance of saliva for the denture-wearing population Gerodontology. 2000 Dec; 17(2):104-18. 2. Almstahl A. et al.: Lactoferrin, amylase and mucin MUC5B and their relation to the oral microflora in hyposalivation of different origins. Oral. Microbiol. Immunol. 2001 Dec; 16(6):345-52. 3. Moore P.A. et al.: Type 1 diabetes mellitus, xerostomia, and salivary flow rates. Oral. Surg. Oral. Med. Oral. Pathol. Oral. Radiol. Endod. 2001 Sep; 92(3):281-91. 4. Pedersen A.M., Nauntofte B.: Primary Sjogren´s syndrome: oral aspects on pathogenesis, diagnostic criteria, clinical features and approaches for therapy. Expert-Opin. Pharmacother. 2001 Sep; 2(9):1415-36. 5. Gehanno P. et al.: Vasomotor rhinitis: clinical efficacy of azelastine nasal spray in comparison with placebo. ORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec. 2001 Mar-Apr; 63(2): 76-81. 6. Bardow A. et al.: Relationships between medication intake, complaints of dry mouth, salivary flow rate and composition, and the rate ...
The effects of cocaine on pulsatile secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in men were studied under controlled clinical research ward conditions. Eight men with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association Version III, revised, diagnosis of concurrent cocaine and opioid dependence provided their informed consent for participation in this study. After an overnight fast, a challenge dose of cocaine (30 mg i.v.) or placebo was administered under single-blind conditions in a randomized order on 2 study days. Blood samples were collected at 2-min intervals for 76 min during base line and for an additional 76 min after i.v. administration of the challenge dose. Peak plasma cocaine levels of 313.8 +/- 46.5 ng/ml were detected within 2 min after cocaine administration. The cluster analysis program originally described by Veldhuis and Johnson (1986) was used to characterize ACTH pulsatile secretion (Iranmanesh et al., 1990). Acute cocaine administration (30 mg ...
Effects of estrogen status and aging on salivary flow rates in healthy Caucasian women. Streckfus, Charles F.; Baur, Ursula; Brown, L. Jackson; Bacal, Carolyn; Metter, Jeffrey; Nick, Todd; Streckfus, C F; Baur, U; Brown, L J; Bacal, C; Metter, J; Nick, T // Gerontology;1998, Vol. 44 Issue 1, p32 A comparison of salivary flow rates was made between three groups of female individuals according to their menopausal status. The three groups consisted of healthy, dentate, nonmedicated women (with the exception of the use of estrogen) from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. One group... ...
In this study, insulin secretion was measured by applying a two-compartment model for the deconvolution of peripheral C-peptide concentrations (12). The use of this approach, which has been extensively validated in humans, allows not only quantification of pancreatic insulin secretion, but also discrimination of rapid secretory events (e.g., first vs. second phase) (13). For example, in a study of subjects with impaired glucose tolerance, second-phase insulin secretion was judged to be impaired when using plasma insulin concentrations, whereas the corresponding reconstructed secretion rates were similar to those of control subjects (14). Similarly, in our experiments, plasma insulin and C-peptide concentrations remained above the respective baseline in the transition between the first and second phase, whereas the corresponding secretory rates were clearly separated by a return to baseline (Fig. 1).. The main finding of the present study is that short-term moderate hyperglycemia exerts an ...
The objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy and safety of two different dose levels of NT 201 (75 U or 100 U per cycle), compared with placebo, in reducing the salivary flow rate, and the severity and frequency of chronic troublesome sialorrhea that occurs as a result of various neurological conditions in adult subjects ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] The protein encoded by this gene is a G protein-coupled receptor and belongs to the glucagon-VIP-secretin receptor family. It binds secretin which is the most potent regulator of pancreatic bicarbonate, electrolyte and volume secretion. Secretin and its receptor are suggested to be involved in pancreatic cancer and autism. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
The purpose of this study was to retrospectively examine the effect of concomitant administration of gastric secretion inhibitors or gastrectomy on the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - NPR-C receptors are involved in C-type natriuretic peptide response on bile secretion. AU - Sabbatini, Maria E.. AU - Vatta, Marcelo S.. AU - Vescina, Cristina. AU - Gonzales, Soledad. AU - Fernandez, Belisario. AU - Bianciotti, Liliana G.. PY - 2003/11/15. Y1 - 2003/11/15. N2 - C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a member of the natriuretic peptide family. Previous studies reported the presence of natriuretic peptide receptors and mRNA CNP in the liver. In the present work, we sought to establish the role of CNP in the regulation of bile secretion in the rat and the possible pathways involved. CNP diminished basal as well as bile salt-evoked bile flow and bile acid output in a dose-dependent manner. It also reduced the excretion of sodium, chloride, and potassium but did not modify bile pH or the excretion of phospholipids, total proteins, and glutathione. Neither parasympathetic nor sympathetic blockade abolished CNP inhibitory response on bile secretion. The selective NPR-C ...
BioAssay record AID 48875 submitted by ChEMBL: Pancreatic response measured as optical density of the pancreatic juice secreted 30 minutes following injection of 0.5 ug and diluted to 25 mL with physiological saline..
Primary Sjögrens Syndrome (PSS) mainly affects women (9:1 female:male ratio) and is one of the commonest autoimmune diseases with a prevalence of 0.1 - 0.6% of adult women. For patients with PSS there is currently no effective therapy that can alter the progression of the disease. The aim of the TRACTISS study is to establish whether in patients with PSS, treatment with rituximab improves clinical outcomes. TRACTISS is a UK multi-centre, double-blind, randomised, controlled, parallel group trial of 110 patients with PSS. Patients will be randomised on a 1:1 basis to receive two courses of either rituximab or placebo infusion in addition to standard therapy, and will be followed up for up to 48 weeks. The primary objective is to assess the extent to which rituximab improves symptoms of fatigue and oral dryness. Secondary outcomes include ocular dryness, salivary flow rates, lacrimal flow, patient quality of life, measures of disease damage and disease activity, serological and peripheral blood
Exclusion criteria: Individuals should not have taken oral, systemic antibiotics or antifungals during the six months prior to enrollment. Individuals should not have diabetes mellitus, HIV, or uncontrolled acid reflux or asthma. Individuals should not have other medical conditions such as hypothyroidism or hypertension that are not well controlled (i.e., treatment is intermittent or treatment was initiated less than three months ago). Individuals with a past history of drug abuse or of eating disorders will also be excluded.. What are the costs of participation? There will be no costs to volunteers for participating in this research study. We will provide volunteers with a parking sticker to cover the cost of parking in the Millbery Union Parking Garage for the duration of each clinical sample collection appointment.. ...
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Hollanders test (Insulin hypoglycemia test): In the past, this test was used for confirmation of completeness of vagotomy (done for duodenal ulcer)....
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
235_Measuring and test equipment , 190_Interfaces eletrônicas , 110_Apalpadores de medição , 205_Electrónicas de avaliação , 230_Apalpadores 3D , 170_Sistemas angulares , 130_Transdutores lineares , 240_Calibração de máquinas-ferramenta , 109_Informação geral , 150_Transdutores rotativos , 210_Comandos CNC ...
Utilizing cocultures of mouse renal juxtaglomerular cells with bovine microvascular endothelial cells, we have examined whether endothelial cells exert direct influence on renin secretion from renal juxtaglomerular cells. In the presence of endothelial cells both spontaneous and forskolin (10 microM) or isoproterenol (10 microM) stimulated renin release were markedly attenuated. The stimulatory effect of the calmodulin antagonist calmidazolium (10 microM) on renin secretion was not altered by endothelial cells, whereas the stimulatory effect of ethylisopropylamiloride (50 microM) an inhibitor of sodium-proton exchange was enhanced in the presence of endothelial cells. Indomethacin (10 microM) and NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (NMMA) (1 mM) used to inhibit cyclooxygenase activity and production of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) decreased spontaneous renin release in the presence of endothelial cells only, but had no effect on forskolin stimulated renin secretion. Endothelin (1 microM) inhibited
Looking for online definition of Adolf Heidenhain in the Medical Dictionary? Adolf Heidenhain explanation free. What is Adolf Heidenhain? Meaning of Adolf Heidenhain medical term. What does Adolf Heidenhain mean?
Members of the bombesin family of peptides potently stimulate insulin release by HIT-T15 cells, a clonal pancreatic cell line. The response to bombesin consists of a large burst in secretion during the first 30 s, followed by a smaller elevation of the secretory rate, which persists for 90 min. The aim of this study was to identify the intracellular messengers involved in this biphasic secretory response. Addition of 100 nM-bombesin to cells for 20 s increased the cellular accumulation of [3H]diacylglycerol (DAG) by 40% and that of [3H]inositol monophosphate (InsP), bisphosphate (InsP2) and trisphosphate (InsP3) by 40%, 300%, and 800%, respectively. In contrast, cyclic AMP concentrations were unaffected. Bombesin stimulation of [3H]InsP3 formation was detected at 2 s, before the secretory response, which was not measurable until 5 s. Furthermore, the potency of bombesin to stimulate [3H]InsP3 generation (ED50 = 14 +/- 9 nM) agreed with its potency to stimulate insulin release (ED50 = 6 +/- 2 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of indomethacin on renin release within and below the autoregulatory range of renal blood flow. AU - Blackshear, J.. AU - Edwards, Brooks Sayre. AU - Knox, F.. AU - Romero, J. C.. PY - 1978. Y1 - 1978. UR - UR - M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0017886506. VL - 37. JO - Federation Proceedings. JF - Federation Proceedings. SN - 0014-9446. IS - 3. ER - ...
The bicarbonate buffer system, and how it gets us from being more acidic to more alkaline. Bicarbonate goes into pancreatic duct, and hydrogen goes into the blood. Q: How is bicarbonate made in the pancreas ...
Buy 200 ml Jaundice Manage Liver Function Improves Digestion Stimulate Gastric Secretion For Proper Digestion Syrup in wholesale and other type of pharma drugs, pharma medicines, tablets, injections, syrups, etc. at best price in India.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pancreatic response of rats fed genetically modified soybean. AU - Magaña-Gómez, Javier A.. AU - López Cervantes, Guillermo. AU - Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria. AU - Calderón De La Barca, Ana M.. PY - 2008/3/1. Y1 - 2008/3/1. U2 - 10.1002/jat.1319. DO - 10.1002/jat.1319. M3 - Article. SP - 217. EP - 226. JO - Journal of Applied Toxicology. JF - Journal of Applied Toxicology. SN - 0260-437X. ER - ...
Patients with diminished salivary flow have several options for treating salivary gland hypofunction (SGH), also known as xerostomia.
In addition to regular brushing and flossing, salivary flow has a large impact on our oral health and in protecting teeth against dental decay.
Regulation of pancreatic secretion is the job of hormones. The entry of acidic chyme into the duodenum stimulates the release of the hormone secretin , which in turn causes the duc
SCHAUMBURG, Ill., April 25, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- HEIDENHAIN TV Showcases the Latest in Motion Control Advances. -See Machining Accuracy Video Example-.
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Feb 1, 2018 ... Dry mouth (xerostomia) refers to a condition in which the salivary glands in ... If your doctor believes medication to be the cause, he or she may adjust your ... .... ...
To assess gastric acid secretion, acid output from the stomach is measured in a fasting state and after injection of a drug which stimulates gastric a...
日消外会誌 24(9)i2414~ 2418,1991年 選択的動脈内secretin注入試験と術中secretin負荷試験により 根治切除を行いえた十二指腸壁内 .... ...
List of 24 disease causes of Mucopurulent secretions, patient stories, diagnostic guides. Diagnostic checklist, medical tests, doctor questions, and related signs or symptoms for Mucopurulent secretions.
Secretory IgA also helps prevent food allergies. Over the first two weeks after the birth, colostrum production slowly gives ... Research also suggests that draining the breasts more fully also increases the rate of milk production. Thus the milk supply is ... During the latter part of pregnancy, the woman's breasts enter into the Secretory Differentiation stage. This is when the ... Although biochemical markers indicate that Secretory Activation begins about 30-40 hours after birth, mothers do not typically ...
They are stable secretory proteins expressed in gastrointestinal mucosa. Their functions are diverse, including protection of ... the mucosa, thickening of the mucus, and increasing epithelial healing rates. This gene is a marker of columnar epithelium and ... Trefoil factors (TFF) are secretory products of mucin producing cells. They play a key role in the maintenance of the surface ... Hoffmann W, Jagla W (2002). "Cell type specific expression of secretory TFF peptides: colocalization with mucins and synthesis ...
When the rate of sweating is low, salt is conserved and reabsorbed by the gland's duct; high sweat rates, on the other hand, ... Their secretory portion has a narrow portion similar to secretory coils in eccrine glands as well as a wide section reminiscent ... the secretory coils are surrounded by contractile myoepithelial cells that function to facilitate excretion of secretory ... Generally, sweat glands consist of a secretory unit consisting of a base rolled into a glomerulum, and a duct that carries the ...
They all possess the plasmid pCD1, which encodes for a type III secretory system. Among chromosomal protein-coding genes, their ... nucleotide genomic identity rates 97%. They are different in terms of their virulence potential and transmission mechanisms. Y ... are still interested in the long-term tracing of genetic adaptation of these bacteria and accurate quantification of rates of ...
When the rate of sweating is low, salt is conserved and reabsorbed by the gland's duct; high sweat rates, on the other hand, ... Their secretory portion has a narrow portion similar to secretory coils in eccrine glands as well as a wide section reminiscent ... the secretory coils are surrounded by contractile myoepithelial cells that function to facilitate excretion of secretory ... The secretory coil or base, is set deep in the lower dermis and hypodermis, and the entire gland is surrounded by adipose ...
Micronemes are secretory organelles on the apical surface of the apicomplexans used for gliding motility. Bacterial gliding is ... For example the apicomplexans are able to travel at fast rates between 1-10 μm/s. In contrast Myxococcus xanthus bacteria glide ... at a rate of 5 μm/min. Cell-invasion and gliding motility have TRAP (thrombospondin-related anonymous protein), a surface ...
Lowers rate of gastric emptying Reduces smooth muscle contractions and blood flow within the intestine[4] Inhibit release of ... Suppress the exocrine secretory action of pancreas. Thrombopoietin. TPO. liver, kidney, striated muscle. Myocytes. TPO receptor ...
PMID 22279406.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Ali MJ, Honavar SG, Reddy VA (2011). "High dose rate interstitial ... "Establishing human lacrimal gland cultures with secretory function". PLOS ONE. 7 (1): e29458. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...729458T. doi: ... affection of the disease and he is reported to have treated over 2000 pediatric retinoblastoma patients with a success rate ...
Parsi women in West India have the milk RNase level markedly lower than in other groups, and their breast cancer rate is three ... Lactoferrin is a globular glycoprotein with a molecular mass of about 80 kDa that is widely represented in various secretory ... Both in blood plasma and in secretory fluids lactoferrin can exist in different polymeric forms ranging from monomers to ... Lactoferrin hydrolyzes RNA and exhibits the properties of pyrimidine-specific secretory ribonucleases. In particular, by ...
Because puparial cases decay at an extremely slow rate and can be recovered years after the death of an individual, they can ... Results show that secretory neurons are necessary for entering the reproductive diapause. Other research based on the ... "Developmental rate of Protophormia terraenovae (R-D) raised under constant and fluctuating temperatures, for use in determining ... Forensic entomologists determined developmental rates based on locally collected specimens of P. terraenovae, and with this ...
This high rate of turnover is a protective mechanism designed to protect the epithelial lining of the stomach from both the ... The gastric chief cell also contains many large secretory vesicles filled with digestive enzymes in the apical cytoplasm. ... Parathyroid tissue seems to have a low turn-over rate. Gastric chief cells are epithelial cells which are found within the ...
The rates at which air is breathed in or out, either through the mouth or nose, or into or out of the alveoli are tabulated ... These include secretory immunoglobulins (IgA), collectins, defensins and other peptides and proteases, reactive oxygen species ... The rate of inflow of air into the lungs during inhalation at sea level is therefore twice that which occurs at 5500 m. However ... dead space * respiratory rate. the volume of air that does not reach the alveoli during inhalation, but instead remains in the ...
The rates at which air is breathed in or out, either through the mouth or nose, or into or out of the alveoli are tabulated ... These include secretory immunoglobulins (IgA), collectins, defensins and other peptides and proteases, reactive oxygen species ... The rate of inflow of air into the lungs during inhalation at sea level is therefore twice that which occurs at 5500 m. However ... The breathing rate increases when the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood increases. This is detected by central ...
The wear rate of enamel, called attrition, is 8 micrometers a year from normal factors.[citation needed] A common misconception ... In the secretory stage, ameloblasts are polarized columnar cells. In the rough endoplasmic reticulum of these cells, enamel ... Human enamel forms at a rate of around 4 μm per day, beginning at the future location of cusps, around the third or fourth ... The first stage, called the secretory stage, involves proteins and an organic matrix forming a partially mineralized enamel. ...
KSHV proteins K3 and K5 increase the rate of endocytosis and subsequent degradation of MHC I from cell membrane. Nef protein is ... Protein U21 is responsible for targeting MHC I from the secretory pathway for lysosomal degradation. MHC II molecule (HLA-DR) ... protein binds to MHC I with the help of adaptor protein complex and directs it for lysosomal degradation from the secretory ...
In ON cells, an increment in light intensity in the centre of the receptive field causes the firing rate to increase. In OFF ... both befitting its secretory role. Pecten cells are packed with dark melanin granules, which have been theorized to keep this ... This is considered to enhance metabolic rate of the pecten, thereby exporting more nutritive molecules to meet the stringent ... whereas a guinea pig's retinal transfer rate is 875 kilobits per second. MacLaren & Pearson and colleagues at University ...
Evidence emerged by the end of the 1970s that the newly discovered proton pump (H+/K+ ATPase) in the secretory membrane of the ... which reduces the rate of metabolism, allowing a longer plasma residence time but also decreases the pKa of the fused imidazole ... Direct comparison of pantoprazole sodium with other anti-secretory drugs showed that it was significantly more effective than ... and the rate of healing and symptom relief reported. A clinical study showed that nocturnal acid breakthrough duration was ...
... dephosphorylation of the membrane ATPases and proton pumps in the gastrointestinal tract leads to higher secretory rates of ... Components of the protein synthesis apparatus also undergo phosphorylation and dephosphorylation and thus regulate the rates of ... phosphorylation of elongation factor 2 during mitosis in transformed human amnion cells correlates with a decreased rate of ...
... being stored in Golgi secretory vesicles. Reelin's release rate is not regulated by depolarization, but strictly depends on its ... Studies show that reelin is absent from synaptic vesicles and is secreted via constitutive secretory pathway, ... synthesis rate. This relationship is similar to that reported for the secretion of other extracellular matrix proteins.[ ...
... he has deciphered the molecular mechanism by which cells match protein synthesis rates to protein folding in the secretory ...
The secretory phase is the final phase of the uterine cycle and it corresponds to the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle. During ... Before puberty GnRH is released in low steady quantities and at a steady rate. After puberty GnRH is released in large pulses ... Lasting about 14 days, the luteal phase is the final phase of the ovarian cycle and it corresponds to the secretory phase of ... proliferative and secretory phases. Day one of the menstrual cycle is the first day of the period, which lasts for about five ...
The rate of iodide catalysis is five orders of magnitude greater than the rate of chloride catalysis, for comparison. ... Eosinophil Major basic protein Secretory pathway Peroxiredoxin Catalase Reactive oxygen species Antimicrobial peptides The ... However, they do not have a significantly increased rate of infection, owing to redundancy in peroxidase-mediated immune ... In fact, only myeloperoxidase can oxidize chloride with any considerable rate. ...
The secretory signal peptide of PAI-2 is relatively inefficient, perhaps by evolutionary design, as various mutations to the ... based on second order rate constants).[13] On the other hand, detailed intracellular roles for PAI-2 have not yet been ... while PAI-2 in secretory organelles (which tend to be more oxidizing than the cytosol) is more prone to polymerization.[11] For ... and may explain partially the increased rate of thrombosis during pregnancy. The majority of expressed PAI-2 remains unsecreted ...
Suppresses the exocrine secretory action of pancreas.. This explains how abnormally elevated somatostatin can cause diabetes ... Lowers the rate of gastric emptying, and reduces smooth muscle contractions and blood flow within the intestine ...
Slight warming of pecten oculi due to absorption of light by melanin granules has been proposed to enhance metabolic rate of ... Extra-high enzymic activity of alkaline phosphatase in pecten oculi has been proposed to support high secretory activity of ... Birds can resolve rapid movements better than humans, for whom flickering at a rate greater than 50 light pulse cycles per ...
secretory granule. • protein complex. • extracellular region. • cell surface. • specific granule. • phagocytic vesicle lumen. • ... and their breast cancer rate is three times higher than average.[30] Thus, ribonucleases of milk, and lactoferrin in particular ... Lactoferrin is a globular glycoprotein with a molecular mass of about 80 kDa that is widely represented in various secretory ... Both in blood plasma and in secretory fluids lactoferrin can exist in different polymeric forms ranging from monomers to ...
Inhibits the release of glucagon Suppresses the exocrine secretory action of the pancreas Octreotide (brand name Sandostatin, ... so reducing the rate of secretion of growth hormone. Somatostatin is also produced by several other populations that project ... and suppresses the release of gastrointestinal hormones Decreases the rate of gastric emptying, and reduces smooth muscle ...
These often terminate in a hydathode, a secretory organ, at the margin. In turn, smaller veins branch from the secondary veins ... openings called stomata which open or close to regulate the rate exchange of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and water vapor into and ...
Huang CY, Ayliffe MA, Timmis JN (March 2003). "Direct measurement of the transfer rate of chloroplast DNA into the nucleus". ... In those cases, chloroplast-targeted proteins do initially travel along the secretory pathway).[39] ... The highly oxidative environment inside chloroplasts increases the rate of mutation so post-transcription repairs are needed to ... Some transferred chloroplast DNA protein products get directed to the secretory pathway[27] (though many secondary plastids are ...
Most of these go to muscles and are therefore called motor impulses; some are secretory and enter glands; a portion are ... In the U.S., chiropractors perform over 90% of all manipulative treatments.[209] Satisfaction rates are typically higher for ... which overall had a stable use rate.[211] As of 2007 7% of the U.S. population is being reached by chiropractic.[212] They were ... "Withdrawal rates as a consequence of disclosure of risk associated with manipulation of the cervical spine". Chiropractic & ...
The rate of incidence varies from 0.5 to 4%.[3] Cytologically, the cells of apocrine carcinoma are relatively large, granular, ... The apical portion of the secretory cell of the gland pinches off and enters the lumen. It loses part of its cytoplasm in their ... Secretion occurs when the release of secretory materials is accompanied with loss of part of cytoplasm. Apocrine secretion is ...
Prolonged autophagy activation leads to a high turnover rate of proteins and organelles. A high rate above the survival ... "Aminopeptidase I of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is localized to the vacuole independent of the secretory pathway". The Journal of ...
High on-rate and off-rate is characteristic for TCR and peptide/MHC interaction at physiological temperature. TCRs have very ...
However, potential factors that may influence pregnancy rates (and live birth rates) in ICSI include level of DNA fragmentation ... In cases of nonobstructive (secretory) azoospermia, on the other hand, testicular sperm production is blocked at different ... Live birth rate are significantly higher with progesterone to assist implantation in ICSI cycles.[26] Also, addition of a GNRH ... Speyer BE, Pizzey AR, Ranieri M, Joshi R, Delhanty JD, Serhal P (May 2010). "Fall in implantation rates following ICSI with ...
secretory granule lumen. • endosome membrane. • extracellular exosome. • extracellular space. • clathrin-coated vesicle ... it forms the most vital iron pool with the highest rate of turnover (25 mg/24 h). Transferrin has a molecular weight of around ...
... antimicrobial agents such as secretory IgA and lysozyme.[1] The enzymes found in saliva are essential in beginning the process ... "Circadian rhythms in human salivary flow rate and composition". Journal of Physiology. 220 (3): 529-545. PMC 1331668. PMID ... researchers find human saliva contains such antibacterial agents as secretory IgA, lactoferrin, lysozyme and peroxidase.[15] It ... nervous stimulation can lead to myoepithelium contraction which causes the expulsion of secretions from the secretory acinus ...
They have a very slow growth rate compared to most malignant tumors. The median age at diagnosis for all patients with ... Octreotide or Lanreotide (somatostatin analogues) may decrease the secretory activity of the carcinoid, and may also have an ...
Clidinium inhibits muscarinic acetylcholine receptors on smooth muscles, secretory glands, and in the central nervous system to ... decrease the rate of recurrence, or prevent complications of peptic ulcers.[2] ...
Pedersen BK, Febbraio MA (April 2012). "Muscles, exercise, and obesity: skeletal muscle as a secretory organ". Nature Reviews. ... involves movement that increases the heart rate to improve the body's oxygen consumption. This form of exercise is an important ...
The incidence of idiopathic GHD in infants is about 1 in every 3800 live births,[16] and rates in older children are rising as ... Direct hormonal criteria (measurement of GH in multiple blood samples to determine secretory patterns or responses to ... In the first year of treatment, the rate of growth may increase from half as fast as other children are growing to twice as ... Similarly, although measurements of bone density improve with treatment, rates of fractures have not been shown to improve.[15] ...
... and its rate is typically limited by the diffusion rate of its substrates. Typical catalytic rates of the different forms of ... secretory. saliva and milk. 3.4 × 105. 11 CA-VII. CA7. 29 kDa. cytosol. widely distributed. 9.5 × 105. 2.5 ... CDCA makes the reaction go almost as fast as the diffusion rate of its substrates, and it can be inhibited by sulfonamide and ... mol composition CO₂ had a capture rate of 63.6% over a 60-hour period with no noticeable effects in enzyme performance. CA was ...
"Reduced secretory antibody response to live attenuated measles and poliovirus vaccines in malnourished children". Br Med J 2 ... "Polio immunisation rate in Syria close to pre-war level -WHO". Reuters ...
Due to the high metabolic rate required for flight, birds have a high oxygen demand. Their highly effective respiratory system ... Nagy, N; Magyar, A (March 1, 2001). "Development of the follicle-associated epithelium and the secretory dendritic cell in the ... Due to the faster heart rate, the muscles surrounding the ventricles of the chicken heart are thicker. Both hearts are labeled ... along with circulatory and respiratory systems capable of very high metabolic rates and oxygen supply, permit the bird to fly. ...
secretory granule membrane. • recycling endosome membrane. Biological process. • antigen processing and presentation. • antigen ... "Effect of a single amino acid change in MHC class I molecules on the rate of progression to AIDS". The New England Journal of ...
Tomasi TB (1992). "The discovery of secretory IgA and the mucosal immune system". Immunol. Today. 13 (10): 416-418. doi:10.1016 ... In these rapidly dividing cells, the genes encoding the variable domains of the heavy and light chains undergo a high rate of ... Thomas Tomasi discovered secretory antibody (IgA);[104] David S. Rowe and John L. Fahey discovered IgD;[105] and Kimishige ...
... has a high plasma protein binding rate (95%),[25] indicating that little amount of drug is transferred to the milk ... It suppresses stomach acid secretion by specific inhibition of the H+/K+-ATPase system found at the secretory surface of ... When omeprazole is stopped, baseline stomach acid secretory activity returns after 3 to 5 days. The inhibitory effect of ...
Amylin, also known as islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP).[17] The function of amylin is to slow the rate of glucose entering the ... these secretory vesicles hold insulin, C-peptide, and amylin until calcium triggers exocytosis of the granule contents.[3] ...
At more than 1 mg/day, DES is associated with high rates of side effects including nausea, vomiting, abdominal discomfort, ... Seyler LE, Canalis E, Spare S, Reichlin S (July 1978). "Abnormal gonadotropin secretory responses to LRH in transsexual women ... In men treated with it for prostate cancer, DES has been found to produce high rates of gynecomastia (breast development) of 41 ... A lower dosage of 1 mg/day DES has been associated with a rate of death due to cardiovascular events of 14.8% (relative to 8.3 ...
secretory granule. • extracellular space. Biological process. • response to amphetamine. • regulation of digestive system ... regulation of heart rate. • response to sucrose. • positive regulation of ossification. • positive regulation of synapse ... In a study where such a relationship was examined, it was found that when individuals were administered oxytocin, rates of ...
One of the primary functions of FXR activation is the suppression of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate- ... "Farnesoid X receptor agonists attenuate colonic epithelial secretory function and prevent experimental diarrhoea in vivo". Gut ...
This could be due to the fact that norethisterone induces endometrial proliferation during secretory phase, which has been ... are converted at rates of 0.7% and 1.0% and produce levels of EE that correspond to those produced by 30 and 60 μg dosages of ... it has been found at high dosages to be associated with high rates of estrogenic side effects such as breast enlargement in ...
A gastric emptying scan is considered the gold standard to assess gastric emptying rate.[28] ... which regulate both the secretory activity of the stomach and the motor (motion) activity of its muscles. ...
... and abnormal heart rate response to tilt table tests suggesting a role of the autonomic nervous system in CFS. However, these ... "Unstimulated cortisol secretory activity in everyday life and its relationship with fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome" ... "the median full recovery rate was 5% (range 0-31%) and the median proportion of patients who improved during follow-up was 39.5 ...
In the United States military veterans have a 25-50% higher rate of lung cancer primarily due to higher rates of smoking.[157] ... In the middle airways, implicated stem cells include club cells and neuroepithelial cells that express club cell secretory ... In contrast to the mortality rate in men, which began declining more than 20 years ago, women's lung cancer mortality rates ... The highest rates are in North America, Europe and East Asia, with over a third of new cases in 2012 in China. Rates in Africa ...
Secretory phospholipase A,sub,2,/sub, group IIA (PLA2G2A) is a phospholipase which has a role in inflammation, atherogenesis, ... Secretory phospholipase A 2 group IIA enhances the metabolic rate and increases glucose utilization in response to thyroid ... Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA enhances the metabolic rate and increases glucose utilization in response to thyroid ... Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (PLA2G2A) is a phospholipase which has a role in inflammation, atherogenesis, and host ...
The Calcium Sensitivity of Individual Secretory Vesicles Is Invariant with the Rate of Calcium Delivery. Paul S. Blank, Steven ... In summary, we have determined that the calcium sensitivity of individual secretory vesicles is invariant with the rate of ... The calcium sensitivity of individual secretory vesicles was invariant to calcium delivery rates from faster than micromolar ... The Calcium Sensitivity of Individual Secretory Vesicles Is Invariant with the Rate of Calcium Delivery ...
Concentrations of parotid IgA and other secretory proteins in relation to the rate of flow and duration of secretory stimulus ... Studies on human secretory IgA. II. Comparative studies on a fragment of secretory component derived from secretory IgA and ... Video rate bioluminescence imaging of secretory proteins in living cells: localization, secretory frequency, and quantification ... I. Secretory conglutinin-like factor, secretory bacterial aggregating factors and secretory IgA antibody in human saliva and ...
This chapter will explore the latter phase of the menstrual cycle focusing on the secretory phase of the endometrium. In ... We will also review pathologic states, such as endometriosis and related progesterone resistance, which affect mid-secretory ... Systemic treatment with heparin, aspirin or corticosteroids did not result in improved implantation rates. ... particular, focus will be on the mid-secretory endometrium and appropriate markers and hormonal environment for successful ...
Insulin secretory rates.. The C-peptide kinetic parameters were used to calculate prehepatic insulin secretory rates (ISRs) for ... and a GNG rate of 8-9 μmol · kg-1 · min-1 may have been the maximal rate that could be achieved under these conditions. This ... Rates of GNG and GL.. GNG was determined with the 2H2O method of Landau and colleagues (10,11) using the C5-to-2H2O ratio. ... To this end, we have examined effects of changes in plasma FFA levels on rates of GNG, GL, and EGP under three conditions: 1) ...
The highest rate of secretion achieved over the 40 min period was deemed the maximal secretory rate. Mass and maximal secretory ... maximal secretory rates, and tissue metabolic rate in C. porosus salt glands following prolonged acclimation to both fresh and ... which enabled a significantly elevated rate of Na+ secretion. Maximal mean lingual gland secretory rates were more than three ... the salt glands of crocodiles exposed to hypersaline conditions have a greater secretory rate and higher tissue metabolic rate ...
Insulin secretory rates.. The C-peptide kinetic parameters were used to calculate prehepatic insulin secretory rates (ISRs) for ... and a GNG rate of 8-9 μmol · kg-1 · min-1 may have been the maximal rate that could be achieved under these conditions. This ... Rates of GNG and GL.. GNG was determined with the 2H2O method of Landau and colleagues (10,11) using the C5-to-2H2O ratio. ... To this end, we have examined effects of changes in plasma FFA levels on rates of GNG, GL, and EGP under three conditions: 1) ...
... saliva flow rate and plasma cortisol concentrations have been shown to be influenced by exercise, particularly the intensity ... Salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), saliva flow rate and plasma cortisol concentrations have been shown to be ... Saliva flow rate hence affects sIgA concentration without affecting sIgA secretion rate, which is in line with existing ... 1998; Proctor and Carpenter 2007). Second, increases in saliva flow rate were found over time, but sIgA secretion rate remained ...
NES, normalized enrichment score; FDR, false discovery rate. (f) Paracrine senescence is dependent on the p53/p21CIP1a and p16 ... A complex secretory program orchestrated by the inflammasome controls paracrine senescence.. Acosta JC1, Banito A, Wuestefeld T ... Senescent cells implement a complex pro-inflammatory response termed the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). The ... false discovery rate; NES, normalized enrichment score. (e) qRT-PCR analysis showing the expression of a set of genes involved ...
Differential rates of release of newly synthesized and of stored insulin from pancreatic islets. Endocrinology 110, 1183-1188 ( ... Sequential in vivo labeling of insulin secretory granule pools in INS-SNAP transgenic pigs. View ORCID ProfileElisabeth Kemter ... A 4D view on insulin secretory granule turnover in the β-cell. Diabetes Obes. Metab. 19 (suppl. 1), 107-114 (2017).. ... Inset) Glucose elimination rate. (B) AUC glucose. (C) Plasma insulin levels. (D) AUC insulin. (E) Quotient of AUC insulin and ...
Rate of protein synthesis in X2180 (○) and HMSF 1 (●). Cells were grown in minimal medium at 24°C and shifted to 37°C at time ... Isolation of Secretory (sec) Mutants.. X2180-1A cells were grown in YPD medium and treated with 3% ethyl methanesulfonate for ... The function of the sec 1 gene product and the stage in the secretory process that is blocked in the sec 1 mutant are unknown. ... In contrast to cell growth, the rate of protein synthesis in HMSF 1 only slightly decreased in 3 hr at 37°C (Fig. 4), while the ...
Determination of PRL Secretory Rates. The secretory rates of PRL were derived from plasma concentrations using deconvolution ... PRL secretory rates were derived from plasma concentrations by deconvolution. Diurnal (24-h) variations were quantified by a ... The analysis of parameters quantifying the 24-h profiles of plasma PRL and PRL secretory rates in MZ and DZ twins permitted ... Deconvolution of plasma concentrations allowed us to estimate PRL secretory rates, and the following parameters characterizing ...
Accordingly, the formula of the secretory component of Ccr (SFcr: [Ccr − Cin]/Ccr) is considered to be a ratio of tubular ... Estimating glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine and cystatin C. N Engl J Med 2012;367:20-29pmid:22762315. ... Relationship Between the Secretory Component of Ccr and Glycemic Control Indices. We next evaluated the mechanism of ... To quantify the secretory component of Ccr (SFcr), SFcr was calculated as follows (25): ...
Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA enhances the metabolic rate and increases glucose utilization in response to thyroid ...
Direct Measurement of Insulin Secretory Rate: Studies in Shocked Primates and Postoperative Patients. HIEBERT, JOHN M.; ...
In healthy volunteers a strong correlation (r2 = 0.79) between flow rates f... ... Secretory Rate/drug effects/*physiology. *Sjogrens Syndrome/physiopathology. *Time Factors. Get free article suggestions today ... Thus, notwithstanding the good agreement between left and right flow rates, a high variation in parotid flow rates has to be ... Variability of flow rate when collecting stimulated human parotid saliva. *Burlage F ...
rating: 8.78 from 23 votes , updated on: 29 Oct 2006 , views: 12281 , ... Regulation of secretory vesicle swelling: Involvement in expulsion of vesicular contents. *A new understanding of cell ... Although secretory vesicle swelling is involved in membrane fusion [37], our recent studies demonstrate that its primary role ... Regulation of secretory vesicle swelling: Involvement in expulsion of vesicular contents - Discovery of the Porosome: revealing ...
The use of larger doses of E2 and P induced more marked secretory changes and more frequent withdrawal bleeding than the lower ... Consistent reduction of mitosis rates in glandular epithelium was found after 9 or more days of P administration in each cycle. ... To determine the relative influences of induction of withdrawal bleedings secretory transformation, and reduction of mitosis in ... Endometrial histology including progestational maturation patterns and glandular epithelial mitosis rates. Macroscopic ...
Secretory breast carcinoma (SBC) is a very rare subtype of breast carcinoma that reported mostly in young women, with a median ... The local recurrence rate is 33% with breast conservation surgery. Local recurrence may occur after 20 years. Therefore long- ... Secretory breast carcinoma (SBC) is a very rare subtype of breast carcinoma that reported mostly in young women, with a median ... Sung, H.M., Ko, E.Y., Han, B.-K., Jung, H.S., Kim, S.J. and Cho, E.Y. (2008) Secretory Carcinoma of the Breast Sonographic ...
Linear gradients of 5-35% solvent B over a 10-min period at a flow rate of 400 µl/min, followed by a gradient from 35% to 80% ... Schistosoma mansoni Biomphalaria glabrata Miracidia Excretory-secretory proteins Proteomics PPI Abbreviations. ESP. excretory- ... excretory-secretory proteome of larval Schistosoma mansoni and Echinostoma caproni, two parasites of Biomphalaria glabrata. Mol ... Benjamini Y, Hochberg Y. Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. J R Stat ...
More complex, nonlinear rate laws (for example, Michaelis-Menten) involving a changing rate constant (or rate coefficient) as ... Rather, at all times, VSVG-GFP moved between compartments at a rate equal to a rate constant (KER, KG, and KPM) multiplied by ... In this model VSVG-GFP is transported out of each compartment into the succeeding one at a rate equal to a rate constant (i.e ... There are three independent rate constants: KER is the effective overall rate constant for a two-compartment ER which was used ...
Permeability, transport properties, or electrical state of the plasma membrane; metabolism; secretory activity; rate of ...
It has been observed to correlate (with positive direction) to resting energy expenditure, resting heart rate and thyroid ... Thyroids secretory capacity (GT, also referred to as thyroids incretory capacity, maximum thyroid hormone output, T4 output ... Specific secretory capacity (SPINA-GTs) is reduced in obesity and autoimmune thyroiditis. Endocrine disruptors may affect ... Accordingly, substitution therapy with 25-hydroxyvitamin D leads to rising secretory capacity. This effect is potentiated by ...
Secretory activity of the adrenal cortex: Cortisol secretory rate can be determined isotopically. Normal value is 250- 840 ... ACTH is infused intravenously for 8 hours at the rate of 5 U/hour and plasma levels of cortisol are estimated prior to and ...
Drooling of saliva in children with cerebral palsy - etiology, prevalence, and relationship to salivary flow rate in an Indian ... Secretory functions of the alimentary tract. In Hall JE, ed. Guyton & Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology, 12th ed. ... Nederfors T, Nauntofte B, Twetman S. Effects of furosemide and bendroflumethiazide on saliva flow rate and composition. Arch ... Salivary Secretory Disorders, Inducing Drugs, and Clinical Management Jaume Miranda-Rius1 , Lluís Brunet-Llobet2, Eduard Lahor- ...
Secretory Rate / drug effects. Chemical. Reg. No./Substance: 0/Guanidines; 0/Lipids; 51481-61-9/Cimetidine; 7727-37-9/Nitrogen ...
Secretory Rate / drug effects. Chemical. Reg. No./Substance: 0/Catecholamines; 0/Receptors, Dopamine; 38339-02-5/dopamine 4-O- ...
1993) GABA-activated chloride channels in secretory nerve endings. Science 259:531-534. ... and the associated firing rate is higher. However, given the slope of the firing rate relation on voltage, the predicted rate ... namely the dependence of firing rate on pipette potential and the increase of firing rate with time in cell-attached mode, were ... and we study how experimental conditions influence the measured firing rate. We find that this rate depends on time in cell- ...
Direct measurement of insulin secretory rate: studies in shocked primates and postoperative patients. Ann. Surg:176:296-304, ... Direct measurement of insulin secretory rate: studies in shocked primates and postoperative patients. Ann. Surg:176:296-304, ... Heart rate and glucose levels were analyzed in the last 30 seconds of propranolol administration. (Heart rate was measured ... was administered at a rate of 0.1 ml/min for 5 minutes. Heart rate and glucose levels were analyzed in the last 30 seconds of ...
  • Differences in the calcium sensitivity of individual secretory vesicles can explain a defining feature of calcium-regulated exocytosis, a graded response to calcium. (
  • The role of the time dependence of calcium delivery in defining the observed differences in the calcium sensitivity of sea urchin egg secretory vesicles in vitro was examined. (
  • The calcium sensitivity of individual secretory vesicles (i.e., the distribution of calcium thresholds) is invariant over a range of calcium delivery rates from faster than micromolar per millisecond to slower than micromolar per second. (
  • Submaximal responses to calcium cannot be attributed to alterations in the calcium sensitivity of individual secretory vesicles arising from the temporal properties of the calcium delivery. (
  • No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that the calcium sensitivity of individual secretory vesicles is dependent upon the rate of calcium delivery. (
  • These include heterogeneity in the calcium sensitivity of individual vesicles, calcium-dependent inactivation, and rate-dependent inactivation through a calcium-dependent intermediate ( Knight and Baker, 1982 ). (
  • Isolated zymogen granules (ZGs), the membrane-bound secretory vesicles in exocrine pancreas and parotid glands, possess Cland ATP-sensitive, K + -selective ion channels at the vesicle membrane whose activities have been implicated in vesicle swelling [31]. (
  • It is not clear, for example, exactly how cargo-enriched transport intermediates bud off from donor membranes (i.e., as vesicles or tubules), how they translocate through the cytoplasm (i.e., by diffusion or along microtubules), how long cargo resides in a particular compartment, and the rate of cargo influx and efflux out of a given compartment. (
  • For example, in pancreatic secretory cells and islet cells, secreted enzymes and hormones are packaged into regulated secretory vesicles known as secretory granules ( Burgess and Kelly, 1987 ). (
  • Emerging role of extracellular vesicles as a senescence-associated secretory phenotype: Insights. (
  • In a review based mainly on observations of plant cells, Morré and Mollenhauer ( 1974 ) posited the endomembrane system as the functional integration of the ER, Golgi complex, secretory vesicles, plasma membrane, and hydrolytic compartments (vacuoles in plants and lysosomes in animals). (
  • The pollen tube grows by accumulating secretory vesicles in the tip domain. (
  • The cells contained numerous mucus-like secretory vesicles under their apical cell membrane. (
  • These results are consistent with a vesicle intermediate in the yeast secretory pathway and suggest that exocytosis may contribute to cell-surface growth. (
  • The analysis of a strain with a conditional, reversible block in the secretory pathway has allowed the identification of a vesicular intermediate in secretion and cell-surface growth. (
  • Quantitative time-lapse imaging data of single cells expressing the transmembrane protein, vesicular stomatitis virus ts045 G protein fused to green fluorescent protein (VSVG-GFP), were used for kinetic modeling of protein traffic through the various compartments of the secretory pathway. (
  • The trans -Golgi is a major branch point in the secretory pathway, where proteins directed to the cell surface are segregated from proteins that are destined for the lysosome. (
  • In the mid to late 1960s, the discovery that eukaryotic secreted proteins are first segregated in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) before traveling within membranous structures to reach the cell surface placed the ER at the start point of a newly recognized metabolic pathway now known as the secretory pathway ( Palade, 1975 ). (
  • In the secretory pathway, proteins travel from the ER through the Golgi apparatus to arrive at the cell surface or at vacuoles. (
  • Protein trafficking in the secretory pathway can occur both via vesicle budding with subsequent fusion and via passage along connecting tubules. (
  • However, the mechanisms of traffic along the secretory pathway involve only a single translocation event across the ER membrane, after which proteins do not have to cross any further membrane to reach other stations along the pathway. (
  • As the first compartment in the secretory pathway, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is responsible for protein synthesis, posttranslational processing, folding of newly synthesized proteins, and finally delivering the biologically active proteins to their proper target sites. (
  • The rate-limiting step in the secretory pathway is the transit to Golgi complex. (
  • Catecholamine secretion is influenced by genetic variation in the adrenergic pathway encoding catecholamine synthesis, especially at the classically rate-limiting step, TH . (
  • Secretory proteins are first inserted cotranslationally into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and then transported through the secretory pathway to the cell surface or to inner hydrolytic compartments in a traffic process that is mediated mostly by the Golgi complex. (
  • The cycle of removal and addition of Glc, therefore, is part of the quality control mechanism that operates in the ER to ensure that only structurally correct proteins proceed along the secretory pathway: newly synthesized glycoproteins are retained in the ER by interactions with the lectins and, during the cycles of binding and release, have the opportunity to fold properly. (
  • 0.05), there was no effect of time for sIgA secretion rate ( P = 0.16). (
  • Saliva flow rate and the secretion of various salivary compounds are under the control of the autonomic nervous system (Chicharro et al. (
  • 2003 ) induce changes in saliva flow and the secretion of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). (
  • 2002 ), can reduce saliva flow rate and sIgA secretion. (
  • In contrast, environmental effects were dominant for mean concentrations during sleep, total secretory output during sleep, overall 24-h concentrations, and total 24-h secretion. (
  • Secretory vesicle swelling is critical for secretion [34-37], however, the underlying mechanism of vesicle swelling was largely unknown until recently [31-33]. (
  • In mast cells, an increase in secretory vesicle volume after stimulation of secretion has previously been suggested from electrophysiological measurements [38]. (
  • Although secretory vesicle swelling is involved in membrane fusion [37], our recent studies demonstrate that its primary role is in the expulsion of vesicular contents during secretion (unpublished observation). (
  • Secretion of the isotonic plasma-like primary saliva fluid takes place in the secretory endpieces, also called acinar cells. (
  • The differing metabolic profiles of retained solutes eliminated by secretion versus glomerular filtration suggest that secretory clearance could uniquely inform uremic toxicity, refine existing measures of residual kidney function, and improve prediction of cardiovascular and kidney disease outcomes. (
  • The concept of kidney tubular secretion in humans was first appreciated during the mid-19th century by William Bowman, who speculated that nephrons might secrete "specific constituents of urine" just like other secretory organs, such as the salivary glands and pancreas. (
  • In 1874, Bowman and Heidenhain proposed that the kidneys are primarily secretory glands, with the tubules responsible for secretion ( 3 ). (
  • This was the first study to show efficient elimination of endogenous organic acids by the kidney via tubular secretion, and it established PAH as the prototype compound for assessing secretory function and renal plasma flow ( 2 , 5 ). (
  • Other hormone secretion occurs in response to local conditions, such as the rate of secretion of parathyroid hormone by the parathyroid cells in response to fluctuations of ionized calcium levels in extracellular fluid. (
  • they also affect bystander cells through the secretion of bioactive molecules, termed the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). (
  • Furthermore, the rate of acid secretion is modulated by NH 3 availability to mediate peritubular base exit ( 54 ). (
  • Melvin, J.E. 1998-05-15 00:00:00 Fluid and electrolyte secretion from secretory epithelia is a highly regulated process. (
  • Chloride channel activity at the apical membrane determines the rate and direction of salt and water secretion. (
  • Secretory agonists that induce intracellular increases in two second messenger systems, cAMP and [Ca2+] i , are generally associated with secretion. (
  • Fluid and electrolyte secretion from secretory epithelia is a highly regulated process. (
  • The aim of the study was to understand how varying expression rates influenced the secretion dynamics of the fusion protein in terms of intracellular- and extracellular concentrations. (
  • This clearly demonstrates the importance of tuning the synthesis rate with secretory bottle-necks to maintain secretion. (
  • The F1 resistant and susceptible B. glabrata SCW excretory-secretory proteins (ESPs) were fractionated using SDS-PAGE, identified with LC-MS/MS and compared to naïve snail ESPs. (
  • The effectiveness of the nutrition support regimens will be determined by: whole body protein balance, synthesis rates of hepatic secretory proteins, resting energy expenditure and substrate utilization, as well as circulating metabolites concentrations. (
  • They are stable secretory proteins expressed in gastrointestinal mucosa. (
  • Secretory proteins usually enter the ER cotranslationally. (
  • Addition of the oligosaccharide glycan Glc 3 Man 9 GlcNAc 2 to Asn residues (N-glycosylation) is a common cotranslation modification of secretory proteins (reviewed in Helenius and Aebi, 2001 ). (
  • Senescent cells implement a complex pro-inflammatory response termed the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). (
  • The probability for insulin secretory granules to undergo fusion with the plasma membrane or being degraded is correlated with their age. (
  • A series of first order rate laws was sufficient to accurately describe VSVG-GFP transport, and provided compartment residence times and rate constants for transport into and out of the Golgi complex and delivery to the plasma membrane. (
  • For ER to Golgi transport the mean rate constant (i.e., the fraction of VSVG-GFP moved per unit of time) was 2.8% per min, for Golgi to plasma membrane transport it was 3.0% per min, and for transport from the plasma membrane to a degradative site it was 0.25% per min. (
  • T he secretory membrane system synthesizes and secretes highly processed and complex molecules, allowing eukaryotic cells to modify their outer surfaces and surroundings and to control growth and homeostasis. (
  • demonstrated a net secretory flux of sparfloxacin and showed that sparfloxacin transport from the apical to the basolateral membrane increased in the presence of verapamil, a P-glycoprotein modulator. (
  • In most endocrine cells, the hormones are contained in secretory granules that, in response to a series of cellular mechanisms culminating with an increase in the intracellular Ca 2+ levels, fuse with the cell membrane and release the hormone molecules. (
  • Novel model features include: finite rates of hydration of CO 2 , a kinetic representation of the H-K-ATPase within the luminal cell membrane, cellular osmolytes that are regulated in defense of cell volume, and the repeated coalescing of IMCD tubule segments to yield the ducts of Bellini. (
  • These include the finite rate of hydration of CO 2 within the cell and extracellular compartments, the luminal membrane H-K-ATPase, the large variation in peritubular solute composition over the length of the duct, and the progressive coalescing of the tubules to become the papillary collecting ducts. (
  • Lobes consist of a number of short, blind-ending secretory tubules which join together to form multiple interlobular ducts. (
  • Numerous arterioles and venules punctuate the connective tissue around and between gland lobes, and a dense network of capillaries can be found in the connective tissues both surrounding and between the secretory tubules ( Franklin and Grigg, 1993 ). (
  • Each sweat gland receives several nerve fibers that branch out into bands of one or more axons and encircle the individual tubules of the secretory coil. (
  • Some of the tubules contain luminal secretory material. (
  • We show that the conserved Teashirt transcription factors are decisive for the differentiation of a subset of secretory cells, stellate cells, in Drosophila melanogaster renal tubules. (
  • In vivo studies in the rat have indicated that IMCD Na + transport rates can be comparable to those of the proximal convoluted tubule ( 2 , 7 , 52 ), although rates in dissected tubules may be substantially lower than those in vivo ( 34 ). (
  • Abou-El-Doubal SKA, Hassan SE, Toaleb NI, Hegazi AG, Abdel-Rahman EH (2015) Induction of Protective Cellular and Humoral Responses against Fasciolosis in Rabbits using Immunoaffinity Fraction of Fasciola gigantica Excretory Secretory Products. (
  • In an attempt to develop vaccine against fasciolosis in rabbits, an immunoaffinity fraction of F. gigantica excretory secretory products was isolated. (
  • Collectively, the current results suggest promising immunoprophylactic potentials of the immunoaffinity fraction of Fasciola gigantica excretory secretory products against fasciolosis in rabbits through induction of both cellular and humoral responses. (
  • From this immunologically privileged place, the parasite orchestrates a long-lasting molecular cross talk with the host through muscle larvae excretory-secretory products (ES L1). (
  • We present here a transgenic pig model that allows the in vivo fluorescent labeling of age-distinct insulin secretory granule pools, hence providing a close-to-life readout of insulin turnover. (
  • To overcome this translational gap and study insulin secretory granule turnover in vivo, we have generated a transgenic pig model with the SNAP-tag fused to insulin. (
  • This model may provide unprecedented insights into the in vivo insulin secretory granule behavior in an animal close to humans. (
  • Each β cell contains several thousand insulin secretory granules (SGs) ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • Using a standard meal test, insulin secretory rate was calculated by C-peptide deconvolution. (
  • Using data from the oral GTT, insulin secretory capacity (Seltzer and associates 1967) was calculated. (
  • Hormones and neurotransmitters are released from cells by calcium-regulated exocytosis, and local coupling between Ca 2+ channels (CaVs) and secretory granules is a key factor determining the exocytosis rate. (
  • We investigate how the exocytosis rate is affected by varying the location of granules and CaVs. (
  • Therefore, we will implement mathematical modelling for characterizing the local interactions between granules and CaVs and, specifically, Markov chain models that could provide important insight into the exocytosis rate. (
  • However, direct evidence of secretory vesicle swelling in live cells was first demonstrated in pancreatic acinar cells using the AFM ( Fig. 19 ) [39]. (
  • To further understand the molecular mechanism of secretory vesicle swelling, the regulation of AQP1 in the ZG was investigated [33]. (
  • To study the effect of recolonisation with α streptococci with the ability to inhibit the growth of otopathogens ("interfering" activity) on the recurrence of acute otitis media in susceptible children and the effect on the frequency of secretory otitis media. (
  • This difference was shown separately for recurrences of both acute otitis media and secretory otitis media. (
  • Selected bacteria with the ability to inhibit the growth of common otopathogens can be used to protect against recurrent acute otitis media and secretory otitis media in children. (
  • Secretory otitis media is the most common sequela of acute otitis media. (
  • One or more of S pneumoniae, H influenzae , or M catarrhalis are found in about 30% of patients with secretory otitis media. (
  • 4 , 5 Lower numbers of α streptococci have been found in the nasopharynx of children who are prone to otitis media compared with those who are not prone and in those with secretory otitis media compared with healthy children. (
  • A complex secretory program orchestrated by the inflammasome controls paracrine senescence. (
  • This old idea of an evolutionary relationship between neurons and secretory cells is based upon the many details of the complex secretory system of secretory cells that are shared with neurons and that reside in the molecular secretory system. (
  • Salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), saliva flow rate and plasma cortisol concentrations have been shown to be influenced by exercise, particularly the intensity exercise is performed at, and circadian variation. (
  • These results show a relationship between cortisol and saliva flow rate, which directly impacts on the concentration of salivary analytes. (
  • Thus, notwithstanding the good agreement between left and right flow rates, a high variation in parotid flow rates has to be considered when planning clinical trials evaluating the effects of treatment on salivary gland functioning. (
  • Salivary secretory disorders can be the result of a wide range of factors. (
  • To review the salivary secretory disorders, inducing drugs and their clinical management. (
  • Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA, also referred to as salivary IgA ) is the major immunoglobulin secreted by the mucosal system 1 and is found in saliva, intestinal fluids, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and other mucosal fluids. (
  • The PICM-31D cells were propagated for over a year at split ratios of 1:3 to 1:10 at each passage without change in phenotype or growth rate. (
  • Recently, we isolated a human RAGE splice variant, which can work as a decoy receptor for RAGE ligands, and named it esRAGE (endogenous secretory RAGE). (
  • Major barriers to estimating tubular solute clearance include uncertainty regarding optimal endogenous secretory markers and a lack of standardized laboratory assays. (
  • Answers to these questions are fundamental to understanding how the molecular machinery for secretory protein traffic functions in living cells. (
  • A transfection experiment revealed that the mRNA was actually translated as deduced to yield the secretory protein working as a decoy in AGE-induced NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) activation. (
  • Smith ( 2 ) subsequently measured tubular secretory clearance in humans by administering p -aminohippurate (PAH), a partially protein-bound organic acid that resembles many uremic toxins. (
  • Three predefined methanol feeding models were applied to control the fusion protein synthesis rate. (
  • The high degree of glycosylation of the insoluble fusion protein indicated a secretory bottle-neck in the Golgi-system. (
  • Reduction of recombinant protein synthesis rate, by using lower feed rates of methanol, enhanced extracellular concentrations from 8 to 18 mg·L-1 and reduced the rate of intracellular accumulation. (
  • The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of BM 208 ( N -[4-(5-chloro-2-methoxybenzamidoethyl)benzenesulfonyl]- N ′-cyano- N "-cyclohexylguanidine) and BM 225 (1-[4-(5-chloro-2-methoxybenzamidoethyl)benzene sulfonamido]-1-cyclohexylamino-2-nitroethylene), two newly synthesized isosteres of glibenclamide, on ionic and secretory events in rat pancreatic islet cells. (
  • The aim of the present study was to further document the effects of BM 208 and BM 225 on the secretory activity of rat pancreatic B cells. (
  • The rate of calcium delivery was varied using either perfusion or UV photolysis of DM-nitrophen ( Kaplan and Ellis-Davies, 1988 ). (
  • The most commonly used methods to measure the neuronal firing rate of single neurons are extracellular recording and cell-attached patch-clamp recording. (
  • During the latter part of pregnancy, the woman's breasts enter into the Secretory Differentiation stage. (
  • teashirt interacts with cut , which encodes a transcription factor that underlies the differentiation of the primary, principal secretory cells, establishing a reciprocal negative-feedback loop that ensures the full differentiation of both cell types. (
  • Secretory phospholipase A 2 group IIA (PLA2G2A) is a phospholipase which has a role in inflammation, atherogenesis, and host defense. (
  • Cerebrospinal fluid secretory [Ca.sup.2+]-dependent phospholipase [A.sub.2] activity is increased in alzheimer disease. (
  • 2 The secretory group II phospholipase A 2 (sPLA 2 ) recently has been added to the group of acute-phase reactants, 3 and its plasma levels are greatly increased in diseases involving systemic inflammation, such as sepsis and rheumatoid arthritis. (
  • First, we analyze the property of the secretory complex obtained by coupling a single granule with one CaV. (
  • We find that increasing the number of CaVs coupled with the granule determines a much higher rise of the exocytosis rate that, in case of inactivating CaVs, is more pronounced when the granule is close to CaVs, while, surprisingly, in case of non-inactivating CaVs, the highest relative increase in rate is obtained when the granule is far from the CaVs. (
  • Therefore, the local Ca 2+ concentration at the Ca 2+ sensor of the exocytotic machinery is a key factor determining the probability rate of exocytosis of the secretory granule [ 6 ]. (
  • In particular, by using the Markov chain theory [ 10 ], we will achieve analytic results for the expected rate and show how coupling different numbers and types of CaVs with the granule determines different responses. (
  • Saggio G, Docimo S, Pilc J, Norton J, Gilliar W. Impact of Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment on Secretory Immunoglobulin A Levels in a Stressed Population. (
  • High levels of human secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) have been shown to decrease the incidence of acquiring upper respiratory tract infections. (
  • Suppress the exocrine secretory action of pancreas. (
  • Prevention of endometrial hyperplasia by progesterone during long-term estradiol replacement: influence of bleeding pattern and secretory changes. (
  • To determine the relative influences of induction of withdrawal bleedings secretory transformation, and reduction of mitosis in glands on prevention of endometrial hyperplasia during long-term hormonal replacement therapy. (
  • Endometrial histology including progestational maturation patterns and glandular epithelial mitosis rates. (
  • Control of endometrial growth is mainly related to control of mitosis in glands by a relatively low doses of P. Induction of withdrawal bleeding and endometrial secretory transformation, which require larger doses of Progesterone, do not provide additional benefit for prevention of hyperplasia. (
  • The proportion of subjects at Cycle 3 Day 24 ± 1 day on active treatment compared to placebo with complete secretory activity on endometrial biopsy. (
  • In healthy volunteers a strong correlation (r2 = 0.79) between flow rates from the left and right parotid gland was observed. (
  • Surprisingly, parotid flow rate was increased with desipramine in all ages. (
  • PRL secretory rates were derived from plasma concentrations by deconvolution. (
  • Under this set of conditions, the biliary excretion clearance ( CL bile ), defined as the biliary excretion rate at steady-state divided by the concentration in the liver ( C liver ), for normal rats was 3-fold higher than that for EHBRs. (
  • Thus, to increase the rate of excretion of K+ at a given urine K+ concentration, volume delivery to K+ secretory sites must be high and requires an increased delivery of osmoles [4] . (
  • The estimation of plasma and/or urinary steroids before and during ACTH administration reveals the responsiveness of the adrenal cortex to ACTH (ACTH is infused intravenously for 8 hours at the rate of 5 U/hour and plasma levels of cortisol are estimated prior to and during the infusion). (
  • Maximal secretory rates from the salt glands of SW-acclimated animals (100.8±14.7 μmol 100 g -0.7 body mass h -1 ) were almost three times greater than those of FW-acclimated animals (31.6±6.2 μmol 100 g -0.7 body mass h -1 ). (
  • Morphologically, the secretory cells from the salt glands of SW-acclimated animals were larger than those of FW-acclimated animals. (
  • Generally, sweat glands consist of a secretory unit consisting of a base rolled into a glomerulum , and a duct that carries the sweat away. (
  • In addition, there were significantly more mitochondria per unit volume in secretory tissue from SW-acclimated animals. (
  • Secretory activity of mitochondria. (
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells contain a small internal pool of the secretory enzymes invertase and acid phosphatase. (
  • Did Neurons Evolve from Secretory Cells? (
  • The idea that the neuron cell type was in some way derived from secretory cells has been around for a while (1970's at least). (
  • The new findings involve finding similarities in how nerve cells and particular secretory cells shared an embryonic cell precursor, thus in a way a common developmental source. (
  • Similarly, they argue, particular neurons and secretory cells share developmental precursors in coelenterates (jellyfish and hydra) and fruitflies. (
  • [15] [16] The secretory activities of the gland cells and the contractions of myoepithelial cells are controlled by both the autonomic nervous system and by the circulating hormones. (
  • Trefoil factors (TFF) are secretory products of mucin producing cells. (
  • In cells overexpressing N-ERC, phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was enhanced and the rate of cell death decreased, leading to the increase of cell number. (
  • The culture medium containing the secretory N-ERC also had the activity to increase the number of cells. (
  • This is mediated by cross reacting memory B and T cells, secretory IgA (August 10, not yet proven). (
  • Ion channels and transporters promote a vectorial ion transport in the secretory direction from the serosal (basolateral) to luminal (apical) side. (
  • However, some diabetic patients often need to undergo renal replacement therapies at a relatively higher glomerular filtration rate (GFR) level, even before meeting the criteria for dialysis ( 6 ). (
  • Here, we investigate the developmental genetic networks that establish secretory function in the Drosophila melanogaster renal tubule. (
  • The secretory PLA 2 s consist of the group I enzyme secreted by the pancreas and the group II enzymes secreted by many cell types in a number of tissues. (
  • Altogether, although methodological errors involved in the measurement of channel activity during cell-attached recordings have been evaluated recently in detail ( Williams and Wozny, 2011 ), a similar examination of errors involved in measurements of firing rates is still primarily lacking. (
  • The results are discussed with regard to the relationship between flow rate and secretory activity. (
  • The purpose of this study was to reveal the differences in secretory activity, which might be used for the differential diagnosis of these two lesions. (
  • Conclusions- We conclude that human catecholamine secretory traits are heritable, displaying joint genetic determination (pleiotropy) with autonomic activity and finally with blood pressure in the population. (
  • This abrupt withdrawal of progesterone in the presence of high prolactin levels stimulates the copious milk production of Secretory Activation. (
  • Secretory cargo molecules in this system are synthesized in the ER and transported to the Golgi complex for processing and maturation. (
  • Consistent reduction of mitosis rates in glandular epithelium was found after 9 or more days of P administration in each cycle. (
  • At each time point for each exercise trial, negative correlations between cortisol and saliva flow rate (explaining 25 ± 17% of the variance, R 2 = 0.002-0.46) and positive correlations between cortisol and sIgA concentration (explaining 8 ± 8% of the variance R 2 = 0.002-0.24) were found. (
  • There were no differences in the mass-specific metabolic rate of salt gland tissue slices from FW- and SW-acclimated animals (558.9±49.6 and 527.3±142.8 μl O 2 g -1 h -1 , respectively). (
  • Differences in secretory clearance relative to the GFR could help distinguish among the causes of CKD, particularly for disorders that primarily affect the tubulointerstitium. (
  • This study's aim was to evaluate the differences in the secretory properties of AAH and PACG 1, 2. (
  • It has been observed to correlate (with positive direction) to resting energy expenditure, resting heart rate and thyroid volume, and (with negative direction) to thyroid autoantibody titres, which reflect organ destruction due to autoimmunity. (
  • This requirement renders the area-specific transport rate for Na + comparable to that for proximal tubule. (
  • [13] The secretory coil or base, is set deep in the lower dermis and hypodermis , and the entire gland is surrounded by adipose tissue . (
  • We find that this rate depends on time in cell-attached mode, on pipette potential, and on pipette ionic composition. (
  • Here we perform cell-attached recording of molecular layer interneurons in cerebellar slices from rats and mice, and we study how experimental conditions influence the measured firing rate. (
  • a normal or non-clinically significant physical examination, including vital signs (sitting blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and temperature). (
  • The present study examines the mediation effect of heart rate variability-an affective measurement indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)-in the relationship between specific math anxiety and arithmetic speed. (
  • Polar distribution of respiratory rate in the onion root tip. (
  • To assess the gastric acid secretory rate at the final study visit. (
  • The status (controlled or not controlled) of gastric acid secretory rate at the Month 6 study visit. (
  • Lowers the rate of gastric emptying, and reduces smooth muscle contractions and blood flow within the intestine. (
  • In this review we discuss the regulation of the different types of Cl− channels found in secretory epithelia. (
  • Stimulation of the tissue slices from SW-acclimated animals by methacholine resulted in a 33% increase in oxygen consumption rate. (
  • We have developed a genetic approach to the study of the secretory process in yeast. (
  • The firing rate remains approximately constant during the first 4 min after sealing and gradually increases afterward. (
  • Cell-attached recording is extensively used to study the firing rate of mammalian neurons, but potential limitations of the method have not been investigated in detail. (
  • We conclude that, unless experimental conditions are optimized, cell-attached recordings in small neurons may report erroneous firing rates. (
  • Therefore, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is higher in the former than in the latter group. (
  • In this study, we investigated whether N-ERC could function as a secretory factor to stimulate tumor progression. (
  • Systemic treatment with heparin, aspirin or corticosteroids did not result in improved implantation rates. (
  • There is a functional coupling mechanism between salt and fluid secretory processes. (
  • Because these rate constants did not change as the concentration of VSVG-GFP in different compartments went from high (early in the experiment) to low (late in the experiment), secretory transport machinery was never saturated during the experiments. (
  • Ca 2+ imaging experiments show that establishing a cell-attached recording can result in an increased somatic Ca 2+ concentration, reflecting an increased firing rate linked to an increase in the pipette-cell conductance. (
  • Despite its central physiologic importance, tubular secretory clearance is rarely measured or even estimated in clinical or research settings. (