Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.Pancreatic Juice: The fluid containing digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to food in the duodenum.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Sea Urchins: Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.Secretory Vesicles: Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.Chromaffin Cells: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.C-Peptide: The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Alligators and Crocodiles: Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.Salt Gland: A compound tubular gland, located around the eyes and nasal passages in marine animals and birds, the physiology of which figures in water-electrolyte balance. The Pekin duck serves as a common research animal in salt gland studies. A rectal gland or rectal salt gland in the dogfish shark is attached at the junction of the intestine and cloaca and aids the kidneys in removing excess salts from the blood. (Storer, Usinger, Stebbins & Nybakken: General Zoology, 6th ed, p658)Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Osmosis: Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Genes, mos: Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (mos) originally isolated from the Moloney murine sarcoma virus (Mo-MSV). The proto-oncogene mos (c-mos) codes for a protein which is a member of the serine kinase family. There is no evidence as yet that human c-mos can become transformed or has a role in human cancer. However, in mice, activation can occur when the retrovirus-like intracisternal A-particle inserts itself near the c-mos sequence. The human c-mos gene is located at 8q22 on the long arm of chromosome 8.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Podophyllum: A genus of poisonous American herbs, family BERBERIDACEAE. The roots yield PODOPHYLLOTOXIN and other pharmacologically important agents. The plant was formerly used as a cholagogue and cathartic. It is different from the European mandrake, MANDRAGORA.Proteolipids: Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.Intrauterine Device Expulsion: Spontaneous loss of INTRAUTERINE DEVICES from the UTERUS.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Trichinellosis: An infection with TRICHINELLA. It is caused by eating raw or undercooked meat that is infected with larvae of nematode worms TRICHINELLA genus. All members of the TRICHINELLA genus can infect human in addition to TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS, the traditional etiological agent. It is distributed throughout much of the world and is re-emerging in some parts as a public health hazard and a food safety problem.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Lactobacillus brevis: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped LACTIC ACID bacteria that is frequently used as starter culture in SILAGE fermentation, sourdough, and lactic-acid-fermented types of beer and wine.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Twins, Dizygotic: Two offspring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from two OVA, fertilized at about the same time by two SPERMATOZOA. Such twins are genetically distinct and can be of different sexes.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Hyperprolactinemia: Increased levels of PROLACTIN in the BLOOD, which may be associated with AMENORRHEA and GALACTORRHEA. Relatively common etiologies include PROLACTINOMA, medication effect, KIDNEY FAILURE, granulomatous diseases of the PITUITARY GLAND, and disorders which interfere with the hypothalamic inhibition of prolactin release. Ectopic (non-pituitary) production of prolactin may also occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp77-8)Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Submandibular Gland: One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)Glue Proteins, Drosophila: Glycosylated proteins which are part of the salivary glue that Drosophila larvae secrete as a means of fixing themselves to an external substrate for the duration of the pre-pupal and pupal period.Parotid Gland: The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.Salivary Proteins and Peptides: Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.

Fluid secretion by the malpighian tubules of the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans: the effects of ouabain, ethacrynic acid and amiloride. (1/1163)

The effects of three inhibitors of sodium transport on the secretion of fluid by the Malpighian tubules of Glossina morsitans have been observed. The cardiac glycoside, ouabain, affects neither the rate of secretion nor the sodium concentration of the fluid secreted when isolated tubules are bathed by solutions containing a range of sodium and potassium concentrations. Secretion is inhibited, however, by ethacrynic acid and amiloride. The results confirm that fluid secretion by the Malpighian tubules of this insect is dependent on the active transport of sodium ions and show that Na+/k+ exchange pumps are not involved in this process.  (+info)

Activation of stimulus-specific serine esterases (proteases) in the initiation of platelet secretion. I. Demonstration with organophosphorus inhibitors. (2/1163)

The effect of organophosphorus inhibitors of serine esterases (proteases) on secretion from washed rabbit platelets was examined. Five noncytotoxic stimuli were employed: collagen, thrombin, heterologous anti-platelet antibody (in the absence of complement), rabbit C3 bound to zymosan, and platelet activating factor derived from antigen-stimulated, IgE-sensitized rabbit basophils. Diisoprophyl phosphofluoridate, three series of p-nitrophenyl ethyl phosphonates, and a series of cyclohexyl phenylalkylphosphonofluridates were all found to be inhibitory to the platelet secretion. These are irreversible inhibitors of serine proteases but in this system were only inhibitory if added to the platelets concurrently with the stimuli. Pretreatment of either the platelets or the stimuli with the inhibitors followed by washing, was without effect on the subsequent reaction. This suggested the involvement of stimulus-activatable serine proteases in the secretory process. The concept was supported by finding that nonphosphorylating phosphonates or hydrolyzed phosphonates or phosphonofluoridates were without inhibitory action. The effect of a series of phosphonates or phosphonoflouridates in inhibiting each stimulus exhibited a unique activity-structure profile. The demonstration of such unique profiles with four series of inhibitors for each of the five stimuli was interpreted as demonstrating that a specific activatable serine protease was involved in the platelet secretory response to each stimulus.  (+info)

Pancreatic beta-cell-to-beta-cell interactions are required for integrated responses to nutrient stimuli: enhanced Ca2+ and insulin secretory responses of MIN6 pseudoislets. (3/1163)

The effect of cell-to-cell contact on Ca2+ influx and secretory responses in the beta-cell line MIN6 was studied using MIN6 pseudoislets, which are three-dimensional islet-like cell aggregates that develop when MIN6 cells are cultured for 6-8 days on gelatin. The formation of pseudoislets is dependent on the Ca2+-dependent adhesion molecule E-cadherin (E-CAD), since the process can be inhibited by incubation in the absence of Ca2+ or in the presence of an anti-E-CAD antibody. Glucose and alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) evoked a Ca2+ influx in only a small fraction of the MIN6 monolayer cells, whereas >80% of cell groups within the pseudoislets responded to both nutrients. In contrast, changes in the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were observed in all or most monolayer cells or pseudoislet cell groups in response to physical or pharmacological depolarizing stimuli. No significant increase in insulin release was observed from MIN6 monolayer cells in response to nutrient or nonnutrient insulin secretagogues. Conversely, pseudoislets were found to respond significantly to both nutrients and nonnutrients. These results suggest that close cell-to-cell contact improves the functional responsiveness of MIN6 cells and that pseudoislets may therefore serve as a useful research model in the study of beta-cell function.  (+info)

Exposure of human islets to cytokines can result in disproportionately elevated proinsulin release. (4/1163)

Infiltration of immunocytes into pancreatic islets precedes loss of beta cells in type 1 diabetes. It is conceivable that local release of cytokines affects the function of beta cells before their apoptosis. This study examines whether the elevated proinsulin levels that have been described in prediabetes can result from exposure of beta cells to cytokines. Human beta-cell preparations were cultured for 48 or 72 hours with or without IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, or IFN-gamma, alone or in combination. None of these conditions were cytotoxic, nor did they reduce insulin biosynthetic activity. Single cytokines did not alter medium or cellular content in insulin or proinsulin. Cytokine combinations, in particular IL-1beta plus IFN-gamma, disproportionately elevated medium proinsulin levels. This effect expresses an altered functional state of the beta cells characterized by preserved proinsulin synthesis, a slower hormone conversion, and an increased ratio of cellular proinsulin over insulin content. The delay in proinsulin conversion can be attributed to lower expression of PC1 and PC2 convertases. It is concluded that disproportionately elevated proinsulin levels in pre-type 1 diabetic patients might result from exposure of their beta cells to cytokines released from infiltrating immunocytes. This hormonal alteration expresses an altered functional state of the beta cells that can occur independently of beta-cell death.  (+info)

Secretory responses to sympathetic stimulation of the cat's salivary glands in a state of resting secretion. (5/1163)

The secretory effect of sympathetic stimulation on the cat's submaxillary gland was augmented greatly when studied against a background of slow secretion evoked by parasympathetic stimulation at a low frequency and imitating the slow resting secretion normally present in the waking state. The sympathetic secretory threshold was markedly lowered, and even at low frequencies sympathetic stimulation caused a large, well-maintained response. After an alpha-adrenoceptor blocking drug sympathetic stimulation alone lost its secretory effect, but during resting secretion part of the accelerating effect was found to remain; this effect was elicited via beta-adrenoceptors. A marked secretory effect of sympathetic stimulation was also obtained during resting secretion in the parotid gland, where the sympathetic secretory effect is normally very small.  (+info)

Sexual differentiation of oestradiol-LH positive feedback in a marsupial. (6/1163)

The surge of LH that induces ovulation in mammals showing spontaneous ovulation is precipitated by the positive feedback of increasing oestrogens from the developing follicles in the ovary. In eutherians, exogenous oestrogens can mimic this effect by eliciting an LH surge in females, but not usually in males. The absence of a positive LH response to eutherian males is either due to an acute suppression by the secretory products of the testes during adulthood or the permanent disabling of the system by testosterone during early development. This phenomenon is examined in tammar wallabies, Macropus eugenii. The results show that the oestradiol-LH positive feedback response is sexually dimorphic in this marsupial. A surge in plasma LH occurred between 15 and 28 h after injection of 2.5 micrograms oestradiol benzoate kg-1 in 13 of 16 intact females and 4 of 4 ovariectomized females, but in none of 11 intact males. Five females each implanted with a 100 mg testosterone pellet 3 months earlier failed to produce an LH surge. Four males castrated in adulthood and three adult males castrated before puberty also failed to show an LH surge. However, three males castrated 24-26 days after birth showed an unambiguous LH surge when challenged with oestradiol benzoate during adulthood. Thus, in tammar wallabies, the ability to generate an LH surge to oestradiol is a sexually dimorphic response that is suppressed in the male by the organizational effects of the testes in early life and presumably supplemented by an inhibitory effect of circulating testosterone in adulthood.  (+info)

Compensation by pulsatile GnRH infusions for incompetence for oestradiol-induced LH surges in long-term ovariectomized gilts and castrated male pigs. (7/1163)

The aim of this study was to investigate incompetence for oestradiol-induced LH surges in long-term ovariectomized gilts and male pigs. Gilts (250 days old; n = 36), which had been ovariectomized 30 (OVX 30) or 100 days (OVX 100) before the start of treatment, were challenged i.m. with oestradiol benzoate and were either given no further treatment, fed methallibure to inhibit endogenous GnRH release or fed methallibure and given i.v. pulses of 100 or 200 ng GnRH agonist at 1 h intervals during the LH surge (48-96 h after oestradiol benzoate). The same treatments were applied to long-term orchidectomized male pigs (ORC, n = 23). In addition, one ORC group was not injected with oestradiol benzoate but was fed methallibure and given pulses of 200 ng GnRH agonist. Oestradiol benzoate alone induced an LH surge in the OVX 30 group only (5/6 gilts), methallibure suppressed (P < 0.05) oestradiol benzoate-induced LH secretion, while pulses of 100 ng GnRH agonist in animals fed methallibure produced LH surges in four of six OVX 30 and four of six OVX 100 gilts. The induced LH surges were similar to those produced by oestradiol benzoate alone in OVX 30 gilts. Pulses of 200 ng GnRH agonist produced LH surges in OVX 30 (6/6) and OVX 100 (6/6) gilts and increased the magnitude of the induced LH surge in OVX 100 gilts (P < 0.05 compared with 100 ng GnRH agonist or OVX 30 control). Pulses of 200 ng GnRH agonist also induced LH surge release in ORC male pigs (5/6), but were unable to increase LH concentrations in a surge-like manner in ORC animals that had not been given oestradiol benzoate, indicating that oestradiol increases pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. These results support the hypothesis that oestradiol must inhibit secretion of LH before an LH surge can occur. It is concluded that incompetence for oestradiol-induced LH surges in long-term ovarian secretion-deprived gilts and in male pigs is due to the failure of oestradiol to promote a sufficient increase in the release of GnRH.  (+info)

Stimulation-induced factors which affect augmentation and potentiation of trasmitter release at the neuromuscular junction. (8/1163)

1. End-plate potentials (e.p.p.s) were recorded from frog sartorius neuromuscular junctions under conditions of decreased transmitter release to study the effect of repetitive stimulation on augmentation and potentiation of transmitter release. 2. The magnitudes and time constants of decay of augmentation and potentiation were determined both following a primary conditioning train and following an identical secondary conditioning train applied from 30 to 170 sec after the primary conditioning train. 3. The magnitude of augmentation following the secondary conditioning trains was increased over that following the primary conditioning trains even though augmentation, with a time constant of decay of about 7 sec, had decayed to insignificant levels before the onset of the secondary trains. This increase in augmentation was not due to a change in its rate of decay during the secondary trains. 4. The increased magnitude of augmentation can be described as arising from an expression factor which, for conditioning trains of 200 impulses at 20/sec, has an initial magnitude of 1-6 +/- 1-2 (S.D. of observation) (the magnitude of augmentation is increased 2-6 times) and decays approximately exponentially with a time constant of 90 +/- 50 (S.D. of observation) sec. The expression factor thus decays about ten times slower than augmentation. 5. Doubling the number of impulses in the primary conditioning train from 100 to 200 led to a 2-8 +/- 1-0 (S.D. of observation) times increase in the magnitude of the expression factor, estimated by placing a 200 impulse secondary conditioning train 40 sec after the primary conditioning train. 6. The expression factor, while increasing the magnitude of augmentation, had little or no effect on the magnitude of potentiation or on trasmitter release in the absence of augmentation. The expression factor decayed about twice as slowly as potentiation. 7. The time constants characterizing the decay of potentiation were greater following the secondary conditioning trains than following the primary conditioning trains. 8. The increased time constant for the decay of potentiation can be described as arising from a time constant factor which, for conditioning trains of 200 impulses at 20/sec, has an initial magnitude of 1-2 +/- 0-7 (S.D. of observation) (the time constant of potentiation is increased 2-2 times) and decays approximately exponentially with a time constant of 130 +/- 45 (S.D. of observation) sec. The time constant factor decayed about three times slower than potentiation. 9. Doubling the number of impulses in the primary conditioning train from 100 to 200 led to a 1-6 +/- 0-8 (S.D. of observation) times increase in the magnitude of the time constant factor, estimated by placing a 200 impulse secondary conditioning train 40 sec after the primary conditioning train. 10...  (+info)

  • A series of first order rate laws was sufficient to accurately describe VSVG-GFP transport, and provided compartment residence times and rate constants for transport into and out of the Golgi complex and delivery to the plasma membrane. (
  • For ER to Golgi transport the mean rate constant (i.e., the fraction of VSVG-GFP moved per unit of time) was 2.8% per min, for Golgi to plasma membrane transport it was 3.0% per min, and for transport from the plasma membrane to a degradative site it was 0.25% per min. (
  • T he secretory membrane system synthesizes and secretes highly processed and complex molecules, allowing eukaryotic cells to modify their outer surfaces and surroundings and to control growth and homeostasis. (
  • demonstrated a net secretory flux of sparfloxacin and showed that sparfloxacin transport from the apical to the basolateral membrane increased in the presence of verapamil, a P-glycoprotein modulator. (
  • In most endocrine cells, the hormones are contained in secretory granules that, in response to a series of cellular mechanisms culminating with an increase in the intracellular Ca 2+ levels, fuse with the cell membrane and release the hormone molecules. (
  • Novel model features include: finite rates of hydration of CO 2 , a kinetic representation of the H-K-ATPase within the luminal cell membrane, cellular osmolytes that are regulated in defense of cell volume, and the repeated coalescing of IMCD tubule segments to yield the ducts of Bellini. (
  • These include the finite rate of hydration of CO 2 within the cell and extracellular compartments, the luminal membrane H-K-ATPase, the large variation in peritubular solute composition over the length of the duct, and the progressive coalescing of the tubules to become the papillary collecting ducts. (
  • Abou-El-Doubal SKA, Hassan SE, Toaleb NI, Hegazi AG, Abdel-Rahman EH (2015) Induction of Protective Cellular and Humoral Responses against Fasciolosis in Rabbits using Immunoaffinity Fraction of Fasciola gigantica Excretory Secretory Products. (
  • In an attempt to develop vaccine against fasciolosis in rabbits, an immunoaffinity fraction of F. gigantica excretory secretory products was isolated. (
  • Collectively, the current results suggest promising immunoprophylactic potentials of the immunoaffinity fraction of Fasciola gigantica excretory secretory products against fasciolosis in rabbits through induction of both cellular and humoral responses. (
  • From this immunologically privileged place, the parasite orchestrates a long-lasting molecular cross talk with the host through muscle larvae excretory-secretory products (ES L1). (
  • We find that increasing the number of CaVs coupled with the granule determines a much higher rise of the exocytosis rate that, in case of inactivating CaVs, is more pronounced when the granule is close to CaVs, while, surprisingly, in case of non-inactivating CaVs, the highest relative increase in rate is obtained when the granule is far from the CaVs. (
  • Therefore, the local Ca 2+ concentration at the Ca 2+ sensor of the exocytotic machinery is a key factor determining the probability rate of exocytosis of the secretory granule [ 6 ]. (
  • Lobes consist of a number of short, blind-ending secretory tubules which join together to form multiple interlobular ducts. (
  • Numerous arterioles and venules punctuate the connective tissue around and between gland lobes, and a dense network of capillaries can be found in the connective tissues both surrounding and between the secretory tubules ( Franklin and Grigg, 1993 ). (
  • Each sweat gland receives several nerve fibers that branch out into bands of one or more axons and encircle the individual tubules of the secretory coil. (
  • Some of the tubules contain luminal secretory material. (
  • We show that the conserved Teashirt transcription factors are decisive for the differentiation of a subset of secretory cells, stellate cells, in Drosophila melanogaster renal tubules. (
  • In vivo studies in the rat have indicated that IMCD Na + transport rates can be comparable to those of the proximal convoluted tubule ( 2 , 7 , 52 ), although rates in dissected tubules may be substantially lower than those in vivo ( 34 ). (
  • The quantity of PAH secreted by the tubules (Tm PAH ) is given by the difference between the total rate of excretion (U PAH V) and the quantity filtered by the glomeruli (GFR x P PAH ). (
  • Lactoferrin is a globular glycoprotein with a molecular mass of about 80 kDa that is widely represented in various secretory fluids, such as milk, saliva, tears, and nasal secretions. (
  • An attractive target for pro-secretory therapy of dry eye is cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cAMP-regulated chloride channel that is expressed in corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells as well as in various secretory epithelia outside of the eye. (
  • At each time point for each exercise trial, negative correlations between cortisol and saliva flow rate (explaining 25 ± 17% of the variance, R 2 = 0.002-0.46) and positive correlations between cortisol and sIgA concentration (explaining 8 ± 8% of the variance R 2 = 0.002-0.24) were found. (
  • High levels of human secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) have been shown to decrease the incidence of acquiring upper respiratory tract infections. (
  • Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA, also referred to as salivary IgA ) is the major immunoglobulin secreted by the mucosal system 1 and is found in saliva, intestinal fluids, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and other mucosal fluids. (
  • Under this set of conditions, the biliary excretion clearance ( CL bile ), defined as the biliary excretion rate at steady-state divided by the concentration in the liver ( C liver ), for normal rats was 3-fold higher than that for EHBRs. (
  • Thus, to increase the rate of excretion of K+ at a given urine K+ concentration, volume delivery to K+ secretory sites must be high and requires an increased delivery of osmoles . (
  • V = rate of urine excretion (mL/min), and P PAH = plasma concentration of PAH (mg/mL). (
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells contain a small internal pool of the secretory enzymes invertase and acid phosphatase. (
  • Morphologically, the secretory cells from the salt glands of SW-acclimated animals were larger than those of FW-acclimated animals. (
  • Did Neurons Evolve from Secretory Cells? (
  • The idea that the neuron cell type was in some way derived from secretory cells has been around for a while (1970's at least). (
  • The new findings involve finding similarities in how nerve cells and particular secretory cells shared an embryonic cell precursor, thus in a way a common developmental source. (
  • Similarly, they argue, particular neurons and secretory cells share developmental precursors in coelenterates (jellyfish and hydra) and fruitflies. (
  • The secretory activities of the gland cells and the contractions of myoepithelial cells are controlled by both the autonomic nervous system and by the circulating hormones. (
  • In cells overexpressing N-ERC, phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was enhanced and the rate of cell death decreased, leading to the increase of cell number. (
  • The culture medium containing the secretory N-ERC also had the activity to increase the number of cells. (
  • teashirt interacts with cut , which encodes a transcription factor that underlies the differentiation of the primary, principal secretory cells, establishing a reciprocal negative-feedback loop that ensures the full differentiation of both cell types. (
  • This is mediated by cross reacting memory B and T cells, secretory IgA (August 10, not yet proven). (
  • Saggio G, Docimo S, Pilc J, Norton J, Gilliar W. Impact of Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment on Secretory Immunoglobulin A Levels in a Stressed Population. (
  • These results show a relationship between cortisol and saliva flow rate, which directly impacts on the concentration of salivary analytes. (
  • Salivary secretory disorders can be the result of a wide range of factors. (
  • To review the salivary secretory disorders, inducing drugs and their clinical management. (
  • Thus, notwithstanding the good agreement between left and right flow rates, a high variation in parotid flow rates has to be considered when planning clinical trials evaluating the effects of treatment on salivary gland functioning. (
  • The most commonly used methods to measure the neuronal firing rate of single neurons are extracellular recording and cell-attached patch-clamp recording. (
  • Prevention of endometrial hyperplasia by progesterone during long-term estradiol replacement: influence of bleeding pattern and secretory changes. (
  • To determine the relative influences of induction of withdrawal bleedings secretory transformation, and reduction of mitosis in glands on prevention of endometrial hyperplasia during long-term hormonal replacement therapy. (
  • Endometrial histology including progestational maturation patterns and glandular epithelial mitosis rates. (
  • Control of endometrial growth is mainly related to control of mitosis in glands by a relatively low doses of P. Induction of withdrawal bleeding and endometrial secretory transformation, which require larger doses of Progesterone, do not provide additional benefit for prevention of hyperplasia. (
  • The proportion of subjects at Cycle 3 Day 24 ± 1 day on active treatment compared to placebo with complete secretory activity on endometrial biopsy. (
  • Secretory cargo molecules in this system are synthesized in the ER and transported to the Golgi complex for processing and maturation. (
  • First, we analyze the property of the secretory complex obtained by coupling a single granule with one CaV. (
  • In particular, by using the Markov chain theory [ 10 ], we will achieve analytic results for the expected rate and show how coupling different numbers and types of CaVs with the granule determines different responses. (
  • Ion channels and transporters promote a vectorial ion transport in the secretory direction from the serosal (basolateral) to luminal (apical) side. (
  • However, some diabetic patients often need to undergo renal replacement therapies at a relatively higher glomerular filtration rate (GFR) level, even before meeting the criteria for dialysis ( 6 ). (
  • Here, we investigate the developmental genetic networks that establish secretory function in the Drosophila melanogaster renal tubule. (
  • Maximal secretory rates from the salt glands of SW-acclimated animals (100.8±14.7 μmol 100 g -0.7 body mass h -1 ) were almost three times greater than those of FW-acclimated animals (31.6±6.2 μmol 100 g -0.7 body mass h -1 ). (
  • Generally, sweat glands consist of a secretory unit consisting of a base rolled into a glomerulum , and a duct that carries the sweat away. (
  • The secretory PLA 2 s consist of the group I enzyme secreted by the pancreas and the group II enzymes secreted by many cell types in a number of tissues. (
  • The purpose of this study was to reveal the differences in secretory activity, which might be used for the differential diagnosis of these two lesions. (
  • Altogether, although methodological errors involved in the measurement of channel activity during cell-attached recordings have been evaluated recently in detail ( Williams and Wozny, 2011 ), a similar examination of errors involved in measurements of firing rates is still primarily lacking. (
  • Conclusions- We conclude that human catecholamine secretory traits are heritable, displaying joint genetic determination (pleiotropy) with autonomic activity and finally with blood pressure in the population. (
  • Recently, we isolated a human RAGE splice variant, which can work as a decoy receptor for RAGE ligands, and named it esRAGE (endogenous secretory RAGE). (
  • Consistent reduction of mitosis rates in glandular epithelium was found after 9 or more days of P administration in each cycle. (
  • The present study examines the mediation effect of heart rate variability-an affective measurement indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)-in the relationship between specific math anxiety and arithmetic speed. (
  • The firing rate remains approximately constant during the first 4 min after sealing and gradually increases afterward. (
  • The bone apposition rate in rats increases in a dose dependent fashion upon administration of this chemically synthesized compound. (
  • Here we perform cell-attached recording of molecular layer interneurons in cerebellar slices from rats and mice, and we study how experimental conditions influence the measured firing rate. (
  • Stimulation of the tissue slices from SW-acclimated animals by methacholine resulted in a 33% increase in oxygen consumption rate. (
  • 1 - 3 There is compelling rationale for development of pro-secretory therapy in dry eye, as increasing the volume of tear fluid bathing the ocular surface is predicted to reduce tear fluid hyperosmolality, which drives the downstream inflammatory response and consequent symptoms. (
  • Because these rate constants did not change as the concentration of VSVG-GFP in different compartments went from high (early in the experiment) to low (late in the experiment), secretory transport machinery was never saturated during the experiments. (
  • Ca 2+ imaging experiments show that establishing a cell-attached recording can result in an increased somatic Ca 2+ concentration, reflecting an increased firing rate linked to an increase in the pipette-cell conductance. (
  • For this reason, intravenous infusions at fixed rates are used to sustain the plasma PAH concentration at the desired level. (
  • Cell-attached recording is extensively used to study the firing rate of mammalian neurons, but potential limitations of the method have not been investigated in detail. (
  • We conclude that, unless experimental conditions are optimized, cell-attached recordings in small neurons may report erroneous firing rates. (