Phospholipases A: Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.Phospholipases A2: Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.Phospholipases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.Group IV Phospholipases A2: A cytosolic phospholipase A2 group that plays an important role in the release of free ARACHIDONIC ACID, which in turn is metabolized to PROSTAGLANDINS by the CYCLOOXYGENASE pathway and to LEUKOTRIENES by the 5-LIPOXYGENASE pathway.Phospholipases A2, Cytosolic: A subcategory of phospholipases A2 that occur in the CYTOSOL.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Phospholipases A1: A phospholipase that hydrolyzes the acyl group attached to the 1-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.Phospholipase D: An enzyme found mostly in plant tissue. It hydrolyzes glycerophosphatidates with the formation of a phosphatidic acid and a nitrogenous base such as choline. This enzyme also catalyzes transphosphatidylation reactions. EC 3.1.4.4.Arachidonic Acid: An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Group II Phospholipases A2: A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from a variety of sources. The creation of this group is based upon similarities in the structural determinants of the enzymes including a negatively charged carboxy-terminal segment.Phospholipase A2 Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of a PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 enzyme.Phospholipases A2, Secretory: A subcategory of phospholipases A2 that are secreted from cells. They are 14 kDa proteins containing multiple disulfide-bonds and access their substrate via an interfacial binding site that interacts with phospholipid membranes. In addition specific PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 RECEPTORS can bind to and internalize the enzymes.Lysophospholipase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a single fatty acid ester bond in lysoglycerophosphatidates with the formation of glyceryl phosphatidates and a fatty acid. EC 3.1.1.5.Group X Phospholipases A2: A secreted phospholipase A2 subtype that contains a interfacial-binding region with specificity for PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE. This enzyme group may play a role in eliciting ARACHIDONIC ACID release from intact cellular membranes and from LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Members of this group bind specifically to PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 RECEPTORS.Group V Phospholipases A2: A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that contains both a negatively charged carboxy-terminal segment and interfacial-binding region specific for PHOSPHATIDYL CHOLINE-containing membranes. This enzyme group may play a role in the release of ARACHIDONIC ACID from phospholipid membranes.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Group VI Phospholipases A2: A calcium-independent phospholipase A2 group that may play a role in membrane phospholipid remodeling and homeostasis by controling the levels of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE in mammalian cell membranes.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Receptors, Phospholipase A2: Cell surface receptors that bind to and internalize SECRETED PHOSPHOLIPASES A2. Although primarily acting as scavenger receptors, these proteins may also play a role in intracellular signaling. Soluble forms of phospholipase A2 receptors occur through the action of proteases and may a play a role in the inhibition of extracellular phospholipase activity.Phosphoinositide Phospholipase C: A type C phospholipase with specificity towards PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS that contain INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE. Many of the enzymes listed under this classification are involved in intracellular signaling.Eicosanoids: A class of compounds named after and generally derived from C20 fatty acids (EICOSANOIC ACIDS) that includes PROSTAGLANDINS; LEUKOTRIENES; THROMBOXANES, and HYDROXYEICOSATETRAENOIC ACIDS. They have hormone-like effects mediated by specialized receptors (RECEPTORS, EICOSANOID).Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Arachidonic AcidsPhospholipase C beta: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.Phospholipase C gamma: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Group I Phospholipases A2: A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from ELAPID VENOMS and pancreatic sources. The creation of this group is based upon similarities in the structural determinants of the enzymes.Snake Venoms: Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Crotalid Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Phosphatidylinositol Diacylglycerol-Lyase: A phosphorus-oxygen lyase found primarily in BACTERIA. The enzyme catalyzes the cleavage of a phosphoester linkage in 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol to form 1D-myo-inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate and diacylglycerol. The enzyme was formerly classified as a phosphoric diester hydrolase (EC 3.1.4.10) and is often referred to as a TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. However it is now known that a cyclic phosphate is the final product of this enzyme and that water does not enter into the reaction.Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases: Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.Cyclooxygenase 2: An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 5-hydroperoxyarachidonate (5-HPETE) which is rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 5-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoate (5-HETE). The 5-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in leukocytes.Cobra Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.Lysophosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Glycerophospholipids: Derivatives of phosphatidic acid in which the hydrophobic regions are composed of two fatty acids and a polar alcohol is joined to the C-3 position of glycerol through a phosphodiester bond. They are named according to their polar head groups, such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.Phosphatidic Acids: Fatty acid derivatives of glycerophosphates. They are composed of glycerol bound in ester linkage with 1 mole of phosphoric acid at the terminal 3-hydroxyl group and with 2 moles of fatty acids at the other two hydroxyl groups.Pyrones: Keto-pyrans.Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Phospholipases A2, Calcium-Independent: A subcategory of structurally-related phospholipases A2 that do not require calcium for activity.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Phosphatidylinositols: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.Quinacrine: An acridine derivative formerly widely used as an antimalarial but superseded by chloroquine in recent years. It has also been used as an anthelmintic and in the treatment of giardiasis and malignant effusions. It is used in cell biological experiments as an inhibitor of phospholipase A2.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Reptilian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of REPTILES.Phospholipase C delta: A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is structurally defined by the presence of an N-terminal pleckstrin-homology and EF-hand domains, a central catalytic domain, and a C-terminal calcium-dependent membrane-binding domain.Bothrops: A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)Viperidae: A family of snakes comprising three subfamilies: Azemiopinae (the mountain viper, the sole member of this subfamily), Viperinae (true vipers), and Crotalinae (pit vipers). They are widespread throughout the world, being found in the United States, Central and South America, Europe, Asia and Africa. Their venoms act on the blood (hemotoxic) as compared to the venom of elapids which act on the nervous system (neurotoxic). (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp333-36)Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Crotoxin: A specific complex of toxic proteins from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake). It can be separated into a phospholipase A and crotapotin fragment; the latter consists of three different amino acid chains, potentiates the enzyme, and is specifically neurotoxic.DiglyceridesLeukotrienes: A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.Viper Venoms: Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.Bee Venoms: Venoms obtained from Apis mellifera (honey bee) and related species. They contain various enzymes, polypeptide toxins, and other substances, some of which are allergenic or immunogenic or both. These venoms were formerly used in rheumatism to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal system.Lysophospholipids: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.Cyclooxygenase 1: A constitutively-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes.Group III Phospholipases A2: A subcategory of secreted phospholipases A2 with specificity for PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINES and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE. It occurs as a component of VENOMS and as a mammalian secretory phospholipase A2. The creation of this group is based upon similarities in the structural determinants of the enzymes including a long amino-terminal domain, a conserved group III-specific domain, and a long carboxyl-terminal domain.ZymosanElapidae: A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)Elapid Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.Leukotriene C4: The conjugation product of LEUKOTRIENE A4 and glutathione. It is the major arachidonic acid metabolite in macrophages and human mast cells as well as in antigen-sensitized lung tissue. It stimulates mucus secretion in the lung, and produces contractions of nonvascular and some VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Phosphatidylethanolamines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Estrenes: Unsaturated derivatives of the ESTRANES with methyl groups at carbon-13, with no carbon at carbon-10, and with no more than one carbon at carbon-17. They must contain one or more double bonds.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.1-Butanol: A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Annexin A1: Protein of the annexin family exhibiting lipid interaction and steroid-inducibility.Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Diphosphate: A phosphoinositide present in all eukaryotic cells, particularly in the plasma membrane. It is the major substrate for receptor-stimulated phosphoinositidase C, with the consequent formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and probably also for receptor-stimulated inositol phospholipid 3-kinase. (Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Leukotriene B4: The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Platelet Activating Factor: A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.Inositol Phosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.Prostaglandins: A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.Snakes: Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Naphthalenes: Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.N-Formylmethionine Leucyl-Phenylalanine: A formylated tripeptide originally isolated from bacterial filtrates that is positively chemotactic to polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and causes them to release lysosomal enzymes and become metabolically activated.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Ionomycin: A divalent calcium ionophore that is widely used as a tool to investigate the role of intracellular calcium in cellular processes.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.ThionesGroup IB Phospholipases A2: A subclass of group I phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from PANCREATIC JUICE. Members of this group have specificity for PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 RECEPTORS.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Calcium Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of CELL MEMBRANES to CALCIUM ions.Butanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 12-hydroperoxyarachidonate (12-HPETE) which is itself rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 12-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoate (12-HETE). The 12-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in PLATELETS.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Bacillus cereus: A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.Pyrrolidinones: A group of compounds that are derivatives of oxo-pyrrolidines. A member of this group is 2-oxo pyrrolidine, which is an intermediate in the manufacture of polyvinylpyrrolidone. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.5-Lipoxygenase-Activating Proteins: Scaffolding proteins that play an important role in the localization and activation of 5-LIPOXYGENASE.Group IA Phospholipases A2: A subclass of group I phospholipases A2 that includes enzymes isolated from ELAPID VENOMS.Ceramides: Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Thrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.1-Alkyl-2-acetylglycerophosphocholine Esterase: A lipoprotein-associated PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 which modulates the action of PLATELET ACTIVATING FACTOR by hydrolyzing the SN-2 ester bond to yield the biologically inactive lyso-platelet-activating factor. It has specificity for phospholipid substrates with short-chain residues at the SN-2 position, but inactive against long-chain phospholipids. Deficiency in this enzyme is associated with many diseases including ASTHMA, and HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA.Oligonucleotides, Antisense: Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.12-Hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic Acid: A lipoxygenase metabolite of ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is a highly selective ligand used to label mu-opioid receptors in both membranes and tissue sections. The 12-S-HETE analog has been reported to augment tumor cell metastatic potential through activation of protein kinase C. (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995; 274(3):1545-51; J Natl Cancer Inst 1994; 86(15):1145-51)Lipoxygenase Inhibitors: Compounds that bind to and inhibit that enzymatic activity of LIPOXYGENASES. Included under this category are inhibitors that are specific for lipoxygenase subtypes and act to reduce the production of LEUKOTRIENES.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 15-hydroperoxyarachidonate (15-HPETE) which is rapidly converted to 15-hydroxy-5,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoate (15-HETE). The 15-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in NEUTROPHILS and LYMPHOCYTES.Macrophages, Peritoneal: Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Crotalus: A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE, one of the pit vipers, so-called from the pit hollowing out the maxillary bone, opening between the eye and the nostril. They are distinctively American serpents. Most of the 25 recognized species are found in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Several species are found as far north as Canada and east of the Mississippi, including southern Appalachia. They are named for the jointed rattle (Greek krotalon) at the tip of their tail. (Goin, Goin, and Zug: Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed; Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p335)Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Trimeresurus: A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. About 30 species are currently recognized, found in southeast Asia and adjacent island chains. The Okinawa habu frequently enters dwellings in search of rats and mice; the Chinese habu is often found in suburban and agricultural areas. They are quite irritable. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p136)Annexin A2: A member of the annexin family that is a substrate for a tyrosine kinase, ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). Annexin A2 occurs as a 36-KDa monomer and in a 90-KDa complex containing two subunits of annexin A2 and two subunits of S100 FAMILY PROTEIN P11. The monomeric form of annexin A2 was formerly referred to as calpactin I heavy chain.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Aristolochic Acids: Nitro-phenanthrenes occurring in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE and other plants. They derive from stephanine (APORPHINES) by oxidative ring cleavage. The nitro group is a reactive alkylator (ALKYLATING AGENTS) that binds to biological macromolecules. Ingestion by humans is associated with nephropathy (NEPHRITIS). There is no relationship to the similar named aristolochene (SESQUITERPENES).Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Bridged Compounds: Cyclic hydrocarbons that contain multiple rings and share one or more atoms.Glycosylphosphatidylinositols: Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.Escin: Pentacyclic triterpene saponins, biosynthesized from protoaescigenin and barringtogenol, occurring in the seeds of AESCULUS. It inhibits edema formation and decreases vascular fragility.Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate: Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Thimerosal: An ethylmercury-sulfidobenzoate that has been used as a preservative in VACCINES; ANTIVENINS; and OINTMENTS. It was formerly used as a topical antiseptic. It degrades to ethylmercury and thiosalicylate.Neomycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces fradiae. It is composed of neomycins A, B, and C. It acts by inhibiting translation during protein synthesis.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.NADPH Oxidase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.Masoprocol: A potent lipoxygenase inhibitor that interferes with arachidonic acid metabolism. The compound also inhibits formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, carboxylesterase, and cyclooxygenase to a lesser extent. It also serves as an antioxidant in fats and oils.Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acids: Eicosatetraenoic acids substituted in any position by one or more hydroxy groups. They are important intermediates in a series of biosynthetic processes leading from arachidonic acid to a number of biologically active compounds such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.One-Lung Ventilation: Techniques for supplying artificial respiration to a single lung.Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate): Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.U937 Cells: A human cell line established from a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma (HISTIOCYTIC LYMPHOMA, DIFFUSE) and displaying many monocytic characteristics. It serves as an in vitro model for MONOCYTE and MACROPHAGE differentiation.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Clostridium perfringens: The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.Prostaglandin D2: The principal cyclooxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid. It is released upon activation of mast cells and is also synthesized by alveolar macrophages. Among its many biological actions, the most important are its bronchoconstrictor, platelet-activating-factor-inhibitory, and cytotoxic effects.AcetophenonesSwine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Nuclear Envelope: The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).Glomerular Mesangium: The thin membranous structure supporting the adjoining glomerular capillaries. It is composed of GLOMERULAR MESANGIAL CELLS and their EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Mice, Inbred C57BLPlatelet Activation: A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.

*PLA2G10

Osterström A, Dimberg J, Fransén K, Söderkvist P (2002). "Expression of cytosolic and group X secretory phospholipase A(2) ... 2002). "Groups IV, V, and X phospholipases A2s in human neutrophils: role in eicosanoid production and gram-negative bacterial ... 2000). "Identification of group X secretory phospholipase A(2) as a natural ligand for mouse phospholipase A(2) receptor". FEBS ... occurs predominantly during the secretory process and with the involvement of cytosolic phospholipase A(2)-alpha". J. Biol. ...

*PLA2G5

"Entrez Gene: PLA2G5 phospholipase A2, group V". Otha, Shin (15 June 2013). "Group V secretory phospholipase A2 is involved in ... Johansen B, Rakkestad K, Balboa MA, Dennis EA (2000). "Expression of cytosolic and secreted forms of phospholipase A(2) and ... 2000). "Cell-specific expression of group X and group V secretory phospholipases A(2) in human lung airway epithelial cells". ... This gene is a member of the secretory phospholipase A2 family. It is located in a tightly-linked cluster of secretory ...

*Phospholipase D

... is an enzyme of the phospholipase superfamily. Phospholipases occur widely, and can be found in a wide range of organisms, ... It is primarily present at the Golgi complex, endosomes, lysosomes, and secretory granules. Upon the binding of an ... In particular, the translocation of cytosolic ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) to the plasma membrane is essential for PLD ... Stimulation of phospholipase D is independent of activation of polyphosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C and phospholipase ...

*Phospholipase A2

Two most notable families are secreted and cytosolic phospholipases A2. Other families include Ca2+ independent PLA2 (iPLA2) ... De Luca D, Minucci A, Cogo P, Capoluongo ED, Conti G, Pietrini D, Carnielli VP, Piastra M (Jan 2011). "Secretory phospholipase ... Additional types of phospholipases include phospholipase A1, phospholipase B, phospholipase C, and phospholipase D. ... 1983 Aug;38(6):413-8. Leslie CC (Jul 1997). "Properties and regulation of cytosolic phospholipase A2". The Journal of ...

*Systemin

When the inflammatory response is activated in animals, MAPKs are activated which in turn activate phospholipases. Lipids in ... Within minutes of systemin perception, the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration increases, and linolenic acid is released from cell ... indicate that they are synthesised through the secretory system. The precursor to HypSys in tomato is a 146 amino acid ... membranes after a phospholipase has been activated. Linolenic acid is then converted to jasmonic acid via the octadecanoid ...
In the presented study, we demonstrate that the interaction of group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 and ceramide-1-phosphate is crucial for production of eicosanoid synthesis in inflammation. Inflammation is a critical component of many disease states including anaphylaxis, cancer, cardiovascular disease, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes and asthma. Eicosanoids are well established mediators of inflammation, and the initial rate limiting step in the production of eicosanoids is the liberation of arachidonic acid (AA) from membrane phospholipids by a phospholipase A2 (PLA2). The major phospholipase involved in this liberation of AA during the inflammatory response is group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α). Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that the bioactive sphingolipid, ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P), binds cPLA2α at a three amino acid sequence, which is located in the cationic β-groove of ...
This study was conducted to determine the contribution of Group IV cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) in the development of angiotensin (Ang) II-induced hypertension and associated pathophysiology. Eight week old male wild type (cPLA2α+/+) and cPLA2α knockout (cPLA2α-/-) mice were infused with Ang II (750 ng/kg/min) or its vehicle for 2 weeks and systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured weekly by the tail cuff method. Ang II increased SBP in cPLA2α+/+ mice to a greater degree than in cPLA2α-/- mice (125 ± 2 to 186 ± 7 mmHg vs. 125 ± 2 to 132 ± 2 mmHg respectively, P , 0.05). The increase in SBP in Ang II infused cPLA2α+/+ mice was associated with cardiac hypertrophy, measured by heart to body weight ratio (5.0 ± 0.3 vehicle vs. 7.1 ± 0.4 Ang II, P , 0.05), which was reduced by 26.0 ± 3.9 % (P , 0.05) in cPLA2α-/- mice. Ang II caused cardiac fibrosis, as indicated by accumulation of intracardiac α-smooth muscle actin- and transforming growth factor-β-positive cells, and ...
Background: Although group IIA secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IIA) is well appraised for its involvement in atherosclerosis by modifying LDL, its role in managing CVD risk in a primary prevention setting with low LDL-C is unknown. Furthermore, the utility of sPLA2-IIA mass for assessing future CVD risk relative to statin therapy in a population free of CVD is unknown.. Methods: We analyzed data from JUPITER (NCT00239681) in which participants with LDL cholesterol ,130 mg/dL and hsCRP≥2 mg/L were randomized to rosuvastatin 20mg/day vs placebo. sPLA2-IIA was quantified by sandwich-type ELISA (Cayman) in 11269 participants before and 1 year after randomization. Cox regression was used to examine the association of sPLA2-IIA with CVD. The impact of lifelong reduction in sPLA2-IIA on CVD risk was assessed by Mendelian randomization analysis in 6692 participants.. Results: 313 first CVD events occurred during maximum follow-up of 5.0 (median, 1.9) years. Baseline sPLA2-IIA ...
Publication date: Available online 12 December 2019Source: BiologicalsAuthor(s): Hebleen Brenes, Gilbert D. Loría, Bruno LomonteAbstractSecreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) molecules are small, calcium-dependent enzymes involved in many biological processes. Viperid venoms possess gIIA sPLA2s and sPLA2-like proteins, both having homology to human gIIA sPLA2, an innate immunity enzyme. We evalu...
Looking for online definition of 180 kDa secretory phospholipase A2 receptor in the Medical Dictionary? 180 kDa secretory phospholipase A2 receptor explanation free. What is 180 kDa secretory phospholipase A2 receptor? Meaning of 180 kDa secretory phospholipase A2 receptor medical term. What does 180 kDa secretory phospholipase A2 receptor mean?
Bromoenol lactone ((6E)-Bromoenol lactone) is a suicide-based irreversible, selective, potent inhibitor of calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2β) with an IC50 value of approximately 7 μM, which inhibits antigen-stimulated mast cell exocytosis without blocking Ca2+ influx. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential roles of ionic, aliphatic, and aromatic residues in membrane - Protein interactions. T2 - A surface plasmon resonance study on phospholipases A2. AU - Stahelin, Robert. AU - Cho, W.. PY - 2001/4/17. Y1 - 2001/4/17. N2 - The roles of cationic, aliphatic, and aromatic residues in the membrane association and dissociation of five phospholipases A2 (PLA2), including Asp-49 PLA2 from the venom of Agkistodon piscivorus piscivorus, acidic PLA2 from the venom of Naja naja atra, human group IIa and V PLA2s, and the C2 domain of cytosolic PLA2, were determined by surface plasmon resonance analysis. Cationic interfacial binding residues of A. p. piscivorus PLA2 (Lys-10) and human group IIa PLA2 (Arg-7, Lys-10, and Lys-16), which mediate electrostatic interactions with anionic membranes, primarily accelerate the membrane association. In contrast, an aliphatic side chain of the C2 domain of cytosolic PLA2 (Val-97), which ...
Calcium dependent phospholipase A2 activity in the mixed micelles of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol and cholate was measured in sera of 39 patients with Crohns disease, 40 patients with ulcerative colitis, and 40 healthy controls. The phospholipase A2 activity was significantly raised in those sera of the patients with active Crohns disease and those with moderate and severe ulcerative colitis. The major phospholipase A2 activity derived from the sera was separated into two peaks by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. The phospholipase A2 active fractions were immunochemically characterised using specific antibody directed against human group II phospholipase A2 purified from rheumatoid synovial fluid. The results suggest that raised serum phospholipase A2 activity in patients with Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis was mainly attributed to the two forms of ...
Fas-mediated apoptosis of human leukemic U937 cells was accompanied by increased arachidonic acid (AA) and oleic acid release from membrane glycerophospholipids, indicating phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activation. During apoptosis, type IV cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2), a PLA2 isozyme with an apparent molecular mass of 110 kDa critical for stimulus-coupled AA release, was converted to a 78-kDa fragment with concomitant loss of catalytic activity. Cleavage of cPLA2 correlated with increased caspase-3-like protease activity in apoptotic cells and was abrogated by a caspase-3 inhibitor. A mutant cPLA2 protein in which Asp522 was replaced by Asn, which aligns with the consensus sequence of the caspase-3 cleavage site (DXXD downward arrowX), was resistant to apo-ptosis-associated proteolysis. Moreover, a COOH-terminal deletion mutant of cPLA2 truncated at Asp522 comigrated with the 78-kDa fragment and exhibited no enzymatic activity. Thus, caspase-3-mediated cPLA2 cleavage eventually leads ...
Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) also known as platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) is a phospholipase A2 enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLA2G7 gene. Lp-PLA2 is a 45-kDa protein of 441 amino acids. It is one of several PAF acetylhydrolases. In the blood it travels mainly with low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Less than 20% is associated with high-density lipoprotein HDL. It is an enzyme produced by inflammatory cells and hydrolyzes oxidized phospholipids in LDL. Lp-PLA2 is platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase (EC 3.1.1.47), a secreted enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of PAF to inactive products by hydrolysis of the acetyl group at the sn-2 position, producing the biologically inactive products LYSO-PAF and acetate. Lp-PLA2 is involved in the development of atherosclerosis, an observation that has prompted interest as a possible therapeutic target (see, e.g. the investigational drug Darapladib). In human atherosclerotic ...
Looking for online definition of Phospholipases in the Medical Dictionary? Phospholipases explanation free. What is Phospholipases? Meaning of Phospholipases medical term. What does Phospholipases mean?
Various molecular mechanisms have been suggested to be involved in dexamethasone induced thymocyte apoptosis. In this study we show that pharmacological inhibition of cytoplasmic PLA2 in mouse thymocytes for 18 h with arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone (AACOCF3) (10μM) and palmitoyl trifluoromethyl ketone (PACOCF3) (10 μM) induced a drastic increase of thymocyte apoptosis comparable to that observed following Dex (10-7 M) treatment, while inhibition of secretory PLA2 with p-bromophenacyl bromide (pBPB) (20 μM) did not. AACOCF3-induced thymocyte apoptosis, similarly to Dex-induced thymocyte apoptosis, was eliminated by cell pre-treatment with the PI-PLCβ inhibitor, U73122, but not by the PC-PLC inhibitor D609. These observations were corroborated by the ability of AACOCF3, like Dex, to induce a rapid and transient increase in DAG generation. In addition, AACOCF3-induced apoptosis involved the activation of the acidic sphingomyelinase (aSMase) but not of the neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase), ...
Title: The Role of Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) in Cardiovascular Disease. VOLUME: 6 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):Ignatios Ikonomidis, Christos A. Michalakeas, John Lekakis, John Parissis and Maria Anastasiou-Nana. Affiliation:2nd Cardiology Department, University of Athens, Attikon Hospital, Perikleous 19, N. Chalkidona, Athens 14343, Greece.. Keywords:Lp-PLA2, PAF-AH, inflammatory biomarkers, cardiovascular disease. Abstract: Lipoprotein-associated Phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is an enzyme that belongs to the A2 Phospholipase superfamily and is produced by inflammatory cells that are involved in the process of atherogenesis. Even though there is controversy in current bibliography whether Lp-PLA2 exerts proatherogenic or anti-atherogenic properties, the weight of evidence suggests a pro-atherogenic role for this protein. Lp-PLA2 is detected in human atherosclerotic lesions and elevated Lp-PLA2 levels are associated with an increased risk of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Candida albicans stimulates arachidonic acid liberation from alveolar macrophages through α-mannan and β-glucan cell wall components. AU - Castro, M.. AU - Ralston, N. V C. AU - Morgenthaler, Timothy Ian. AU - Rohrbach, M. S.. AU - Limper, Andrew Harold. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Candida albicans is an increasingly important fungal pathogen. Alveolar macrophages respond to fungal components such as zymosan by releasing arachidonic acid (AA) and AA metabolites. However, few studies have evaluated the effect of whole fungi on macrophage eicosanoid metabolism. We hypothesized that macrophages respond to C. albicans by releasing AA and generating AA metabolites as a consequence of interaction of mannose and β- glucan receptors with fungal cell wall components. [14C]AA-labeled rabbit alveolar macrophages released AA following stimulation with either live or heat-killed C. albicans. High-pressure liquid chromatography analysis revealed that 55% of the AA released was metabolized ...
A myotoxic, basic phospholipase A2 (pI greater than 9.5) with anticoagulant activity has been purified from the venom of Bothrops asper, and its amino acid sequence determined by automated Edman degradation. It is distinct from the B. asper phospholipase A2 known as myotoxin I [Lomonte, B. and Gutierrez, J. M., 1989, Toxicon 27, 725] but cross-reacts with myotoxin I rabbit antisera, suggesting that the proteins are closely related isoforms. To our knowledge, this is the first myotoxic phospholipase to be sequenced that lacks presynaptic neurotoxicity (iv LD50 approximately equal to 8 micrograms/g in mice). The protein appears to exist as a monomer, contains 122 amino acids, and fits with subgroup IIA of other sequenced phospholipase A2 molecules. Its primary sequence shows greatest identity with ammodytoxin B (67%), a phospholipase A2 presynaptic neurotoxin from Vipera ammodytes ammodytes venom. Hydropathy profiles of B. ...
Trimeresurus flavoviridis GPLI-I protein: serum protein that inhibits phospholipase A2; isolated from Trimeresurus flavoviridis; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank AB003472 and AB003473
Background: Group X secretory phospholipase A2 (GX sPLA2) potently releases arachidonic acid (AA) from the plasma membrane of intact cells. AA is a precursor of bioactive prostaglandins that are known to modulate insulin secretion by β-islet cells. C57BL/6 mice deficient in GX sPLA2 (GX KO) are protected from age-related defect in glucose tolerance. GX sPLA2 is expressed in mouse pancreatic islet cells. In this study we tested the hypothesis that GX sPLA2 regulates pancreatic insulin secretion.. Methods and results: Glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was measured in vivo in WT and GX KO mice and ex vivo using pancreatic islet cells isolated from WT and GX KO mice. To complement these studies, GSIS was also assessed in vitro using Min6 pancreatic beta cell lines with or without GX sPLA2 overexpression. GSIS was significantly increased in GX KO mice compared to WT mice, and in islet cells isolated from GX KO mice compared to WT mice. Consistent with this finding, Min6 ...
Antivenin activity of melanin extracted from black tea (MEBT) was reported for the first time. The antagonistic effect of MEBT was evaluated for Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus (broadbanded copperhead), Agkistrodon halys blomhoffii (Japanese mamushi), and Crotalus atrox (western diamondback rattlesnake) snake venoms administered i.p. to ICR mice. MEBT was injected i.p. immediately after the venom administration in dose of 3 mg per mouse in the same place of venom injection. MEBT demonstrated neutralization effect against all venoms tested. The greatest antivenin effect of MEBT was found against Japanese mamushi snake venom. In this case, half the mice died within 2.5 +/- 0.7 h after injection of 0.9 mg/kg of venom. An immediate injection of MEBT substantially reduced the toxic effect of venom and extended time at the 50% level of survival up to 52.3 +/- 2.3 h. The antivenin activity of MEBT is due to chelating of Ca++ and non-specific binding of phospholipase A2. The inhibitory effe
In the present study, to our knowledge, we first demonstrated that bvPLA2 is the major BV compound capable of inducing Treg expansion without altering the total composition of the other cell types in vivo and in vitro. Our previous report showed that BV has therapeutic effects on the MPTP-induced mouse model of PD via modulating the neuroinflammatory response and increasing the proportion of functional Tregs (23). In this study, we showed that bvPLA2 has neuroprotective effects by suppressing microglial activation and reducing the infiltrating CD4+ T cells in the MPTP-induced mouse model of PD. In addition to the neuroprotective effects, bvPLA2 directly binds to the mannose receptor (CD206) on DCs, and this binding induces the release of PGE2, which promotes Treg induction in CD4 T cells.. Microglia are resident innate immune cells of the CNS found in and around degenerating neurons (10-12) that are rapidly activated in response to neuronal damage and significantly contribute to secondary ...
I. H. Tsai, Y. M. Wang, Y. H. Chen, T. S. Tsai and Mc. Tu. Venom phospholipase A2 of bamboo veper (Trimeresurus stejnegeri): Molecular characterization, geographic variations and evidence of multiple ancestries. Biochemical Journal, 2004, 377: 215-223.
We have used Affymetrix gene chip technology to look for changes in gene expression caused by a 24 h exposure of rat primary neonatal cardiac myocytes to the cardioprotective agent urocortin. We observed a 2.5-fold down-regulation at both the mRNA and protein levels of a specific calcium-insensitive phospholipase A2 enzyme. Levels of lysophosphatidylcholine, a toxic metabolite of phospholipase A2, were lowered by 30% in myocytes treated with urocortin for 24 h and by 50% with the irreversible iPLA2 inhibitor bromoenol lactone compared with controls. Both 4 h ischemia and ischemia followed by 24 h reperfusion caused a significant increase in lysophosphatidylcholine concentration compared with controls. When these myocytes were pretreated with urocortin, the ischemia-induced increase in lysophosphatidylcholine concentration was significantly lowered. Moreover, co-incubation of cardiac myocytes with urocortin, or the specific phospholipase A2 inhibitor ...
Background: Recently we reported that angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension is mediated by group IV cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) via production of pro-hypertensive eicosanoids. Since Ang II increases blood pressure via its action in the subfornical organ (SFO), it led us to investigate the expression and possible contribution of cPLA2α to oxidative stress and development of hypertension in this brain area. Methods: Adenovirus (Ad)-green fluorescence protein (GFP) cPLA2α short hairpin (sh) RNA (Ad-cPLA2α shRNA) and its control Ad-scrambled shRNA (Ad-Scr shRNA) or Ad-enhanced cyan fluorescence protein cPLA2α DNA (Ad-cPLA2α DNA) and its control Ad-GFP DNA were transduced into SFO of cPLA2α+/+ and cPLA2α-/- male mice, respectively ...
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 16040234. Res. Microbiol. 2005 Aug;156(7):822-9. Phospholipases play an important role as virulence factors in human pathogens. Candida albicans, the major fungal pathogen of humans, encodes phospholipases of type A, B, C and D. Type B Plb2 and type D Pld1 phospholipases have been shown to contribute to virulence in this organism. We analyzed, in C. albicans, PLC2 and PLC3, two highly conserved genes coding for phosphatidylinositol-dependent phospholipases C with homology to the known virulence factor PlcA in the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. We show that expression of PLC2 and PLC3 is upregulated under different filament-inducing conditions and in the constitutive filamentous mutant tup1Delta. In order to analyze PLC2 and PLC3 function in C. albicans, we constructed strains that carry PLC2 or PLC3 under a constitutive promoter and strains that lack all four PLC2/3 alleles. These strains were not affected in ...
Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 2, cytoplasmic is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PAFAH2 gene. It is one of several PAF acetylhydrolases. This gene encodes platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase isoform 2, a single-subunit intracellular enzyme that catalyzes the removal of the acetyl group at the SN-2 position of platelet-activating factor (identified as 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine). However, this lipase exhibits a broader substrate specificity than simply platelet activating factor. Two other isoforms of intracellular platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase exist, and both are multi-subunit enzymes. Additionally, there is a single-subunit serum isoform of this enzyme. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000158006 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000037366 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Hattori K, Adachi H, Matsuzawa A, Yamamoto K, Tsujimoto M, Aoki J, Hattori M, Arai H, Inoue K ...
1] Sudhir K: Clinical review: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, a novel inflammatory biomarker and independent risk predictor for cardiovascular disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 90(5):3100-3105. [2] Koenig W, Khuseyinova N, Lowel H, et al: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 adds to risk prediction of incident coronary events by C-reactive protein in apparently healthy middle-aged men from the general population: results from the 14-year follow-up of a large cohort from southern Germany. Circulation 2004; 110(14):1903-1908. [3] Ballantyne CM, Hoogeveen RC, Bang H, et al: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and risk for incident coronary heart disease in middle-aged men and women in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Circulation 2004; 109(7):837-842. [4] Brilakis ES, McConnell JP, Lennon RJ, et al: Association of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 levels with ...
1ES9: The functional implications of the dimerization of the catalytic subunits of the mammalian brain platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (Ib).
Lien vers Pubmed [PMID] - 25904549. J. Immunol. 2015 Jun;194(11):5312-9. Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of bacterial infections in respiratory diseases. It secretes molecules to dampen host immunity, and the recently identified adenosine is one of these molecules. The type IIA secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IIA) is a host protein endowed with antibacterial properties, especially against Gram-positive bacteria such as S. aureus. However, the role of adenosine in sPLA2-IIA-mediated S. aureus killing by host is still unknown. The present studies showed that the S. aureus mutant lacking adenosine production (∆adsA strain) increased sPLA2-IIA expression in guinea pig airways and was cleared more efficiently, compared with the wild-type strain. S. aureus ∆adsA strain induced sPLA2-IIA expression by alveolar macrophages after phagocytic process via NOD2-NF-κB-dependent mechanism. However, S. aureus adenosine (wild-type and adsA-complemented strains) and exogenous ...
In this study, we demonstrate the presence of a transacetylase activity in human plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) that transfers short-chain fatty acids from platelet-activating factor (PAF) and its close ether- and ester-linked analogues to ether/ester-linked lysophospholipids (lyso-PL). We show evidence that both PAF acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) and transacetylase activities are inhibited to the same extent by serine esterase inhibitors, are resistant to heat treatment, and exhibit identical distributions in lipoprotein classes and in LDL subfractions. Additionally, the competitive inhibition of PAF-AH by lyso-PL, and the evidence that the recombinant PAF-AH also showed a similar transacetylase activity, suggest that PAF-AH is responsible for both activities. Using PAF as a donor molecule and lyso-PAF (1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) as an acceptor, the transacetylase activity showed typical allosteric kinetics, due to the positive co-operativity of the substrates, with apparent Vmax = ...
Local and systemic skeletal muscle degeneration is a common consequence of envenomations due to snakebites and mass bee attacks. Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) are important myotoxic components in these venoms, inducing a similar pattern of degenerative events in muscle cells. Myotoxic PLA2s bind to acceptors in the plasma membrane, which might be lipids or proteins and which may differ in their affinity for the PLA2s. Upon binding, myotoxic PLA2s disrupt the integrity of the plasma membrane by catalytically dependent or independent mechanisms, provoking a pronounced Ca2+ influx which, in turn, initiates a complex series of degenerative events associated with hypercontraction, activation of calpains and cytosolic Ca2+-dependent PLA2s, and mitochondrial Ca2+ overload. Cell culture models of cytotoxicity indicate that some myotoxic PLA2s affect differentiated myotubes in a rather selective fashion, whereas others display a broad cytolytic effect. A model is presented to explain the ...
phdthesis{9a2b0c99-7a98-49b0-8794-bd53b44cd228, abstract = {This thesis deals with processes coupled to injury in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), with a general aim to investigate the role of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes in axonal outgrowth. The axonal outgrowth of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons in vitro was reduced by several different inhibitors of PLA2 activity and enhanced by an activator of this enzyme. The PLA2 inhibitors acted locally in the outgrowth region and the effect only comprised the axonal elongation stage. Time-lapse recording of growing axons showed a rapid retraction of filopodia and a reduction in growth cone motility at exposure to the drugs. The PLA2 activity was upregulated in the DRG and nerve after a sciatic nerve injury in vivo, most profoundly in the crush region of the nerve. The upregulated activity was strongly Ca2+-dependent, acid sensitive and reduced by an inhibitor of type IV cytosolic (c) PLA2 (methyl arachidonyl ...
Shop Group 10 secretory phospholipase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Group 10 secretory phospholipase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
To the Editor:. Previous reports have demonstrated that lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), an enzymatic inflammatory biomarker, is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events (1). Lp-PLA2 mediates formation of bioactive mediators (lysophosphatidyl choline and oxidized nonesterified fatty acids) known to elicit several deleterious inflammatory responses involved in the pathobiology of atherosclerosis. Lysophosphatidyl choline serves as a potent chemoattractant for monocytes, resulting in foam cell accumulation within the arterial wall. Additionally, Lp-PLA2 has been detected in rupture-prone and ruptured atherosclerotic plaques. Taken together, the data suggests that inhibition of Lp-PLA2 may attenuate intimal macrophage accumulation and consequently stabilize atherosclerotic plaque.. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is a validated imaging technique widely used to quantify vascular inflammation within atheroma. In vivo ...
Purpose: : Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) plays a major role in macrophage infiltration, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and adhesion molecule upregulation in macrovascular disease. Since diabetic macular edema (DME) is recognised to have an inflammation-linked aetiology it was hypothesized that inhibition of this enzyme could be protective against blood retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown. Methods: : Localization of Lp-PLA2 in human retina was analyzed by immunohistology. In parallel, brown Norwegian (BN) rats had diabetes induced using streptozotocin (65mg/Kg). After 4 weeks hyperglycemia, animals were treated for 4 weeks with either vehicle or SB435495 (a specific inhibitor of Lp-PLA2)(10mg/Kg/day) by intra-peritoneal injection. An additional group of hyperglycemic animals were maintained treatment free for 4 weeks prior to initiating the 4 wk treatment regimen. An age and sex-matched group of non-diabetic NDb) BN rats were used as controls. Following drug treatment, ...
Background and Objectives Darapladib is a lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) inhibitor. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety of darapladib in healthy Chinese subjects. Methods Twenty-four subjects received darapladib 160 mg orally, approximately 1 hour after a standard breakfast, as a single dose and once daily for 28 days. Non-compartmental methods were used to determine the single and multiple dose pharmacokinetics of darapladib and its metabolite SB-553253. Repeat dose Lp-PLA2 activity and safety were evaluated. Results Systemic exposure (AUC(0-T), Cmax geometric mean (CVb%)) of darapladib was higher after multiple-dosing (519 ng.h/mL (33.3%), 34.4 ng/mL (49.9%)) compared to single-dose administration (153 ng.h/mL (69.0%), 17.9 ng/mL (55.2%). The steady-state accumulation ratio was less than unity (Rs = 0.80), indicating time-dependent pharmacokinetics of darapladib. Darapladib steady-state was reached by Day 14 of once daily dosing. ...
|i|Background:|/i| Whether lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) levels are associated with kidney function decline has not been well studied. |i|Me
Definition of Arachidonic acid cascade with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanism of thrombin-induced arachidonic acid release in osteoblast-like cells. AU - Suzuki, A.. AU - Kozawa, O.. AU - Shinoda, J.. AU - Watanabe-Tomita, Y.. AU - Saito, H.. AU - Oiso, Y.. PY - 1997/6. Y1 - 1997/6. N2 - In a previous study, we have reported that thrombin stimulates phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis by phospholipase (PL) D, but has little effect on phosphoinositide hydrolysis by PLC in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of the thrombin-induced arachidonic acid (AA) release in MC3T3-E1 cells. Thrombin stimulated AA release dose dependently in the range between 0.1 and 1 U/ml. Quinacrine, a PLA2 inhibitor, suppressed the thrombin-induced AA release. In addition, quinacrine also suppressed the thrombin-induced prostaglandin E2 synthesis in these cells. On the other hand, propranolol, which is known to inhibit phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase, did not affect the thrombin-induced AA release. ...
Snake venom phospholipase A2 (PLA2) that inhibits neuromuscular transmission by blocking acetylcholine release from the nerve termini. PLA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides (By similarity).
1FXW: Preparation and crystal structure of the recombinant alpha(1)/alpha(2) catalytic heterodimer of bovine brain platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase Ib.
Free Online Library: Cerebrospinal fluid secretory [Ca.sup.2+]-dependent phospholipase [A.sub.2] activity is increased in alzheimer disease.(Proteomics and Protein Markers) by Clinical Chemistry;
Results Exposure of VSMC to sPLA2 IIA or X did not increase mitogenesis, whereas exposure to grV markedly increased it in a dose/time fashion. Likewise, VSMC exposed to HDL or LDL hydrolysed by sPLA2 V (and less by X) became mitogenic. Interaction of sPLA2 with lipoproteins showed that hydrolysis of HDL and LDL by sPLA2s and the impact on mitogenesis were invariably enhanced in order V,X,IIA. Release of PGE2 was enhanced by sPLA2 X and LTB4 by gr X and V. Investigation of the products of lipoproteins hydrolysis showed that there is formation of core aldehydes, isoprostanes, hydroxides and hydroperoxides of PtdCho. sPLA2 grV hydrolysed hydroxides and hydroxyperoxides of linoleolyl GroPCho in preference to arachidonoyl GroPCho while groups IIA and X did the opposite.. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
We have recently demonstrated that bovine adrenal medulla contains a soluble phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)), which is localized in the cytosol. In the present study, this PLA(2) was purified 1,097-fold using sequential concanavalin A, hydrophobic interaction, anion exchange, gel filtration, and an additional anion exchange chromatography. The enzyme is activated over the range of 20-1,000 mu M Ca2+ and has a pH optimum near 8.0. On sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the protein has a molecular mass of 26 kDa and an isoelectric point of 4.6 as revealed by isoelectric focusing. The cytosolic PLA(2) is not inhibited by NaCl, and the enzymatic activity is stimulated at low concentrations of Triton X-100 (0.01%) and deoxycholate (1 mM) but inhibited at higher concentrations (0.1% and 3 mM, respectively) of these detergents. Furthermore, heat treatment (57 degrees C, 5 min) reduced the enzymatic activity by 80%, whereas glycerol (30%) increased the activity. ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
article{3c1d0d1b-0530-4d68-8c34-76c362110061, abstract = {,p,The involvement of cytosolic phospholipase A,sub,2,/sub, (cPLA,sub,2,/sub,) in apoptosis of adult mouse superior cervical and dorsal root ganglia neurons has been investigated by the use of immunohistochemistry for cPLA,sub,2,/sub, and DNA nick-end labeling for apoptotic cells, respectively, cPLA,sub,2,/sub, immunoreactivity was strongly upregulated in neurons of both preparations during in vitro culturing. By double labeling it was unequivocally demonstrated that cPLA,sub,2,/sub, was present and upregulated only in neurons undergoing apoptosis. A similar picture emerged when cPLA,sub,2,/sub, immunoreactivity was compared with staining with Fluoro-Jade, a novel fluorochrome marker for neuronal degeneration. The preferential presence of cPLA,sub,2,/sub, in apoptotic and degenerating cells suggests that the enzyme is important for some mechanism involved in or intimately coupled to neuronal cell death.,/p,}, author = ...
A - Tilt: 6° - Segments: 1(38-43), 2(67-78), 3(86-98), 4(113-122), 5(134-143), 6(156-164), 7(169-177), 8(195-203), 9(206-214), 10(222-232), 11(235-243), 12(258-264 ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Objective. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), a marker of vascular inflammation, is associated with cardiovascular disease. This prospective study of an inception cohort aimed to investigate whether the level of Lp-PLA2 is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. Patients from northern Sweden diagnosed with early RA were consecutively recruited into an ongoing prospective study. From these, all patients ,= 60 years (n = 71) were included for measurements of subclinical atherosclerosis at inclusion (T0) and five years later (T5). Forty age-and sex-matched controls were included. The patients were clinically assessed, SCORE, Reynolds Risk Score, and Larsen score were calculated, and blood samples were drawn from all individuals at T0 and T5. Results. There was no significant difference in the level of Lp-PLA2 between patients with RA and controls (p , 0.05). In simple linear regression models among patients with RA, ...
Although lithium has been used therapeutically to treat patients with bipolar disorder for over 50 years, its mechanism of action, as well as that of other drugs used to treat bipolar disorder, is not agreed upon. In the present paper, I review studies in unanaesthetized rats using a neuropharmacological approach, combined with kinetic, biochemical and molecular biology techniques, demonstrating that chronic administration of three commonly used mood stabilizers (lithium, valproic acid and carbamazepine), at therapeutically relevant doses, selectively target the brain arachidonic acid cascade. Upon chronic administration, lithium and carbamazepine decrease the binding activity of activator protein-2 and, in turn, the transcription, translation and activity of its arachidonic acid-selective calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 gene product, whereas chronic valproic acid non-competitively inhibits long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase. The net overlapping effects of the three mood stabilizers are ...
Hemorrhage is the most potent manifestation of envenomation by Vipera ammodytes ammodytes (V. a. ammodytes) venom in man. A detailed description of the venom components contributing to this effect is thus medically very important. We have characterized a novel component, termed here VaH3, as a potently hemorrhagic snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP). Its proteolytic activity and overall stability depend on the presence of Zn(2+) and Ca(2+) ions. The molecular mass of this slightly acidic molecule, determined by MALDI/TOF analysis, is 104 kDa. Chemical reduction and S-carbamoylmethylation result in a single monomer of 53.7 kDa. N-deglycosylation decreased this mass by 4.6 kDa. The complete amino acid sequence of VaH3 was determined by protein and cDNA sequencing, showing that each of the identical glycoprotein subunits comprise a metalloproteinase, a disintegrin-like domain and a cysteine-rich domain, VaH3 belongs to the P-IIIc class of SVMPs. It shows strong sequence similarity to vascular endothelial
Previous studies have suggested that sPLA2 may contribute to the development of atherosclerotic lesions,9 10 14 and we have examined this hypothesis directly using transgenic mice expressing human sPLA2. Consistent with previous studies,9 10 we observed abundant immunohistochemically localized sPLA2 in atherosclerotic lesions. The transgenic mice exhibited significantly increased lesions on a high-fat atherogenic diet as well as on a low-fat chow diet. The increase in lesion development appeared to result, in part, from decreased HDL and elevated LDL/VLDL levels. The levels of paraoxonase, an enzyme associated with HDL that protects against LDL oxidation and atherogenesis, were also substantially reduced in the sPLA2 transgenic mice compared with nontransgenic littermates. These points are discussed below.. The sPLA2 transgenic line used in these studies has previously been characterized with respect to sPLA2 expression in plasma and various tissue(s). The transgenic mice displayed severe ...
antibody-antibodies.com is the marketplace for research antibodies. Find the right antibody for your research needs. The multiplicity of cardiotoxins from Naja naja atra (Taiwan cobra) venom.
In this work we have characterized the action of the naringin, a flavonoid found in grapefruit and known for its various pharmacological effects, which include antioxidant blood lipid lowering and anticancer activity, on the structure and biochemical activities of a secretory phospholipase A (sPLA2) from Crotalus durissus cascavella, an important protein involved in the releasinge of arachidonic acid in phospholipid membranes. sPLA2 was incubated with naringin (mol:mol) at 37 °C and a discrete reduction in the UV scanning signal and a modification of the circular dichroism spectra were observed after treatment with naringin, suggesting modifications of the secondary structure of the protein. This flavonoid was able to decrease enzymatic activity and some pharmacological effects, such as myonecrosis, platelet aggregation, and neurotoxic activity caused by sPLA2, however, the inflammatory effect was not affected by naringin. In addition, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) ...
Arachidonic acid derivatives, like prostaglandins and leukotrienes, and the platelet-activating factor (PAF) are highly active substances with diverse biological actions. Elevated levels of these lipid mediators in response to a variety of stimuli have been implicated in the pathology of many inflammatory diseases. The rate limiting step in the generation of prostaglandins, leukotrienes and the PAF, respectively, is the cleavage of the sn-2- ester of membrane phospholipids by phospholipase A2. To date four main groups of phospholipases are known, which comprise the secretory, the calcium-independent, the cytosolic and the lipoprotein-associated phospholipases A2. From these the a-subtype of cytosolic phospholipases A2 (cPLA2α) appears to be the most likely candidate to catalyze this hydrolysis, since the enzyme is highly selective for arachidonoyl-containing phospholipids and is tightly ...
Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), specifically Group VIIA PLA2, is an associate from the phospholipase A2 superfamily and is available mainly connected with LDL and HDL in individual plasma. apoproteins Xarelto in HDL, and also, residues 360C368 are just suffering from HDL.The full total results claim that apoA-I and phospholipid membranes play crucial roles in Lp-PLA2 localization to HDL. 14: 2032C2039. [PubMed] 20. Okamura K., Miura S., Zhang B., Uehara Y., Matsuo K., Kumagai K., Saku K.2007. Proportion of LDL- to HDL-associated platelet-activating aspect acetylhydrolase could be a marker of irritation in sufferers with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Circ. J.71: 214C219. [PubMed] 21. Tsimihodimos V., Karabina S. A., Tambaki A. P., Bairaktari E., Miltiadous G., Goudevenos J. A., Cariolou M. A., Chapman M. J., Tselepis A. D., Elisaf M. 2002. Changed distribution of platelet-activating aspect- acetylhydrolase activity between LDL and HDL being a function of ...
Cytosolic phospholipase A2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PLA2G4A gene. This gene encodes a member of the cytosolic phospholipase A2 group IV family. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids to release arachidonic acid which is subsequently metabolized into eicosanoids. Eicosanoids, including prostaglandins and leukotrienes, are lipid-based cellular hormones that regulate hemodynamics, inflammatory responses, and other intracellular pathways. The hydrolysis reaction also produces lysophospholipids that are converted into platelet-activating factor. The enzyme is activated by increased intracellular Ca2+ levels and phosphorylation, resulting in its translocation from the cytosol and nucleus to perinuclear membrane vesicles. PLA2G4A has been shown to interact with HTATIP. Mutations in this gene have been associated with multifocal stenosing ulceration of the small intestine. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to examine the time course of the inflammatory response in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and to assess the markers of inflammation and their relation to disease severity. METHODS: We prospectively studied 134 patients with ACS who survived for at least 30 months. The patients were divided into four groups: acute myocardial infarction (MI) with (n=54) or without (n=46) ST-segment elevation and unstable angina with (n=14) or without (n=20) increased risk. Plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (sPLA2-IIA), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were measured on days 1 and 4 and after 3 and 30 months. RESULTS: The highest levels of CRP and sPLA2-IIA were seen on day 4 but for IL-6 on day 1. These three markers, but not ICAM-1, were significantly related to disease severity, CKMB, and ejection fraction. Patients in Killip class II-IV had higher levels than those ...
The influence of ischaemia and revascularisation on lipid peroxidation and phospholipid metabolism in the rat small intestinal mucosa was investigated. Two hours of total ischaemia followed by five minutes of revascularisation caused not only accumulation of malondialdehyde in the mucosa, but also increased activity of phospholipase A2, decreased activity of lysophospholipase, and increased ratio between lysophosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylcholine. Pretreatment with the phospholipase A2 inhibitor, quinacrine, prevented the increases in mucosal phospholipase A2 activity and lysophosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylcholine ratio after ischaemia and morphological examinations revealed that the mucosa was then also protected against ischaemic injury. These findings point to the possibility that activation of phospholipase A2 and accumulation of lysophosphoglycerides could be involved in mediating the mucosal injury caused by ...
Alfa Aesar™ Elastase, porcine pancreas 100mg Alfa Aesar™ Elastase, porcine pancreas Proteases and Protein-Cleaving Reagents
Lipid comprising polyunsaturated fatty acids | Oral pharmaceutical composition of isotretinoin | Preparation for treatment of a non-oral treatment site comprising an active chlorine compound and amino acids | Compounded solutions of diclofenac and lidocaine and methods | Compositions and methods including leelamine and arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone relating to treatment of cancer |
Methods. Materials. The choroid-retinal EC line RF/6A was obtained from ATCC (Manassas, VA; CRL-1780). The endothelial origin of these cells has been corroborated by morphology, growth patterns, and the presence of factor VIII-related antigen (von Willebrand factor) [25]. We also used p-aminophenylmercuric acetate (APMA), an organomercurial activator of matrix metalloproteinases and collagen type-I (Sigma Chemical Co. St. Louis, MO); VEGF ELISA kit (R & D Systems, Minneapolis, MN); arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone (AACOCF3) and human granulocyte MMP-9 standard (Calbiochem La Jolla, CA); SYBR Green PCR Master Mix, TaqMan Reverse Transcription, TaqMan Ribosomal RNA control reagents (18S RNA), deoxynucleotides (dNTPs), and Ampli-Taq Gold (Perkin Elmer Branchburg, NJ); agarose, ethidium bromide, and DNA Mass Ladder (100 bp; Life Technologies, Gibco BRL Grand Island, NY); SV Total RNA Isolation system (Promega, Madison, WI); iCycler iQ optical-quality sealing tape, PCR plates, 10% zymogram ready ...
The present review aims to systematically and critically analyze the current knowledge on phospholipases and their role in physiological and pathological mineralization undertaken by mineralization competent cells. Cellular lipid metabolism plays an important role in biological mineralization. The physiological mechanisms of mineralization are likely to take place in tissues other than in bones and teeth under specific pathological conditions. For instance, vascular calcification in arteries of patients with renal failure, diabetes mellitus or atherosclerosis recapitulates the mechanisms of bone formation. Osteoporosis-a bone resorbing disease-and rheumatoid arthritis originating from the inflammation in the synovium are also affected by cellular lipid metabolism. The focus is on the lipid metabolism due to the effects of dietary lipids on bone health. These and other phenomena indicate that phospholipases may participate in bone remodelling as evidenced by their expression ...
PAFAH1B2 - PAFAH1B2 (GFP-tagged) - Human platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b, catalytic subunit 2 (30kDa) (PAFAH1B2), transcript variant 1 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
In the present study, we investigated whether the protective effect of FK506 and cyclosporin A (CsA) against in vitro ischemic injury of astrocytes might be mediated through attenuation of cytosolic isoform of phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) expression and activity as well as inhibition of arachidonic acid (AA) release. On the 21st day in vitro, cultures of rat astrocytes were subjected to ischemia-simulating conditions (combined oxygen glucose deprivation) for 8 h and exposed to FK506 (10 - 1,000 nM) and CsA (0.25 - 10 microM). Obtained data suggest the cross-talk between the action of 0.25 - 10 microM CsA as well as 1 microM FK506 on calcineurin (CaN) and cPLA(2) in anti-apoptotic signal transduction pathways. Moreover, we have shown that immunosuppressants at these concentrations protected glial cells against ischemia-induced apoptosis through the increase of cell viability, mitochondrial function restoration, and attenuation of oxidative stress. Finally, in our study, low ...
Of course, the real reason for PLAs is to discourage competition from qualified nonunion contractors and their skilled merit shop tradespeople.. Provisions in typical PLAs require contractors to use only construction workers referred through union hiring halls, contribute to union pension and benefit plans even if they pay into their existing plans, and follow inefficient and archaic work rules, all of which needlessly increase the cost of construction on PLA jobsites. In addition, PLAs force construction tradespeople to accept exclusive union representation and pay dues and fees to unions as a condition of employment on the project.. Such provisions deter almost all merit shop entitites from competing for and winning contracts on PLA jobs.. In adddition, union bosses tout the benefit of PLAs preventing union strikes on PLA jobsites, but WTC Tower #2 suffered from a strike by multiple construction unions in 2011.. Finally, union bosses claim PLAs help deliver projects on-time and ...
We have shown that the lipid phosphate phosphatase Wun dimerises, that a C-terminal truncation or mutation of a conserved catalytic residue prevents this association, and that dimerisation is not required for activity either in vitro or in vivo. We have also demonstrated that whilst hLPP-3 and mLPP-1 can both dimerise, none of the LPPs tested, including Wun-2 can form associations with Wun. We have recently demonstrated that though biochemically active on a number of substrates in vitro, mLPP-1 is inactive when ectopically expressed in Drosophila embryos, whereas hLPP-3 shows a similar phenotype to that of Wunen [10]. These results indicate that although all of the isoforms tested are capable of forming multimeric complexes, it is unlikely that oligomerisation can account for the observed differences in bioactivity.. This is the first time that a LPP has been shown to dimerise, although protein oligomerisation per se is not novel. Outer membrane phospholipase A (OMPLA) resides in an ...
Advances in Vascular Medicine is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of vascular medicine.
Advances in Vascular Medicine is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of vascular medicine.
Cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) is the rate-limiting enzyme for release of arachidonic acid, which is converted primarily to PGs via the cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 pathways and to leukotrienes via the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. We used adoptive transfer and relapsing-remitting forms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis, in two different strains of mice (SJL or C57BL/6) to demonstrate that blockade of cPLA2α with a highly specific small-molecule inhibitor during the tissue-damage effector phase abrogates the clinical manifestation of disease. Using the adoptive transfer model in SJL mice, we demonstrated that the blockade of cPLA2α during the effector phase of disease was more efficacious in ameliorating the disease pathogenesis than the blockade of each of the downstream enzymes, cyclooxygenase-1/2 and 5-lipooxygenase. Similarly, blockade of cPLA2α was highly efficacious in ameliorating disease pathogenesis during the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modification of phospholipids with lipases and phospholipases. AU - Mustranta, Annikka. AU - Forssell, Pirkko. AU - Aura, Anna-Marja. AU - Suortti, Tapani. AU - Poutanen, Kaisa. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Different commercial lipases and phosphoiipases were studied in the hydrolysis and transesterification of synthetic phosphatidylcholine and soybean lecithin. Wide variations in the lipase and phospholipase activities and in the protein contents of the preparations were observed. The substrate specificity varied between different enzymes. A high degree of hydrolysis of synthetic and soybean phospholipids was achieved with both types of enzymes.Enzymes immobilized on Celite were used in the transesterification of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine and oleic acid. The conversions were carried out both without solvent and in the presence of toluene. The amount of modified phosphatidylcholine was measured using HPLC. The highest amount of modified ...
Platelet-activating factor is a potent mediator of inflammation, which has untoward effects on cerebrovascular and neural elements. While several investigators have reported attenuation of ischemic damage after treatment with antagonists of platelet-activating factor, no study has proved endogenous production of platelet-activating factor in ischemia of the central nervous system. We hypothesized that endogenous production of platelet-activating factor participates in the early pathologic manifestations of deteriorating stroke. In 12 rabbits, we found tissue levels of platelet-activating factor measured by the release of serotonin from washed platelets to be elevated by approximately 20-fold in spinal cord injured by 25 minutes of ischemia and 2 hours of reperfusion (2.80 +/- 0.98 ng/g) compared with that in normal spinal cord (0.15 +/- 0.06 ng/g, p less than 0.01). Given during ischemia to seven rabbits, 10 mg/kg i.p. of a highly selective and potent antagonist of platelet-activating factor (BN ...
Inflammation is increasingly recognized to play an important role in atherosclerosis and stroke.1,15 Macrophages, cytokines, and leukocyte adhesion molecules contribute to vascular injury, endothelial dysfunction, plaque formation, plaque rupture, and coagulopathy.16 Because of this, serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers such as hsCRP, an acute phase protein, have been used as nonspecific measures of vascular inflammation. Lp-PLA2 is an enzyme derived from leukocytes, particularly macrophages, that is involved in metabolism of LDL to the proinflammatory mediators lysophosphatidylcholine and oxidized fatty acids.3,11 Lysophosphatidylcholine increases expression of vascular adhesion molecules, upregulates cytokines and CD40 ligand, and stimulates macrophage proliferation.. Our findings provide evidence that hsCRP and LpPLA2 activity levels are stable when repeated annually. Our findings are similar to findings of stability for hsCRP from other populations.17,18 In one study among patients with ...
L. pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires disease (LD) expresses numerous lipolytic enzymes. According to sequence homology or determined lipolytic activities, up to 17 open reading frames of the L. pneumophila genome may encode functional phospholipases. In addition to secreted and/or injected lipolytic enzymes, it was shown that the pathogen expresses a highly active and membrane-bound phospholipase A/lysophospholipase A with hemolytic activity, designated PlaB. As PlaB does not belong to any established bacterial or eukaryotic protein family of lipolytic enzymes nor does it show sequence homology to conserved motifs harboring the catalytically important amino acids, we analyzed putative catalytic centers using site-directed mutagenesis. This study shows that PlaB exhibits a catalytic triad of serine, aspartate and histidine residues, most commonly found within lipolytic and proteolytic enzyme families. However, surrounding motifs differ ...
Buy Eastern Tiger Snake (Notechis scutatus scutatus) by Shannon Wild as a Throw Pillow, Tote Bag, Art Print, Canvas Print, Framed Print, Photographic Print, Metal Print, Greeting Card, or Acrylic Block
sPLA2 [odds ratio 1.23 for 1 standard deviation (SD) increase, p = 0.007], but not Lp-PLA2 (p = 0.26), activity was related to carotid atherosclerosis and to the amount of stenosis by WBMRA (p = 0.006) following adjustment for multiple risk factors. sPLA2 [hazard ratio (HR) 1.45 for 1 SD increase, p = 0.001], but not Lp-PLA2 (HR, 0.95; p = 0.55), activity was a significant risk factor for all-cause mortality during 7.0 years follow-up after adjustment for other risk factors. In a sample of 1,029 post-MI patients, sPLA2 (adjusted HR 1.32 for 1 unit increase, p = 0.036), but not Lp-PLA2 (HR, 1.03; p = 0.90), activity predicted death or recurrent MI during 1-year follow-up.. ...
1FDK: Crystal structure of the complex of bovine pancreatic phospholipase A2 with the inhibitor 1-hexadecyl-3-(trifluoroethyl)-sn-glycero-2-phosphomethanol,.
Previous studies using phospholipid mixed vesicles have demonstrated that several types of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes exhibit different selectivity for fatty acids at the sn-2 position, for the type of chemical bond at the sn-1 position or for the phosphobase moiety at the sn-3 position of phospholipids. In the present study, we have utilized natural mammalian membranes from U937 monocytes to determine whether two purified 14 kDa PLA2 isoenzymes (Type I, Type II) and a partially purified 110 kDa PLA2 exhibit substrate selectivity for certain fatty acids or phospholipids. In these studies, arachidonic acid (AA) release from membranes was measured under conditions where the remodelling of AA mediated by CoA-independent transacylase (CoA-IT) activity has been eliminated. In agreement with the mixed-vesicle models, AA was the major unsaturated fatty acid hydrolysed from membranes by the 110 kDa PLA2, suggesting that this PLA2 is selective in releasing AA from natural membranes. By contrast, ...
Phospholipases A2 from pig pancreas and the venoms from bee, Naja naja and Crotalus atrox have been studied by using a new continuous fluorescence displacement assay that utilizes normal phospholipid substrates [Wilton (1990) Biochem. J. 266, 435-439]. With limiting amounts of substrate, the assay demonstrated stoichiometric conversion into products with both pancreatic and venom enzymes, and thus would allow phospholipid determination at concentrations down to about 0.1 microM. The substrate specificity of the enzyme was determined for the four enzymes in terms of both phospholipid head group and fatty acid selectivity. None of the enzymes demonstrated a preference for arachidonic acid-containing phospholipid under the conditions of this assay. No lag was observed with any enzyme with either phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylglycerol as substrate. With dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine as substrate, the assay clearly highlighted the different membrane-penetrating properties of the pancreatic ...
The present study compares for the first time the effect of 3 hypolipidemic drugs (ezetimibe, rosuvastatin, fenofibrate), which exert their action through different mechanisms, on plasma Lp-PLA2 activity and mass. All drugs reduce Lp-PLA2 activity and mass associated with the atherogenic apoB-containing lipoproteins. Furthermore, fenofibrate increases the specific activity of the enzyme associated with these lipoproteins and specifically that of the most atherogenic dense LDL-5 subfraction.. Fenofibrate reduces Lp-PLA2 activity and mass associated with apoB-containing lipoproteins, an effect that could be mainly attributed to the preferential reduction of the enzyme associated with LDL-5 particles,24 ie, those particles carrying the majority of LDL-associated enzyme.2,6 In accordance with our previously published results,24 the present study shows that the above reduction is attributed to the fenofibrate action to decrease sdLDL and to increase large buoyant LDL particles, which have a higher ...
Mammalian sPLA2-IB are well characterized. In contrast, much less is known about aquatic ones. The aquatic world contains a wide variety of living species and, hence represents a great potential for discovering new lipolytic enzymes. A marine s
Neuro- and myotoxicological signs and symptoms are significant clinical features of envenoming snakebites in many parts of the world. The toxins primarily responsible for the neuro and myotoxicity fall into one of two categories-those that bind to and block the post-synaptic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) at the neuromuscular junction and neurotoxic phospholipases A2 (PLAs) that bind to and hydrolyse membrane phospholipids of the motor nerve terminal (and, in most cases, the plasma membrane of skeletal muscle) to cause degeneration of the nerve terminal and skeletal muscle. This review provides an introduction to the biochemical properties of secreted sPLA2s in the venoms of many dangerous snakes and a detailed discussion of their role in the initiation of the neurologically important consequences of snakebite. The rationale behind the experimental studies on the pharmacology and toxicology of the venoms and isolated PLAs in the venoms is discussed, with particular reference to the way these ...
This test looks for a specific lipoprotein, Lp-PLA2, in your blood. The test is used to help predict your risk for cardiovascular disease and stroke.
Signal transduction induced by generations of second messengers from membrane phospholipids is a major regulatory mechanism in the control of cell proliferation. Indeed, oncogenic p21ras alters the intracellular levels of phospholipid metabolites in both mammalian cells and Xenopus oocytes. However, it is still controversial whether this alteration it is biologically significant. We have analyzed the ras-induced signal transduction pathway in Xenopus oocytes and have correlated its mechanism of activation with that of the three most relevant phospholipases (PLs). After microinjection, ras-p21 induces a rapid PLD activation followed by a late PLA2 activation. By contrast, phosphatidylcholine-specific PLC was not activated under similar conditions. When each of these PLs was studied for its ability to activate intracellular signalling kinases, all of them were found to activate maturation-promoting factor efficiently. However, only PLD was able to activate MAP kinase and S6 kinase II, a ...
We have previously shown that recombinant interleukin 1 (IL-1) and recombinant tumour necrosis factor (TNF) synergistically stimulate phospholipase A2 release from mesangial cells. We now report that treatment of mesangial cells with the ′-agonist salbutamol, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cholera toxin or forskolin, which all activate adenylate cyclase, increased release of phospholipase A2 activity. Likewise, addition of a membrane-permeant cyclic AMP (cAMP) analogue or the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine enhanced release of phospholipase A2 activity from mesangial cells. There was a lag period of about 8 h before a significantly enhanced secretion could be detected. Furthermore, actinomycin D or cycloheximide completely suppressed cAMP-stimulated secretion of phospholipase A2. Angiotensin II, the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 and a membrane-permeant cGMP analogue did not ...
Many potential biological functions have been proposed for the cytosolic calcium-independent iPLA2β enzyme (3). Among the proposed functions are its participation in phospholipid remodeling in P388D1 macrophage-like cells (5,11), cell proliferation (12,13), apoptosis (3), and signal transduction in β-cells and in other cells (12).. In β-cells, inhibition of iPLA2β suppresses glucose-induced insulin secretion, and overexpression of the enzyme enhances secretion, but neither inhibition nor overexpression of iPLA2β affects incorporation of fatty acids into β-cell phospholipids (12). These findings indicate that iPLA2β has a signaling role in insulin secretion but does not serve a housekeeping role in phospholipid remodeling in β-cells.. Immunofluorescence analyses using polyclonal antibodies directed against iPLA2β also indicate that stimulation of β-cells with insulin secretagogues cause redistribution of iPLA2β within the β-cell. There is accumulation of an iPLA2β immunofluorescence ...
Imaging of individual lipid vesicles is used to track single-enzyme kinetics of phospholipid hydrolysis. The method is employed to quantify the catalytic activity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in both pure and complex biological fluids. The measurements are demonstrated to offer a subpicomolar limit of detection (LOD) of human secretory PLA2 (sPLA2) in up to 1000-fold-diluted cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). An additional new feature provided by the single-enzyme sensitivity is that information about both relative concentration variations of active sPLA2 in CSF and the specific enzymatic activity can be simultaneously obtained. When CSF samples from healthy controls and individuals diagnosed with Alzheimers disease (AD) are analyzed, the specific enzymatic activity is found to be preserved within 7% in the different CSF samples whereas the enzyme concentration differs by up to 56%. This suggests that the previously reported difference in PLA2 activity in CSF samples from healthy and ...
Objective: 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) regulates cells via two different mechanisms: VDR-dependent gene transcription and rapid membrane-signaling. In membrane-signaling, phospholipase-A2 (PLA2) is activated after 1,25D3 binds its membrane-associated receptor, protein disulfide isomerase family A, member 3 (Pdia3), leading to release of arachidonic acid, activation of phospholipase C (PLC), and activation of PLC-dependent protein kinase C (PKC). Caveolae are required for 1,25D3-dependent PKC activation. PLA2 activating protein (PLAA), which activates PLA2, exhibits homology with the G-protein beta subunit, and was considered to play a role in this process. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if and how PLAA mediates the membrane effects of 1,25D3. Method: Subconfluent cultures of MC3T3-E1 cells immunostained against PLAA, Cav-1 and Pdia3 were imaged using confocal microscopy. Wild type and PLAA-silenced (shPLAA) MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were treated with either ...
We report the detailed molecular characterization of two PLA2s, Lys49 and Asp49 isolated from Bothrops leucurus venom, and examined their effects against Dengue virus (DENV). The Bl-PLA2s, named BlK-PLA2 and BlD-PLA2, are composed of 121 and 122 amino acids determined by automated sequencing of the native proteins and peptides produced by digestion with trypsin. They contain fourteen cysteines with pIs of 9.05 and 8.18 for BlK- and BlD-PLA2s, and show a high degree of sequence similarity to homologous snake venom PLA2s, but may display different biological effects. Molecular masses of 13,689.220 (Lys49) and 13,978.386 (Asp49) were determined by mass spectrometry. DENV causes a prevalent arboviral disease in humans, and no clinically approved antiviral therapy is currently available to treat DENV infections. The maximum non-toxic concentration of the proteins to LLC-MK2 cells determined by MTT assay was 40 µg/mL for Bl-PLA2s (pool) and 20 µg/mL for each isoform. Antiviral effects of Bl-PLA2s were
Abstract: Pancreatic phospholipase A2 (phospholipase A2 group 1B, G1B) belongs to the superfamily of secreted phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes. G1B has been proposed to be a potential target for diseases such as hypertension, obesity, and diabetes. Human pancreatic prophospholipase A2 (pro-hG1B) is activated by cleavage of the first seven-residue propeptide (phospholipase A2 propeptide, PROP). However, questions still remain on the mode of action for pro-hG1B. In this work, we expressed pro-hG1B in Pichia pastoris and determined the crystal structure at 1.55-Å resolution. The x-ray structure demonstrates that pro-hG1B forms a trimer. In addition, PROP occupies the catalytic cavity and can be self-cleaved at 37 °C. A new membrane-bound surface and activation mechanism are proposed based on the trimeric model of pro-hG1B. We also propose a new autoproteolytic mechanism for pro-hG1B by the reaction triad Asp49-Arg0-Ser(-2) that ...
The formation of second messengers at a specific place regulates the local formation of a pseudopod. These second messengers are presumably PIP3 for the PI3K pathway, but there could be several second messengers for the PLA2 pathway. The PLA2-catalyzed hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids results in the stoichiometric production of a free fatty acid and a lysophospholipid. Both of these phospholipid metabolites may serve as potential second messengers. Recently, the first results of a genetic screen for LY294002-supersensitive chemotaxis mutants were reported (Chen et al., 2007). A gene was identified that belongs to the Ca2+-independent PLA2 (iPLA2, group VI PLA2) class, whose inactivation in a wild-type background had no effect, but inactivation in a pi3k-null background nearly completely inhibited chemotaxis, which is in excellent agreement with the present observations. The regulation of this PLA2 by upstream components requires further investigation, as well as the identification of the ...
leg lift and so on when the use of. slow speed. the continuous time is too long or action range is too large, target muscle (by static stretching) the first day of the leg abdomen training: leg training is conducive to the body muscles long leg sitting 4 x10-12 christmas pandora bracelets clearance Smith squat 4 group x10-12 leg curl 4 group x10-12 4 group sit ups x15-20 x15-20 group of inclined plate 4 sit ups swivel 4 group x15-20 sitting supine time (exercise abdominal oblique movement) hanging leg raise 4 group x15-20 third days training: supine chest shoulder barbell press 4 groups x10-12 Dumbbell presses 4 group x10-12 4 group x10-12 oblique dumbbell press time incline dumbbell fly 4 group x10-12 4 group x10-12 time sitting dumbbell time sitting dumbbell press 4 group x10-12 4 group x10-12 time standing dumbbell time standing dumbbell lateral group 4 x10-12 fifth days back to Rome training chair: 4 group x10-12 T type 4 x10-12 rod rowing group wide grip chin up 4 group x10-12 4 group ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
A recognized feature of psoriasis and other proliferative dermatoses is accumulation in your skin from the unusual arachidonic acidity metabolite, 12hydrogen through the 10-carbon of arachidonate. included regions of epidermis in psoriasis possess PPARG improved concentrations of free of charge arachidonic acid and 12-HETE markedly. Chiral analysis from the 12-HETE in psoriasis revealed that the major enantiomer is 12390C404, encompassing the major M-PFB ions at 391 (unlabeled HETE) and 399 (d8 analogue), essentially as described previously (28). Experiments with Stereospecifically Labeled Arachidonic Acids. The specific activities of the two 10-3H-labeled arachidonic acids were approximately 10,000C20,000 disintegrations per min 3H per g. The pro-[10-3H]arachidonic acid was enriched in tritium by incubation with an 8as described in principle before (29). The stereospecifically labeled arachidonic acids were admixed with [14C]arachidonic acid, which served as an internal standard for measurement ...
Glycerophospholipids in Brain: Phospholipases A2 in Neurological Disorders Akhlaq A. Farooqui and Lloyd A. Horrocks Glycerophospholipids in Brain: Phospholipases A2 in Neurological Disorders provides
Innate Immune System and alprazloam Eye 441 ппLipid layer Aqueous prezzo alprazolam gocce Mucin layer Epithelium Secretory phospholipase A2 Secretory phospholipase A2 exhibits potent antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. 3mg 1mg 3mg (N42) agulation (N 44) (N 44) (N 42) alpraolam Prezzo alprazolam gocce Prrezzo 13 (30) 17 (40) 20 (48) No 33 (75) 31 (70) 25 (60) 22 (52) пComparisons 0.
Summary There is increasing evidence that lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (LpPLA2) is associated with cardiovascular disease. However, it is still unclear whether LpPLA2 is simply a marker or has a causal role as either a pro- or anti-atherogenic factor. We analyzed the association of five...
Gradients of morphogens (in the embryo), pheromones (in yeast) or chemoattractants in prospective migrating cells provide spatial cues that generate cellular asymmetry[6] by activating specific receptors. These receptors often belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily[12], members of which are distributed homogeneously in the cellular membrane[13],[14]. Asymmetric activation of these receptors is amplified through the asymmetric recruitment and activation of signaling adaptors in a process that magnifies very shallow differences in the gradient as perceived by the front and the rear of the cell[6].. Among the effectors that are asymmetrically recruited and activated by the membrane receptors are heterotrimeric G proteins, which activate - among other enzymes - phospholipase C (PLC) and different isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC), inducing the local formation of second messengers (such as diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol trisphosphate (InsP3)) and protein ...
As far as I can tell, some sort of stimuli, whether it be an injury or just a need to constrict or dilate something causes various phospholipases to h

Cerebrospinal fluid secretory [Ca.sup.2+]-dependent phospholipase [A.sub.2] activity is increased in alzheimer disease. - Free...Cerebrospinal fluid secretory [Ca.sup.2+]-dependent phospholipase [A.sub.2] activity is increased in alzheimer disease. - Free...

... dependent phospholipase [A.sub.2] activity is increased in alzheimer disease.(Proteomics and Protein Markers) by Clinical ... 5] Nonstandard abbreviations: PLA2, phospholipase [A.sub.2]; sPLA2, secretory [Ca.sup.2+]-dependent PLA2; cPLA2, cytosolic [Ca. ... Assay strategies and methods for phospholipases. Methods Enzymol 1991;197:3-23. (24.) Smesny S, Kinder D, Willhardt I, Rosburg ... Mouse group X secretory phospholipase [A.sub.2] induces a potent release of arachidonic acid from spleen cells and acts as a ...
more infohttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Cerebrospinal+fluid+secretory+%5BCa.sup.2%2B%5D-dependent+phospholipase+...-a0324398243

The Step Further to Understand the Role of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 Alpha  and Group X Secretory Phospholipase A2 in Allergic...The Step Further to Understand the Role of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 Alpha and Group X Secretory Phospholipase A2 in Allergic...

M. Triggiani, F. Granata, G. Giannattasio, and G. Marone, "Secretory phospholipases A2 in inflammatory and allergic diseases: ... The Step Further to Understand the Role of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 Alpha and Group X Secretory Phospholipase A2 in Allergic ... "Secretory phospholipase A2 receptor-mediated activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 in murine bone marrow-derived mast cells ... S. Offer, S. Yedgar, O. Schwob et al., "Negative feedback between secretory and cytosolic phospholipase A2 and their opposing ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/670814/ref/

Enhancement of Mast Cell Survival: A Novel Function of Some Secretory Phospholipase A2 Isotypes | The Journal of ImmunologyEnhancement of Mast Cell Survival: A Novel Function of Some Secretory Phospholipase A2 Isotypes | The Journal of Immunology

Secretory and cytosolic phospholipases A2 are activated during TNF priming of human neutrophils. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1389: ... Secretory phospholipase A2 receptor-mediated activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 in murine bone marrow-derived mast cells ... Secretory phospholipase A2 induces phospholipase Cγ-1 activation and Ca2+ mobilization in the human astrocytoma cell line ... Cleavage of human cytosolic phospholipase A2 by caspase-1 (ICE) and caspase-8 (FLICE). Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 253: 92. ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/167/8/4161

Enhancement of Mast Cell Survival: A Novel Function of Some Secretory Phospholipase A2 Isotypes | The Journal of ImmunologyEnhancement of Mast Cell Survival: A Novel Function of Some Secretory Phospholipase A2 Isotypes | The Journal of Immunology

Secretory and cytosolic phospholipases A2 are activated during TNF priming of human neutrophils. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1389: ... Secretory phospholipase A2 receptor-mediated activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 in murine bone marrow-derived mast cells ... Secretory phospholipase A2 induces phospholipase Cγ-1 activation and Ca2+ mobilization in the human astrocytoma cell line ... Cleavage of human cytosolic phospholipase A2 by caspase-1 (ICE) and caspase-8 (FLICE). Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 253: 92. ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/167/8/4161.full

Sphingomyelinase Activity of Trichomonas vaginalis Extract and SubfractionsSphingomyelinase Activity of Trichomonas vaginalis Extract and Subfractions

J. E. Gomez-Marín, H. ElBtaouri, A. Bonhomme et al., "Involvement of secretory and cytosolic phospholipases a2 during ... B. D. Mata-Cárdenas, M. E. Hernández-García, F. González-Salazar et al., "Axenic cultivation and comparative phospholipase A2 ... phospholipases, and sphingomyelinases. Phospholipases and sphingomyelinases are the most studied poisons to date and are ... I. Tabas, "Secretory sphingomyelinase," Chemistry and Physics of Lipids, vol. 102, no. 1-2, pp. 123-130, 1999. View at ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/679365/

Peripheral membrane protein - wikidocPeripheral membrane protein - wikidoc

Phospholipase A2 (secretory and cytosolic). Hydrolysis of sn-2 fatty acid bond of phospholipids.[36]. Lipid digestion, membrane ... Peripheral enzymes participate in metabolism of different membrane components, such as lipids (phospholipases and cholesterol ... Bee venom phospholipase A2 (1poc). Middle plane of the lipid bilayer - black dots. Boundary of the hydrocarbon core region - ... PH domain of phospholipase C delta 1. Middle plane of the lipid bilayer - black dots. Boundary of the hydrocarbon core region ...
more infohttp://wikidoc.org/index.php/Peripheral_membrane_protein

Group II and IV phospholipase A(2) are produced in human pancreatic cancer cells and influence prognosis. - Semantic ScholarGroup II and IV phospholipase A(2) are produced in human pancreatic cancer cells and influence prognosis. - Semantic Scholar

... referred to as secretory non-pancreatic or synovial or platelet PLA(2) (PLA(2)-II); group IV, referred to as cytosolic PLA(2) ( ... BACKGROUND Phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) is involved in regulating biosynthesis of arachidonic acid and its metabolites. There ... Expression of inflammatory secretory phospholipase A2 and cytosolic phospholipase A2 in premalignant and malignant Barretts ... Induction of cytosolic phospholipase A2 by oncogenic Ras in human non-small cell lung cancer.. Lynn E. Heasley, Sonja Thaler, + ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Group-II-and-IV-phospholipase-A%282%29-are-produced-in-Kashiwagi-Friess/20608a71551b81ab5f05730ab64ae5d9b657fb7c

PLA2G10 phospholipase A2 group X [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBIPLA2G10 phospholipase A2 group X [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI

PLA2c; PLA2c: Phospholipase A2, a family of secretory and cytosolic enzymes; the latter are either Ca dependent or Ca ... V and X Secretory Phospholipases A2. Title: Hydrolysis of Phosphatidylcholine-Isoprostanes (PtdCho-IP) by Peripheral Human ... group 10 secretory phospholipase A2. Names. group X secretory phospholipase A2. phosphatidylcholine 2-acylhydrolase 10. NP_ ... PLA2c; PLA2c: Phospholipase A2, a family of secretory and cytosolic enzymes; the latter are either Ca dependent or Ca ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/8399

20-HETE and Circulating Insulin in Essential Hypertension With Obesity | Hypertension20-HETE and Circulating Insulin in Essential Hypertension With Obesity | Hypertension

Regulation of the cellular expression of secretory and cytosolic phospholipases A2, and cyclooxygenase-2 by peptide growth ... Increased glomerular cytosolic phospholipase A2 activity of OLETF rats with early diabetes. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 1999; ... In contrast, there is no action of insulin on secretory PLA2 mRNA in osteoblasts28 or on the activity of PLA2 in rat liver ... Increased muscular phospholipase A2 activity in diabetic rats. Diabetes Metab. 1992; 18: 213-217. ...
more infohttp://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/43/2/388

Metabolism and Functions of Platelet-Activating Factor (PAF) in the Nervous Tissue | SpringerLinkMetabolism and Functions of Platelet-Activating Factor (PAF) in the Nervous Tissue | SpringerLink

Neuronal damage by secretory phospholipase A2: Modulation by cytosolic phospholipase A2, platelet-activating factor, and ... Secretory phospholipases A(2). J Lipid Mediators Cell Signal 12: 119-130.Google Scholar ... Cytosolic Phospholipase A(2) Plays a Key Role in the Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis-like Disease. Neuron 41: 323-335.PubMed ... Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) immunoreactivity is elevated in Alzheimers disease brain. Neurobiol Dis 3: 51-63.PubMed ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-0-387-30378-9_13

Inhibitors of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2α as Potential Anti-...: Ingenta ConnectInhibitors of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2α as Potential Anti-...: Ingenta Connect

To date four main groups of phospholipases are known, which comprise the secretory, the calcium-independent, the cytosolic and ... From these the a-subtype of cytosolic phospholipases A2 (cPLA2α) appears to be the most likely candidate to catalyze this ... ester of membrane phospholipids by phospholipase A2. ... Inhibitors of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2α as Potential Anti- ...
more infohttp://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ben/aiaamc/2006/00000005/00000002/art00008

Signal transduction in lower esophageal sphincter circular muscle : GI Motility onlineSignal transduction in lower esophageal sphincter circular muscle : GI Motility online

Secretory phospholipase A2 receptor-mediated activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 in murine bone marrow-derived mast cells ... Low levels of agonists cause submaximal activation of phospholipases. Activation of specific phospholipases may depend on the ... Type IIa and type V secretory phospholipase A2S are functionally redundant and act in concert with cytosolic phospholipase A2. ... Secretory phospholipase A2 is the principal bactericide for staphylococci and other gram-positive bacteria in human tears. ...
more infohttp://www.nature.com/gimo/contents/pt1/full/gimo24.html?error=cookies_not_supported&code=2e45f857-39f6-43fc-b4e5-0a1fd989abac

Plus itPlus it

Involvement of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and secretory phospholipase A2 in arachidonic acid release from human neutrophils. J ... IL-8-induced signal transduction in T lymphocytes involves receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases C and D. J Immunol ... phospholipase A2; cPLA2, cytosolic phospholipase A2; iPLA2, calcium-independent phospholipase A2; PLD, phospholipase D; FPRL1, ... Independent functioning of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and phospholipase D1 in Trp-Lys-Tyr-Met-Val-D-Met-induced superoxide ...
more infohttp://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/64/3/721

Nicolas G. Bazan, M.D., Ph.D.- LSUHSC School of MedicineNicolas G. Bazan, M.D., Ph.D.- LSUHSC School of Medicine

Neuronal damage by secretory phospholipase A2: Modulation of cytosolic phospholipase A2, platelet-activating factor, and ... Phospholipases A2-generated messengers modulate both synaptic receptors, as well as downstream signaling through endogenous ... Involvement of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) activity. Mol Vis (2004) 10:341-350.. Zhu, P., DeCoster, M.A., Bazan, N.G. ... Kolko, M., Prause, J.U., Bazan, N.G., Heegaard, S. Human secretory phospholipase A(2), group IB in normal eyes and in eye ...
more infohttps://www.medschool.lsuhsc.edu/neuroscience/faculty_detail.aspx?name=bazan_nicolas

Articles - The Great Plains Laboratory, Inc.Articles - The Great Plains Laboratory, Inc.

The step further to understand the role of cytosolic phospholipase A2 alpha and group X secretory phospholipase A2 in allergic ... 2008) Distinct expression pattern of the full set of secreted phospholipases A2 in human colorectal adenocarcinomas: sPLA2-III ... Wang, M., Hao, F.Y., J.G. Wang, and Xiao, W. Group IIa secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2IIa)and progression in patients with ... Titsworth, W.L., Liu, N.K., and Xu, X.M. Role of Secretory phospholipase A2 in CNS inflammation: Implications in traumatic ...
more infohttps://www.greatplainslaboratory.com/articles-1/category/Inflammation

Articles - The Great Plains Laboratory, Inc.Articles - The Great Plains Laboratory, Inc.

The step further to understand the role of cytosolic phospholipase A2 alpha and group X secretory phospholipase A2 in allergic ... 2008) Distinct expression pattern of the full set of secreted phospholipases A2 in human colorectal adenocarcinomas: sPLA2-III ... Wang, M., Hao, F.Y., J.G. Wang, and Xiao, W. Group IIa secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2IIa)and progression in patients with ... Titsworth, W.L., Liu, N.K., and Xu, X.M. Role of Secretory phospholipase A2 in CNS inflammation: Implications in traumatic ...
more infohttps://www.greatplainslaboratory.com/articles-1?category=Inflammation

Constitutive and Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA)-induced LPA Production: Role of Phospholipase D and Phospholipase A2 | Clinical...Constitutive and Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA)-induced LPA Production: Role of Phospholipase D and Phospholipase A2 | Clinical...

... phospholipase D; PA, phosphatidic acid; PLA, phospholipase A; sPLA2, secretory PLA2; cPLA2, cytosolic PLA2; iPLA2, calcium- ... Kudo I., Murakami M., Hara S., Inoue K. Mammalian non-pancreatic phospholipases A2. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1170: 217-231, 1993 ... Cytosolic phospholipase A2 is required for cytokine-induced expression of type IIA secretory phospholipase A2 that mediates ... Secretory phospholipase A2 activates the cascade of mitogen-activated protein kinases and cytosolic phospholipase A2 in the ...
more infohttp://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/6/6/2482

Roles of various phospholipases A2 in providing lysophospholipid acceptors for fatty acid phospholipid incorporation and...Roles of various phospholipases A2 in providing lysophospholipid acceptors for fatty acid phospholipid incorporation and...

... phospholipase A2; cPLA2, cytosolic phospholipase A2; iPLA2, Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2; sPLA2, secretory phospholipase A ... suggesting an additional role for the group IV cytosolic phospholipase A2. In the activated cells AA and EPA did not compete ... A strong candidate to be involved in these reactions is a novel Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 that, unlike all known iPLA2s ... Roles of various phospholipases A2 in providing lysophospholipid acceptors for fatty acid phospholipid incorporation and ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/364/3/695

Nutrients  | Free Full-Text | Consequences of Essential Fatty Acids | HTMLNutrients | Free Full-Text | Consequences of Essential Fatty Acids | HTML

Three enzymes, cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2), Ca2+-independent PLA2 (iPLA2) and secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) all hydrolyze both ... Wilton, D.C. Phospholipases. In Biochemistry of Lipids, Lipoproteins and Membranes, 5th; Vance, D.E., Vance, J.E., Eds.; ... Abbreviations for the enzymes and receptors are: cPLA2, cytosolic phospholipase A2; sPLA2, soluble phospholipase A2; COX-1, ... Abbreviations for the enzymes and receptors are: cPLA2, cytosolic phospholipase A2; sPLA2, soluble phospholipase A2; COX-1, ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/4/9/1338/htm

Oalib searchOalib search

Numerous isoforms of secretory phospholipases (sPLA2s) have been identified and divided into several gr ... Proteolytic cleavage of stingray phospholipase A2: Isolation and biochemical characterization of an active N-terminal form Abir ... Intracellular (cytosolic) PLA2s participate in cellular eicosanoid metabolism and signal transduction. ... It labeled zymogen granules of the hepatopancreatic acinar cells and the secretory materials of certain epithelial cells in the ...
more infohttp://www.oalib.com/search?kw=%20Hafedh%20Mejdoub&searchField=authors

Anti-Phospholipase A2 Antibody, clone CH-7 | 05-1406Anti-Phospholipase A2 Antibody, clone CH-7 | 05-1406

... clone CH-7 detects level of Phospholipase A2 & has been published & validated for use in WB, ELISA, IH(P). Find MSDS or SDS, a ... PLA2 isoforms include membrane-associated, Ca2+-independent forms, cytosolic, Ca2+-dependent forms, and secretory forms. PLC ... One striking feature of these enzymes is their close homology to venom phospholipases of snakes. Other forms of PLA2 have been ... Anti-Phospholipase A2 Antibody, clone CH-7 detects level of Phospholipase A2 & has been published & validated for use in WB, ...
more infohttp://www.merckmillipore.com/INTL/en/product/Anti-Phospholipase-A2-Antibody-clone-CH-7,MM_NF-05-1406

FPR1 | Formylpeptide receptors | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGYFPR1 | Formylpeptide receptors | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY

Involvement of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and secretory phospholipase A2 in arachidonic acid release from human neutrophils. J ... Phagocyte cell migration is mediated by phospholipases PLD1 and PLD2. Blood, 108 (10): 3564-72. [PMID:16873675] ... 1993) Phospholipase C and phospholipase D are activated independently of each other in chemotactic peptide-stimulated human ... 1988) Phospholipase D catalyzes phospholipid metabolism in chemotactic peptide-stimulated HL-60 granulocytes. J. Biol. Chem., ...
more infohttp://www.guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=222

Phospholipase A2: A Potential Therapeutic Target in Inflammation and Cancer (In silico, In vitro, In vivo and Clinical Approach...Phospholipase A2: A Potential Therapeutic Target in Inflammation and Cancer (In silico, In vitro, In vivo and Clinical Approach...

Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) (EC 3.1.1.4) is the initial enzyme of arachidonic acid cascade, has key role in inflammation and cancer ... Mammalian PLA2s are divided into various groups, namely, secretory (sPLA2), cytosolic (cPLA2), and Ca+2-independent PLA2s, on ... 2009) Inhibition of snake venoms and phospholipases A(2) by extracts from native and genetically modified Eclipta alba: ... Linkous AG, Yazlovitskaya EM, Hallahan DE (2010) Cytosolic phospholipase A2 and lysophospholipids in tumor angiogenesis.J Natl ...
more infohttps://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/phospholipase-a2-a-potential-therapeutic-target-in-inflammation-and-cancer-in-silico-in-vitro-in-vivo-and-clinical-approach-1948-5956-1000357.php?aid=57701

apitoxina apiterapia veneno abejas analgesicoapitoxina apiterapia veneno abejas analgesico

Cytosolic proteins as well as bovine serum albumin and poly-L-lysine (Mr = 57,000) protected purified bee venom phospholipase ... Differential effects of manoalide on secreted and intracellular phospholipases.. Bennett CF, Mong S, Clarke MA, Kruse LI, ... The marine product petrosaspongiolide M is a novel inhibitor of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), showing selectivity for secretory PLA2 ... Inactivation of phospholipase A2 by manoalide. Localization of the manoalide binding site on bee venom phospholipase A2.. ...
more infohttp://www.apitoxina.cl/cientificos/bvweb/bvanalgesic.htm

MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1
	MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1

Group II Phospholipases A2); EC 3.1.1.4 (Phospholipases A2, Secretory). ... Secretory phospholipase A (sPLA ) is a key enzyme participating in the inflammatory cascade followed by the action of ... dependent cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2) and secretory PLA2 (sPLA2) inhibitors. We found that rTCTP-induced dopamine release from ... The role of group IIA secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IIA) as a biomarker for the diagnosis of sepsis and bacterial infection ...
more infohttp://bases.bireme.br/cgi-bin/wxislind.exe/iah/online/?IsisScript=iah/iah.xis&nextAction=lnk&base=MEDLINE&lang=p&format=detailed.pft&indexSearch=EX&exprSearch=D08.811.277.352.100.680.750.937.750.550
  • This gene encodes a member of the phospholipase A2 family of proteins. (nih.gov)
  • One of the two pathways, for instance the one activated by maximal doses of acetylcholine ( ACh ), activates M 3 muscarinic receptors linked to G q/11 -type G proteins to stimulate phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C ( PI-PLC ), which results in the formation of equimolar concentrations of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP 3 ) and diacylglycerol (DAG). (nature.com)
  • The remodeling pathway requires the production of 1-alkyl-2-lyso- sn -glycero-3-phosphocholine (lysoPAF) produced by the hydrolysis of 1-alkyl-2-(long-chain)acyl- sn -glycero-3-phosphocholine (alkylacylGPC) by the action of phospholipases A 2 . (springer.com)
  • J. H. Evans, S. H. Gerber, D. Murray, and C. C. Leslie, "The calcium binding loops of the cytosolic phospholipase A 2 C 2 domain specify targeting to Golgi and ER in live cells," Molecular Biology of the Cell , vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 371-383, 2004. (hindawi.com)