Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.NAD+ NucleosidaseMembrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Mice, Inbred BALB CMonocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Bodily Secretions: Endogenous substances produced through the activity of intact cells of glands, tissues, or organs.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Cell SeparationAntigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Mice, Inbred C57BLProstate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Intestinal Secretions: Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Bacterial Secretion Systems: In GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA, multiprotein complexes that function to translocate pathogen protein effector molecules across the bacterial cell envelope, often directly into the host. These effectors are involved in producing surface structures for adhesion, bacterial motility, manipulation of host functions, modulation of host defense responses, and other functions involved in facilitating survival of the pathogen. Several of the systems have homologous components functioning similarly in GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Gastric Acid: Hydrochloric acid present in GASTRIC JUICE.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
... reduced proliferation and IL-2 signaling) Interaction with B7 on T cells Downregulation of CD80/CD86 costimultory molecules on ... tumor antigens, alloantigens, and self-antigens in inflamed tissue. Immune recognition of non-self-antigens typically ... which sensitizes cells to suppression and promotes Treg-like cell differentiation Secretion of IL-10 Cytokine absorption ... Self-antigens are present due to endogenous expression, importation of antigen from peripheral sites via circulating blood, and ...
Antigen presentation is upregulated (MHC II, CD86). M2c macrophages are important for secretion of IL-10, TGF-β. They also ... Typical are pro - inflammatory molecules (e.g. IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-23, TNF, IL-6, IL-1, specific chemokines and antigen ... IL-12, IL-1β, TNFα, IL-6). Ability of TAMs to present tumour-associated antigens is decreased as well as stimulation of the ... There are different stimuli for each type - interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-13 (M2a), immune complex + Toll-like receptor (TLR) or IL- ...
CD86 costimultory molecules on antigen presenting cells upon interaction with CTLA-4 or lymphocyte function-associated antigen ... Granzyme or perforin secretion upon contact. *Upregulation of cAMP after contact, inducing anergy (reduced proliferation and IL ... Self-antigens are present due to endogenous expression, importation of antigen from peripheral sites via circulating blood, and ... Upon exposure to a foreign antigen, either the antigen is eliminated by the standard immune response (resistance), or the ...
CD28 delivers a costimulatory signal involved in antigen-specific IL-2 production by human T cells. J Immunol. 147(8):2461-6 - ... can bind ligands CD80 and CD86). Receptor-ligand engagement triggers T-cell signaling resulting in IL-2 production, clonal ... pathogens invading organism activate the immune system to various degrees and causing proinflammatory cytokine secretion, ... If there is IL-4, CD4+ T-lymphocytes become Th2 cells secreting IL-4 and IL-5. Then allograft tolerance is mostly observed. TGF ...
CD86 is one of the proteins which interact with CD28 to activate T helper cells; without it, T helper cell response is ... IL-10 is partially responsible for reducing expression of co-stimulatory molecules such as CD86 on macrophages. ... A helminth protein, or helminthic antigen, is a protein derived from a parasitic worm that causes an immune reaction. When ... This phenomenon is attributed to the suppression of interferon-gamma secretion from autoreactive T cells following the ...
The autocrine or paracrine secretion of IL-2 can bind to that same Th cell or neighboring Th's via the IL-2R thus driving ... these T cells must rely on the activation of CD28 for confirmation that they recognise a foreign antigen (as CD80/CD86 is only ... They are triggered by IL-4 and IL-2, and their effector cytokines are IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-10, IL-13 and IL-25. The main ... "Multiparameter grouping delineates heterogeneous populations of human IL-17 and/or IL-22 T-cell producers that share antigen ...
The autocrine or paracrine secretion of IL-2 can bind to that same Th cell or neighboring Th's via the IL-2R thus driving ... these T cells must rely on the activation of CD28 for confirmation that they recognise a foreign antigen (as CD80/CD86 is only ... They are triggered by IL-4 and IL-2, and their effector cytokines are IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-10, IL-13 and IL-25. The main ... and IL-4/IL-5 CD4 T cells. The key Th2 transcription factors are STAT6 and GATA3. IL-4 is the positive feedback cytokine for ...
... and for production of IL-2. PD-L1 binding to PD-1 also contributes to ligand-induced TCR down-modulation during antigen ... Interestingly, PD-L1 also has an appreciable affinity for the costimulatory molecule CD80 (B7-1), but not CD86 (B7-2). CD80's ... showed that PD-1, up-regulated on activated CD4 T-cells, can bind to PD-L1 expressed on monocytes and induces IL-10 production ... Engagement of PD-L1 with its receptor PD-1 on T cells delivers a signal that inhibits TCR-mediated activation of IL-2 ...
Signal 3 is the APC secretion of stimulatory cytokines such as IL-2 which enhances T cell stimulation, though this is not ... or CD86 (B7.2), although other additional co-stimulation molecules have been identified. When Signal 2 is not expressed, but T ... As specific cancer antigens have been discovered, these antigens can be loaded to aAPCs to successfully stimulate and expand ... It is the specific antigen or epitope that is loaded into the MHC determines the antigen-specificity. The peptide-loaded MHC ...
In vitro, microglia produce nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha after exposure to parasite antigens, ... While most of the findings of microglial activation are non-MS specific, the M1 activation (CD40, CD86) is specific for this ... When microglia are activated they induce the synthesis and secretion of proteolytic enzymes that are potentially involved in ... IL-1α, IL-1β and TNF-α in the CNS. Direct injection of the cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β and TNF-α into the CNS result in local ...
Antigen-naïve T cells expand and differentiate into memory and effector T cells after they encounter their cognate antigen ... Through IL-10, adenosine, and other molecules secreted by regulatory T cells, the CD8+ cells can be inactivated to an anergic ... Cancer of T cells is termed T-cell lymphoma, and accounts for perhaps one in ten cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The main forms ... so co-stimulation for these cells comes from the CD80 and CD86 proteins, which together constitute the B7 protein, (B7.1 and ...
"Expression of CD28 and CD86 by Human Eosinophils and Role in the Secretion of Type 1 Cytokines (Interleukin 2 and Interferon { ... They can release IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-13. However, most in vitro experiments are limited to the use of purified peripheral ... Activation of T cells normally requires both engagement of the antigen receptor (signal 1) and co-stimulation (signal 2). ... In 2013 it was described how standard pro-inflammatory markers TNFα and IL-8 did not predict the proinflammatory response (gave ...
Another control mechanism is through the IL-2 feedback loop. Antigen-activated T cells produce IL-2 which then acts on IL-2 ... When added to autologous leishmania infected macrophages these T cells cause parasite death and secretion of large amounts of ... in rheumatoid arthritis are modulated by p38 phosphorylation and monocytes expressing membrane tumor necrosis factor α and CD86 ... Most tumors elicit an immune response in the host that is mediated by tumor antigens, thus distinguishing the tumor from other ...
Eichler W, Hamann J, Aust G (Nov 1997). "Expression characteristics of the human CD97 antigen". Tissue Antigens. 50 (5): 429-38 ... Forced CD97 expression induced cell migration, activated proteolytic matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and enhanced secretion ... of the chemokines interleukin (IL)-8.[51] Tumor suppressor microRNA-126, often downregulated in cancer, was found to target ... Hamann J, Wishaupt JO, van Lier RA, Smeets TJ, Breedveld FC, Tak PP (Apr 1999). "Expression of the activation antigen CD97 and ...
Antigen-naïve T cells expand and differentiate into memory and effector T cells after they encounter their cognate antigen ... Treg cells can be a source of IL-10 and TGF-β and therefore they can play a role in T cell exhaustion.[63] Furthermore T cell ... Cancer of T cells is termed T-cell lymphoma, and accounts for perhaps one in ten cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.[54] The main ... so co-stimulation for these cells comes from the CD80 and CD86 proteins, which together constitute the B7 protein, (B7.1 and ...
In response to inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-13, P-selectin is translocated to the plasma membrane in endothelial ... Hattori R, Hamilton KK, Fugate RD, McEver RP, Sims PJ (May 1989). "Stimulated secretion of endothelial von Willebrand factor is ... Macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b+CD18). *VLA-4 (CD49d+CD29). *Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (ITGA2B+ITGB3) ... while IL-4 increases P-selectin transcription in both species.[11][12][13] The elevated synthesis of P-selectin may play an ...
IL-9. IRF4, PU.1. Defense against helminths. Multiple Sclerosis Tfh. IL-21, IL-4. Bcl-6. Help B cells produce antibody. Asthma ... Antigen-naïve T cells expand and differentiate into memory and effector T cells after they encounter their cognate antigen ... Cancer of T cells is termed T-cell lymphoma, and accounts for perhaps one in ten cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.[48] The main ... so co-stimulation for these cells comes from the CD80 and CD86 proteins, which together constitute the B7 protein, (B7.1 and ...
antigen binding. • virus receptor activity. • protein binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • identical protein ... STAT6, IRF4, and NF-kB factors involved in the transfer of the signals from the B-cell receptor, its co-receptors and IL-4R, ... negative regulation of interferon-gamma secretion. • negative regulation of interleukin-6 production. • positive regulation of ... positive regulation of interferon-gamma secretion. • myeloid dendritic cell activation involved in immune response. • ...
regulation of immunoglobulin secretion. • immunoglobulin secretion. • negative regulation of apoptotic process. • tumor ... B cells can present antigens to a specialized group of helper T cells called TFH cells. If an activated TFH cell recognizes the ... The T cell also produces IL-4, which directly influences B cells. As a result of this stimulation, the B cell can undergo rapid ... Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". Journal of Immunology. 149 (12): ...
They express cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) which interacts with cd80 or cd86 on the surface of APCs. Interaction ... However because of such strong activations, the IL-2 that cells produce needed for expansion run out (IL-2 may be exhausted) ... Suppressive functions are mediated through the secretion of immunosuppressive cytokines or cell-cell contact. cd4+cd25+foxp3+ ... They are all capable of antigen presentation via MHC and all present SELF antigens. If the self antigen is recognised by any of ...
... and of CD86 and HLA-DR, which are involved in antigen-presentation (Table 1). Similarly, the MFIs for CD83 and CD86 were ... Increased expression of CD25, CD83, and CD86, and secretion of IL-12, IL-23, and IL-10 by human dendritic cells incubated in ... Dendritic cells Giardia duodenalis Toll-like receptorsCD25CD83CD86IL-12IL-23IL-10 ... We next determined the concentrations of IL-12/23p40, IL-12p70, IL-23, and IL-10 in all supernatants and again observed ...
... reduced proliferation and IL-2 signaling) Interaction with B7 on T cells Downregulation of CD80/CD86 costimultory molecules on ... tumor antigens, alloantigens, and self-antigens in inflamed tissue. Immune recognition of non-self-antigens typically ... which sensitizes cells to suppression and promotes Treg-like cell differentiation Secretion of IL-10 Cytokine absorption ... Self-antigens are present due to endogenous expression, importation of antigen from peripheral sites via circulating blood, and ...
... both PBMC and TIL responses to LMP1 were characterized by IL10 secretion [177, 181]; this highlights the crucial role of IL10- ... to reduce antigen presentation, to prevent antigen presenting cells (APCs) maturation and to induce cell cycle arrest. By CD39 ... Moreover, CTLA4 interacts with CD80/CD86 and thus inhibits the T-cell costimulation. In addition, nTreg cells produce TGFβ ( ... First, we distinguish Tr1 or T regulatory type 1 cells which secrete vast quantities of IL10 associated with a mild secretion ...
... as well as enhances production and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, including IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10. Increased expression of ... CD86), on the APC. The combination of intracellular signals generated by the antigen receptor, coreceptor (CD4+ or CD8+) and ... They also play a vital role in the development and proliferation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) through the production of IL-2. ... CD40-CD40L binding on activated T cells stimulates cytokine secretion from B cells, which subsequently enhances T cell ...
As antigen-presenting cells (APCs) play a critical role in both the priming of adaptive immune responses and the induction of ... In terms of cytokine secretion, DCGrp78 cells produced comparably higher levels of anti-inflammatory IL-10 and lower levels of ... These anti-inflammatory effects may have been in response to the expression of low levels of CD86 and of high levels of co- ... IL-4+), and Th17 (CD4+IL-17+) cells in blood or spleen did not alter among different CD11c+ cells treatment (Figures 5A-C), in ...
It also increases secretion of inhibitory cytokines such as IL10 and TGFβ by cells commonly referred to as CD8+CD28- T ... and CD86 in CD4+ T helper cells(11), increasing expression of the inhibitory receptors ILT3 and ILT4 in antigen-presenting ... CD28 and IL-4: two heavyweights controlling the balance between immunity and inflammation. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2010;199:239- ... SPSS19.0 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was utilized for statistical analysis, and a P-value less than 0.05 was ...
IL-4 is the major effector cytokine in both alternative activation of macrophages and pathogenesis of asthma. Thus, the role of ... Therefore, further studies are required to improve our knowledge about the role of IL-4-induced macrophages in allergic asthma ... Macrophages activated by Th1 cells are known as M1 macrophages while those activated by IL-4 and IL-13 are called alternatively ... CD80 and CD86 expression. Thus, M1 features including antigen presentation, and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-12, ...
human leukocyte antigen. hMSC. human mesenchymal stem cell. IFNγ. interferon-γ. IL. interleukin. MI. myocardial infarction. MSC ... Human leukocyte antigen-G5 secretion by human mesenchymal stem cells is required to suppress T lymphocyte and natural killer ... notably when the antigen-presenting cells lack expression of CD80/CD86 and the CD28 cosignaling pathway is not operating.50 We ... The PD-L1/PD-1 interaction delivers cosignals to T cells, thereby promoting their proliferation and secretion of IL-10, ...
3. Expression of cell surface antigens (CD14, CD40, CD80, CD86, CD54, MHC class I, II). 1. Crystal violet staining. 2. ELISA. 3 ... 1. TNF-a secretion. 1. ELISA. TEGDMA and HEMA did not induce TNF-a secretion by themselves, but significantly suppressed (40-70 ... TEGDMA resulted in inhibition of LPS-induced release of TNF-a, IL-6, and IL-10 by 90%. The expression of CD14 was inhibited by ... It has been found to suppress IL-6 and IL-10 production by about 90% and CD14 expression at high concentrations. Moreover, CD40 ...
Meanwhile, M2b macrophages produce IL-12 and IL-10, and are not anti-inflammatory per se, but rather activate the adaptive B ... However, AICAR did reduce TNF-α secretion compared to vehicle (p , 0.001; Fig. 6e).. Open image in new window. ... The antigens used to phenotype human macrophages varied slightly from the panel used for mice. Thus, we characterised human ... AICAR did not affect M1 CD11c+ macrophage expression in human WAT, although M1/M2b CD86+ macrophage expression was reduced. ...
In conclusion MPLA-tDCs are able to modulate antigen-specific responses of both naïve and memory CD4+ T cells and might be a ... In conclusion MPLA-tDCs are able to modulate antigen-specific responses of both naïve and memory CD4+ T cells and might be a ... Naïve CD4+ T cells were instructed by MPLA-tDCs to be hyporesponsive to antigen-specific re-stimulation, and to suppress the ... Naïve CD4+ T cells were instructed by MPLA-tDCs to be hyporesponsive to antigen-specific re-stimulation, and to suppress the ...
In vitro, DC phenotype, alloreactivity, antigen processing and presentation, and interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-12 secretion were ... MHC class II antigen, CD80, and CD86 as well as a reduction in the transporter-associated proteins, transporter associated with ... secrete IL-12. Whereas TSN DCs showed a significant reduction in cell surface expression of CD11c, DEC-205, MHC class I antigen ... serve as professional antigen-presenting cells and are pivotal in the host immune response to tumor antigens. To define the ...
Atorvastatin induced STAT6 phosphorylation and secretion of Th2 cytokines (interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-10) and transforming ... In contrast, another anti-Tim-1 antibody inhibited the generation of antigen-specific T cells, production of IFN-gamma and IL- ... Atorvastatin suppressed IFN-gamma-inducible expression of CD40, CD80 and CD86 co-stimulatory molecules. l-Mevalonate, the ... IL-4, IL-6, and gamma interferon transcripts were detected on day 5, and IL-1 beta and IL-10 transcripts were detected ...
T-cell activation was measured by secretion of IL-2 and IFN-γ (Fig. 3A). Kd-B16 cells stimulated T cells to produce IL-2 and ... T-cell activation results from signals delivered by antigen presenting cells (APC) to the antigen-specific T-cell receptor (TCR ... The principal costimulatory signal is transmitted by CD80 or CD86 on APC to the CD28 receptor on T cells, which amplifies TCR ... This IL-2 secretion was enhanced by addition of anti-SD-4 mAb (but not by control IgG) in a dose-dependent manner. ...
... and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR or the secretion of interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and IL-10 in ... CD86, C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7), C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) ... antigen proteolysis, MHC class I and II antigen presentation, and the role of endocytic receptors in presentation of antigens ... Hp91-induced secretion of IL-6 was dependent on clathrin-and dynamin-driven endocytosis of Hp91 and mediated through a MyD88- ...
... such as secretion of inhibitory cytokines in peripheral blood and brain, like TGF-β, IL-10, and IL-35; granzyme/perforin- ... such as inhibitory cytokine secretion, direct cytolysis induction, and antigen-presenting cell functional modulation. FoxP3+ ... which is partly mediated by downregulating CD80 and CD86 on APCs [52-55]. In addition, it is entirely expected that FoxP3+CD25+ ... IL)-2 and induction of autoimmune disease by IL-2 neutralization," Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 201, no. 5, pp. 723- ...
... resulting in secretion of IL-12 and IL-18 (28). In addition, some Lactobacillus species can differentially effect antigen- ... and CD86 and secreted high levels of IL-12 and IL-18, but not IL-10. IL-12 was sustained in MDCs exposed to all three ... 5 A and B ) and induced the secretion of IFN-γ and IL-2, but not IL-4 or IL-13 by naive CD4+CD62L+CD45R A+CD45RO- or CD8+CD62L+ ... plantarum did not elicit IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, or IL-12p70 (21-23, 32). Furthermore, work with murine monocyte-derived DCs by ...
Atorvastatin induced STAT6 phosphorylation and secretion of Th2 cytokines (interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-10) and transforming ... l-Mevalonate, the product of HMG-CoA reductase, reversed atorvastatins effects on antigen-presenting cells (APC) and T cells. ... Atorvastatin suppressed IFN-gamma-inducible expression of CD40, CD80 and CD86 co-stimulatory molecules. ... Conversely, STAT4 phosphorylation was inhibited and secretion of Th1 cytokines (IL-2, IL-12, interferon (IFN)-gamma and tumour ...
The mature dendritic cells expressed dendritic cell-associated antigens, such as CD80, CD83, CD86, and HLA class I and class II ... On day 6, maturation cytokine cocktail was added [IL-4, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, 500 IU/mL IL-1β (R&D ... After the second or third stimulation, IFN-γ secretion of these cells was examined by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT). In ... Once activated, CD4+ cells enhance immunity by producing IFN-γ and IL-2 and licensing dendritic cells, thereby maintaining the ...
The mature dendritic cells expressed dendritic cell-associated antigens, such as CD80, CD83, CD86, and HLA class I and class II ... On day 6, maturation cytokine cocktail was added [IL-4, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, 500 IU/mL IL-1β (R&D ... After the second or third stimulation, IFN-γ secretion of these cells was examined by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT). In ... Once activated, CD4+ cells enhance immunity by producing IFN-γ and IL-2 and licensing dendritic cells, thereby maintaining the ...
CD80, CD86, and CD48) and co-stimulatory cytokines (. e.g.. , IL-1 and IL-12) to the infiltrating T cells (10,13,32-36). ... such as secretion of IL-1Ra, IL-10, and TGF-beta. Although these cytokines play an important role in modulating macrophage ... IL-3 functions as a macrophage-activating factor with unique properties, inducing Ia and lymphocyte function-associated antigen ... Balance of IL-1 receptor antagonist/IL-1 beta in rheumatoid synovium and its regulation by IL-4 and IL-10. J Immunol 154,1432-9 ...
IL-23, and IL-27 were similar. Interestingly, maturation marker expression and cytokine secretion were not negatively affected ... CD86, CD54, CD58, and CD40, as well as the antigen-presenting molecules MHCs I and II. Furthermore, yeast-activated DC secreted ... IL-23, and IL-27. Variability was observed in the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, and IL-10 in response to the tested ... various cytokines including inflammatory TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1β or T-cell polarizing IL-12, IL-10, ...
4A ) and secretion of IL-12p70 ( Fig. 4B), respectively. As determined by comparison of MHC class II, CD86, and CD40 expression ... and antigen-specific IFN-γ and IL-5 secretion was determined using ELISPOT ( Fig. 3C) and ELISA ( Fig. 3D). Polarized DC1s ... secretion of T-helper type-1 (Th1)-driving cytokines, such as interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-18, IL-23, and IL-27, by dendritic ... on IL-12p70 secretion. Higher doses of either CpGs or poly(I:C) alone did not result in an increase of IL-12p70 secretion ...
Thus, JAWS II/IL-2 cells administered into mice, acted mainly as a source of IL-2 and only to a small extent as the antigen- ... JAWS II cells modified to produce IL-2 (JAWS II/IL-2) revealed slight increase in the expression of CD86 and MHC class II ... IL-2 cells caused the highest cytokine production by CD4+ TILs (2.13 ng/ml, P=0.004). Thus, the secretion of IL-10 was time- ... Eight- to ten-week-old C57BL/6 mice were inoculated subcutaneously (s.c.), into right flank, with MC38/0 cells (1×106/0.2 ml/ ...
  • Whereas TSN DCs showed a significant reduction in cell surface expression of CD11c, DEC-205, MHC class I antigen, MHC class II antigen, CD80, and CD86 as well as a reduction in the transporter-associated proteins, transporter associated with antigen processing 1 and 2, the changes in phenotype and function were not evident when DCs were cultured in supernatant from COX-2-inhibited tumors. (nih.gov)
  • The treatment of immature DC with IFN-gamma plus BCG led to the upregulation of CD54, CD80, and CD86 in comparison with BCG treatment alone. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, AdAGR2 transduction did not impair DC maturation, but enhanced expression of HLA-DR, CD80, and CD86. (bvsalud.org)
  • CSEMW and CSEMD significantly increased the expressions of CD40, CD80, and CD86, in a dose-dependent manner. (mdpi.com)
  • We have discovered a method to induce stable tolerogenic ability to dendritic cells ex vivo using a mixture of phosphorothioate-modified antisense DNA targeting the primary transcripts of CD40, CD80 and CD86. (soc-bdr.org)
  • The supernatants of dying CRC cells treated with OXA/5-Fu promoted mouse and human DC maturation, with upregulation of HLA-DR, CD80 and CD86 expression and enhancement of IL-1β, TNF-α, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, RANTES and IP-10 production. (nature.com)
  • As antigen-presenting cells (APCs) play a critical role in both the priming of adaptive immune responses and the induction of self-tolerance, herein, we investigated the effect of Grp78 on the maturation of murine myeloid APCs (CD11c + cells). (frontiersin.org)
  • 5 Although IL-10 has been shown to be indispensable for Tr1 cell induction, it requires the presence of Ag-presenting cells (APCs) in vitro. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In the current study, the capacity of Hsp65 and Hsp70 mycobacterial HSPs and a constructed DNA encoded Hsp65 (DNAhsp65) to transform the pattern of the immune response from Th17 into Treg cells has been studied in vitro using co-cultures of antigen presenting cells (APCs) and T cells in NOD mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, an increase of immunoregulatory compounds were observed in the co-culture through the expression of CD11b + CD86 + activation markers on APCs, as well as the frequency of Treg cells expressing CD4 + CD3 + and CD4 + CD25 hi . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Further investigation revealed that CTL activity could be restored partly with additions of IL-2 and fully by coimmunization with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) expression plasmids, suggesting that antigen-presenting cells (APCs) may be a critical target of ethanol's action to promote impaired CD4 + and CD8 + T-cell priming ( 6 , 9 , 10 , 33 ). (asm.org)
  • Among these cells, B-cells are essential in the onset and progression of type 1 diabetes (rev. in 3 ), and although it is not fully understood when and how these cells participate in type 1 diabetes, it is known that they produce autoantibodies against many β-cell autoantigens (rev. in 4 ) and act as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Class II MHC proteins are generally only found on the surface of specialised antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Some APCs also bind native (or unprocessed) antigens to their surface, such as follicular dendritic cells , but unprocessed antigens do not interact with T cells and are not involved in their activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once at the lymph nodes, the APCs begin to present antigen peptides that are bound to Class II MHC, allowing CD4 + T cells that express the specific TCRs against the peptide/MHC complex to activate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first one, given by IL-4 or IL-13, induces the expression of the sterile ε transcript ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Whereas N. gonorrhoeae variant A with a terminal N-acetylglucosamine on its LOS was recognized by DC-SIGN and induced significantly more IL-10 production, phenotype C, carrying a terminal N-acetylgalactosamine, primarily interacted with MGL and skewed immunity towards the T helper 2 lineage. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this case,donor blood is enriched in degranulated granulocytes harboring a functional regulatory phenotype, characterized by IL-10 production. (intechopen.com)
  • Development and/or maintenance of CD11b + cDC require the transcription factors RelB ( 7 ), interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) ( 8 , 9 ), and RBP-J ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • 1,Biochemotherapy (combinations of chemotherapy, interferon, and IL-2) is associated with an improved response rate but has not been shown to improve overall survival compared with chemotherapy in randomized trials. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Use of IL-2 and interferon-α result in tumor shrinkage, and a small percentage of patients with metastatic melanoma who are treated with IL-2 have a durable response and possibly a cure. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Functional analyses indicated that TSN causes a decrement in DC capacity to (a) process and present antigens, (b) induce alloreactivity, and (c) secrete IL-12. (nih.gov)
  • The prolonged DC survival was independent of IL-10 production and nuclear factor kB pathway but was associated with an upregulation of Bcl-x L and Phospho-Bad. (inserm.fr)
  • This finding implied that depressed effector T-cell functions in the setting of chronic ethanol feeding may be due in part to intrinsic defects in antigen presentation capacity by DCs. (asm.org)
  • Ts Pmy was able to activate mouse bone marrow-derived DCs to semi-mature status characterized by expressing surface CD40 and CD86, but not CD80 and MHCII. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Six-week-old male C57BL/6J wild-type and Adipoq −/− mice were fed a standard-fat diet (10% fat) or an HFD (60% fat) for 12 weeks and given vehicle or AICAR (500 μg/g) three times/week from weeks 4-12. (springer.com)
  • Male mMGL knockout (-/-) and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice were infected intraperitoneally with 10 4 T. cruzi trypomastigotes (Queretaro strain). (ijbs.com)
  • Compared with WT, Mφ from mMGL-/- mice had low production of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin (IL)-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in response to soluble T. cruzi antigens (TcAg). (ijbs.com)
  • This activity may be more relevant in the genesis and/or development of type 1 diabetes, since an impaired B-cell-mediated antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex class II results in a resistance to spontaneous type 1 diabetes development in NOD mice ( 8 - 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It leads to the halt of the initial spread of infection but also activates the adaptive immunity and other secondary host defense mechanisms [ 9 , 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We also showed, for the first time, that BbC50 SN prolonged DC survival, with high IL-10 and low IL-12 production compared with that seen in LPS-DCs. (inserm.fr)
  • Interestingly, in the following experiments, it was found that Grp78-overexpressing insulinoma cell-treated animals secreted high levels of IL-4, suggesting the immunosuppressive ability of Grp78 in beta cell transplantation ( 13 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • For antitumor immunotherapy based on DCs, various strategies of antigen loading have been proposed (including whole tumor-cell lysates). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • IL-12 drives CD4 + T cell differentiation to the Th1 lineage through the sequential involvement of cell-extrinsic and cell-intrinsic factors, including signal transducer and transcription activator 1 (STAT1), the transcription factor T-bet, IL-12 and STAT4. (biolegend.com)
  • Tease lymph nodes through a sterile 70-µm nylon cell strainer to obtain single-cell suspensions in complete RPMI containing 10% FCS (complete medium). (biolegend.com)
  • Apart from the well-documented retention function, recent findings reveal that the cellular KDELRs have more complex roles, e.g. in cell signalling, protein secretion, cell adhesion and tumorigenesis. (bvsalud.org)
  • IL-10 was first described as a cytokine that is produced by T helper 2 (Th2) cell clones. (biolegend.com)
  • DCs were purified and assessed for antigen presentation and processing and for peptide-major histocompatibility complex class I and II (MHCI and MHCII) formation on the cell surface. (asm.org)
  • Interleukin-2 (IL-2) was measured as an indicator of antigen-specific T-cell activation by DCs in coculture. (asm.org)
  • This profound immunodeficiency arises in part from impaired antigen presenting cell (APC) function, which is likely to impede the development of a robust anti-CLL T cell response. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This warrants further investigation, in particular how pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion is regulated by Ibrutinib treatment, and if downregulation of CLL-B cell activation is associated with clinical outcome. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The variable region determines what antigen the T cell can respond to. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1) Enhancing endogenous activity by increasing Treg‐cell numbers and potentiating their function have been explored by administering rapamycin, epigenetic modifiers or low doses of IL‐2. (els.net)
  • T cell-independent costimulation normally involves antigens which exhibit a structure that can already multimerize the BCR without the need of T cell support. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • These antigens display highly repetitive epitope motifs, like bacterial cell wall components (carbohydrates and lipopolysaccharides). (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Experimental models have demonstrated that intravenous injection of autoantigen decorated splenocytes and biodegradable nanoparticles through ECDI fixation effectively induce and maintain antigen-specific T cell abortive activation and anergy by T cell intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. (soc-bdr.org)
  • In acquired immunity B and T lymphocytes utilize antigen receptors such as immunoglobulins and T cell receptors to recognize the non-self. (openmicrobiologyjournal.com)
  • The most convincing evidence that melanoma can be immunogenic is derived from preclinical research on the fundamental aspects of T-cell biology and antigen recognition. (cancernetwork.com)
  • As a result, suppression of the SOCS1 promotes the greatest expression of IFN-γ and IL-12, and reduces IL-4 secretions, which induce CD4(+) cell Th1 differentiation but inactivate Th2 cell development. (sigmaaldrich.com)