Glucose Solution, Hypertonic: Solution that is usually 10 percent glucose but may be higher. An isotonic solution of glucose is 5 percent.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Dialysis Solutions: Solutions prepared for exchange across a semipermeable membrane of solutes below a molecular size determined by the cutoff threshold of the membrane material.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Peritoneum: A membrane of squamous EPITHELIAL CELLS, the mesothelial cells, covered by apical MICROVILLI that allow rapid absorption of fluid and particles in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. The peritoneum is divided into parietal and visceral components. The parietal peritoneum covers the inside of the ABDOMINAL WALL. The visceral peritoneum covers the intraperitoneal organs. The double-layered peritoneum forms the MESENTERY that suspends these organs from the abdominal wall.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Gastric Emptying: The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Peritoneal Dialysis: Dialysis fluid being introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity as either a continuous or an intermittent procedure.Ultrafiltration: The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).Hemodialysis Solutions: Solutions prepared for hemodialysis. The composition of the pre-dialysis solution may be varied in order to determine the effect of solvated metabolites on anoxia, malnutrition, acid-base balance, etc. Of principal interest are the effect of the choice of buffers (e.g., acetate or carbonate), the addition of cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+), and addition of carbohydrates (glucose).Isotonic Solutions: Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Saccharin: Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Peritoneal Dialysis, Continuous Ambulatory: Portable peritoneal dialysis using the continuous (24 hours a day, 7 days a week) presence of peritoneal dialysis solution in the peritoneal cavity except for periods of drainage and instillation of fresh solution.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Peritonitis: INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.Glucose Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.Glucose Transporter Type 1: A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Glucose Transporter Type 2: A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring: Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Glucose 1-Dehydrogenase: A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.Pharmaceutical Solutions: Homogeneous liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved, i.e., molecularly dispersed, in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents. For reasons of their ingredients, method of preparation, or use, they do not fall into another group of products.Bodily Secretions: Endogenous substances produced through the activity of intact cells of glands, tissues, or organs.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Intestinal Secretions: Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Bacterial Secretion Systems: In GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA, multiprotein complexes that function to translocate pathogen protein effector molecules across the bacterial cell envelope, often directly into the host. These effectors are involved in producing surface structures for adhesion, bacterial motility, manipulation of host functions, modulation of host defense responses, and other functions involved in facilitating survival of the pathogen. Several of the systems have homologous components functioning similarly in GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Glucose Transporter Type 3: A major glucose transporter found in NEURONS.GlycogenDose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Hypertonic Solutions: Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Hypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Glucose Dehydrogenases: D-Glucose:1-oxidoreductases. Catalyzes the oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucono-gamma-lactone and reduced acceptor. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.47; EC 1.1.1.118; EC 1.1.1.119 and EC 1.1.99.10.Organ Preservation Solutions: Solutions used to store organs and minimize tissue damage, particularly while awaiting implantation.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Glucokinase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.C-Peptide: The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Gastric Acid: Hydrochloric acid present in GASTRIC JUICE.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Glucose-6-Phosphate: An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)PhlorhizinGlucosephosphatesGlucose Metabolism Disorders: Pathological conditions in which the BLOOD GLUCOSE cannot be maintained within the normal range, such as in HYPOGLYCEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA. Etiology of these disorders varies. Plasma glucose concentration is critical to survival for it is the predominant fuel for the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.3-O-Methylglucose: A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.MethylglucosidesPostprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Mice, Inbred C57BLCulture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.TriglyceridesGastric Juice: The liquid secretion of the stomach mucosa consisting of hydrochloric acid (GASTRIC ACID); PEPSINOGENS; INTRINSIC FACTOR; GASTRIN; MUCUS; and the bicarbonate ion (BICARBONATES). (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p651)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Sodium-Glucose Transporter 1: The founding member of the sodium glucose transport proteins. It is predominately expressed in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the SMALL INTESTINE.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Pancreatic Juice: The fluid containing digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to food in the duodenum.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Mannitol: A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Hypotonic Solutions: Solutions that have a lesser osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.
Qureshi AI, Suarez JI (2000). "Use of hypertonic saline solutions in treatment of cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension ... syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), hemodialysis, or rapid reduction of blood glucose in ... During an ischemic stroke, a lack of oxygen and glucose leads to a breakdown of the sodium-calcium pumps on brain cell ... "Hypertonic saline for treating raised intracranial pressure: literature review with meta-analysis". Journal of Neurosurgery. ...
Hypertonic saline-7% NaCl solutions are considered mucoactive agents and thus are used to hydrate thick secretions (mucus) in ... intravenous solutions with reduced saline concentrations typically have dextrose (glucose) added to maintain a safe osmolality ... This solution is used for irrigating wounds, tissues, body cavities, and bladders. Saline solution for irrigation should not be ... hypertonic saline solutions are also used in critical care settings, acutely increased intracranial pressure, or severe ...
Consequently, solutions osmotically balanced for mammals (e.g., 0.9% normal saline) are likely to be mildly hypertonic for such ... Glucose + Urea ( all in mmol/L). or Calculated osmolarity = 2 Na + 2 K + Glucose + Urea ( all in mmol/L). To calculate plasma ... In normal people, increased osmolality in the blood will stimulate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). This will result in ... For a given solution, osmolarity is slightly less than osmolality, because the total solvent weight (the divisor used for ...
In 1968, David R. Nalin reported that in adults with cholera, given an oral glucose-electrolyte solution in volumes equal to ... However, Phillips' efforts failed because the solution he used was excessively hypertonic. In the early 1960s, biochemist ... In a diarrheal illness, sodium-rich intestinal secretions are lost before they can be reabsorbed. This can lead to life- ... Robert A. Phillips attempted to create an effective ORT solution based on his discovery that, in the presence of glucose, ...
Hypertonic saline-7% NaCl solutions are considered mucoactive agents and thus are used to hydrate thick secretions (mucus) in ... intravenous solutions with reduced saline concentrations typically have dextrose (glucose) added to maintain a safe osmolality ... In medicine, common types of salines include: Lactated Ringer's solution Acetated Ringer's solution Intravenous sugar solutions ... Hypertonic saline is used in treating hyponatremia and cerebral edema Rapid correction of hyponatremia via hypertonic saline, ...
Secretion[edit]. Secretion is the reverse of reabsorption: molecules are transported from the peritubular capillary through the ... Glucose at normal plasma levels is completely reabsorbed in the proximal tubule. The mechanism for this is the Na+/glucose ... This allows urea to leave the collecting duct into the medulla, creating a hyperosmotic solution that "attracts" water. Urea ... Reabsorbs via medullary hypertonicity and makes urine hypertonic.. Thick ascending loop of Henle. Na+ (10-20%), K+, Cl−; ...
Glucose, calcium and proteins are other components of avian blood's chemical properties. Blood glucose levels range from 200 to ... Next, secretion of materials from the renal epithelia into the urine occurs. Finally, urine as the end product travels to the ... The solution produced is considerably more concentrated than seawater. Birds are the only group of vertebrates that have the ... Since not all nephrons of aves have the Loop of Henle, a birds ability to create a hypertonic filtrate can be more challenging ...
The purpose of this study is to assess the comparative safety and effectiveness of Aztreonam for Inhalation Solution versus... ... Glucose Solution, Hypertonic. Solution that is usually 10 percent glucose but may be higher. An isotonic solution of glucose is ... A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause ... Saline Solution, Hypertonic. Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of ...
1. The gastric and intestinal phases of gastric secretion were selectively evoked by meals of 5% liver extract or saline in ... possible that it might be involved in the inhibition that occurs during intestinal perfusion with hypertonic glucose solutions. ... Inhibition of gastric secretion by fat and hypertonic glucose in the dog: role of gastric inhibitory peptide.. *Creutzfeldt W ... 3. The addition of fat (2 or 4% corn oil) or glucose (20%) to this liver extract meal inhibited secretion of gastric acid by 50 ...
I would also caution against using extremely hypertonic oral solutions (more than 700 mOsm/L) as they can worsen GI secretions ... It is not essential to include both glucose and amino acids for transport. However, it is important to maintain a glucose-to- ... isotonic and hypertonic sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), lactated Ringers solution, and dextrose. All of these solutions can be ... Hypertonic sodium bicarbonate preparations include 4.2 percent, 5 percent and 8.4 percent. Solutions of 4.2 percent and 5 ...
hypertonic solution. a solution with a higher concentration of particles than body fluids contain. hypnotics. drugs that induce ... blood glucose less than 70 mg/dL. hypogonadism. a deficiency of hormone production and secretion hypotension. low blood ... hypotonic solution. a solution with a lower concentration of particles than body fluids contain. I idiosyncratic reaction an ... isotonic solution. a solution with the same level of particles, and thus the same tonicity, as body fluids. IVIG. the notation ...
... glucose containing fluids should be avoided initially. Ringers lactate or half normal saline may be used. Hypertonic saline has ... Lactated Ringers solution versus hypertonic saline. Crit Care Med 1998; 28: 1265-70. [29.] Guidelines for the acute medical ... Syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone secretion) fluid restriction may be required. Blood and plasma are used as ... Rapid infusion of hypertonic saline, osmotic agents (e.g. mannitol) and hypocapnia (pCO2 3.5-4.0 kPa) are options when other ...
Cells uptake of glucose - Liver glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis. - Renal filtration and reabsorption of glucose ... 2. Protein secretion has 2 pathways. - Amino acid/polypeptide produced are cleaved and secreted out of cell by ATP-dependent ... 3. Tonicity is osmolality of a solution relative to plasma osmolality - Isotonic -> Same osmolality as plasma. - Hypotonic -> ... What are the major factors determining plasma glucose level? List the hormones which affect plasma glucose levels. ...
In fact the solution does not provoke glucose rise or stimulate insulin secretion during the dwell. This finding can be ... when residual renal function is ended and mantaining body fluid equilibrium is difficult with more hypertonic glucose solutions ... The biocompatibility of icodextrin should be better than standard solutions because the solution does not contain glucose and ... and in all actual PD schedules icodextrin solution cannot replace completely glucose solution because it is limited to only one ...
Infusion of hypertonic saline will increase both plasma Na+ concentration (which should increase vasopressin secretion) and ... checking plasma glucose, the protein composition of enteral/parenteral feeds, urine glucose, Na+ and urea concentrations will ... Use of hypertonic saline or sodium bicarbonate solutions. *. Administration of large volumes of isotonic sodium chloride for ... Hospitalized patients are also at risk due to administration of hypertonic fluids (hypertonic saline, sodium bicarbonate) or ...
... osmolarity than body fluid less effective osmolarity than body fluid Cell in a hypertonic solution Cell in a hypotonic solution ... 2. Stress : corticosteroids secretion (up to 48 hrs) 3. Stress : ADH (up to 2-3 post op days)  water retention 4. NPO require ... Dextran • Dextran are glucose polymers produced by bacteria (leuconostoc mesenteroides) 2 forms : dextran 70(MW 70,000) and ... I.V. fluids Based on property Crystalloids (solution of large molecules) Colloids (solution of electrolytes) Life saving RL NS ...
... the solution is called A. isotonic b. hypertonic c. hypotonic d. osmotonic When a cell is in a solution where the concentration ... glucose b. pyruvate acetleoA glucose C. glucose pyruvate acetyl CoA d. glucose acetyl CoA pyruvate Glucose is broken down into ... Where do the vesicles originate that are involved in secretion? :1. lysoscmes b. nucleus C. Golgi apparatus d. ribosomes ... When a cell is in a solution where the concentration of solute is the same in the cell as in the solution, ...
Tolvaptan: (Moderate) Coadministration of tolvaptan and hypertonic saline (e.g., 3% NaCl injection solution) is not recommended ... Memantine: (Moderate) Cationic drugs that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion, such as vancomycin, may compete with ... Monitor patients receiving concomitant nephrotoxic agents for changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus, and urine glucose and ... Contents of the solution may precipitate in the frozen state and should dissolve with little or no agitation once the solution ...
... if the solution is strongly hypertonic, may promote secretion of water into the intestinal lumen, thus delaying fluid ... Addition of small amounts (perhaps about 2-8%) of carbohydrate in the form of glucose, sucrose, or maltodextrin will promote ...
outside) glucose glucose-6-PO4 (inside). B. Active transport. Potassium K+ ions ... isotonic, hypertonic, hypotonic. *Cytoplasmic membrane protein functions. * Food accumulation- group translocation. * active ...
PubMed:HYPERTONIC GUM ACACIA AND GLUCOSE IN THE TREATMENT OF SECONDARY TRAUMATIC SHOCK.. ... PubMed:The osmotic pressure of gum acacia solutions.. PubMed:THE VAPOUR PRESSURES OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE ... AND BLOOD ON THE RATE OF ADRENAL SECRETION RESULTING FROM HAEMORRHAGE.. ... PubMed:Solution properties of conventional gum arabic and a matured gum arabic (Acacia (sen) SUPER GUM).. ...
However, solutions of lower osmolarity, but that maintain the 1:1 glucose to sodium ratio, perform optimally as oral solutions ... Solutions with a high concentration of co-transporters increase the risk from hypertonic solutions that decrease rather than ... Physiologic Basis for Using Oral Rehydration Solutions Human survival depends on the secretion and reabsorption of fluid and ... Decrease in net stool output in cholera during intestinal perfusion with glucose-containing solutions. N Engl J Med 1968;279: ...
Hypertonic saline-7% NaCl solutions are considered mucoactive agents and thus are used to hydrate thick secretions (mucus) in ... intravenous solutions with reduced saline concentrations typically have dextrose (glucose) added to maintain a safe osmolality ... This solution is used for irrigating wounds, tissues, body cavities, and bladders. Saline solution for irrigation should not be ... hypertonic saline solutions are also used in critical care settings, acutely increased intracranial pressure, or severe ...
Qureshi AI, Suarez JI (2000). "Use of hypertonic saline solutions in treatment of cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension ... syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), hemodialysis, or rapid reduction of blood glucose in ... During an ischemic stroke, a lack of oxygen and glucose leads to a breakdown of the sodium-calcium pumps on brain cell ... "Hypertonic saline for treating raised intracranial pressure: literature review with meta-analysis". Journal of Neurosurgery. ...
B/c the cell was moved to a hypertonic solution, water will most likely move out of the cell and the cells volume will ... If environment in small intestine is too acidic, then pancreatic secretions will be unable to function normally.. - While ... filtrate concentration as essential substances such as glucose, salts,a nd blood are returned to the blood. ... to produce urine hypertonic to the blood however diuretics and alcohol will more likely produce urin that is hypotonic to the ...
Hypertonic saline-7% NaCl solutions are considered mucoactive agents and thus are used to hydrate thick secretions (mucus) in ... intravenous solutions with reduced saline concentrations typically have dextrose (glucose) added to maintain a safe osmolality ... In medicine, common types of salines include: Lactated Ringers solution Acetated Ringers solution Intravenous sugar solutions ... Hypertonic saline is used in treating hyponatremia and cerebral edema Rapid correction of hyponatremia via hypertonic saline, ...
Hypertonic sodium phosphate solution draws fluid into interstitial lumen. Contraindicated in diabetics, patients are ... 2. If peaked T waves, give calcium gluconate followed by IV insulin and glucose. 3. Likely will need hemodialysis ... Polyethylene glycol - causes no net absorption or secretion of ions (no change in electrolyte/water balance) ...
... if the solution is hypotonic, the cell gains water, and if the solution is hypertonic, the cell loses water. Transcription ... of glucose and protein. The ribosome is 124. the site of protein synthesis. The scapula is 46. part of the appendicular ... Tubular secretion movement of certain molecules form blood into the distal convoluted tubule of a nephron so that they are ... Hypertonic Solution outside of the cell has a lower concentration of water. Result: Cells lose water. Hypothalamus produces 20 ...
... but no consensus exists on what level of blood glucose is able to protect the brain and influence the childs neural ... Hypertonic saline solution (3% sodium chloride) may be indicated to treat glucagon-associated hyponatremia. ... Physiologically, hypoglycemia induces glucagon secretion to raise glucose levels [43]. The administration of glucagon has ... 8.3.1. Glucose. Symptomatic neonates should be treated with glucose intravenously, not orally. A 200 mg/kg bolus of glucose ...
Transient opening of the BBB in humans has been achieved by intracarotid infusion of hypertonic mannitol solutions or ... Specific transport proteins exist for required molecules, such as glucose and amino acids. Additionally, absorptive endocytosis ... For example, stimulation of the parasympathetic nerve at different frequencies can induce differential secretion-low ... frequencies cause secretion of NO, while high frequencies (e.g., above about 10 Hz) cause secretion of peptides (VIP). ...
The condition caused by under secretion of insulin. Symptoms: raised blood glucose levels, glucose in urine ... Hypertonic Having an osmotic pressure higher than a solution with which it is compared ... Solution One or more substances dissolved in a liquid Specific gravity A measure of the density of a liquid or solid, as ... Secretion The production or release of a fluid from a gland Semen The fluid discharged at ejaculation of male. Consists of ...
process resulting from osmosis in which red blood cells, in a hypertonic solution, shrink and acquire a scalloped surface. ... process in which glucose is converted into CO2 and H2O in the presence of oxygen, releasing large amounts of ATP. ... complex of vesicles and folded membranes within the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells, involved in secretion and intracellular ... Solution. liquid mixture in which the minor component (the solute) is uniformly distributed within the major component (the ...
  • Cerebral edema from brain cancer Cancerous glial cells (glioma) of the brain can increase secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which weakens the junctions of the blood-brain barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • These : Clinical considerations the lips contain numerous minor salivary glands increase secretion from the c8 nerve, which then initiates sequences of this approach, but laparoscopic excision has been associated with treatment. (recyclesmartma.org)
  • Pathophysiological significance of the excitatory actions on secretomotor neurons might be stimulated mucosal secretion and the secretory diarrhea associated with intestinal inflammatory states. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Standard protocols for islet isolation, developed primarily for human islet transplantation, include beating-heart organ donation, vascular perfusion of preservation solutions, specialized equipment. (beds.ac.uk)
  • process by which molecules of a solvent tend to pass through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrated one, thus equalizing the concentrations on each side of the membrane. (studystack.com)
  • process resulting from osmosis in which red blood cells, in a hypertonic solution, shrink and acquire a scalloped surface. (studystack.com)
  • Hypoglycemia is the most frequent metabolic abnormality in the newborn, but no consensus exists on what level of blood glucose is able to protect the brain and influence the child's neural development and which is the best course of management in cases labeled as hypoglycemia. (intechopen.com)
  • Csf amino acid solutions and by monitoring blood glucose control, reduce wide fluctuations in weight loss in neonatal patients placed on the basis pontis, and into the small intestine, which increases as well as hospitalization for more severe than those caused by nematodes and select cox inhibitor eg, sildenafil, vardenafil, and tadalafil, commonly prescribed ssris during pregnancy. (roanokechowan.edu)
  • Blood glucose. (healthdocbox.com)
  • Hyperglycemia is a complex metabolic condition characterized by abnormally high levels of blood sugar (blood glucose) in circulating blood, usually as a result of diabetes mellitus (types 1 and 2), although it can sometimes occur in cystic fibrosis and near-drowning (submersion injury). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Hyperglycemia, also known as diabetic ketoacidosis, is a condition that develops over a period of a few days as the blood glucose levels of a type 1 or type 2 diabetic gradually rise. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Over time as glucose production accelerates, the child develops hyperglycemia or glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity (hyperlipidemia or high fat levels in the blood) as well. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In rats, pain-related behaviors were induced by application of a hypotonic solution on skin areas that were previously sensitized by PGE 2 , and these pain-related behaviors were reduced following the intrathecal administration of Trpv4 antisense RNA [ 12 ], although the role of TRPV4 in nociception is still a matter of debate. (springer.com)
  • Mnemonic: When you place a cell in a hypotonic solution, it swells up like a hippo. (antranik.org)
  • On the other hand, substances can move in the opposite direction, from the peritubular capillaries into the filtrate, referred to as proximal and distal tubular secretion (Sherwood, 2007, p. 515). (studymode.com)
  • Addition of small amounts (perhaps about 2-8%) of carbohydrate in the form of glucose, sucrose , or maltodextrin will promote water absorption in the small intestine as well as providing exogenous substrate that can spare stored carbohydrate. (barnardhealth.us)
  • It can also occur secondary to absorption of glycine or sorbitol irrigation solutions during transurethreal resection of prostrate (TURP) or bladder surgery or during hysteroscopy or laproscopic surgery. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Albumin and/or x require the addition of carnitine and selenium (if prealbumin not provided in multi-trace element solutions) and Transaminases x iron dextran (if the patient is not receiving transfu- Bilirubin x sions). (yudu.com)
  • Administration of 0.9% NaCl with supplemental vitamins and glucose is usually a safe first option unless portal hypertension and ascites complicate the syndrome. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Question 4 options: Obstruction of the common bile duct, preventing the flow of bile from the liver to the gallbladder Increased synthesis of triglycerides from fatty acids and decreased synthesis of apoproteins Increased binding of lipids with apoproteins to form lipoproteins Increased conversion of fatty acids to phospholipids Save Question 5 (5 points) Which solution is best to use when cleaning a wound that is healing by 101. (stuvia.com)
  • Studies using harder definitions of pressures existing at the injection site, leading to hypotension hypertonic solution low h19 high h17 the al'l!A of low back and the 3 agonist is required more just as one dose of a child severe toxicity occurs with the risk not only supply bladder (the vesical artery, usually three or more attempts. (recyclesmartma.org)
  • There are no reported problems of antibiotic compatibility and the iso-osmolality of the solution allows fast membrane recovery. (uninet.edu)
  • If the entire process is severe enough over several hours (serum glucose levels over 800mg/dL), swelling can occur in the brain (cerebral edema), and coma can eventually result. (encyclopedia.com)
  • There- placement allows rapid dilution of hypertonic solu- fore, in the presence of cholestasis, there will be tions in a large-diameter vein to minimize obstruc- increased intrahepatic accumulation. (yudu.com)
  • The study design consists of two treatment arms of 28-day, intermittent, repeating treatment regimens: Aztreonam for Inhalation Solution (AZLI) or Tobramycin Inhalation Solution (TIS). (bioportfolio.com)
  • The purpose of this research study is to see if an experimental drug called Aztreonam for Inhalation Solution is safe and effective to treat Burkholderia lung infections in patients with C. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of antibiotic therapy with any antibiotic (IV) and IV (Nebcin®) tobramycin for 5 days followed by Solution for nebuliser inhalation (T. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate tobramycin inhalation solution (TIS) once daily compared tot placebo, and open label twice daily, in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Although glucose is the preferred energy source of neurons, other sources, such as lactate and ketone bodies [ 23 ], seem to exert a neuroprotective effect. (intechopen.com)