A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)
Cell surface proteins that bind gastrointestinal hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Most gastrointestinal hormones also act as neurotransmitters so these receptors are also present in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
The fluid containing digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to food in the duodenum.
A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).
The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
Cell surface proteins that bind VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE; (VIP); with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.
A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.
A syndrome that is characterized by the triad of severe PEPTIC ULCER, hypersecretion of GASTRIC ACID, and GASTRIN-producing tumors of the PANCREAS or other tissue (GASTRINOMA). This syndrome may be sporadic or be associated with MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 1.
A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exact amino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is found in the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.
A specific decapeptide obtained from the skin of Hila caerulea, an Australian amphibian. Caerulein is similar in action and composition to CHOLECYSTOKININ. It stimulates gastric, biliary, and pancreatic secretion; and certain smooth muscle. It is used in paralytic ileus and as diagnostic aid in pancreatic malfunction.
The liquid secretion of the stomach mucosa consisting of hydrochloric acid (GASTRIC ACID); PEPSINOGENS; INTRINSIC FACTOR; GASTRIN; MUCUS; and the bicarbonate ion (BICARBONATES). (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p651)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Ducts that collect PANCREATIC JUICE from the PANCREAS and supply it to the DUODENUM.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.

Porcine pancreatic phospholipase A2 stimulates secretin release from secretin-producing cells. (1/608)

We have isolated, from canine pancreatic juice, two 14-kDa proteins with secretin-releasing activity that had N-terminal sequence homology with canine pancreatic phospholipase A2 (PLA2). In this study we have obtained evidence that secretin-releasing activity is an intrinsic property of pancreatic PLA2. Porcine pancreatic PLA2 from Sigma or Boehringer Mannheim was fractionated into several peaks by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. They were tested for stimulation of secretin release from murine neuroendocrine intestinal tumor cell line STC-1 and secretin cells enriched mucosal cell preparations isolated from rat upper small intestine. Each enzyme preparation was found to contain several components of secretin-releasing activity. Each bioactive fraction was purified to homogeneity by rechromatography and then subjected to mass spectral analysis and assays of PLA2 and secretin-releasing activities. It was found that the fraction with highest enzymatic activity also had the highest secretin-releasing activity and the same Mr as porcine pancreatic PLA2. Moreover, it also had the same N-terminal amino acid sequence (up to 30 residues determined) as that of porcine pancreatic PLA2, suggesting that it was identical to the enzyme. Purified porcine pancreatic PLA2 also stimulated secretin release concentration-dependently from both STC-1 cells and a mucosal cell preparation enriched in secretin-containing endocrine cells isolated from rat duodenum. Abolishment of the enzymatic activity by pretreatment with bromophenacyl bromide did not affect its secretin-releasing activity. The stimulatory effect of purified pancreatic PLA2 on secretin secretion from STC-1 cells was inhibited by an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, by down-regulation of protein kinase C or by pretreatment of the cell with pertussis toxin. It is concluded that porcine pancreatic PLA2 possesses an intrinsic secretin-releasing activity that was independent of its enzymatic activity. This action is pertussis toxin-sensitive and is in part dependent on Ca2+ influx through the L-type channel and activation of protein kinase C.  (+info)

COOH-terminally extended secretins are potent stimulants of pancreatic secretion. (2/608)

Posttranslational processing of preprosecretin generates several COOH-terminally extended forms of secretin and alpha-carboxyl amidated secretin. We used synthetic canine secretin analogs with COOH-terminal -amide, -Gly, or -Gly-Lys-Arg to examine the effects of COOH-terminal extensions of secretin on bioactivity and detection in RIA. Synthetic products were purified by reverse-phase and ion-exchange HPLC and characterized by reverse-phase isocratic HPLC and amino acid, sequence, and mass spectral analyses. Secretin and secretin-Gly were noted to coelute during reverse-phase HPLC. In RIA using eight different antisera raised against amidated secretin, COOH-terminally extended secretins had little or no cross-reactivity. Bioactivity was assessed by measuring pancreatic responses in anesthetized rats. Amidated canine and porcine secretins were equipotent. Secretin-Gly and secretin-Gly-Lys-Arg had potencies of 81 +/- 9% (P > 0.05) and 176 +/- 13% (P < 0.01), respectively, compared with amidated secretin, and the response to secretin-Gly-Lys-Arg lasted significantly longer. These data demonstrate that 1) amidated secretin and secretin-Gly are not separable under some chromatographic conditions, 2) current RIA may not detect bioactive COOH-terminally extended forms of secretin in tissue extracts or blood, and 3) the secretin receptor mediating stimulation of pancreatic secretion recognizes both amidated and COOH-terminally extended secretins.  (+info)

Secretagogue-induced digestive enzyme activation and cell injury in rat pancreatic acini. (3/608)

The mechanisms responsible for intrapancreatic digestive enzyme activation as well as the relationship between that activation and cell injury during pancreatitis are not understood. We have employed an in vitro system in which freshly prepared pancreatic acini are exposed to a supramaximally stimulating concentration of the CCK analog caerulein to explore these issues. We find that in vitro trypsinogen activation depends on the continued presence of Ca2+ in the suspending medium and that it is half-maximal in the presence of 0.3 mM Ca2+. Caerulein-induced trypsinogen activation can be halted by removal of Ca2+ from the suspending medium or by chelation of intracellular Ca2+. Increasing intracellular Ca2+ with either ionomycin or thapsigargin does not induce trypsinogen activation. We have monitored cell injury by measuring the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from acini and by quantitating intercalation of propidium iodide (PI) into DNA. Leakage of LDH and intercalation of PI in response to supramaximal stimulation with caerulein can be detected only after caerulein-induced trypsinogen activation has already occurred, and these indications of cell injury can be prevented by addition of a cell-permeant protease inhibitor. Our findings indicate that caerulein-induced intra-acinar cell activation of trypsinogen depends on a rise in intracellular Ca2+, which reflects entry of Ca2+ from the suspending medium. Intra-acinar cell activation of trypsinogen is an early as well as a critical event in pancreatitis. The subsequent cell injury in this model is mediated by activated proteases.  (+info)

Vagus nerve modulates secretin binding sites in the rat forestomach. (4/608)

Secretin is well known for its inhibitory action on gastric motility. It has been reported that secretin in a physiological dose inhibits gastric motility through mediation by the vagal afferent pathway. Secretin also elicited relaxation of carbachol-stimulated rat forestomach muscle strips by binding to its receptors, suggesting a direct action on this peripheral tissue. We hypothesized that vagal input may affect the action of secretin by modulating the level of secretin receptor in the forestomach. Several treatments, including vagal ligation, vagotomy, perivagal application of capsaicin or colchicine, intravenous infusion of tetrodotoxin, and intraperitoneal injection of atropine, were performed to investigate their effects on secretin receptor binding to forestomach membranes. Specific binding of 125I-labeled secretin to forestomach membranes was significantly decreased (45%) by vagal ligation, vagotomy (50%), or perivagal colchicine treatment (40%). On the contrary, specific binding of 125I-secretin was not affected by perivagal capsaicin treatment, intravenous infusion of tetrodotoxin, or intraperitoneal injection of atropine. By Scatchard analysis of the binding data, the capacity of the high-affinity binding sites in forestomach membranes was found to decrease significantly after vagal ligation compared with membranes from the sham-operated group. However, the affinity at the high-affinity binding sites, the binding parameters of the low-affinity binding sites, and binding specificity were not changed. Vagal ligation but not perivagal capsaicin treatment reduced the inhibitory effect of secretin on bethanechol-stimulated contraction of isolated forestomach muscle strips, causing a right shift in the dose-response curve. These results suggest that vagal input through axonal transport plays a significant role on secretin action by modulating the capacity of secretin binding sites (but not affinity or specificity), at least in rat forestomach.  (+info)

Acute carbon tetrachloride feeding induces damage of large but not small cholangiocytes from BDL rat liver. (5/608)

Bile duct damage and/or loss is limited to a range of duct sizes in cholangiopathies. We tested the hypothesis that CCl4 damages only large ducts. CCl4 or mineral oil was given to bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats, and 1, 2, and 7 days later small and large cholangiocytes were purified and evaluated for apoptosis, proliferation, and secretion. In situ, we measured apoptosis by morphometric and TUNEL analysis and the number of small and large ducts by morphometry. Two days after CCl4 administration, we found an increased number of small ducts and reduced number of large ducts. In vitro apoptosis was observed only in large cholangiocytes, and this was accompanied by loss of proliferation and secretion in large cholangiocytes and loss of choleretic effect of secretin. Small cholangiocytes de novo express the secretin receptor gene and secretin-induced cAMP response. Consistent with damage of large ducts, we detected cytochrome P-4502E1 (which CCl4 converts to its radicals) only in large cholangiocytes. CCl4 induces selective apoptosis of large ducts associated with loss of large cholangiocyte proliferation and secretion.  (+info)

Similar structures and shared switch mechanisms of the beta2-adrenoceptor and the parathyroid hormone receptor. Zn(II) bridges between helices III and VI block activation. (6/608)

The seven transmembrane helices of serpentine receptors comprise a conserved switch that relays signals from extracellular stimuli to heterotrimeric G proteins on the cytoplasmic face of the membrane. By substituting histidines for residues at the cytoplasmic ends of helices III and VI in retinal rhodopsin, we engineered a metal-binding site whose occupancy by Zn(II) prevented the receptor from activating a retinal G protein, Gt (Sheikh, S. P., Zvyaga, T. A. , Lichtarge, O., Sakmar, T. P., and Bourne, H. R. (1996) Nature 383, 347-350). Now we report engineering of metal-binding sites bridging the cytoplasmic ends of these two helices in two other serpentine receptors, the beta2-adrenoreceptor and the parathyroid hormone receptor; occupancy of the metal-binding site by Zn(II) markedly impairs the ability of each receptor to mediate ligand-dependent activation of Gs, the stimulatory regulator of adenylyl cyclase. We infer that these two receptors share with rhodopsin a common three-dimensional architecture and an activation switch that requires movement, relative to one another, of helices III and VI; these inferences are surprising in the case of the parathyroid hormone receptor, a receptor that contains seven stretches of hydrophobic sequence but whose amino acid sequence otherwise shows no apparent similarity to those of receptors in the rhodopsin family. These findings highlight the evolutionary conservation of the switch mechanism of serpentine receptors and help to constrain models of how the switch works.  (+info)

Duodenal acid-induced gastric relaxation is mediated by multiple pathways. (7/608)

In this study, we used an in vivo anesthetized rat model to investigate the mechanisms responsible for duodenal acid-induced inhibition of gastric motility. Intraduodenal infusion of HCl produced a rate-dependent decrease in intragastric pressure. Infusion of HCl at 2 ml/h produced a physiological plasma secretin level and elicited a decrease in intragastric pressure of 3.0 +/- 0. 2 cmH20. Infusion of rabbit secretin antiserum reduced the acid-induced inhibition of gastric motility by 85 +/- 5%, suggesting mediation mainly by endogenous secretin. Administration of the cholecystokinin (CCK)-A antagonist MK-329 caused only a modest 10 +/- 3% reduction in gastric relaxation, whereas the serotonin antagonist ICS-205930 had no effect. In contrast, immunoneutralization with the secretin antibody caused only a 15% reduction in the relaxation evoked by a higher rate of HCl infusion (3 ml/h), whereas MK-329 and ICS-205930 caused a 20 +/- 4% reduction and no reduction, respectively. Bilateral truncal vagotomy or perivagal application of capsaicin completely abolished gastric relaxation in response to low rates (1-2 ml/h) of 0.1 N HCl infusion but only partially affected gastric relaxation in response to a higher infusion rate (3 ml/h). These observations indicate that multiple pathways mediate the duodenal acid-induced inhibition of gastric motility. At low rates of HCl infusion, gastric relaxation is mediated primarily by endogenous secretin, which acts through vagal afferent pathways. At higher rates of HCl infusion, gastric relaxation is mediated by endogenous secretin, CCK, and possibly by the direct action of HCl on vagal afferent pathways or yet unidentified neuropathways.  (+info)

Identification of an interaction between residue 6 of the natural peptide ligand and a distinct residue within the amino-terminal tail of the secretin receptor. (8/608)

Photoaffinity labeling is a powerful tool for the characterization of the molecular basis of ligand binding. We recently used this technique to demonstrate the proximity between a residue within the carboxyl-terminal half of a secretin-like ligand and the amino-terminal domain of the secretin receptor (Dong, M., Wang, Y., Pinon, D. I., Hadac, E. M., and Miller, L. J. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 903-909). In this work, we have developed another novel radioiodinatable secretin analogue ([Bpa6,Tyr10]rat secretin-27) that incorporates a photolabile p-benzoyl-L-phenylalanine (Bpa) residue into position 6 of the amino-terminal half of the ligand and used this to identify a specific receptor residue proximate to it. This probe specifically bound to the secretin receptor with high affinity (IC50 = 13.2 +/- 2.5 nM) and was a potent stimulant of cAMP accumulation in secretin receptor-bearing Chinese hamster ovary-SecR cells (EC50 = 720 +/- 230 pM). It covalently labeled the secretin receptor in a saturable and specific manner. Cyanogen bromide cleavage of this molecule yielded a single labeled fragment that migrated on an SDS-polyacrylamide gel at Mr = 19,000 that shifted to 10 after deglycosylation, most consistent with either of two glycosylated fragments within the amino-terminal tail. By immunoprecipitation with antibody directed to epitope tags incorporated into each of the two candidate fragments, the most distal fragment at the amino terminus was identified as the domain of labeling. The labeled domain was further refined to the first 16 residues by endoproteinase Lys-C cleavage and by cyanogen bromide cleavage of another receptor construct in which Val16 was mutated to Met. Radiochemical sequencing of photoaffinity-labeled secretin receptor fragments established that Val4 was the specific site of covalent attachment. This provides the first residue-residue contact between a secretin ligand and its receptor and will contribute substantially to the molecular understanding of this interaction.  (+info)

Secretin is a hormone that is produced and released by the S cells in the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. It is released in response to the presence of acidic chyme (partially digested food) entering the duodenum from the stomach. Secretin stimulates the pancreas to produce bicarbonate-rich alkaline secretions, which help neutralize the acidity of the chyme and create an optimal environment for enzymatic digestion in the small intestine.

Additionally, secretin also promotes the production of watery fluids from the liver, which aids in the digestion process. Overall, secretin plays a crucial role in maintaining the pH balance and facilitating proper nutrient absorption in the gastrointestinal tract.

Gastrointestinal (GI) hormone receptors are specialized protein structures found on the surface of cells in the gastrointestinal tract. These receptors recognize and respond to specific hormones that are released by enteroendocrine cells in the GI tract. Examples of GI hormones include gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin (CCK), motilin, and ghrelin.

When a GI hormone binds to its specific receptor, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to changes in cell function. These changes can include increased or decreased secretion of digestive enzymes, altered motility (movement) of the GI tract, and regulation of appetite and satiety.

Abnormalities in GI hormone receptors have been implicated in a variety of gastrointestinal disorders, including functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, and obesity. Therefore, understanding the role of these receptors in GI physiology and pathophysiology is an important area of research.

Pancreatic juice is an alkaline fluid secreted by the exocrine component of the pancreas, primarily containing digestive enzymes such as amylase, lipase, and trypsin. These enzymes aid in the breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, respectively, in the small intestine during the digestion process. The bicarbonate ions present in pancreatic juice help neutralize the acidic chyme that enters the duodenum from the stomach, creating an optimal environment for enzymatic activity.

Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a hormone that is produced in the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) and in the brain. It is released into the bloodstream in response to food, particularly fatty foods, and plays several roles in the digestive process.

In the digestive system, CCK stimulates the contraction of the gallbladder, which releases bile into the small intestine to help digest fats. It also inhibits the release of acid from the stomach and slows down the movement of food through the intestines.

In the brain, CCK acts as a neurotransmitter and has been shown to have effects on appetite regulation, mood, and memory. It may play a role in the feeling of fullness or satiety after eating, and may also be involved in anxiety and panic disorders.

CCK is sometimes referred to as "gallbladder-stimulating hormone" or "pancreozymin," although these terms are less commonly used than "cholecystokinin."

The pancreas is a glandular organ located in the abdomen, posterior to the stomach. It has both exocrine and endocrine functions. The exocrine portion of the pancreas consists of acinar cells that produce and secrete digestive enzymes into the duodenum via the pancreatic duct. These enzymes help in the breakdown of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats in food.

The endocrine portion of the pancreas consists of clusters of cells called islets of Langerhans, which include alpha, beta, delta, and F cells. These cells produce and secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream, including insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide. Insulin and glucagon are critical regulators of blood sugar levels, with insulin promoting glucose uptake and storage in tissues and glucagon stimulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis to raise blood glucose when it is low.

G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a family of membrane receptors that play an essential role in cellular signaling and communication. These receptors possess seven transmembrane domains, forming a structure that spans the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane. They are called "G-protein-coupled" because they interact with heterotrimeric G proteins upon activation, which in turn modulate various downstream signaling pathways.

When an extracellular ligand binds to a GPCR, it causes a conformational change in the receptor's structure, leading to the exchange of guanosine diphosphate (GDP) for guanosine triphosphate (GTP) on the associated G protein's α subunit. This exchange triggers the dissociation of the G protein into its α and βγ subunits, which then interact with various effector proteins to elicit cellular responses.

There are four main families of GPCRs, classified based on their sequence similarities and downstream signaling pathways:

1. Gq-coupled receptors: These receptors activate phospholipase C (PLC), which leads to the production of inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). IP3 induces calcium release from intracellular stores, while DAG activates protein kinase C (PKC).
2. Gs-coupled receptors: These receptors activate adenylyl cyclase, which increases the production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and subsequently activates protein kinase A (PKA).
3. Gi/o-coupled receptors: These receptors inhibit adenylyl cyclase, reducing cAMP levels and modulating PKA activity. Additionally, they can activate ion channels or regulate other signaling pathways through the βγ subunits.
4. G12/13-coupled receptors: These receptors primarily activate RhoGEFs, which in turn activate RhoA and modulate cytoskeletal organization and cellular motility.

GPCRs are involved in various physiological processes, including neurotransmission, hormone signaling, immune response, and sensory perception. Dysregulation of GPCR function has been implicated in numerous diseases, making them attractive targets for drug development.

Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) is a 28-amino acid polypeptide hormone that has potent vasodilatory, secretory, and neurotransmitter effects. It is widely distributed throughout the body, including in the gastrointestinal tract, where it is synthesized and released by nerve cells (neurons) in the intestinal mucosa. VIP plays a crucial role in regulating various physiological functions such as intestinal secretion, motility, and blood flow. It also has immunomodulatory effects and may play a role in neuroprotection. High levels of VIP are found in the brain, where it acts as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator and is involved in various cognitive functions such as learning, memory, and social behavior.

Secretory rate refers to the amount or volume of a secretion produced by a gland or an organ over a given period of time. It is a measure of the productivity or activity level of the secreting structure. The secretory rate can be quantified for various bodily fluids, such as saliva, sweat, digestive enzymes, hormones, or milk, depending on the context and the specific gland or organ being studied.

In clinical settings, measuring the secretory rate might involve collecting and analyzing samples over a certain duration to estimate the production rate of the substance in question. This information can be helpful in diagnosing conditions related to impaired secretion, monitoring treatment responses, or understanding the physiological adaptations of the body under different circumstances.

Gastrointestinal (GI) hormones are a group of hormones that are secreted by cells in the gastrointestinal tract in response to food intake and digestion. They play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes, including appetite regulation, gastric acid secretion, motility of the gastrointestinal tract, insulin secretion, and pancreatic enzyme release.

Examples of GI hormones include:

* Gastrin: Secreted by G cells in the stomach, gastrin stimulates the release of hydrochloric acid from parietal cells in the stomach lining.
* Ghrelin: Produced by the stomach, ghrelin is often referred to as the "hunger hormone" because it stimulates appetite and food intake.
* Cholecystokinin (CCK): Secreted by I cells in the small intestine, CCK promotes digestion by stimulating the release of pancreatic enzymes and bile from the liver. It also inhibits gastric emptying and reduces appetite.
* Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP): Produced by K cells in the small intestine, GIP promotes insulin secretion and inhibits glucagon release.
* Secretin: Released by S cells in the small intestine, secretin stimulates the pancreas to produce bicarbonate-rich fluid that neutralizes stomach acid in the duodenum.
* Motilin: Secreted by MO cells in the small intestine, motilin promotes gastrointestinal motility and regulates the migrating motor complex (MMC), which is responsible for cleaning out the small intestine between meals.

These hormones work together to regulate digestion and maintain homeostasis in the body. Dysregulation of GI hormones can contribute to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as gastroparesis, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and diabetes.

Hydrochloric acid, also known as muriatic acid, is not a substance that is typically found within the human body. It is a strong mineral acid with the chemical formula HCl. In a medical context, it might be mentioned in relation to gastric acid, which helps digest food in the stomach. Gastric acid is composed of hydrochloric acid, potassium chloride and sodium chloride dissolved in water. The pH of hydrochloric acid is very low (1-2) due to its high concentration of H+ ions, making it a strong acid. However, it's important to note that the term 'hydrochloric acid' does not directly refer to a component of human bodily fluids or tissues.

The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine, immediately following the stomach. It is a C-shaped structure that is about 10-12 inches long and is responsible for continuing the digestion process that begins in the stomach. The duodenum receives partially digested food from the stomach through the pyloric valve and mixes it with digestive enzymes and bile produced by the pancreas and liver, respectively. These enzymes help break down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates into smaller molecules, allowing for efficient absorption in the remaining sections of the small intestine.

Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) receptors are a type of G-protein coupled receptor found in various tissues and organs throughout the body, including the heart, blood vessels, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and nervous system. These receptors bind to VIP, a neuropeptide that acts as a potent vasodilator, increasing blood flow and reducing vascular resistance.

There are two main types of VIP receptors: VPAC1 and VPAC2. Both receptor subtypes have similar structures and functions, but they differ in their distribution throughout the body and their sensitivity to different ligands. For example, VPAC1 is more abundant in the heart, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract, while VPAC2 is more prevalent in the nervous system and endocrine organs.

VIP receptors play important roles in regulating various physiological processes, including cardiovascular function, smooth muscle relaxation, neurotransmission, and immune response. Abnormalities in VIP signaling have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including inflammatory disorders, neurological conditions, and cancer.

In summary, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) receptors are a type of G-protein coupled receptor that bind to the neuropeptide VIP and play important roles in regulating various physiological processes throughout the body.

Bicarbonates, also known as sodium bicarbonate or baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. In the context of medical definitions, bicarbonates refer to the bicarbonate ion (HCO3-), which is an important buffer in the body that helps maintain normal pH levels in blood and other bodily fluids.

The balance of bicarbonate and carbonic acid in the body helps regulate the acidity or alkalinity of the blood, a condition known as pH balance. Bicarbonates are produced by the body and are also found in some foods and drinking water. They work to neutralize excess acid in the body and help maintain the normal pH range of 7.35 to 7.45.

In medical testing, bicarbonate levels may be measured as part of an electrolyte panel or as a component of arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis. Low bicarbonate levels can indicate metabolic acidosis, while high levels can indicate metabolic alkalosis. Both conditions can have serious consequences if not treated promptly and appropriately.

Gastrins are a group of hormones that are produced by G cells in the stomach lining. These hormones play an essential role in regulating gastric acid secretion and motor functions of the gastrointestinal tract. The most well-known gastrin is known as "gastrin-17," which is released into the bloodstream and stimulates the release of hydrochloric acid from parietal cells in the stomach lining.

Gastrins are stored in secretory granules within G cells, and their release is triggered by several factors, including the presence of food in the stomach, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), and vagus nerve stimulation. Once released, gastrins bind to specific receptors on parietal cells, leading to an increase in intracellular calcium levels and the activation of enzymes that promote hydrochloric acid secretion.

Abnormalities in gastrin production can lead to several gastrointestinal disorders, including gastrinomas (tumors that produce excessive amounts of gastrin), which can cause severe gastric acid hypersecretion and ulcers. Conversely, a deficiency in gastrin production can result in hypochlorhydria (low stomach acid levels) and impaired digestion.

Amylases are enzymes that break down complex carbohydrates, such as starch and glycogen, into simpler sugars like maltose, glucose, and maltotriose. There are several types of amylases found in various organisms, including humans.

In humans, amylases are produced by the pancreas and salivary glands. Pancreatic amylase is released into the small intestine where it helps to digest dietary carbohydrates. Salivary amylase, also known as alpha-amylase, is secreted into the mouth and begins breaking down starches in food during chewing.

Deficiency or absence of amylases can lead to difficulties in digesting carbohydrates and may cause symptoms such as bloating, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Elevated levels of amylase in the blood may indicate conditions such as pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, or other disorders affecting the pancreas.

Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome (ZES) is a rare digestive disorder that is characterized by the development of one or more gastrin-secreting tumors, also known as gastrinomas. These tumors are usually found in the pancreas and duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). Gastrinomas produce excessive amounts of the hormone gastrin, which leads to the overproduction of stomach acid.

The increased stomach acid can cause severe peptic ulcers, often multiple or refractory to treatment, in the duodenum and jejunum (the second part of the small intestine). ZES may also result in diarrhea due to the excess acid irritating the intestines. In some cases, gastrinomas can be malignant and metastasize to other organs such as the liver and lymph nodes.

The diagnosis of Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome typically involves measuring serum gastrin levels and performing a secretin stimulation test. Imaging tests like CT scans, MRI, or endoscopic ultrasounds may be used to locate the tumors. Treatment usually includes medications to reduce stomach acid production (such as proton pump inhibitors) and surgery to remove the gastrinomas when possible.

I'm sorry for the confusion, but "Peptide PHI" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. It seems that there might be some misunderstanding or miscommunication related to this term.

If you are referring to a specific type of peptide or a research study, could you please provide more context or clarify the source of the term? I would be happy to help you with accurate and reliable information once I have a better understanding of what you are asking about.

Ceruletide is a synthetic analog of the natural hormone cholecystokinin (CCK). It is a decapeptide with the following sequence: cyclo(D-Asp-Tic-Phe-Ser-Leu-Hand-Ala-Lys-Thr-Nle-NH2).

Ceruletide has several pharmacological actions, including stimulation of the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas, contraction of the gallbladder and sphincter of Oddi, and inhibition of gastric acid secretion. It is used in clinical medicine for diagnostic purposes to test the motor function of the biliary tract and to diagnose gastrointestinal motility disorders.

Ceruletide has also been investigated as a potential treatment for certain conditions such as pancreatitis, gallstones, and intestinal obstruction, but its use is limited due to its side effects, which include nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea.

Gastric juice is a digestive fluid that is produced in the stomach. It is composed of several enzymes, including pepsin, which helps to break down proteins, and gastric amylase, which begins the digestion of carbohydrates. Gastric juice also contains hydrochloric acid, which creates a low pH environment in the stomach that is necessary for the activation of pepsin and the digestion of food. Additionally, gastric juice contains mucus, which helps to protect the lining of the stomach from the damaging effects of the hydrochloric acid. The production of gastric juice is controlled by hormones and the autonomic nervous system.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

The pancreatic ducts are a set of tubular structures within the pancreas that play a crucial role in the digestive system. The main pancreatic duct, also known as the duct of Wirsung, is responsible for transporting pancreatic enzymes and bicarbonate-rich fluid from the pancreas to the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine.

The exocrine portion of the pancreas contains numerous smaller ducts called interlobular ducts and intralobular ducts that merge and ultimately join the main pancreatic duct. This system ensures that the digestive enzymes and fluids produced by the pancreas are effectively delivered to the small intestine, where they aid in the breakdown and absorption of nutrients from food.

In addition to the main pancreatic duct, there is an accessory pancreatic duct, also known as Santorini's duct, which can sometimes join the common bile duct before emptying into the duodenum through a shared opening called the ampulla of Vater. However, in most individuals, the accessory pancreatic duct usually drains into the main pancreatic duct before entering the duodenum.

Bile is a digestive fluid that is produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It plays an essential role in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine. Bile consists of bile salts, bilirubin, cholesterol, phospholipids, electrolytes, and water.

Bile salts are amphipathic molecules that help to emulsify fats into smaller droplets, increasing their surface area and allowing for more efficient digestion by enzymes such as lipase. Bilirubin is a breakdown product of hemoglobin from red blood cells and gives bile its characteristic greenish-brown color.

Bile is released into the small intestine in response to food, particularly fats, entering the digestive tract. It helps to break down large fat molecules into smaller ones that can be absorbed through the walls of the intestines and transported to other parts of the body for energy or storage.

... targets the pancreas; pancreatic centroacinar cells have secretin receptors in their plasma membrane. As secretin ... Secretin also has an amidated carboxyl-terminal amino acid which is valine. The sequence of amino acids in secretin is H-His- ... In humans, the secretin peptide is encoded by the SCT gene. Secretin helps regulate the pH of the duodenum by (1) inhibiting ... Secretin is used in a diagnostic tests for pancreatic function; secretin is injected and the pancreatic output can then be ...
IUPHAR GPCR Database - Secretin receptor secretin+receptor at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ( ... of the secretin receptor family, also called class B GPCR subfamily. The secretin receptor has been shown to interact with ... The secretin receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SCTR gene. This protein is a G protein-coupled receptor ... Ho PK, Fong RS, Kai HS, Lau EH, Ngan ES, Cotton CU, Chow BK (July 1999). "The human secretin receptor gene: genomic ...
Glucagon/gastric inhibitory polypeptide/secretin/vasoactive intestinal peptide hormones are a family of evolutionarily related ... Other members of the structurally similar group include secretin, gastric inhibitory peptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide, ... peptide hormones that regulate activity of G-protein-coupled receptors from the secretin receptor family. A number of ...
"Jacques Secretin". Royal Belgian Football Association. Retrieved 3 September 2021. Jacques Secretin at FootballDatabase.eu v t ... "Jacques Secretin". worldfootball.net. Retrieved 3 September 2021. "Jacques Secretin". National Football Teams. Retrieved 3 ...
... (class B GPCR subfamily) consists of secretin receptors regulated by peptide hormones from the ... The secretin-receptor family of GPCRs include vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors and receptors for secretin, calcitonin ... The secretin-receptor family GPCRs exist in many animal species. Data mining with the Pfam signature has identified members in ... However, there is no significant sequence identity between these two GPCR families and the secretin-receptor family has its own ...
The secretin-cholecystokinin test (aka Secretin-CCK test, Secretin-Pancreozymin test) is a combination of the secretin test and ... The concentration and output of bicarbonate with the secretin-CCK test is similar to what has been observed with the standard ... secretin test . The secretin-induced rapid flow of water results in lower and often unreliable enzyme concentrations. CCK also ... reviewed the relative diagnostic value of enzyme and bicarbonate concentrations compared with enzyme output in 363 secretin-CCK ...
"Jacques Secretin". Royal Belgian Football Association. Retrieved 10 November 2017. "Corneel Seys". Royal Belgian Football ...
p. B.1. Kalk, Samara (May 24, 1999). "Scrambling for secretin; questions remain on new treatment for autism...but parents want ... p. 1. Maugh II, Thomas H. (December 9, 1999). "In clinical trial, hormone shows no effect on autism; health: secretin, which ... Rimland advocated the use of secretin, a "naturally occurring intestinal hormone, saying it was "possibly the most important ... and false claims of a link between secretin and autism. He also supported the ethically controversial practice of using ...
"SECRETIN Jacques (FRA)". ITTF.com. Archived from the original on 16 October 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2018. Montague, Trevor ( ...
Beck had with regard to hers, namely that while, prior to Aaron receiving secretin, "You couldn't get Aaron to look at you at ... Rimland, Bernard (1999). "Secretin: Positive, Negative Media Reports in the Top of the First Inning" (PDF). Autism Research ... In addition to his research on secretin and autism, Horvath is well known for his research into, and advocacy for awareness of ... After she did so, Horvath injected Parker with an intravenous dose of secretin as part of his diagnostic tests, and according ...
In 1961, Jorpes and the docent Viktor Mutt isolated the hormone secretin. Jorpes was known as a strong personality. There was ... ISBN 978-981-31446-3-7. Jorpes, Johan Erik; Mutt, Viktor (1973). Secretin, Cholecystokinin, Pancreozymin and Gastrin. Berlin: ...
This was named secretin: a hormone. Hormonal effects are dependent on where they are released, as they can be released in ... Though frequently falsely attributed to secretin, found in 1902 by Bayliss and Starling, Oliver and Schäfer's adrenal extract ...
Secretin - a hormone that controls the secretions into the duodenum, and also separately, water homeostasis throughout the body ... Wikipedia:Notice board for autism-related topics Barrett, Stephen (11 May 2015). "Secretin Found Ineffective for Treating ...
... especially secretin. Its function is to complete the process begun by pancreatic juice; the enzyme trypsin exists in pancreatic ...
Examples include: Secretin Cholecystokinin You C, Chey W (1987). "Secretin is an enterogastrone in humans". Dig Dis Sci. 32 (5 ...
The stomach itself is protected from the strong acid by the secretion of a thick mucus layer, and by secretin induced buffering ... ISBN 978-0-7216-8677-6. Bowen R (18 March 2003). "Control and Physiologic Effects of Secretin". Colorado State University. ...
Allison, Wes (14 May 2000). "Secretin: miracle drug or a quack remedy?". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved 19 September 2013. ...
"Secretin-Association for Science in Autism Treatment". Archived from the original on 2013-10-29. Retrieved 2013-10-20. Herbs ... They take a similar viewpoint with regard to the use of secretin. Treatments they consider to be unproven, rather than ...
These include secretin, acetylcholine, ATP, and bombesin. Cholangiocytes act through bile-acid independent bile flow, which is ...
Examples include the heart (atrial natriuretic peptide); gastrointestinal tract organs (gastrin, secretin, and others); the ...
This hormone was named gastric secretin or gastrin. But it was not until 1979 and later in 1987 and 1988 that progastrin was ...
Note that the mechanism underlying this test is in contrast to the normal physiologic mechanism whereby secretin inhibits ... The diagnosis is made through several laboratory tests and imaging studies: Secretin stimulation test, which measures evoked ... Bradley, E L; Galambos, J T (1976). "Diagnosis of gastrinoma by the secretin suppression test". Surgery, Gynecology & ... Gastrinoma cells release gastrin in response to secretin stimulation, thereby providing a sensitive means of differentiation. ...
Secretin family Nauck MA, Meier JJ (February 2018). "Incretin hormones: Their role in health and disease". Diabetes, Obesity & ...
Gastrin and secretin may also act as secretagogues. It works in conjunction with the parietal cell, which releases gastric acid ...
They called this substance secretin and Starling proposed that the body produces many secretin-like molecules, and in 1905 ... 2. The discovery of the hormone secretin-with his brother-in-law William Bayliss-and the introduction of the word hormone. 3. ... with secretin being prominent. The assessor, J. E. Johansson, decided that Starling should receive the prize, but not yet[ ...
... belongs to the secretin family of hormones. Glucagon is a 29-amino acid polypeptide. Its primary structure in humans ...
The secretion of bicarbonate from the pancreas is stimulated by secretin. This polypeptide hormone gets activated and secreted ... and secretin all inhibit production. The production of gastric acid in the stomach is tightly regulated by positive regulators ...
It has been suggested that this is due to abnormalities in the secretion of secretin in the brain and that "Secretin as a ... "Secretin as a neurohypophysial factor regulating body water homeostasis". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 106 ...
They correspond to classical classes C (class C, glutamate), A (rhodopsin-like), B2 (Secretin receptor family, long N-terminal ... GRAFS stands for Glutamate, Rhodopsin, Adhesion, Frizzled/Taste2, Secretin. ... F (Frizzled/Smoothened), and B1+3 (other secretin). Taste2 has more recently considered to be closer to Rhodopsin-like ...
Secretin was discovered in 1902 by E. H. Starling. It was later linked to chemical regulation and was the first substance to be ... 2000). "Secretin, its discovery, and the introduction of the hormone concept.". Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2000 Oct;60(6):463-71 ... Gastrin Cholecystokinin (CCK) The Secretin family are peptides that act as local hormones which regulate activity of G-protein ... Secretin Glucagon Glicentin (GLI) Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) Motilin Neurotensin ...
Secretin targets the pancreas; pancreatic centroacinar cells have secretin receptors in their plasma membrane. As secretin ... Secretin also has an amidated carboxyl-terminal amino acid which is valine. The sequence of amino acids in secretin is H-His- ... In humans, the secretin peptide is encoded by the SCT gene. Secretin helps regulate the pH of the duodenum by (1) inhibiting ... Secretin is used in a diagnostic tests for pancreatic function; secretin is injected and the pancreatic output can then be ...
The small intestine produces secretin when partially digested food from the stomach moves into ... The small intestine produces secretin when partially digested food from the stomach moves into ... The secretin stimulation test measures the ability of the pancreas to respond to a hormone called secretin. ... The secretin stimulation test measures the ability of the pancreas to respond to a hormone called secretin. ...
Secretin protein with a crown. Researchers elucidate the structure of a molecular machine that allows bacteria to import ... Structure of the PilQ-complex: The second model from the left illustrates the 13 secretin subunits in different colours. The ... Structure of the PilQ-complex: The second model from the left illustrates the 13 secretin subunits in different colours. The ... known as a secretin complex, in collaboration with research groups headed by Werner Kühlbrandt and Gerhard Hummer. ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
Crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of the secretin XcpQ from Pseudomonas aeruginosa ... These secretin channels have large periplasmic N-terminal domains that reach out into the periplasm for communication with the ... This is consistent with the notion that the dodecameric secretin assembles as a hexamer of dimers to ensure correct projection ... Here we report the crystal structure of the N-terminal periplasmic domain of the secretin XcpQ from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ...
... whereas the secretin-VPAC1 and secretin-VPAC2 receptor hetero-oligomers were unaffected by ligand treatment. Morphologic FRET ... Unlike secretin receptor oligomers that were unaffected by ligand binding, the VPAC receptor homo-oligomers were modulated by ... However, coexpression of secretin receptors with either type of VPAC receptor resulted in intracellular trapping of the hetero- ... BRET studies showed that, like the secretin receptor, both VPAC receptors exhibited constitutive homo-oligomerization in COS ...
Functional Importance of a Structurally Distinct Homodimeric Complex of the Family B G Protein-Coupled Secretin Receptor. Fan ... Functional Importance of a Structurally Distinct Homodimeric Complex of the Family B G Protein-Coupled Secretin Receptor. Fan ... Functional Importance of a Structurally Distinct Homodimeric Complex of the Family B G Protein-Coupled Secretin Receptor. Fan ... Functional Importance of a Structurally Distinct Homodimeric Complex of the Family B G Protein-Coupled Secretin Receptor ...
... followed six weeks later by secretin, and group 2 received secretin followed by placebo. At the conclusion of the study, ... the 23 families who perceived improvement following secretin registered a higher mean score on the GBRS in the post-secretin ... Therefore, as one component of a multifaceted study of secretin in children with autism,1 we asked parents simply to guess ... Had this child received secretin in an open label setting during (or, for that matter, as part of our research protocol), he ...
All four exons of the secretin gene were replaced with a lacZ reporter driven by the secretin promoter ...
SECRETIN-MRCP. Secretin stimulated MRCP (S-MRCP) is a non-invasive, ionizing, radiation-free assessment of the ... INN-329 (SECRETIN). MAGNETIC RESONANCE CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY (MRCP). Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) was ... The current secretin formulation is not labeled for MRCP. Historically, a primary modality for diagnosing and treating many ... Technical enhancements that improve MRCP image quality, such as secretin, can further reduce the need for diagnostic ERCP, with ...
Biosynthesis of Secretin. Kopin, Alan S. / Tufts University. NIH 1992. K08 DK. Biosynthesis of Secretin. Kopin, Alan S. / Tufts ... Biosynthesis of Secretin. Kopin, Alan S. / Tufts University. NIH 1990. K08 DK. Biosynthesis of Secretin. Kopin, Alan S. / Tufts ... By generating a map of the secretin producing cells in the CNS using in situ hybridization, the function of secretin in the ... Finally, the role of established secretin secretagogues in regulation of secretin mRNA levels will be studied in vivo in rats. ...
Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials of intravenous secretin comparing secretin with a placebo treatment in ... RCTs of efficacy of secretin in autism have not shown improvements for core features of autism. Authors conclusions: There is ... Further experimental assessment of secretins effectiveness for autism can only be justified if methodological problems of ... Objectives: To determine if intravenous secretin: 1. improves the core features of autism (social interaction, communication ...
Got a Secret? - In Picture (2×09). by geek4tv2. August 4, 2011. August 8, 2011. ...
Jacques Secretin. 2017, Men Jacques Secretin (FRA). Born: 18/03/1949 Carvin/FRA. Achievements: World Championships ,,, Total 5 ...
... secretin acetate human) prescription medication with Blink Pharmacy. Same pills. Lower prices. No coupon req. ...
sup>125I](Tyr10)secretin-27 (rat) ligand page. ...
Intravenous secretin for autism spectrum disorders answers are found in the Evidence-Based Medicine Guidelines powered by ... Intravenous secretin for autism spectrum disorders. Evidence-Based Medicine Guidelines. Duodecim Medical Publications Limited; ... Intravenous Secretin for Autism Spectrum Disorders [Internet]. In: Evidence-Based Medicine Guidelines. Duodecim Medical ... "Intravenous Secretin for Autism Spectrum Disorders." Evidence-Based Medicine Guidelines, Duodecim Medical Publications Limited ...
Buy Secretin Cycle 1 2 oz by Professional Complementary Health Formulas at CAMFormulas.com Free shipping on all orders over $25 ... Secretin 9X. Secretin 12X. Secretin 30X. Base Ingredients: 20% ethanol, purified water.. ... Secretin Cycle 1 2 oz by Professional Complementary Health Formulas by Professional Complementary Health Formulas ...
title = "Cellular distribution of secretin receptor expression in rat pancreas",. abstract = "Secretin is an important ... Secretin is an important regulator of pancreatic function, but the molecular basis of its actions is not well understood. We ... N2 - Secretin is an important regulator of pancreatic function, but the molecular basis of its actions is not well understood. ... AB - Secretin is an important regulator of pancreatic function, but the molecular basis of its actions is not well understood. ...
Sophia Secretin married Nicholas Maunsell, son of Richard Maunsell and Rebecca Smith.1. She lived at Jersey, Channel IslandsG.1 ... Nicholas Maunsell is the son of Richard Maunsell and Rebecca Smith.2 He married, firstly, Sophia Secretin.1 He married, ...
Commentary: The absence of protein Y4yS affects negatively the abundance of T3SS Mesorhizobium loti secretin, RhcC2, in ...
Producing high quality medicine Porcine Secretin Acetate Human Growth Hormone Peptide CAS 17034-35-4 products. ... High quality medicine Porcine Secretin Acetate Human Growth Hormone Peptide CAS 17034-35-4 from China, Chinas leading Tens ... Secretin Acetate, also called secretin, has recently been in the brain and purified, therefore also joined the ranks of brain ... 1. Secretin Acetate. 2. Sequence:H-His-Ser-Asp-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Glu-Leu-Ser-Arg-Leu-Arg-Asp-Ser-Ala-Arg-Leu-Gln-Arg-Leu-Leu- ...
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... dc.contributor.advisor. Lee, Jeremy. ... The goal of this project was to isolate and use the type II secretin ExeD in nanopore analysis. After this was accomplished, ... A larger pore, using the type II secretin of Aeromonas hydrophila, may be able to circumvent the size constraint of α-hemolysin ... In conclusion, we have extensively studied the secretin ExeD and have found it is not suitable for studying peptides or ...
The secretin receptor is a prototypic class B G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by binding of its natural peptide ... N2 - The secretin receptor is a prototypic class B G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by binding of its natural ... AB - The secretin receptor is a prototypic class B G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by binding of its natural ... abstract = "The secretin receptor is a prototypic class B G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by binding of its ...
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Origin and general involvement and presentation Carcinoid tumors are derived from primitive stem cells in the gut wall but can be seen in other organs, including the lungs, mediastinum, thymus, liver, pancreas, bronchus, ovaries, prostate, and kidneys. In children, most tumors occur in the appendix and are benign and asymptomatic.
Sastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin (CCK) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) are 4 major peptide hormone secreted by ...
Secretin Human. *Tapentadol. *Tiotropium. Using this medicine with any of the following medicines may cause an increased risk ...
  • In a controlled setting, parents of young children with autism are unable to distinguish the short term behavioural effects of secretin from placebo. (bmj.com)
  • The apparent absence or extreme low density of similar secretin receptors on islets and pancreatic vascular structures suggests that the pharmacological effects of secretin on those cells may either be indirect or mediated by another secretin family receptor that recognizes this hormone with lower affinity. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Pleiotropic Effects of Secretin: A Potential Drug Candidate in the Treatment of Obesity? (frontiersin.org)
  • Secretin helps regulate the pH of the duodenum by (1) inhibiting the secretion of gastric acid from the parietal cells of the stomach and (2) stimulating the production of bicarbonate from the ductal cells of the pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • They named this intestinal secretion secretin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, the secretion of secretin is increased by the products of protein digestion bathing the mucosa of the upper small intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secretin release is inhibited by H2 antagonists, which reduce gastric acid secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secretin also increases water and bicarbonate secretion from duodenal Brunner's glands to buffer the incoming protons of the acidic chyme, and also reduces acid secretion by parietal cells of the stomach. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, our studies provide a key conceptual advancement in understanding the assembly principles and dynamic function of type II secretion system secretins and challenge recent studies reporting monomers as the basic subunit of the secretin oligomer. (rcsb.org)
  • The long term goal of this proposal is to elucidate the biological role of secretin, a gastrointestinal hormone which regulates pancreatic secretion. (grantome.com)
  • A cyclic peptide (RO 25-1553) and a secretion analogue ([R16]chicken secretin) were identified as selective agonist peptides for the VIP2- and VIP1 receptors, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • secretion (including his secretin). (who.int)
  • pancreatic centroacinar cells have secretin receptors in their plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • As secretin binds to these receptors, it stimulates adenylate cyclase activity and converts ATP to cyclic AMP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we show that subtypes of human vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptors (VPAC1 and VPAC2) that represent the closest structurally related receptors to the secretin receptor also form constitutive oligomers with themselves and with the secretin receptor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We prepared tagged constructs expressing Renilla reniformis luciferase, yellow fluorescent protein, or cyan fluorescent protein at the carboxyl terminus of VPAC1, VPAC2, and secretin receptors, and performed BRET and morphologic fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) studies with all combinations. (aspetjournals.org)
  • BRET studies showed that, like the secretin receptor, both VPAC receptors exhibited constitutive homo-oligomerization in COS cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, coexpression of secretin receptors with either type of VPAC receptor resulted in intracellular trapping of the hetero-oligomeric complexes within the biosynthetic pathway. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We have, therefore, used in situ autoradiography, photoaffinity labeling, and RNase protection assays with healthy rat pancreas, dispersed acinar cells, and pancreas depleted of acinar cells to explore the cellular distribution and molecular identity of high-affinity secretin receptors in this complex organ. (elsevierpure.com)
  • RNase protection assays confirmed the molecular identity of the secretin receptors expressed on these distinct cells. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Thus beta adrenergic and tryptaminergic receptors are not implied in the process of vasodilation in response to secretin. (erowid.org)
  • visualization can be improved substantially by intravenous administration of secretin, which stimulates the release of pancreatic juice from acinar cells in the exocrine pancreas into the pancreatic ducts. (innovatebiopharma.com)
  • Objectives: To determine if intravenous secretin: 1. (edu.au)
  • Selection criteria: Randomised controlled trials of intravenous secretin comparing secretin with a placebo treatment in children or adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders, where at least one standardised outcome measure was reported. (edu.au)
  • Authors' conclusions: There is no evidence that single or multiple dose intravenous secretin is effective and as such it should not currently be recommended or administered as a treatment for autism. (edu.au)
  • Unlike secretin receptor oligomers that were unaffected by ligand binding, the VPAC receptor homo-oligomers were modulated by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The VPAC1-VPAC2 hetero-oligomers were modulated by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide binding, whereas the secretin-VPAC1 and secretin-VPAC2 receptor hetero-oligomers were unaffected by ligand treatment. (aspetjournals.org)
  • More specifically, the aims of this proposal are to define the secretin precursor protein, to determine the tissue distribution of secretin gene expression, and to determine how secretin gene expression is regulated. (grantome.com)
  • In humans, the secretin peptide is encoded by the SCT gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This precursor contains an N-terminal signal peptide, spacer, secretin itself (residues 28-54), and a 72-amino acid C-terminal peptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mature secretin peptide is a linear peptide hormone, which is composed of 27 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 3055. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amino acids sequences of secretin have some similarities to that of glucagon, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Secretin Acetate, also called secretin, has recently been in the brain and purified, therefore also joined the ranks of brain gut peptide. (aibonet.com)
  • The secretin receptor is a prototypic class B G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by binding of its natural peptide ligand. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Sastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin (CCK) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) are 4 major peptide hormone secreted by By Radhika Viswas on 06 Aug 22. (coaxialedu.com)
  • Here, we showed that secretin (SCT), a brain -gut peptide , is downregulated by overnutrition in pregnant mice and women . (bvsalud.org)
  • Secretin is synthesized in cytoplasmic secretory granules of S-cells, which are found mainly in the mucosa of the duodenum, and in smaller numbers in the jejunum of the small intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The small intestine produces secretin when partially digested food from the stomach moves into the area. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These cells produce SECRETIN and are found in the MUCOSA of upper SMALL INTESTINE and PYLORIC ANTRUM in mammals. (bvsalud.org)
  • Secretin is a hormone that regulates water homeostasis throughout the body and influences the environment of the duodenum by regulating secretions in the stomach, pancreas, and liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secretin primarily functions to neutralize the pH in the duodenum, allowing digestive enzymes from the pancreas (e.g., pancreatic amylase and pancreatic lipase) to function optimally. (wikipedia.org)
  • The secretin stimulation test measures the ability of the pancreas to respond to a hormone called secretin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Secretin causes the pancreas to release a fluid that contains digestive enzymes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The secretin stimulation test is done to check the digestive function of the pancreas. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The autoradiographic examination of 125 I-labeled [Tyr 10 ]rat secretin-27 binding to normal pancreas demonstrated saturable and specific high-affinity binding sites on both acinar and duct cells, with a uniform lobular distribution, but with no binding above background over islets or vascular structures. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Conversely, even prolonged intra-arterial infusion of secretin does not release pancreatic stores of histamine: In fact, endogenous synthesis and release of histamine seem to play no role in the regulation of functional vasodilation in the pancreas. (erowid.org)
  • Atropine (250-550 mcg) inhibits vasodilation and decreases the secretory response of the pancreas to secreting Previous intra-arterial injection of bradykinin restores the secretory response of the pancreas, thus showing that inhibitory effect of, of the atropine on the secretory response of the pancreas to secretin is partly mediated by inhibition of secretin-induced vasodilation. (erowid.org)
  • Acetazolamide zones (50 mg) inhibits both the secretory and the vascular responses of the pancreas to an infusion of secretin. (erowid.org)
  • We previously used bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) to demonstrate that the prototypic family B secretin receptor forms ligand-independent oligomeric complexes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We have explored the molecular basis for the coupling of each of these G proteins to this receptor using systematic sitedirected mutagenesis of key residues within each of the intracellular loop regions, and studying ligand binding and secretin-stimulated cAMP and calcium responses. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Garcia, GL, Dong, M & Miller, LJ 2012, ' Differential determinants for coupling of distinct G proteins with the class B secretin receptor ', American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology , vol. 302, no. 8, pp. (elsevierpure.com)
  • To accomplish these aims, full length cDNA's encoding porcine and rat secretin will be cloned. (grantome.com)
  • From the nucleotide sequence of the cDNA's encoding porcine and rat secretin will be cloned. (grantome.com)
  • Secretin is frequently erroneously stated to have been the first hormone identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background: Secretin is a gastro-intestinal hormone which has been presented as an effective treatment for autism based on anecdotal evidence. (edu.au)
  • 11. Usage : Secretin acetate is a hormone that is responsible for controlling the environment of a duodenum by regulating pancreatic and stomach secretions while regulating the water homeostasis throughout an animal's body. (aibonet.com)
  • Thus, 1690, that an organ such as the thyroid secretin was the first hormone to be isolat- pours into the blood substances of physio- ed. (who.int)
  • Secretin is initially synthesized as a 120 amino acid precursor protein known as prosecretin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Standardised measures of behaviour have failed to detect short term improvement in children with autism following treatment with secretin. (bmj.com)
  • To determine the ability of parents of children with autism to guess, under double blind conditions, whether their child had received secretin or placebo. (bmj.com)
  • Sixty two children with autism (aged 43-103 months) were randomly allocated to two groups: group 1 received placebo, followed six weeks later by secretin, and group 2 received secretin followed by placebo. (bmj.com)
  • Although standardised behavioural measures have failed to reveal improvement in children with autism following secretin infusion, 1 it is conceivable that standardised measures may be overlooking a key dimension of subject behaviour that is detectable by parents. (bmj.com)
  • Therefore, as one component of a multifaceted study of secretin in children with autism, 1 we asked parents simply to guess whether their child had received secretin or placebo, and to provide the basis for their guess. (bmj.com)
  • RCTs of efficacy of secretin in autism have not shown improvements for core features of autism. (edu.au)
  • The crown outside the membrane (grey bar) is an unknown protein responsible for DNA uptake through the secretin. (mpg.de)
  • Genetic studies have shown that the crown is not formed by the secretin protein itself. (mpg.de)
  • Clinical conditions in which patients present with hypergastrinemia, such as gastric outlet obstruction, pernicious anemia, renal failure, and achlorhydria due to atrophic gastritis, must be excluded with secretin provocative testing. (medscape.com)
  • A secretin provocative test may be useful in patients with gastrin levels 1000 pg/mL ( secretin 2 mcg/kg is given with serial measurements of serum gastrin (10 minutes and 1 minute before, and 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 minutes after injection). (msdmanuals.com)
  • If the gastrin level is in the range of 100-1000 pg/mL, and the pH level is less than 2, a secretin stimulation test must be performed. (medscape.com)
  • If Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is strongly suspected and the secretin test result is negative, the test can either be repeated or a calcium stimulation test can be performed. (medscape.com)
  • Probes generated from the cDNA, will be used to establish the tissues in which the secretin gene is expressed. (grantome.com)
  • Secretin is stored in this unusable form, and is activated by gastric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the conclusion of the study, but prior to unblinding, we asked parents to guess which infusion they believed to have been placebo, and which to have been secretin, using any criteria they wished. (bmj.com)
  • Intra-arteniai infusion of secretin [1] and CCK vasodilates the pancreatic vascular bed. (erowid.org)
  • The sequence of amino acids in secretin is H-His-Ser-Asp-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Glu-Leu-Ser-Arg-Leu-Arg-Asp-Ser-Ala-Arg-Leu-Gln-Arg-Leu-Leu-Gln-Gly-Leu-Val-NH2. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the nucleotide sequence of the cDNAs, the amino acid sequence of the secretin precursor will be deduced. (grantome.com)
  • Secretin was infused at a low dose level iv for 1 hour. (cdc.gov)
  • Laboratory studies to confirm the diagnosis of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) measurements of the fasting serum and gastrin levels, secretin and calcium stimulation tests, and measurements of the basal acid output. (medscape.com)
  • After obtaining blood to measure the basal gastrin level, intravenously (IV) administer 2 IU/kg of secretin. (medscape.com)
  • Secretin producing cells will be characterized further by combining in situ hybridization with immunocytochemistry to see if other peptides are coexpressed with secretin. (grantome.com)
  • In conclusion, we have extensively studied the secretin ExeD and have found it is not suitable for studying peptides or proteins as it currently exists. (usask.ca)
  • As a result, if the pH in the duodenum increases above 4.5, secretin cannot be released. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fourteen of 27 amino acids of secretin reside in the same positions as in glucagon, 7 the same as in VIP, and 10 the same as in GIP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secretin also has an amidated carboxyl-terminal amino acid which is valine. (wikipedia.org)
  • By generating a map of the secretin producing cells in the CNS using in situ hybridization, the function of secretin in the brain may be clarified. (grantome.com)
  • Secretin also has been found in cells in the BRAIN and other tissues. (bvsalud.org)
  • Additive effects were elicited by combining the effective mutations, while combining all the effective mutations resulted in a construct that continued to bind secretin normally, but that elicited no significant cAMP or calcium responses. (elsevierpure.com)
  • 2×2 crossover randomised blinded study, comparing the effect of synthetic human secretin 2 U/kg to placebo (saline). (bmj.com)
  • Group 1 received saline placebo initially, followed six weeks later by human synthetic secretin (ChiRhoClin, Silver Spring, Maryland). (bmj.com)
  • Subjects in Group 2 received human synthetic secretin first, followed six weeks thereafter by placebo. (bmj.com)
  • Maternal secretin ameliorates obesity by promoting white adipose tissue browning in offspring. (bvsalud.org)
  • Secretin was discontinued 45 minutes later and atropine was administered 45 minutes later. (cdc.gov)
  • After pancreatic stores of photohistamine have been released by compound 48/80, secretin-induced vasodilation still work occurs. (erowid.org)
  • In particular, these studies will address whether secretin is produced in brain. (grantome.com)
  • A larger pore, using the type II secretin of Aeromonas hydrophila, may be able to circumvent the size constraint of α-hemolysin and could allow research into larger molecules to be made. (usask.ca)
  • The goal of this project was to isolate and use the type II secretin ExeD in nanopore analysis. (usask.ca)
  • Secretin is an important regulator of pancreatic function, but the molecular basis of its actions is not well understood. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Structure of the PilQ-complex: The second model from the left illustrates the 13 secretin subunits in different colours. (mpg.de)
  • Working with a cryo-electron microscope with a resolution of seven angstroms, she has elucidated the three-dimensional structure of this machine, known as a secretin complex, in collaboration with research groups headed by Werner Kühlbrandt and Gerhard Hummer. (mpg.de)
  • Cryo-EM structure of the bifunctional secretin complex of Thermus thermophilus. (mpg.de)
  • This is consistent with the notion that the dodecameric secretin assembles as a hexamer of dimers to ensure correct projection of the N-terminal domains into the periplasm. (rcsb.org)
  • These secretin channels have large periplasmic N-terminal domains that reach out into the periplasm for communication with the inner membrane platform and with a pseudopilus structure that spans the periplasm. (rcsb.org)
  • Here we report the crystal structure of the N-terminal periplasmic domain of the secretin XcpQ from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, revealing a two-lobe dimeric assembly featuring parallel subunits engaging in well defined interactions at the tips of each lobe. (rcsb.org)
  • Finally, the role of established secretin secretagogues in regulation of secretin mRNA levels will be studied in vivo in rats. (grantome.com)