Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Joint DiseasesFinger Joint: The articulation between the head of one phalanx and the base of the one distal to it, in each finger.Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Tarsal Joints: The articulations between the various TARSAL BONES. This does not include the ANKLE JOINT which consists of the articulations between the TIBIA; FIBULA; and TALUS.Wrist Joint: The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).Joint Capsule: The sac enclosing a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.Sacroiliac Joint: The immovable joint formed by the lateral surfaces of the SACRUM and ILIUM.Joint Instability: Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Metatarsophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metatarsal bone (METATARSAL BONES) and a phalanx.Foot Joints: The articulations extending from the ANKLE distally to the TOES. These include the ANKLE JOINT; TARSAL JOINTS; METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT; and TOE JOINT.Shoulder Joint: The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.Joint Prosthesis: Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)Temporomandibular Joint Disc: A plate of fibrous tissue that divides the temporomandibular joint into an upper and lower cavity. The disc is attached to the articular capsule and moves forward with the condyle in free opening and protrusion. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p92)Acromioclavicular Joint: The gliding joint formed by the outer extremity of the CLAVICLE and the inner margin of the acromion process of the SCAPULA.Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Sternoclavicular Joint: A double gliding joint formed by the CLAVICLE, superior and lateral parts of the manubrium sterni at the clavicular notch, and the cartilage of the first rib.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Synovial Fluid: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Carpometacarpal Joints: The articulations between the CARPAL BONES and the METACARPAL BONES.Synovitis: Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Arthritis, Experimental: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.Arthrography: Roentgenography of a joint, usually after injection of either positive or negative contrast medium.Arthritis, Infectious: Arthritis caused by BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; MYCOPLASMA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; or PARASITES.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Arthralgia: Pain in the joint.Carpal Joints: The articulations between the various CARPAL BONES. This does not include the WRIST JOINT which consists of the articulations between the RADIUS; ULNA; and proximal CARPAL BONES.DislocationsPatellofemoral Joint: The articulation between the articular surface of the PATELLA and the patellar surface of the FEMUR.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Arthroplasty, Replacement: Partial or total replacement of a joint.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Ligaments, Articular: Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.Stifle: In horses, cattle, and other quadrupeds, the joint between the femur and the tibia, corresponding to the human knee.Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome: A symptom complex consisting of pain, muscle tenderness, clicking in the joint, and limitation or alteration of mandibular movement. The symptoms are subjective and manifested primarily in the masticatory muscles rather than the temporomandibular joint itself. Etiologic factors are uncertain but include occlusal dysharmony and psychophysiologic factors.Contracture: Prolonged shortening of the muscle or other soft tissue around a joint, preventing movement of the joint.Ankylosis: Fixation and immobility of a joint.Antirheumatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations: A private, voluntary, not-for-profit organization which establishes standards for the operation of health facilities and services, conducts surveys, and awards accreditation.Gait: Manner or style of walking.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Prosthesis-Related Infections: Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late).Torque: The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee: Replacement of the knee joint.Hemarthrosis: Bleeding into the joints. It may arise from trauma or spontaneously in patients with hemophilia.Arthroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.Osteophyte: Bony outgrowth usually found around joints and often seen in conditions such as ARTHRITIS.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Arthritis, Psoriatic: A type of inflammatory arthritis associated with PSORIASIS, often involving the axial joints and the peripheral terminal interphalangeal joints. It is characterized by the presence of HLA-B27-associated SPONDYLARTHROPATHY, and the absence of rheumatoid factor.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Arthroplasty: Surgical reconstruction of a joint to relieve pain or restore motion.Cartilage Diseases: Pathological processes involving the chondral tissue (CARTILAGE).Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Lubrication: The application of LUBRICANTS to diminish FRICTION between two surfaces.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Collagen Type II: A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.Joint Deformities, Acquired: Deformities acquired after birth as the result of injury or disease. The joint deformity is often associated with rheumatoid arthritis and leprosy.Menisci, Tibial: The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.Sternocostal Joints: An articulation where the costal cartilage of each rib fit with slight concavities along the lateral borders of the STERNUM.Patella: The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Knee Injuries: Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.Anterior Cruciate Ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.Proprioception: Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Carpus, Animal: The region corresponding to the human WRIST in non-human ANIMALS.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Arthrometry, Articular: Measurements of joint flexibility (RANGE OF MOTION, ARTICULAR), usually by employing an angle-measuring device (arthrometer). Arthrometry is used to measure ligamentous laxity and stability. It is often used to evaluate the outcome of ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT replacement surgery.Growth Differentiation Factor 5: A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in early CHONDROGENESIS and joint formation.Knee Prosthesis: Replacement for a knee joint.Chondrocalcinosis: Presence of calcium salts, especially calcium pyrophosphate, in the cartilaginous structures of one or more joints. When accompanied by attacks of goutlike symptoms, it is called pseudogout. (Dorland, 27th ed)Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Carpal Bones: The eight bones of the wrist: SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; TRIQUETRUM BONE; PISIFORM BONE; TRAPEZIUM BONE; TRAPEZOID BONE; CAPITATE BONE; and HAMATE BONE.Kinesthesis: Sense of movement of a part of the body, such as movement of fingers, elbows, knees, limbs, or weights.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Atlanto-Occipital Joint: The point of articulation between the OCCIPITAL BONE and the CERVICAL ATLAS.Tarsus, Animal: The region in the hindlimb of a quadruped, corresponding to the human ANKLE.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Finger Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the fingers.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Collateral Ligaments: A number of ligaments on either side of, and serving as a radius of movement of, a joint having a hingelike movement. They occur at the elbow, knee, wrist, metacarpo- and metatarsophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints of the hands and feet. (Stedman, 25th ed)Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Arthritis, Juvenile: Arthritis of children, with onset before 16 years of age. The terms juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) refer to classification systems for chronic arthritis in children. Only one subtype of juvenile arthritis (polyarticular-onset, rheumatoid factor-positive) clinically resembles adult rheumatoid arthritis and is considered its childhood equivalent.Tuberculosis, Osteoarticular: Tuberculosis of the bones or joints.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Ligaments: Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Joint Capsule Release: Surgical procedure to relax the JOINT CAPSULE tissues in a joint that has a reduced range of motion due to CONTRACTURE or TISSUE ADHESIONS or joint deformities.Osteotomy: The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Bone Diseases, Infectious: Bone diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.Aggrecans: Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.Osteochondrosis: Any of a group of bone disorders involving one or more ossification centers (EPIPHYSES). It is characterized by degeneration or NECROSIS followed by revascularization and reossification. Osteochondrosis often occurs in children causing varying degrees of discomfort or pain. There are many eponymic types for specific affected areas, such as tarsal navicular (Kohler disease) and tibial tuberosity (Osgood-Schlatter disease).Femur Head: The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)Hyaluronic Acid: A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Talus: The second largest of the TARSAL BONES. It articulates with the TIBIA and FIBULA to form the ANKLE JOINT.Mice, Inbred DBAHip: The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.Friction: Surface resistance to the relative motion of one body against the rubbing, sliding, rolling, or flowing of another with which it is in contact.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Blood Sedimentation: Measurement of rate of settling of erythrocytes in anticoagulated blood.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Hip Prosthesis: Replacement for a hip joint.Facial Pain: Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.Rats, Inbred LewRetrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Synovial Cyst: Non-neoplastic tumor-like lesions at joints, developed from the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE of a joint through the JOINT CAPSULE into the periarticular tissues. They are filled with SYNOVIAL FLUID with a smooth and translucent appearance. A synovial cyst can develop from any joint, but most commonly at the back of the knee, where it is known as POPLITEAL CYST.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Tenosynovitis: Inflammation of the synovial lining of a tendon sheath. Causes include trauma, tendon stress, bacterial disease (gonorrhea, tuberculosis), rheumatic disease, and gout. Common sites are the hand, wrist, shoulder capsule, hip capsule, hamstring muscles, and Achilles tendon. The tendon sheaths become inflamed and painful, and accumulate fluid. Joint mobility is usually reduced.Rheumatology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of inflammatory or degenerative processes and metabolic derangement of connective tissue structures which pertain to a variety of musculoskeletal disorders, such as arthritis.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Spondylitis, Ankylosing: A chronic inflammatory condition affecting the axial joints, such as the SACROILIAC JOINT and other intervertebral or costovertebral joints. It occurs predominantly in young males and is characterized by pain and stiffness of joints (ANKYLOSIS) with inflammation at tendon insertions.Orthopedics: A surgical specialty which utilizes medical, surgical, and physical methods to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the skeletal system, its articulations, and associated structures.Hip Dysplasia, Canine: A hereditary disease of the hip joints in dogs. Signs of the disease may be evident any time after 4 weeks of age.Arthropathy, Neurogenic: Chronic progressive degeneration of the stress-bearing portion of a joint, with bizarre hypertrophic changes at the periphery. It is probably a complication of a variety of neurologic disorders, particularly TABES DORSALIS, involving loss of sensation, which leads to relaxation of supporting structures and chronic instability of the joint. (Dorland, 27th ed)Radius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.Rheumatic Diseases: Disorders of connective tissue, especially the joints and related structures, characterized by inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement.Medial Collateral Ligament, Knee: The ligament that travels from the medial epicondyle of the FEMUR to the medial margin and medial surface of the TIBIA. The medial meniscus is attached to its deep surface.Metacarpus: The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Matrilin Proteins: PROTEOGLYCANS-associated proteins that are major components of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including CARTILAGE; and INTERVERTEBRAL DISC structures. They bind COLLAGEN fibers and contain protein domains that enable oligomer formation and interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins such as CARTILAGE OLIGOMERIC MATRIX PROTEIN.Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.Shoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Metacarpal Bones: The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.Gout: Hereditary metabolic disorder characterized by recurrent acute arthritis, hyperuricemia and deposition of sodium urate in and around the joints, sometimes with formation of uric acid calculi.Metatarsus: The part of the foot between the tarsa and the TOES.Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein: Major component of chondrocyte EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including bone, tendon, ligament, SYNOVIUM and blood vessels. It binds MATRILIN PROTEINS and is associated with development of cartilage and bone.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Tarsal Bones: The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.Forefoot, Human: The forepart of the foot including the metatarsals and the TOES.Dental Soldering: The joining of pieces of metal through the use of an alloy which has a lower melting point, usually at least 100 degrees Celsius below the fusion temperature of the parts being soldered. In dentistry, soldering is used for joining components of a dental appliance, as in assembling a bridge, joining metals to orthodontic bands, or adding to the bulk of certain structures, such as the establishment of proper contact areas on inlays and crowns with adjacent teeth. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Pronation: Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm backward or downward. When referring to the foot, a combination of eversion and abduction movements in the tarsal and metatarsal joints (turning the foot up and in toward the midline of the body).Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Matrix Metalloproteinase 3: An extracellular endopeptidase of vertebrate tissues similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 1. It digests PROTEOGLYCAN; FIBRONECTIN; COLLAGEN types III, IV, V, and IX, and activates procollagenase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Therapeutic Irrigation: The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.OsteomyelitisAnkle: The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.Hallux Valgus: Lateral displacement of the great toe (HALLUX), producing deformity of the first METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT with callous, bursa, or bunion formation over the bony prominence.Supination: Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm forward or upward. When referring to the foot, a combination of adduction and inversion movements of the foot.Low Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.Osteoarthritis, Spine: A degenerative joint disease involving the SPINE. It is characterized by progressive deterioration of the spinal articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR), usually with hardening of the subchondral bone and outgrowth of bone spurs (OSTEOPHYTE).Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Osteitis: Inflammation of the bone.Elbow: Region of the body immediately surrounding and including the ELBOW JOINT.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Acetabulum: The part of the pelvis that comprises the pelvic socket where the head of FEMUR joins to form HIP JOINT (acetabulofemoral joint).Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Spondylarthritis: Inflammation of the joints of the SPINE, the intervertebral articulations.Rupture: Forcible or traumatic tear or break of an organ or other soft part of the body.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Fluoroscopy: Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.Scapula: Also called the shoulder blade, it is a flat triangular bone, a pair of which form the back part of the shoulder girdle.Exudates and Transudates: Exudates are fluids, CELLS, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from BLOOD VESSELS usually from inflamed tissues. Transudates are fluids that pass through a membrane or squeeze through tissue or into the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE of TISSUES. Transudates are thin and watery and contain few cells or PROTEINS.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Struthioniformes: An order of flightless birds comprising the ostriches, which naturally inhabit open, low rainfall areas of Africa.Hip Dislocation, Congenital: Congenital dislocation of the hip generally includes subluxation of the femoral head, acetabular dysplasia, and complete dislocation of the femoral head from the true acetabulum. This condition occurs in approximately 1 in 1000 live births and is more common in females than in males.Finger Phalanges: Bones that make up the SKELETON of the FINGERS, consisting of two for the THUMB, and three for each of the other fingers.Wrist Injuries: Injuries to the wrist or the wrist joint.External Fixators: External devices which hold wires or pins that are placed through one or both cortices of bone in order to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment. These devices allow easy access to wounds, adjustment during the course of healing, and more functional use of the limbs involved.Shoulder Dislocation: Displacement of the HUMERUS from the SCAPULA.Sprains and Strains: A collective term for muscle and ligament injuries without dislocation or fracture. A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature.
It is a type of cartilaginous joint, specifically a secondary cartilaginous joint. A symphysis is an amphiarthrosis, a slightly ... movable joint. A growing together of parts or structures Unlike synchondroses, symphyses are permanent. The more prominent ... Introduction to Joints". Retrieved 2016-07-27. commons.bcit.ca. ...
Loop of left recurrent laryngeal nerve around aortic arch The angle is in the form of a secondary cartilaginous joint ( ... The sternal angle (also known as the angle of Louis or manubriosternal junction) is the synarthrotic joint formed by the ... A clinically useful feature of the (manubriosternal) joint is that it can be palpated easily. This is because the manubrium ...
There are two types: primary cartilaginous joints composed of hyaline cartilage, and secondary cartilaginous joints composed of ... plane joint, ball and socket joint, hinge joint, pivot joint, condyloid joint and saddle joint. Joints can also be classified, ... shoulder joint, hip joint) Compound joint: three or more articulation surfaces (e.g. radiocarpal joint) Complex joint: two or ... Most amphiarthrosis joints are cartilaginous joints (e.g., intervertebral discs). synovial joint (also known as a diarthrosis ...
Secondary SOC occurs in older patients in joints previously affected by joint disease such as osteoarthritis. This pattern is ... In this condition, cartilaginous metaplasia takes place within the synovial membrane of the joint. Metaplastic synovium ... Classification is divided into primary versus secondary SOC. Primary SOC occurs in an otherwise normal joint. It is suggested ... Symptoms such as joint stiffness and aching are the result of osteoarthritis that sets in after years of persistent joint ...
They proposed that joints that had been interpreted as permitting movement in dinosaur skulls were actually cartilaginous ... They were able to replicate the proposed motion with their model, although they found that additional secondary movements ... The lower jaw's joint with the upper jaw would permit anterior-posterior motion along with the usual rotation, and the anterior ... Holliday, Casey M.; Witmer, Lawrence M. (2008). "Cranial kinesis in dinosaurs: intracranial joints, protractor muscles, and ...
There are two types: primary cartilaginous joints composed of hyaline cartilage, and secondary cartilaginous joints composed of ... plane joint, ball and socket joint, hinge joint, pivot joint,[10][11] condyloid joint and saddle joint.[12] ... Types of joints based upon their structure (L to R): Cartilaginous joint, Fibrous joint, and Synovial joint. ... Most amphiarthrosis joints are cartilaginous joints (e.g., intervertebral discs).. *synovial joint (also known as a diarthrosis ...
Osteophytes are bone spurs that develop on the margins of joints secondary to external stimuli such as osteoarthritis. However ... When used in the phrases "cartilaginous exostosis" or "osteocartilaginous exostosis", the term is considered synonymous with ... They normally form on the bones of joints, and can grow upwards. For example, if an extra bone formed on the ankle, it might ...
... to a cartilaginous sternum. The sideways orientation of the glenoid (shoulder) joint between scapula, coracoid, and humerus- ... and thus it was suggested that the purported light-and-dark patterns were instead due to non-pigmentary organics and secondary ... What was initially believed to be a bony sternum turned out to be part of the coracoid, but a cartilaginous sternum may have ... Barsbold, Rhinchen (1983). "Carnivorous dinosaurs from the Cretaceous of Mongolia". Transactions of the joint Soviet-Mongolian ...
According to a study by Phil Senter in 2006, the joint was even pointed largely downwards meaning that the humerus could not be ... This bony keel may or may not have anchored a larger, cartilaginous, keel for enlarged pectoral muscles. The scapulae (shoulder ... while the secondary feathers of the lower arm were rather short by comparison. The outermost primary was much shorter than the ... This, coupled with a limited upstroke caused by a lateral position of the shoulder joint, would have made it difficult to gain ...
Type II: The articular surface of the tibia remains intact and the fracture occurs at the junction where the secondary center ... Bracing or use of an orthopedic cast to enforce joint immobilization is rarely required and does not necessarily encourage a ... particularly for patients with bony or cartilaginous ossicles. Excision of these ossicles produces resolution of symptoms and ...
Because the fusion of the digits is at the level of the distal interphalangeal joints, a concave palm is formed. Most of the ... There is a solid osseous or cartilaginous fusion of all digits with one long, conjoined nail. The thumb is turned inwards and ... With growing of a child and respectively the hands, secondary revisions are needed to treat the contractures and to improve the ... The index, long and ring finger are fused together in the distal interphalangeal joints and form a flat palm. During the ...
Cartilaginous fish whose skeleton is formed from cartilage lack a continuous dermal armour and thus have no proper skull roof. ... Today anapsid skulls are only found in turtles, though this may be a case of secondary loss of the post orbital openings. In ... The skull itself was composed rather loosely, with a joint between the bones covering the brain (the parietal bones and the ... bones behind them) and the snout (the frontal bone, nasal bone and the bones in front and to the side of them). This joint ...
In humans, the cartilaginous bar of the mandibular arch is formed by what are known as Meckel's cartilages (right and left) ... which forms part of the jaw joint in all tetrapods except mammals.[1] ... In early fish and in chondrichthyans (cartilaginous fish such as sharks), the Meckelian Cartilage continued to be the main ...
Secondary ossification occurs after birth, and forms the epiphyses of long bones and the extremities of irregular and flat ... Since they act to hold the tendon further away from the joint, the angle of the tendon is increased and thus the leverage of ... The epiphyses, carpal bones, coracoid process, medial border of the scapula, and acromion are still cartilaginous.[28] ... They provide a frame to keep the body supported, and an attachment point for skeletal muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints, ...
The bony fish have three pairs of arches, cartilaginous fish have five to seven pairs, while the primitive jawless fish have ... Two laterally placed eyes form around outgrowths from the midbrain, except in hagfish, though this may be a secondary loss. The ... The word origin of vertebrate derives from the Latin word vertebratus (Pliny), meaning joint of the spine. The Proto-Indo- ... Vertebrates include the jawless fish and the jawed vertebrates, which include the cartilaginous fish (sharks, rays, and ratfish ...
Joints. Fibrous joint · Cartilaginous joint · Synovial joint. Muscular system. പേശി · Tendon · Diaphragm ... primary (അസ്ഥിമജ്ജ, തൈമസ് ഗ്രന്ഥി) · secondary (പ്ലീഹ, Lymph node). നാഡീ വ്യൂഹം. (മസ്തിഷ്കം, സുഷുമ്നാ നാഡി, Nerve) · ഇന്ദ്രിയം ...
... terms Joint Bony joints Synarthrosis Fibrous joint Syndesmosis Gomphosis Interosseous membrane Suture Cartilaginous joint ... Lymphatic system Primary lymphoid organs Bone marrow Thymus Secondary lymphoid organs Spleen Pharyngeal lymphoid ring Lymph ... sheath Plane joint Cylindrical joint Pivot joint Hinge joint Bicondylar joint Saddle joint Condylar joint Ball and socket joint ... Synovial joints of thorax Costovertebral joints Sternocostal joints Costochondral joints Interchondral joints Joints of upper ...
Joints. *Fibrous joint. *Cartilaginous joint. *Synovial joint. Muscular system. *Muscle. *Tendon. *Diaphragm ...
For the five traditional senses in humans, this includes the primary and secondary cortices of the different senses: the ... and the sensations of muscle movement and joint position including posture, movement, and facial expression (collectively also ...
Joints. *Fibrous joint. *Cartilaginous joint. *Synovial joint. Muscular system. *Muscle. *Tendon. *Diaphragm ...
Joints. *Fibrous joint. *Cartilaginous joint. *Synovial joint. Muscular system. *Muscle. *Tendon. *Diaphragm ...
Joints. *Fibrous joint. *Cartilaginous joint. *Synovial joint. Muscular system. *Muscle. *Tendon. *Diaphragm ...
Joints. *Fibrous joint. *Cartilaginous joint. *Synovial joint. Muscular system. *Muscle. *Tendon. *Diaphragm ... Secondary lymphoid organs. *Regional lymph nodes. A14: Nervous system (systema nervosum)[edit]. *General terms [6] ...
Secondary cancers (e.g. cancers that originated elsewhere in the body, but have seeded themselves in the lungs) ... Joints. *Fibrous joint. *Cartilaginous joint. *Synovial joint. Muscular system. *Muscle. *Tendon. *Diaphragm ... These enter the lungs where they branch into progressively narrower secondary and tertiary bronchi that branch into numerous ... where they branch into narrower secondary bronchi known as lobar bronchi, and these branch into narrower tertiary bronchi known ...
In the lymphatic system a lymph node is a secondary lymphoid organ.[1] Lymph nodes contain lymphocytes, a type of white blood ... Joints. *Fibrous joint. *Cartilaginous joint. *Synovial joint. Muscular system. *Muscle. *Tendon. *Diaphragm ... In the lymphatic system a lymph node is a secondary lymphoid organ. A lymph node is enclosed in a fibrous capsule and is made ... Secondary lymphedema usually results from the removal of lymph nodes during breast cancer surgery or from other damaging ...
The ribs connect to the vertebrae with two joints, the costovertebral joints. ... During adolescence secondary ossification centers are formed in the tubercles and heads of the ribs.[3] ... For example, turtles have only eight pairs of ribs, which are developed into a bony or cartilaginous carapace and plastron, ... The ribs connect to the vertebrae with two costovertebral joints, one on the head and one on the neck. The head of the rib has ...
JOINT Batallones, Amery Rose Galeno, Chris Carlo Saunar, Maurice Cheekz Tala… ... Cartilaginous joints • Primary CartilaginousSecondary Cartilaginous * 8. Classifications of Joints• Synovial joints - ... 5. Classifications of Joints• Fibrous JointCartilaginous Joint• Synovial Joint * 6. Classifications of Joints• Fibrous joints ... Type of joint of Temporomandibular Joint• Synovial joint• Described as synovial sliding-ginglymoid joint articulation • ...
What are the two types of cartilaginous joints? 1) Primary - Synchrondroses (hyaline cartilage, synarthrosis) 2) Secondary - ... 4) Sacroiliac joint is closer to acetabulum (because ilium is wider than it is tall) so weight is transferred from spinal ... 5) Secondary ossification centres develop - epiphyseal arteries enter epiphysis and stimulate bone formation. 6) Formation of ... Primary ossification is from the outside in, secondary ossification is outwards from the centre to the periosteum. ...
Cartilaginous abnormalities, such as fibrillation, erosions, and joint space narrowing, may affect joints. Changes of secondary ... Stage V: joint space narrowing is demonstrated with changes of secondary osteoarthrosis. ... Osteonecrosis secondary to Cushing disease. Osteonecrosis secondary to Cushing disease occurs as a result of excess levels of ... Radionecrosis of the sacroiliac joints may cause widening and irregularity of the joint space. This condition is often ...
This joint is a secondary cartilaginous joint symphysis = slightly movable manubriosternal joint ... This part of the sternum has the clavicular notch for sternoclavicular joint ... What can become of the manubriosternal and xiphosternal joint as we age ...
It is a type of cartilaginous joint, specifically a secondary cartilaginous joint. A symphysis is an amphiarthrosis, a slightly ... movable joint. A growing together of parts or structures Unlike synchondroses, symphyses are permanent. The more prominent ... Introduction to Joints". Retrieved 2016-07-27. commons.bcit.ca. ...
In one embodiment, the replacement body part is a skeletal joint and the new plural distinct tissues include bone and articular ... Other types of cartilage in skeletal joints include fibrocartilage and elastic cartilage. Secondary cartilaginous joints are ... Synovial joints involving two bones and containing a single joint cavity are referred to as simple joints. Joints that contain ... Skeletal joints provide a movable union of two or more bones. Synovial joints are highly evolved articulating joints that ...
the midline cartilaginous joint (secondary cartilaginous) uniting the superior rami of the left and right pubic bones. ... sacroiliac joint. the joint in the bony pelvis between the sacrum and the ilium of the pelvis, which are joined together by ... points anteriorly over the tip of the shoulder joint and serves as an attachment point for some of the upper limb muscles. ... receives the distal end of the femur to form the knee joint. ... attachment to the radial collateral ligament of the elbow-joint ...
... inflammatory joint disorder; one of the many, 100 different forms of arthritis. It is commonly defined as the... ... The human joints are made up of two bones in order to increase their mobility. The synovial fluid and cartilaginous bed are the ... However, long term exposure of these drugs can be equally harmful by creating secondary issues; such as infection. Whereas, the ... Thus, once these stem cells are purified, they can be infused back at the site of injury such as joints; in case of ...
1. Types of joints a. Fibrous b. Cartilaginous c. Synovial 2. Intervertebral discs 3. Entheses B. General features that should ... 1. Osteoarthritis a. Primary b. Secondary c. Erosive (inflammatory) 2. Inflammatory joint diseases a. Rheumatoid arthritis b. ... 6. Neuropathic osteoarthropathy (neuropathic joint disease) a. Diabetes mellitus b. Syringomyelia Miscellaneous Disorders ... 1. Distribution of involvement 2. Soft tissue changes 3. Joint space width 4. Bone density 5. Osteophytes 6. Subchondral ...
... a joint made of hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage) located between the left and right pubic bones near the midline of the ... The pubic symphysis is a secondary cartilaginous joint ( ... The pubic symphysis is a secondary cartilaginous joint (a joint ... In males, the joint connects to the ligament of the penis. In females, the joint is located near the clitoris. In women, the ... Normally, the joint can be moved up to two millimeters and with a one degree of rotation. This flexibility changes during ...
The manubrium articulates with the body of the sternum at the sternomanubrial joint through a secondary cartilaginous joint ( ... Clavicular notches form the sternoclavicular joints. Immediately inferior to the sternoclavicular joints lie the site for the ... secondary pulmonary lobule * pulmonary acinus* primary pulmonary lobule* alveoli*pores of Kohn ...
There are two types: primary cartilaginous joints composed of hyaline cartilage, and secondary cartilaginous joints composed of ... plane joint, ball and socket joint, hinge joint, pivot joint, condyloid joint and saddle joint. Joints can also be classified, ... shoulder joint, hip joint) Compound joint: three or more articulation surfaces (e.g. radiocarpal joint) Complex joint: two or ... Most amphiarthrosis joints are cartilaginous joints (e.g., intervertebral discs). synovial joint (also known as a diarthrosis ...
Bone and joint problems can seriously impact quality of life and need to be addressed properly. Fortunately theres lots that ... These changes along with reduction of joint fluid lubricant and decrease in the cartilaginous components of joints increases ... Bone rubbing on bone can be very painful and creates the secondary changes seen on x-rays. ... However many of us prefer to first reach for one of the many widely available joint supplements. Joint supplements can be very ...
... a result of synovial hyperplasia with progressive chronic inflammation and secondary cartilaginous metaplasia restricting joint ... Histologically, these joints showed cartilaginous nodules along the joint capsule extending from the edge of the articular ... 5, a and b) and occasionally the joint spaces contained dislodged and rounded cartilaginous nodules (Fig. 5 e). These changes ... Clinical assessment of the joint disease in gp130ΔSTAT/ΔSTAT mice. Swollen ankle joints and characteristic flexion deformities ...
A rare condition of secondary synovial osteochondromatosis of the shoulder joint in a young female patient.. Knee joint ... and benign monoarticular arthropathy characterized by multi-nodular cartilaginous proliferation in the synovium of the joint, ... it is referred to an osteochondromatosis or multiple cartilaginous exostoses (ROSA & KIRBERGER, 2012).. Osteochondroma in a ... synovial osteochondromatosis is a type of non-cancerous tumour arising from the intimal layer of synovial membrane of a joint. ...
These data highlight the importance of postural decompensation primary or secondary cartilaginous joint. This study shows no ... treatment of otitis media is by far the most popular medications used to wash a spasmodic tetanic joint . Mental visualization ...
... synchondroses are cartilaginous joints in low back pain etiologies, paresthesias, or radiculopathies. Managing secondary gain ...
Fibrocartilage (symphyses secondary cartilaginous joints) is found in the intervertebral discs with a fluid-filled central ... cartilaginous joint - Classified as to structure, this joint has no joint cavity and is joined by hyaline cartilage or a ... primary cartilaginous joint - One of three types of connective tissue that joins the bones. Primary cartilaginous joints are ... three joint complex - Since, in the intervertebral joint, the joint articulates in three places, between the two facet joints ...
... is the angle formed by the junction of the manubrium and the body of the sternum in the form of a secondary cartilaginous joint ... or right ventricular failure secondary to right ventricular infarction. The venous pressure also is elevated when obstruction ... symphysis). This is also called the manubriosternal joint or Angle of Louis. ...
A2 - Secondary synovial chondromatosis is more common than primary synovial chondromatosis. It usually presents in the setting ... Synovial chondromatosis is a rare monoarticular process characterized by cartilaginous bodies. Primary synovial chondromatosis ... In this patient, note that the medial and lateral compartments of the joint space are preserved. Only a small marginal erosion ... Upon checking out the joint, we found lots of bodies. Posted May 1, 2018. ...
Secondary cartilaginous joint (fibro-cartilage). Ampulla, a flask. Amygdala, an almond. Anastomosis, literally, an outlet; the ... Diarthrosis, an apart joint- i.e., a free joint (the articular surfaces being free to play upon each other); synovial ... Synarthrosis, literally, a * together with (direct) joint; fibrous joint. Synchondrosis, bound together with cartilage; ... Arthrodia, from the Greek word meaning * a joint ; applied to a gliding joint. ...
What type of joint ist he pubic symphysis? secondary cartilaginous joint (w/ a fibrocartilaginous interpubic disc) ... What type of joint is the pubic symphysis?. What ligament joins the pubic bones?. Is it thicker in men or women? ... Which hormone accounts for the relaxation of teh pelvic joints and ligaments during childbirth? ...
... inflammation of the joints and its effects, the most common forms of which are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. ... Secondary osteoarthritis is caused by another condition, such as joint trauma, congenital joint malalignment, obesity, hormonal ... and hobbies or sports that result in excessive joint stresses can result in the cartilaginous changes leading to osteoarthritis ... joint disease: Inflammatory joint diseases: types of arthritis. Arthritis is a generic term for inflammatory joint disease. ...
Sternochondral joint is a. 1.primary cartilaginous joint. 2. secondary cartilaginous joint. 3. fibrous joint. 4. synovial joint ... primary cartilaginous joint. secondary cartilaginous joint. pivot joint. ellipsoid joint. Ans (2) ... ellipsoid joint. pivot joint. hinge joint. saddle joint. Ans (4). 9. The ossification center of pisiform bone occurs at the age ... first carpometacarpal joint. metacarpophalangeal joint. interphalangeal joint. radiocarpal joint. Ans (2). 24. Elastic ...
A stitching device useful for implanting suture in tissue, for example, cartilaginous tissue. The device has a frame and an ... It is desirable when repairing a tear in soft tissue in a joint, such as cartilaginous tissue, to leave behind the least amount ... reducing the potential for hitting neurovascular structures in the joint. Also, there is no need for secondary incisions like ... Cartilage in the knee joint, such as the meniscus, serves the purpose of both supporting the joint and providing a sliding ...

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