Lithocholic Acid: A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.Deoxycholic Acid: A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Cholic Acids: The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.Chenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.Ursodeoxycholic Acid: An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Taurodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic, also industrially as a fat emulsifier.Cholic Acid: A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Digestive System Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Digestive System Diseases: Diseases in any part of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the accessory organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Digestive System Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Caffeic Acids: A class of phenolic acids related to chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, etc., which are found in plant tissues. It is involved in plant growth regulation.Chlorogenic Acid: A naturally occurring phenolic acid which is a carcinogenic inhibitor. It has also been shown to prevent paraquat-induced oxidative stress in rats. (From J Chromatogr A 1996;741(2):223-31; Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1996;60(5):765-68).Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Curcumin: A yellow-orange dye obtained from tumeric, the powdered root of CURCUMA longa. It is used in the preparation of curcuma paper and the detection of boron. Curcumin appears to possess a spectrum of pharmacological properties, due primarily to its inhibitory effects on metabolic enzymes.Spices: The dried seeds, bark, root, stems, buds, leaves, or fruit of aromatic plants used to season food.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Clostridium difficile: A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Clostridium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes: A vocabulary database of universal identifiers for laboratory and clinical test results. Its purpose is to facilitate the exchange and pooling of results for clinical care, outcomes management, and research. It is produced by the Regenstrief Institute. (LOINC and RELMA [Internet]. Indianapolis: The Regenstrief Institute; c1995-2001 [cited 2002 Apr 2]. Available from http://www.regenstrief.org/loinc)Clinical Laboratory Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative and clinical activities associated with the provision and utilization of clinical laboratory services.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Vocabulary, Controlled: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Sloths: Slow-moving exclusively arboreal mammals that inhabit the tropical forests of South and Central America.Armadillos: Burrowing, chiefly nocturnal mammals of the family Dasypodidae having bodies and heads encased in small bony plates. They are widely distributed in the warmer parts of the Americas.Xenarthra: An order of New World mammals characterized by the absence of incisors and canines from among their teeth, and comprising the ARMADILLOS, the SLOTHS, and the anteaters. The order is distinguished from all others by what are known as xenarthrous vertebrae (xenos, strange; arthron, joint): there are secondary, and sometimes even more, articulations between the vertebrae of the lumbar series. The order was formerly called Edentata. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, vol. I, p515)Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Brucella melitensis: A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are sheep and goats. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected. In general, these organisms tend to be more virulent for laboratory animals than BRUCELLA ABORTUS and may cause fatal infections.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Dysbiosis: Changes in quantitative and qualitative composition of MICROBIOTA. The changes may lead to altered host microbial interaction or homeostatic imbalance that can contribute to a disease state often with inflammation.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Intestinal Diseases: Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.Hypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Bacteria, AnaerobicGram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Dependent: A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Glycocholic Acid: The glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Enterohepatic Circulation: Recycling through liver by excretion in bile, reabsorption from intestines (INTESTINAL REABSORPTION) into portal circulation, passage back into liver, and re-excretion in bile.Gallbladder: A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.Libraries, NursingPulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
  • In the human body deoxycholic acid is used in the emulsification of fats for absorption in the intestine . (wikipedia.org)
  • The main function of bile acids is to allow digestion of dietary fats and oils by acting as a surfactant that emulsifies them into micelles, allowing them to be colloidally suspended in the chyme before further processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus conjugated bile acids are almost always in their deprotonated (A-) form in the duodenum, which makes them much more water-soluble and much more able to fulfil their physiologic function of emulsifying fats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trans-fats and saturated fats should be avoided when bile is inhibited or when constipated because they increase the growth of Bilophila Wadsworthia. (wordpress.com)
  • The main function of bile acids is the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins. (auth.gr)
  • In the absence of bile, fats become indigestible and are instead excreted in feces , a condition called steatorrhea . (wikipedia.org)
  • Since bile increases the absorption of fats, it is an important part of the absorption of the fat-soluble substances, such as the vitamins A , D , E , and K . (omicsgroup.org)
  • Although it is the fatty acids that are saturated or unsaturated, it is common to discuss saturated and unsaturated fats . (karelsavry.us)
  • Although is not really correct, it is a useful shorthand, reflecting the fact that fats from different sources contain a greater or lesser proportion of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. (karelsavry.us)
  • Samples were directly needle aspirated from the cyst or by cannulating a tube into the common bile duct through the cystic duct. (elsevier.com)
  • Endoscopic sphincterotomy is used to remove gallstones from the common bile duct. (enetmd.com)
  • To further investigate the structure-activity relation of FXR activation, we tested a number of naturally occurring cholesterol metabolites, including bile acids ( Fig. 2 A), oxysterols and steroids, for their ability to activate full-length human or full-length murine FXR in CV-1 cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • In turn, these microbes may produce genotoxic or inflammatory metabolites such as H 2 S and secondary bile acids, which could play a role in catalyzing adenoma development and eventually colorectal cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although collectively referred to in the general practice of medicine as bile or the bile salt pool, the function of bile acids and their metabolites vary considerably. (allergyresearchgroup.com)
  • Bile is also the major excretory route of other compounds including bilirubin and certain drugs and their metabolites. (enetmd.com)
  • This suggests that the DHA and EPA of fish oil can modulate the activity of membrane-bound enzymes by partially replacing arachidonic acid and linoleic acid in the phospholipid pool.58 It is well established that arachidonic acid and some of its metabolites including prostag-landins (PGs) play an important role in the intracellular signaling pathway associated with cell proliferation and gene expression. (alpfmedical.info)
  • Fecal bile acids and their relative concentration follow patterns that are species-specific, and can be characterized by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). (scielo.cl)
  • Age and diet effects on fecal bile acids in infants. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Gender differences in bowel function and bile acid excretion, observed when men and women consumed the same amounts of dietary fibre, may be relevant for understanding colonic disease aetiology and for undertaking future dietary intervention trials. (bmj.com)
  • The mechanisms by which the high fat content of the diet promotes colon carcinogenesis may include the production of secondary bile acids in the colon and the modulation of colonic luminal bacterial 7α-dehydroxylase that is involved in generating secondary bile acids, phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC), and mucosal PI-PLC, as well as diacylglycerol (DAG) kinase and protein kinase C (PKC). (elsevier.com)
  • In the present study, we investigated the effect of high-fat diets that are rich in omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids on cecal bacterial 7α-dehydroxylase and PI-PLC, fecal secondary bile acids, and colonic mucosal DAG kinase and PKC activities during different stages of colon carcinogenesis in male F344 rats. (elsevier.com)
  • These results indicate that the modifying effect of dietary fat on colonic bacterial enzymes, secondary bile acids, colonic mucosal and tumor DAG kinase, and PKC that may play a role in colon carcinogenesis depends on the types and amount of fat given. (elsevier.com)
  • The colon tumor-enhancing effect of a HFCO diet in contrast to the high dietary fish oil may be, in part, explained on the basis of its modulating effect on these bacterial and colonic mucosal enzymes and colonic secondary bile acids relevant to colon tumor promotion. (elsevier.com)
  • Studies conducted in our laboratory indicate that increasing levels of dietary fish oil in rats increased the omega-3 fatty acids, namely, DHA and EPA, in the colonic mucosal membrane phospholipid fractions at the expense of omega-6 PUFAs such as linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. (alpfmedical.info)
  • Chronically high levels of lithocholic acid are associated with several forms of cancer including colon cancer, pancreatic cancer, esophageal cancer, and many other GI cancers. (hmdb.ca)
  • We use a targeted ultra-performance liquid chromatography with time of flight mass-spectrometry assay to characterize the differential primary and secondary bile acid profiles in each tissue and show a major increase in the proportion of taurine-conjugated bile acids in germ-free (GF) and antibiotic (streptomycin/penicillin)-treated rats. (pnas.org)
  • Food is mostly digested by the time it reaches the colon, so the role of this segment of the large bowel is to absorb water, some short chain fatty acids from plant fiber and undigested starch, sodium, and chloride, and compact waste to be eliminated during defecation. (lifeextension.com)
  • Putrefactive Short-Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs) are markers of undigested protein reaching the colon. (gdx.net)
  • Dietary lipids are processed by the gut to generate triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins [chylomicrons and very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs)] that are released into the circulation via the lymphatic network and then hydrolyzed in vascular beds by lipoprotein lipase to yield free fatty acids (FFAs) for uptake by tissues (7, 8). (deepdyve.com)
  • Bile or gall acts to some extent as a surfactant , helping to emulsify the lipids in food. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arachidonic acid is obtained from food or by desaturation/chain elongation of the plant-rich (i.e. green and red algae) essential fatty acid, linoleic acid 2,4 . (lipidmaps.org)
  • The fatty acid (FA) uptake process in rodents and humans is facilitated by the scavenger receptor CD36 (SR-B2) (9). (deepdyve.com)
  • Statins are a group of highly prescribed therapeutics used as first-line agents for primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Increased mRNA expression for cytochrome P450 7A1, Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and paraoxonase 1, no change in mRNA expression for small heterodimer partner and bile salt export pump, and reduced serum FGF19 were evidence of impaired FXR and 﫿broblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4)-mediated signalling in NAFLD. (buffalo.edu)
  • Increased primary BAs (βMCA, TβMCA and TUDCA) and decreased secondary BAs (DCA, LCA and the T-conjugates) were observed in livers and serum of mice fed BBR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Results At fasting, G-allele carriers had significantly reduced cholesterol and glycodeoxycholic acid and consistent but nonsignificant reductions of serum lipoproteins. (deepdyve.com)
  • In the serum of healthy subjects, conjugated bile acids are present, with more than 70% constituted by conjugated primary bile acids, with cholylglycine (CG) and chenodeoxycholylglycine the most present forms ( 2 ). (amegroups.com)
  • 2 ICP is characterized by pruritus, elevated serum aminotransferase levels, and/or elevated fasting serum bile acid levels. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Bilirubin and biliverdin pigments are responsible for the color of the bile. (slidegur.com)
  • The results help explain how endogenously synthesized antibiotics and secondary bile acids may regulate C. difficile growth and the structure of the gut microbiome in health and disease. (nih.gov)