Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The dormant state in which some warm-blooded animal species pass the winter. It is characterized by narcosis and by sharp reduction in body temperature and metabolic activity and by a depression of vital signs.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.
An agent used as a substrate in assays for cholinesterases, especially to discriminate among enzyme types.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
The vocal apparatus of the larynx, situated in the middle section of the larynx. Glottis consists of the VOCAL FOLDS and an opening (rima glottidis) between the folds.
A group of peptide antibiotics from BACILLUS brevis. Gramicidin C or S is a cyclic, ten-amino acid polypeptide and gramicidins A, B, D are linear. Gramicidin is one of the two principal components of TYROTHRICIN.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.
The process of producing vocal sounds by means of VOCAL CORDS vibrating in an expiratory blast of air.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Instinctual patterns of activity related to a specific area including ability of certain animals to return to a given place when displaced from it, often over great distances using navigational clues such as those used in migration (ANIMAL MIGRATION).
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
The use of a device composed of thermoluminescent material for measuring exposure to IONIZING RADIATION. The thermoluminescent material emits light when heated. The amount of light emitted is proportional to the amount of ionizing radiation to which the material has been exposed.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
The aperture in the iris through which light passes.
Requirements for the selection of students for admission to academic institutions.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The motion of fluids, especially noncompressible liquids, under the influence of internal and external forces.
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
The motion of air currents.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Test designed to identify students suitable for admission into a graduate or undergraduate curriculum.
A pair of cone-shaped elastic mucous membrane projecting from the laryngeal wall and forming a narrow slit between them. Each contains a thickened free edge (vocal ligament) extending from the THYROID CARTILAGE to the ARYTENOID CARTILAGE, and a VOCAL MUSCLE that shortens or relaxes the vocal cord to control sound production.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
A rapid-onset, short-acting cholinesterase inhibitor used in cardiac arrhythmias and in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. It has also been used as an antidote to curare principles.
An exocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE and cellotetraose. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing ends of beta-D-glucosides with release of CELLOBIOSE.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
Voltage-gated potassium channels whose primary subunits contain six transmembrane segments and form tetramers to create a pore with a voltage sensor. They are related to their founding member, shaker protein, Drosophila.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Integral membrane proteins that transport protons across a membrane. This transport can be linked to the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. What is referred to as proton pump inhibitors frequently is about POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
The second stomach of ruminants. It lies almost in the midline in the front of the abdomen, in contact with the liver and diaphragm and communicates freely with the RUMEN via the ruminoreticular orifice. The lining of the reticulum is raised into folds forming a honeycomb pattern over the surface. (From Concise Veterinary Dictionary, 1988)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The branch of science that deals with the geometric description of crystals and their internal arrangement. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
Undergraduate programmes Kerala Engineering Entrance Examination, KEAM conducted by the Office of the Commissioner of Entrance ... VISHNU MENON M (1 April 2006). "Rites of passage". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 5 September 2006. Retrieved 30 ... MCA Kerala MCA Entrance Examination, conducted by the LBS Centre for Science & Technology. MBA Kerala Management Aptitude Test ... Regular BTech admissions to this college are based on All Kerala Engineering Entrance Examination. and MTech, based on GATE ...
Passage, Alan Siebert, trumpet. Jewels (Summit Records DCD 484), 2007. Entrance, American Brass Quintet. Outberzt (Mark Masters ... Entrance, Still,Gaudete Brass. The Notes Fit To Print for orchestra, 1980 Three Portraits for tuba and chamber orchestra, 1990 ... 1978 Passage for viola and flügelhorn, 1979 Litany of Breath for trumpet, 1980 Trumpet Descants on Festive Hymns for trumpet, ... 1978 Passage for viola and flügelhorn, 1979 Flashback for percussion quartet, 1980 Sonata Forty for horn and piano, 1991 Three ...
To the south of the island is Marcus Passage. To the north is Inverness Passage, separating Smith Island from the Tsimpsean ... are known at the entrance. Dashken Indian Reserve No. 22 is on the east side of Smith Island, facing De Horsey Island which is ... "Inverness Passage". BC Geographical Names. "Osborn Point". BC Geographical Names. "De Horsey Passage". BC Geographical Names. " ... "Chart 3717, Inverness Passage". Sailing Directions, British Columbia Coast, (Northern Portion). II (Ninth Edition): 167. 1983 ...
Bar passage rates[edit]. Based on a 2001-2007 6 year average, 79.4% of UC Davis Law graduates passed the California State Bar ... Main Entrance to King Hall. UC Davis grants the second-most in financial aid in the country.[12][13][14] UC Davis Law's King ... 4 in bar exam pass rate; McGeorge comes in at No. 15". Sacramento Business Journal. Retrieved July 25, 2015.. ... For July 2012, 78.9% of first-time test takers passed the California bar exam.[19] For July 2013, 85.0% of first-time test ...
The entrance passage is uncovered. The Great Tomb was restored by the Ministry of Works, which included protecting the burial ... It is the largest surviving group of entrance graves in the world. The largest and best preserved entrance grave on the ancient ... the sides curving in slightly to 1m wide at the western end and 0.65m wide at the entrance. The entrance is partially blocked. ... The entrance grave sits on a low, circular platform. It consists of a mound that is 12.25m in diameter and up to 1.6m in height ...
The front entrance is on the west side. The porch contains a lintel and there is a storey over it. It opens into a passage. A ... On his death in 1553, the manor passed to Francis Southwell and Alice, his wife. As they left no heirs, it became the ...
The entrance and internal passage. Dedicatory inscription by Ashoka. "Piyadasi", honorific name of Ashoka, in Brahmi script. ... Entrance of Sudama Cave in the forefront, Barabar Hill. Entrance to the Sudama cave. Entrance corridor of the Sudama cave. The ... It has a much later inscription of Anantavarman above the entrance, from the 5th century CE. Entrances of Sudama Cave, and ... Dasaratha dedicatory inscription on top of the entrance of Vadathika cave. 3rd century BCE. Entrance of Vapiyaka cave. ...
Lloyd Passage, Bremen "Great liner is launched" (PDF). New York Times. 11 November 1908. p. 4. Retrieved 2008-08-01. Keeling, ... The NDL's company emblem adorns the main entrance. Almost all company buildings are now in Hamburg and Hanover. The Lloyd ... "Herr H.H. Meier Dead.; North German Lloyd Steamship Co.'s Founder Passes Away at Bremen" (pdf). The New York Times. 19 November ... It is called Lloyd Passage. The Lloyd baggage department building or Lloyd station on Gustav Deetjen Allee at the main station ...
In July and October 1869, entrance examinations were held in London, to which 21 candidates came; 16 passed. The first term ... At that time, students had the option of doing a Pass degree, which consisted of "a disorderly collection of fragmented ... An Honours degree was considered more challenging than the Pass degree. In 1869, Henry Sidgwick helped institute the ...
"Fees & Passes". National Park Service. Retrieved May 22, 2018. "Entrance Fees by Park". National Park Service. Retrieved June ... Prehistoric micro blades 9,600 years old have been discovered at Cascade Pass, a mountain pass that connects the western ... Beckey, Fred (January 15, 2003). Cascade Alpine Guide: Climbing and High Routes: Stevens Pass to Rainy Pass. The Mountaineers ... there is no entrance fee at North Cascades, and hiking trailheads accessed by vehicle do not require a parking pass; trailheads ...
Pass the entrance exam!"). In the US, a government policy known as affirmative action was instituted to encourage employers and ... Smokers have been turned away from jobs in the past - prompting more than half the states to pass laws rejecting bans on ... A number of countries, especially those in the Western world, have passed measures to alleviate discrimination against sexual ... In 2011, the United Nations passed its first resolution recognizing LGBT rights. ...
Main entrance of the station. New system displaying train arrivals. New system displaying train departures. 141R840 of passage ...
Other passages of note: A small passage to the left at the base of the entrance pitch drops into the top of Bridge Hall. ... A climb in the Bridge Hall Aven leads into Violet Ground Beetle Passage, another inlet series. A passage across from the Big ... and Violet Ground Beetle Passage was first entered by John Cordingley in 1993. The alternative entrance of Small Mammal Pot was ... A wide bedding passage leads to the right. Across the other side a 3-metre (10 ft) climb leads to a 10-metre (33 ft) pitch. At ...
The inscription includes the biblical passage; But he denied him, saying "Woman, I know him not"! (Luke 22:57) The entrance ... Facing the entrance is a bound Jesus being questioned at Caiaphas' palace; on the right Jesus and the disciples are shown ... This may have been a passage from the upper city to the lower city during the first temple period. Many Christians believe that ... The entrance to the church is from a parking lot located above the main level of the church. In the courtyard is a statue that ...
It represents a passage from Exodus. As many Notre Dame statues, Moses has a double meaning regarding American football. He is ... Moses Locate outside the west entrance of Hesburgh Library, it was created by Joseph Turkalji in 1962. His foot stands on the ... Christ and the Samaritan Woman The sculpture featured is found gracing the western entrance of O'Shaughnessy Hall, the home of ...
They immediately went to Van De Graft Airfield and took the Army Air Corps Air Cadet entrance examination. He passed. After ...
The dock opened in 1810 and consisted of a lock entrance from the Mersey. This passage has since been closed off. The dock was ... A new lock, and fixed bridge, was built at the entrance to the adjoining Prince's Dock. The dock was partly filled in to reduce ...
The main entrance door was restored by Vallance, but is original. Through the door is the screens passage. The framework of the ... The original building is obscured from just beyond the screens passage by the 20th-century north wing. The stair turret and ...
... high and can be accessed by crawling through the entrance passage, itself 9 metres (30 ft) long. Only half the entrance passage ...
"Entrance Fees & Season Passes". City of Dubuque. Retrieved 2015-07-26. Julie Deardorff (2004-02-22). "Winter in surprising ... A large statue of an eagle was placed near the entrance to the park. At one time the city offered regular bus service to and ... During the off season the park is closed to vehicle traffic, but people can park near Eagle Point's rear entrance and walk into ...
The main entrance is on the west side of the broch and the entrance passage is 3.7 metres long. The passage contains two ... It is not certain if this second entrance is part of the original structure, since other second entrances found in brochs ... The door to this mural gallery goes right through the wall to form a small second entrance. ...
The car entrance is on the west side; a passage door is on the north side. A clear-glass window with 16 panes is on the east ... The nave measures 98 feet (30 m) between the entrance and the communion rail. An aisle passes down its center; narrower aisles ... At the west end of the church, a 110-foot (34 m) belltower rises above the main entrance. The tower is topped with a copper ... On the west side, north of the car entrance, is a window with beveled lead-glass panes, which appear clear from the outside but ...
This passage between the vestibule and the mosque is also joined by another passage leading from the mosque's rear entrance. At ... The main entrance leads to the mosque via a vestibule with a richly decorated ceiling and a passage interrupted by large ... the end of the passage, at the entrance to the mosque area, is a set of wooden sliding doors, one of only two such examples in ... The bridge passage between the two parts of the complex also has an upper level with mashrabiyya windows, suggesting this may ...
The entrance is called the Steward's Gate. There is a mural passage and two souterrains. The souterrains have dry stone walls ...
Passage Island marks the entrance to Howe Sound. It has a few year-round residents and views of Downtown Vancouver and ... Ships entering Howe Sound will pass east or west of Passage Island. Bowen Island is the most populous island and is nearest ... Like Passage Island, Bowyer Island is also an unincorporated area and part of the Metro Vancouver Electoral Area A which is a ... South of here is the entrance of English Bay and Burrard Inlet. Also in the vicinity of Howe Sound's mouth, at Point Atkinson ...
The entrance bay leads to a through passage. The entrance is surrounded by a Tuscan-style doorcase with a basket arch. Above it ... The main block has five bays, with the entrance bay in the centre; the second and fourth bays are recessed. Between the bays, ...
One passage enters each half of the tomb. The entrance passages are approximately 7 metres long and sufficiently large for a ... The tomb has since been entered again and is now open to the public via the passage entrances. The southern chamber was ... Klekkende Høj is unusual in that there are two entrance passages running approximately parallel to each other, facing east. ... The tomb is a passage grave, which means that the central chamber within the mound is reached by a connecting passage. ...
Passage tombs - These constitute the smallest group in terms of numbers, but they are the most impressive in terms of size and ... At the winter solstice the first rays of the rising sun still shine through a light-box above the entrance to the tomb and ... Knowth, a passage tomb at Brú na Bóinne. Poulnabrone dolmen, a portal tomb at The Burren. Glantane East wedge tomb. Court ... Miniature axes, too small to be useful, were made, and a "tiny porcellanite axe" has been found in a passage tomb; another ...
The southern entrance to DeTour Passage is made dangerous by a shoal, DeTour Reef. In order to enter or leave the passage, ... The DeTour Reef Light is a non-profit-operated lighthouse marking the southern entrance of the DeTour Passage between the ... The passage is used by almost all of the Great Lakes commercial freighter traffic moving to and from Lake Superior, with ... Passages, Official Magazine of the Detour Reef Light Preservation Society, all back issues on line. Wobser, David, Detour Reef ...
It marks the entrance to the Albany Passage. The lighthouse was constructed in 1938 and upgraded in 1991 and 1995. The ...
Be at least 17 years of age and must not have passed his or her 25th birthday before July 1 in the year of entrance. ... Congress passed the landmark Merchant Marine Act in 1936, and two years later, the U.S. Merchant Marine Cadet Corps was ... The location in Pass Christian was similarly closed in 1950.) In spite of the war, shipboard training continued to be an ... Medical/Physical Clearance - Candidates are required to pass a DoDMERB (Department of Defense Medical Examination Review Board ...
A raba was a higher-status dwelling, distinguished by a north-facing entrance, which also served as a guesthouse where there ... Lawrence passed through in 1916, stopping at Basra and Ezra's Tomb (Al-Azair), and recorded that the Marsh Arabs were " ... Houses had entrances at both ends and a screen in the middle; one end was used as a dwelling and the other end (sometimes ...
The Entrance Hall contains a white staircase leading to the second floor of the house with a wall of mirrors. The floor ... After her death, the property was passed down to her niece Ruth Moore, a Memphis socialite, who together with her husband, ... To the left of the Entrance Hall, mirroring the Living Room is the Dining Room. The room features rounded curio cabinets in the ... To the right of the Entrance Hall, through an elliptical-arched opening with classical details, is the Living Room, with the ...
初回限定版】ドラマCDシリーズ「マリア様がみてる いつしか年も」 [Limited Edition Drama CD Series Maria-sama ga Miteru As the Years Pass By] (in Japanese). ... is praying in front of the Virgin Mary statue near the school entrance when she is suddenly approached by a cold second-year ... Although the Rosa positions of the Yamayuri Council are traditionally passed to the en bouton on the graduation of the
California passed the first law of this kind in 1987, and as of 2009 twenty states in the US have passed similar legislation.[ ... placed on the entrances to the toilets. According to Global News, a Canadian online newspaper, many different regions across ... Campbell, James (2007). Middle Passages: African American Journeys to Africa, 1787-2005. Pengiuin. p. 3. ISBN 978-0143111986. . ... Forty-three states had passed similar legislation by 1920.[2] Others argue that safety and privacy were the two main goals of ...
The collaboration of people were in a group called PACT (The Project for the Advancement of Coding techniques). After passing ... Programming in the open-source world can also lead to commercial job offers or entrance into the venture capital community. ...
Although he graduated from high school, Tange's poor results in mathematics and physics meant that he had to pass entrance ... The entrance is covered with a heavy projecting concrete canopy which leads to a monumental entrance hall. The stair to this ...
In the UK, this was traditionally evidenced by passing the examination for the Membership of the Royal College of Physicians ( ... In the UK, most specialities have their own body or college, which have its own entrance examination. These are collectively ... Traditional medicine may include formalized aspects of folk medicine, that is to say longstanding remedies passed on and ... which may ask the applicant to pass exams. This restricts the considerable legal authority of the medical profession to ...
This can result in non-smokers passing through these doorways getting exposed to more secondhand smoke rather than less.[ ... have restricted smoking in enclosed public places have extended provisions to cover areas within a fixed distance of entrances ... "Drunk driving after the passage of smoking bans in bars". The Economist. 3 April 2008.. ... Some data came from the Missouri Department of Revenue after smoking bans were passed in Lake Saint Louis, Kirkwood, Clayton ...
With the onset of cooler weather, they bore into the wood making oval entrance holes and tunnel deeply. Feeding continues the ... which then pass the seeds in their droppings. These fleshy scales are (except in Juniperus) known as arils. In some of these ...
Recipients of this typically suffered infection at the entrance of the electrodes, which led to the subsequent trial of the ... The electrodes contact the heart directly through the chest, allowing stimulation pulses to pass through the body. ...
The main entrance to Split, via the D1 (E71) executed as an expressway, provides access to Split city centre and the D8 state ... The reported traffic volume gradually decreases as the motorway chainage increases and as it passes by various major ... A total of 361 structures-bridges, viaducts, flyovers, underpasses, passages, wildlife crossings, and tunnels-have been ...
In windy mountain passes, resulting in erroneous pressure altimeter readings[8]. *The leadpipe of a trombone, affecting the ... Notice that in all experimental Venturi tubes, the pressure in the entrance is compared to the pressure in the middle section. ... In fluid dynamics, an incompressible fluid's velocity must increase as it passes through a constriction in accord with the ...
Delnor-Wiggins Pass. *Devil's Millhopper. *Don Pedro Island. *Eden Gardens. *Egmont Key ...
All cables run up the outer surface of the PMT support structure, i.e., on the OD PMT plane, pass through cable ports at the ... A "Radon Hut" (Rn Hut) was constructed near the Atotsu tunnel entrance to house equipment for the dome air system: a 40 hp air ... If the burst candidate passes these checks, the data will be reanalyzed using an offline process and a final decision will be ... Initially, water from the Super-Kamiokande tank is passed through nominal 1 μm mesh filters to remove dust and particles, which ...
For matriculation purposes the highest grade pass of a subject taken at CSE level was considered a pass at O level. ... Examination entrance is restricted by a minimal number of formal school going years and laboratory field work. The majority of ... In the late 1970s, A level certificates showed grades from A to F. At A level E was considered a pass for matriculation, and ... The grading system was further simplified in 1975 when the six pass marks were reduced to three, graded A, B, C. In normalised ...
Cannato, Vincent (2009). American passage : the history of Ellis Island. New York: Harper. ISBN 978-0-06-074273-7. . OCLC ... All three buildings have stone-stoop entrances on their north facades and courtyards on their south.[73] ... In 1921 over 560,000 immigrants passed through Ellis Island. In 1925, the first full year that the new law was in effect, only ... In 1882 the United States Government passed the Immigration Act of 1882 It excluded immigrants who were Likely to Become a ...
Going to a Go-Go Primavera and Ignatz return to Nana, gaining entrance to Kito's penthouse in the Grace Hotel, only to be ... A Fairy Queen While telling her story Primavera passes out, and Kito has her resident research and development technician ...
"Entrance requirements". University of Cambridge. Retrieved 10 January 2013.. *↑ "Cambridge Interview: The facts" (PDF). ... Students need to pass some tests and interviews to be allowed in Cambridge. For undergraduates, the application is done through ... These are often passed on by older students to the younger ones. Tour guides also tell these stories to tourists. ... spoon tradition was to give this type of spoon to the student who was the worst in the year for mathematics but still passed ...
It passed to the king in 1233[75] and in 1245 repairs were ordered to its motte and towers. During the 11th-century Second ... The entrance to UCAS in 2008; it has around 37,000 courses at 370 institutions; it is in the north of Cheltenham, near the ...
March 2 - Three British soldiers were killed by a landmine disguised as a stone that detonated as their vehicle was passing on ... the entrance to a military parking lot near the club. Three Irgun fighters clad in British Army battle dress jumped from the ... Another two were killed and five injured by bombs hidden inside dustbins and a shop shutter detonated as they passed. In ... The Haganah and Jewish Agency also passed extensive intelligence on the Irgun to the British authorities, who were able to make ...
An earthworm's burrow can be seen by the pile of dark, sand-like droppings, or casts, surrounding the entrance. ... Earthworms are important to the environment, breaking down organic matter and passing it through their gut as newly enriched ...
... and he shall bring it to pass." She succeeded in engaging the support of Albertine Winner, the deputy chief medical officer at ... is memorialized with a plain sheet of glass at the hospice's entrance. ...
All Things Must Pass: 1970Edit. Main article: All Things Must Pass ... The entrance and gatehouse at Harrison's Friar Park estate. In December 1999, he and his wife Olivia were the victims of a ... After the band's break-up in 1970, Harrison released the triple album All Things Must Pass, a critically acclaimed work that ... In July 2006, it was determined that All Things Must Pass should have been credited as a number one album in the United Kingdom ...
Kazakhstan: Since the last century, since 1998, Kazakhstan has been trying to pass a law on lobbying.[49] The National Chamber ... This 'lobby tree' in front of the main entrance of the European Parliament was planted in 2001 at the initiative of SEAP, the ...
... bluntly entrancing riffs" (Ned Raggett, AllMusic).[32] A NME review of the 1990 re-release recalled of the album: "It's a lo-fi ... motor engines and passing cars.[161] ...
The Yumen Pass, built in 111 BC, located 90 km (56 mi) northwest of Dunhuang in the Gobi desert. ... as well as controlling the entrance to the narrow Hexi Corridor, which led straight to the heart of the north Chinese plains ... By the second century AD Dunhuang had a population of more than 76,000 and was a key supply base for caravans that passed ... Wang Xudang, Li Zuixiong, and Zhang Lu (2010). "Condition, Conservation, and Reinforcement of the Yumen Pass and Hecang Earthen ...
Fans were still streaming into pens 3 and 4 from the rear entrance tunnel as the match began. For some time, problems at the ... "Hillsborough: 1,444 police names passed to IPCC". BBC News. 22 October 2012. Retrieved 24 October 2012.. ... Kenny Dalglish, Liverpool's manager at the time of the disaster, read a passage from the Bible, "Lamentations of Jeremiah". The ... Shortly before kick-off, in an attempt to ease overcrowding outside the entrance turnstiles, the police match commander David ...
There Entrance into the Culture of These Asian States Often Causes Quite a Stir. They Also Fit into Green and Goldberg's ... The period from 1701 to the passage of the British Abolition Act in 1807 was the peak of the trade. Here an estimated 7,163,241 ... rather than having it pass through, as it would with smoother hair. If so, the person was classified as Black.[29] Such ... the Portuguese colonial government in Brazil and the later Brazilian government did not pass formal anti-miscegenation or ...
White Democrats passed Jim Crow laws, establishing racial segregation in public facilities. In 1889, the legislature passed a ... with a spur running from the intersection of Canal and Carrollton Avenue to the entrance of City Park at Esplanade, near the ... As the hurricane passed through the Gulf Coast region, the city's federal flood protection system failed, resulting in the ... A constitutional amendment passed on November 7, 2006 consolidated the seven assessors into one in 2010.[154] The New Orleans ...
Chinook Pass Entrance Arch". National Park Service. Missing or empty ,url= (help) Media related to Chinook Pass Entrance Arch ... The Chinook Pass Entrance Arch marks the east entrance to Mount Rainier National Park. The rectangular log entry arch is one of ... WA-43, "Chinook Pass Entrance, Spanning Mather Memorial Highway at Chinook Pass, Longmire vicinity, Pierce County, WA" v t e. ... The Chinook Pass arch was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on March 13, 1991. It is part of the Mount Rainier ...
The Tioga Pass Entrance Station is the primary entrance for travelers entering Yosemite National Park from the east on the ... The Tioga Pass Entrance Station was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on December 14, 1978. "National Register ... Tioga Pass Entrance Station". National Park Service. Retrieved 28 June 2011.. ... Tioga Pass Road. Open only during the summer months, the entrance station consists of two historical buildings, a ranger ...
This CD covers the western Louisiana coast from the Lower Mud Lake Entrance Channel to Sabine Pass. ... Western Louisiana Coastal Classification Maps - Lower Mud Lake Entrance Channel to Sabine Pass. USGS Open File Report 2005-1261 ... After the frontal systems pass the coast, winds shift to blow from the northwest or northeast, causing erosion along the lagoon ... occur frequently during the winter months when wind-circulation patterns and low barometric pressure preceding the passage of ...
... Viewer displaying image ... Article from "The Baltimore News" reporting that Helen Keller passed the Harvard entrance exam in al... ... Article from "The Baltimore News" reporting that Helen Keller passed the Harvard entrance exam in all subjects. ...
Questions 1-5 are based on the following passage, which is excerpted from The National Institute of Public Health. In any given ... A depressive disorder is not the same as a passing blue mood. It is not a sign of personal weakness or a condition that can be ... There are four main sections of the nursing entrance exam: Vocab / spelling, math, science, and reading comprehension. Do you ...
That is, when entrance and exit pupils are equal, the double-pass image results from two passes through an optical system ... when the first-pass entrance pupil size becomes the second-pass exit pupil size, and vice versa. Third, the technique provides ... Double-pass measurements of the retinal-image quality with unequal entrance and exit pupil sizes and the reversibility of the ... To test for reversibility in the living eye we have used a double-pass apparatus with different exit and entrance pupil sizes ( ...
Did you know that horses evolved in North America? The Hagerman Horse, Equus simplicidens, was a bit smaller than the size of a modern horse. Its bones most closely resemble Grevys zebra for comparision purposes, but it wasnt a zebra.. During the Ice Age, when ocean levels were lower than today, humans and animals moved between the new world and the old world. Horses migrated into Asia/Europe and Africa only to later become extinct, about 10,000 years ago, in North America. Spanish Explorers later introduced modern breeds of domesticated horses back into North America several hundred years ago.. In 1988, the Hagerman Horse became Idahos state fossil and Hagerman Fossil Beds became a National Monument. The National Monument contains the Smithsonian Horse Quarry, a National Natural Landmark, recognized as an important site regarding the fossil history of horses.. Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument protects one of the worlds richest known fossil deposits from the late Pliocene Epoch. The ...
Fees & Passes. Entrance Fees:. Knife River Indian Villages NHS Entrance Fee - $0.00 ... The Visitor Centers entrance is in the shape of a giant eagle welcoming visitors. Once inside, visitors can view the movie, ...
Childs entrance into school, Upanayana[edit]. Upanayana sanskara ceremony in progress. Typically, this ritual was for 8 year ... The father sits with them and participates in the rite of passage. The rite of passage, in some texts, include charity and ... In another context, Sanskara refers to the diverse rites of passage in Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism.[2][6][7] In ... Jātakarman literally means "rite of a new-born infant".[52][53] It is a rite of passage that celebrates the birth of the baby.[ ...
Can You Pass This Firefighter Entrance Exam in 7 Minutes?. 6 Minute Quiz 6 Min ... Can You Pass an Electrician School Entrance Exam?. 6 Minute Quiz 6 Min ... Can You Pass This Practice Police Entrance Exam?. 7 Minute Quiz 7 Min ... PASS is an acronym to remind you to pull, aim, squeeze and sweep when using a fire extinguisher in the event of a fire. Most ...
i was able to gauge my knowledge and now, i am ready to pass my second take=) dont be scared if THEY all passed. dont think ... i was able to gauge my knowledge and now, i am ready to pass my second take=) dont be scared if THEY all passed. dont think ... my brother took it a second time n he passed..its so devastating.. my family expects so much from me n i feel like i let them ... i have not gotten the official result, but the pearsonvue trick tells me that i did not pass and i am not happy, but you know ...
... tutorials for the Nursing Entrance Test and NCLEX nursing articles & research on the nursing exams and nursing profession. ... Pass The Nursing Entrance Test, The First Time. All the practice that you need to Pass the Nursing Entrance Test. Pass the NET ... Tags: hesi for lpns, ldn entrance test, lpn entrance test, lpn nurse review, teas for lpn. Posted in How to Pass the HESI , No ... Tags: HESI, n.e.t., Nursing Entrance Test, TEAS. Posted in HESI TEAS The NET ATT, How to Pass the HESI, Pass The Nursing ...
I am taking the HESI entrance exam tomorrow. I am VERY nervous, I have been studying but I still dont feel confident. Has ... Nursing Student › HESI Entrance / Exit Exam › HESI entrance exam - page 4 NEW Scholarship Directory for Nurses and Students ... I am taking the HESI entrance exam tomorrow. I am VERY nervous, I have been studying but I still dont feel confident. Has ... Failed hesi exit exam...but passed Nclex? * 2 How is the HESI given/proctored in Las Vegas? (UNLV hopeful) ...
Can a robot pass a university entrance exam? Posted Aug 2017 12:16 ...
EventsUncategorised Multi-pass entrance tickets now available with discount. 17th October 2017by BoldThemes0 ...
Entrance Exa. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes, and tests. ... Pass complete!. "Know" box contains:. Time elapsed:. Retries:. retry the cards in the "Dont Know" box ...
There is no such entrance taken by NASA.It needs a continuous assessment of its applicants.So those who want to join it they ... What is the passing score of pnp entrance exam? Just ask any person who experience passing the entrance exam, or try to see it ... Which entrance exam you have to pass for MBA? Varies from country to country. In the US, most reputable business schools ... How is an entrance exam useful? The purpose of an entrance exam is to identify those who have the knowledge and skill base to ...
Can You Pass an Electrician School Entrance Exam?. 6 Minute Quiz 6 Min ... Can You Pass This Practice Police Entrance Exam?. 7 Minute Quiz 7 Min ... Can You Pass a Firefighter Entrance Exam?. 6 Minute Quiz 6 Min ... Can You Pass an FBI Entrance Exam?. 6 Minute Quiz 6 Min ... There are thousands of firefighters out there, but they had to pass an entrance exam before even attempting to become one. That ...
The MHT-CET is an annual entrance examination conducted by Maharashtra Government of West India. Administered by the ... Who pass the pmma entrance exam in San Narciso Zambales. ?. Asked by Wiki User ... who pass the entrance examination in pmma in san narciso this year 2010 ... Maharasthra State Entrance Engineering Test MHT-CET. The MHT-CET is an annual entrance examination conducted by Maharashtra ...
Paris Museum Pass and Eiffel Tower Skip-the-Line Entrance. Starting at$115 ... Paris Museum Pass and Eiffel Tower Skip-the-Line Entrance. Starting at$115 ...
Courses for passing the university entrance exam in Spain (PAU). The general phase is compulsory and includes 4 subjects: - ...
1) Notice of entrance fees, standard amenity recreation fees, and passes. The Secretary shall post clear notice of any entrance ... e) Entrance fee. (1) Authorized sites for entrance fees. The Secretary of the Interior may charge an entrance fee for a unit of ... 9) Recreation pass. The term recreation pass means the National Parks and Federal Recreational Lands Pass or one of the other ... Recreation passes. (a) America the Beautiful-the National Parks and Federal Recreational Lands Pass. (1) Availability and use. ...
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Man Slams Car Into Middlesex Hospital Entrance, Sets Himself On Fire, Records It Live On Facebook. ... JANE STANTON, 96, A FOUNDER AND ARTISTIC DIRECTOR OF RIVER REP THEATRE AT IVORYTON PLAYHOUSE PASSES. ...
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When was FACE passed?. FACE was passed by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by former President Clinton in May of 1994. ... What is the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act?. The FACE Act makes it a federal crime to use force, the threat of force ... Congress could also pass legislation creating a "gag rule.". What is the Weldon Amendment?. The Weldon Amendment is a provision ... Has the passage and enforcement of FACE assisted in the decrease of clinic violence?. Yes. In 1994, 52% of clinics reported ...
b. Affording unobstructed passage or view: open waters; the open countryside. 2. ... 1. a. Affording unobstructed entrance and exit; not shut or closed. ... a. Affording unobstructed entrance and exit; not shut or closed.. b. Affording unobstructed passage or view: open waters; the ... unguarded by an opponent: An open receiver caught the pass. 22. noting the part of the sea beyond headlands or enclosing areas ...
Zach Howlett: Chinas National College Entrance Exam (Gaokao) as Fateful Rite of Passage. ...
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FREE ENTRANCE. Belongs to. *. 07 July 16 - 31 December 16. FOCUS ON SLOVAKIA. ... Pass it on outlines the historical timeline of Slovakia through evocative jewellery, telling stories of both bygone and current ... printed on 18-05-2021 ...
  • Article from "The Baltimore News" reporting that Helen Keller passed the Harvard entrance exam in al. (
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  • Interior Department officials are backing away from a plan to dramatically increase entrance fees at the most popular national parks after receiving more than 100,000 public comments from Americans nearly unanimously opposed to the idea. (
  • In October, Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke proposed to increase peak-season entrance fees at 17 parks from $25 to $70 - the largest hike since World War II. (
  • Our ultimate goal when it comes to entrance fees is to make sure the parks get 80 percent of that revenue … but we also don't want to put a burden on our visitors. (
  • We believe there is room to increase the fees and the annual passes. (
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  • [4] [6] The etymological roots of the word samskara when it refers to rites of passage, is also "preparation, purifying, perfecting" from one's past state to one's future state. (
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  • You may also get cell phone reception near the North Entrance (Gardiner), the West Entrance (West Yellowstone) and the South Entrance from cell phone towers outside the park. (
  • Here at CSUN Music Department, we offer several entrance audition dates throughout the calendar year, as well as scholarship auditions for incoming freshman and transfer students during the Spring semester auditions. (
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  • We have used a modified double-pass apparatus with unequal entrance and exit pupil sizes to measure the optical transfer function in the human eye and have applied the technique to three different problems. (
  • To test for reversibility in the living eye we have used a double-pass apparatus with different exit and entrance pupil sizes (one of them small enough to consider the eye diffraction limited), so that the ingoing and the outgoing transfer functions are different. (
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  • What entrance exams are required for UCLA? (
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  • FREE with a valid refuge entrance pass . (
  • An entrance pass is required at the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge. (
  • Valid passes include refuge passes, current year Federal Duck Stamp, or an Interagency America the Beautiful Pass. (
  • A Federal Duck Stamp or America the Beautiful Interagency Pass may be used in lieu of the Sacramento NWR Refuge day or annual pass. (
  • The pick-up and drop-off area is located in the vicinity of the entrance, giving easy access to the pavement. (
  • Entrance passes are not currently required for admission into the Visitor Use Areas of Colusa NWR, Sutter NWR (open Feb 15-Jun 30), Sacramento River NWR, or the Llano Seco Unit. (
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  • When you pass to the square surrounded with three stoas of the Doric order you will notice the ruins of the temple of Athena, built during the time of Eumenes II in the 3rd century BC. (
  • The ship was denied passage because the authorities believed the goods were stolen. (
  • This is a free one-year pass available to US military members and their dependents in the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, and Coast Guard, as well as most members of the US Reserves and National Guard. (
  • A 10 percent fee increase for all parks with entrance charges is on the table, as is a $20 increase for the $80 annual and senior lifetime passes. (
  • The Chinook Pass Entrance Arch marks the east entrance to Mount Rainier National Park. (
  • The rectangular log entry arch is one of several placed at the entrances to the park. (
  • The Tioga Pass Entrance Station is the primary entrance for travelers entering Yosemite National Park from the east on the Tioga Pass Road. (
  • The use of stone at Tioga Pass set a precedent for the extensive employment of stone construction in other park buildings in the Yosemite high country. (
  • Park has no entrance fee. (
  • The term 'entrance fee' means the recreation fee authorized to be charged to enter onto lands managed by the National Park Service or the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. (
  • This huge park has five entrances and five developed visitor areas. (
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  • The Visitor Center's entrance is in the shape of a giant eagle welcoming visitors. (
  • The following America the Beautiful passes are available at the Sacramento NWR Visitor Center and on RecAccess . (
  • The structure surrounding such an opening, such as the monumental or fortified entrance to a palace or walled city. (
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  • For veterans and Gold Star families, visit this page to print the free pass for your vehicle. (
  • Museum central Visitors intent on seeing everything should invest in the Oslo Pass, the city's tourist card, which offers free access to 25 attractions, free public transport and discounts galore. (
  • Both have now been recovered and one is on display at the National Gallery (, free entrance). (
  • Sanskaras are, in one context, the diverse rites of passage of a human being from conception to cremation, signifying milestones in an individual's journey of life in Hinduism. (
  • In another context, Sanskara refers to the diverse rites of passage in Hinduism , Jainism , Buddhism and Sikhism . (
  • Frequently considered the opposite of to fail , especially in academic context s, passing is nothing of the sort. (
  • The Ikonic Passage Brushed Nickel Knob Set features a quality finish, adjustable back set and is designed to be easy to install. (
  • To top it off, the Pinnacle Passage Brushed Nickel Kit is backed by a 3-year warranty. (
  • This Ikonic Isabella lever combination entrance set comes with brushed nickel finish and is suitable for door thicknesses between 34-44mm. (
  • Paper versions of the Golden Age or Golden Access Passports can be exchanged for the new Senior or Access passes. (
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  • M. Cartailhac, for many years editor of the "Materiaux pour servir à l'Histoire de l'Homme" ("Materials to be used for the History of Man"), has, in a recent book on "Prehistoric Ages in Spain and Portugal" ("Les Ages préhistoriques en Espagne et en Portugal"), described some remarkable monuments in the Iberian Peninsula, most of which have not been previously brought to the scientific attention of students in other countries. (
  • Students were chosen after they passed rigorous examinations on the subject of Musar, which was an ethical and moral revival movement of great importance in Judaism. (
  • The term 'National Parks and Federal Recreational Lands Pass' means the interagency national pass authorized by section 6804 of this title . (
  • The term 'passholder' means the person who is issued a recreation pass. (
  • The term 'recreation fee' means an entrance fee, standard amenity recreation fee, expanded amenity recreation fee, or special recreation permit fee. (
  • The term 'recreation pass' means the National Parks and Federal Recreational Lands Pass or one of the other recreation passes available as authorized by section 6804 of this title . (
  • Passing' generally means achieving (at least) the lowest non-failing grade . (
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  • There is no such entrance taken by NASA.It needs a continuous assessment of its applicants.So those who want to join it they should keep on working on its projects as well as you have to be a US citizen to be a permanent employee at NASA. (
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  • That is, when entrance and exit pupils are equal, the double-pass image results from two passes through an optical system having a transfer function that is the same in both directions. (
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  • Twenty minutes passed before the beam of her headlamp fell upon a pair of navy-and-black running shoes sticking out of a narrow crevice at the tunnel's end. (
  • Bob's question is whether or not any of it beelines east across the Beaufort Shelf into the Northwest Passage via the Amundsen Gulf. (
  • South Vegas Ruins (east entrance) 169. (
  • If your child is younger than 3 years, you don't have to pay for his bus passage. (
  • A few years passed and he wanted to work. (
  • The entrance to the digestive tract, the mouth is lined with mucous membranes. (
  • The Chinook Pass arch was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on March 13, 1991. (
  • The Tioga Pass Entrance Station was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on December 14, 1978. (
  • Have your online order number, ticket number or Membership/Season Pass number handy and visit . (
  • Here you would also enjoy a visit to the Madame Tussaud with complimentary entrance ticket. (
  • Open only during the summer months, the entrance station consists of two historical buildings, a ranger station and a comfort station, built in 1931 and 1934 respectively. (
  • These antas frequently served for a considerable number of burials each, and in that case the entrance-gallery seems to have been kept open. (
  • This narrow passage leads to the back entrance. (
  • Then the route goes over the pass, a grueling day of hiking, and back down the other side, where it meets up with the Kali Gandaki River. (
  • If a black person has light skin and manageable hair, he or she may try to pass as a white person , in order to get a job , house , or life that is more desirable than what they could otherwise expect . (
  • There is an underground passage from the house to the stable. (
  • You can purchase your pass online prior to arrival via RecAccess or purchase the day or annual pass at the fee machine (credit cards only and must email photo of annual pass). (
  • Where can I purchase a Pit Pass? (
  • You can purchase Pit Passes inside the facility at the Pit entrance. (
  • You'll get all of the benefits of Season Passes PLUS a variety of special features we've never offered before such as unlimited soft drinks, preferred parking, up to 50% off almost everything, and much more. (
  • Most passes will have to be mailed to you but the receipt from RecAccess is valid to visit the Sacramento NWR. (