The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A family of marine mollusks in the class BIVALVIA, commonly known as oysters. They have a rough irregular shell closed by a single adductor muscle.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
A family in the order Rhodobacterales, class ALPHAPROTEOBACTERIA.
Family of small, surface-dwelling fish that inhabit fresh and brackish waters, and coastal marine areas.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.
A family of bacteria in the order Sphingobacteriales, class Sphingobacteria. They are gram-negative rods, mostly saprophytic in terrestrial and aquatic habitats.
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Common name for an order (Anguilliformes) of voracious, elongate, snakelike teleost fishes.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A commercially important species of SALMON in the family SALMONIDAE, order SALMONIFORMES, which occurs in the North Atlantic.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)
A freshwater fish used as an experimental organism and for food. This genus of the family Cichlidae (CICHLIDS) inhabits Central and South America (one species extends north into Texas), West Indies, Africa, Madagascar, Syria, and coastal India.
Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Aquatic invertebrates belonging to the phylum MOLLUSCA or the subphylum CRUSTACEA, and used as food.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.
Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Flagellate EUKARYOTES, found mainly in the oceans. They are characterized by the presence of transverse and longitudinal flagella which propel the organisms in a rotating manner through the water. Dinoflagellida were formerly members of the class Phytomastigophorea under the old five kingdom paradigm.
A genus of oysters in the family OSTREIDAE, class BIVALVIA.
A species of bacteria found in the marine environment, sea foods, and the feces of patients with acute enteritis.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.
Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.
A family of marine, gram-negative PROTEOBACTERIA including the genera ALTEROMONAS; Colwellia; Idiomarina; MARINOBACTER; MORITELLA; PSEUDOALTEROMONAS; and SHEWANELLA.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
Infections with bacteria of the genus VIBRIO.
Process by which unwanted microbial, plant or animal materials or organisms accumulate on man-made surfaces.
An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An infraorder of chiefly marine, largely carnivorous CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, including the genera Cancer, Uca, and Callinectes.
Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Pollutants, present in water or bodies of water, which exhibit radioactivity.
A species of halophilic bacteria in the genus VIBRIO, which lives in warm SEAWATER. It can cause infections in those who eat raw contaminated seafood or have open wounds exposed to seawater.
Common name for two families of FLATFISHES belonging to the order Pleuronectiformes: left-eye flounders (Bothidae) and right-eye flounders (Pleuronectidae). The latter is more commonly used in research.
Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria in the family FLAVOBACTERIACEAE. Tenacibaculum adheres to surfaces of marine organisms and is pathogenic to fish.
The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.
A genus of GRAM-NEGATIVE AEROBIC BACTERIA of marine origin. Many species were formerly classified under ALTEROMONAS.
A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A genus of marine mussels in the family MYTILIDAE, class BIVALVIA. The species MYTILUS EDULIS is the highly edible common mussel.
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.
A group of substances similar to VITAMIN K 1 which contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinione and an isoprenoid side chain of varying number of isoprene units. In vitamin K 2, each isoprene unit contains a double bond. They are produced by bacteria including the normal intestinal flora.
The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Fish of the genera ONCORHYNCHUS and Salmo in the family SALMONIDAE. They are anadromous game fish, frequenting the coastal waters of both the North Atlantic and Pacific. They are known for their gameness as a sport fish and for the quality of their flesh as a table fish. (Webster, 3d ed).
A phylum of small sessile aquatic animals living as small tufted colonies. Some appear like hydroids or corals, but their internal structure is more advanced. Most bryozoans are matlike, forming thin encrustations on rocks, shells, or kelp. (Storer & Stebbins, General Zoology, 6th ed, p443)
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
Small oviparous fishes in the family Cyprinodontidae, usually striped or barred black. They are much used in mosquito control.
Organisms that live in water.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
Common name for the order Pleuronectiformes. A very distinctive group in that during development they become asymmetrical, i.e., one eye migrates to lie adjacent to the other. They swim on the eyeless side. FLOUNDER, sole, and turbot, along with several others, are included in this order.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
An order of mostly marine CRUSTACEA containing more than 5500 species in over 100 families. Like ISOPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Isopoda, they possess thoracic gills and their bodies are laterally compressed.
A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.
The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.
The science that deals with the ocean and its phenomena. (Webster, 3d ed)
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Various fish of the family SALMONIDAE, usually smaller than salmon. They are mostly restricted to cool clear freshwater. Some are anadromous. They are highly regarded for their handsome colors, rich well-flavored flesh, and gameness as an angling fish. The genera Salvelinus, Salmo, and ONCORHYNCHUS have been introduced virtually throughout the world.
The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)
A class of marine annelids including sandworms, tube worms, clamworms, and fire worms. It includes also the genus Myxicola infundibulum.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Hot springs on the ocean floor. They are commonly found near volcanically active places such as mid-oceanic ridges.
A primitive form of digestive gland found in marine ARTHROPODS, that contains cells similar to those found in the mammalian liver (HEPATOCYTES), and the PANCREAS.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The hard rigid covering of animals including MOLLUSCS; TURTLES; INSECTS; and crustaceans.
Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).
The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the natural environment (soil, water, and plant surfaces) or as an opportunistic human pathogen.
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.
A genus of SEA URCHINS in the family Arbaciidae. They have only one spheridium (stalked body) per ambulacral area (contains tube feet); most sea urchins have several spheridia per area.
A genus of gram-negative, straight or curved rods which are motile by means of a single, polar flagellum. Members of this genus are found in coastal waters and the open ocean. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
The common name for the phylum of microscopic unicellular STRAMENOPILES. Most are aquatic, being found in fresh, brackish, and salt water. Diatoms are noted for the symmetry and sculpturing of their siliceous cell walls. They account for 40% of PHYTOPLANKTON, but not all diatoms are planktonic.

Marine vibrios associated with superficial septic lesions. (1/4531)

Three cases are reported in which a marine vibrio, Vibrio alginolyticus, was isolated from superficial septic lesions. All cases had been exposed to sea-water. The possible significane of these findings and the need for further investigations are discussed.  (+info)

Growth characteristics of Heterosigma akashiwo virus and its possible use as a microbiological agent for red tide control. (2/4531)

The growth characteristics of Heterosigma akashiwo virus clone 01 (HaV01) were examined by performing a one-step growth experiment. The virus had a latent period of 30 to 33 h and a burst size of 7.7 x 10(2) lysis-causing units in an infected cell. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the virus particles formed on the peripheries of viroplasms, as observed in a natural H. akashiwo cell. Inoculation of HaV01 into a mixed algal culture containing four phytoplankton species, H. akashiwo H93616, Chattonella antiqua (a member of the family Raphidophyceae), Heterocapsa triquetra (a member of the family Dinophyceae), and Ditylum brightwellii (a member of the family Bacillariophyceae), resulted in selective growth inhibition of H. akashiwo. Inoculation of HaV01 and H. akashiwo H93616 into a natural seawater sample produced similar results. However, a natural H. akashiwo red tide sample did not exhibit any conspicuous sensitivity to HaV01, presumably because of the great diversity of the host species with respect to virus infection. The growth characteristics of the lytic virus infecting the noxious harmful algal bloom-causing alga were considered, and the possibility of using this virus as a microbiological agent against H. akashiwo red tides is discussed.  (+info)

Effects of salinity and temperature on long-term survival of the eel pathogen Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 (serovar E). (3/4531)

Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 (serovar E) is a primary eel pathogen. In this study, we performed long-term survival experiments to investigate whether the aquatic ecosystem can be a reservoir for this bacterium. We have used microcosms containing water of different salinities (ranging from 0.3 to 3.8%) maintained at three temperatures (12, 25, and 30 degrees C). Temperature and salinity significantly affected long-term survival: (i) the optimal salinity for survival was 1.5%; (ii) lower salinities reduced survival, although they were nonlethal; and (ii) the optimal temperature for survival was dependent on the salinity (25 degrees C for microcosms at 0.3 and 0.5% and 12 degrees C for microcosms at 1.5 to 3.8%). In the absence of salts, culturability dropped to zero in a few days, without evidence of cellular lysis. Under optimal conditions of salinity and temperature, the bacterium was able to survive in the free-living form for at least 3 years. The presence of a capsule on the bacterial cell seemed to confer an advantage, since the long-term survival rate of opaque variants was significantly higher than that of translucent ones. Long-term-starved cells maintained their infectivity for eels (as determined by both intraperitoneal and immersion challenges) and mice. Examination under the microscope showed that (i) the capsule was maintained, (ii) the cell size decreased, (iii) the rod shape changed to coccuslike along the time of starvation, and (iv) membrane vesicles and extracellular material were occasionally produced. In conclusion, V. vulnificus biotype 2 follows a survival strategy similar to that of biotype 1 of this species in response to starvation conditions in water. Moreover, the aquatic ecosystem is one of its reservoirs.  (+info)

Isolation of Vibrio vulnificus serovar E from aquatic habitats in Taiwan. (4/4531)

The existence of strains of Vibrio vulnificus serovar E that are avirulent for eels is reported in this work. These isolates were recovered from water and oysters and differed from eel virulent strains in (i) fermentation and utilization of mannitol, (ii) ribotyping after HindIII digestion, and (iii) susceptibility to eel serum. Lipopolysaccharide of these strains lacked the highest molecular weight immunoreactive bands, which are probably involved in serum resistance.  (+info)

Prochlorococcus, a marine photosynthetic prokaryote of global significance. (5/4531)

The minute photosynthetic prokaryote Prochlorococcus, which was discovered about 10 years ago, has proven exceptional from several standpoints. Its tiny size (0.5 to 0.7 microm in diameter) makes it the smallest known photosynthetic organism. Its ubiquity within the 40 degrees S to 40 degrees N latitudinal band of oceans and its occurrence at high density from the surface down to depths of 200 m make it presumably the most abundant photosynthetic organism on Earth. Prochlorococcus typically divides once a day in the subsurface layer of oligotrophic areas, where it dominates the photosynthetic biomass. It also possesses a remarkable pigment complement which includes divinyl derivatives of chlorophyll a (Chl a) and Chl b, the so-called Chl a2 and Chl b2, and, in some strains, small amounts of a new type of phycoerythrin. Phylogenetically, Prochlorococcus has also proven fascinating. Recent studies suggest that it evolved from an ancestral cyanobacterium by reducing its cell and genome sizes and by recruiting a protein originally synthesized under conditions of iron depletion to build a reduced antenna system as a replacement for large phycobilisomes. Environmental constraints clearly played a predominant role in Prochlorococcus evolution. Its tiny size is an advantage for its adaptation to nutrient-deprived environments. Furthermore, genetically distinct ecotypes, with different antenna systems and ecophysiological characteristics, are present at depth and in surface waters. This vertical species variation has allowed Prochlorococcus to adapt to the natural light gradient occurring in the upper layer of oceans. The present review critically assesses the basic knowledge acquired about Prochlorococcus both in the ocean and in the laboratory.  (+info)

Different prevalences of Renibacterium salmoninarum detected by ELISA in Alaskan chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha spawned from freshwater and seawater. (6/4531)

Soluble antigen of Renibacterium salmoninarum (Rs) was detected by a polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at significantly higher prevalences in adult chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that matured in freshwater than in the same cohort of fish spawned after maturation in seawater. The cumulative results were consistent during 4 yr of comparison at the Little Port Walter Hatchery on Baranof Island, Alaska, USA. Possible causes for this difference are discussed. Maturation of chinook salmon broodstock in seawater has become a practical strategy at this hatchery to reduce the prevalence of Rs-positive parent fish and the numbers of culled eggs.  (+info)

Presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in sand from bathing beaches. (7/4531)

The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. in sand from non-EEC standard and EEC standard designated beaches in different locations in the UK and to assess if potentially pathogenic strains were present. Campylobacter spp. were detected in 82/182 (45%) of sand samples and Salmonella spp. in 10/182 (6%). Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 46/92 (50%) of samples from non-EEC standard beaches and 36/90 (40%) from EEC standard beaches. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was greater in wet sand from both types of beaches but, surprisingly, more than 30% of samples from dry sand also contained these organisms. The major pathogenic species C. jejuni and C. coli were more prevalent in sand from non-EEC standard beaches. In contrast, C. lari and urease positive thermophilic campylobacters, which are associated with seagulls and other migratory birds, were more prevalent in sand from EEC standard beaches. Campylobacter isolates were further characterized by biotyping and serotyping, which confirmed that strains known to be of types associated with human infections were frequently found in sand on bathing beaches.  (+info)

Combined microautoradiography-16S rRNA probe technique for determination of radioisotope uptake by specific microbial cell types in situ. (8/4531)

We propose a novel method for studying the function of specific microbial groups in situ. Since natural microbial communities are dynamic both in composition and in activities, we argue that the microbial "black box" should not be regarded as homogeneous. Our technique breaks down this black box with group-specific fluorescent 16S rRNA probes and simultaneously determines 3H-substrate uptake by each of the subgroups present via microautoradiography (MAR). Total direct counting, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and MAR are combined on a single slide to determine (i) the percentages of different subgroups in a community, (ii) the percentage of total cells in a community that take up a radioactively labeled substance, and (iii) the distribution of uptake within each subgroup. The method was verified with pure cultures. In addition, in situ uptake by members of the alpha subdivision of the class Proteobacteria (alpha-Proteobacteria) and of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium group obtained off the California coast and labeled with fluorescent oligonucleotide probes for these subgroups showed that not only do these organisms account for a large portion of the picoplankton community in the sample examined ( approximately 60% of the universal probe-labeled cells and approximately 50% of the total direct counts), but they also are significant in the uptake of dissolved amino acids in situ. Nearly 90% of the total cells and 80% of the cells belonging to the alpha-Proteobacteria and Cytophaga-Flavobacterium groups were detectable as active organisms in amino acid uptake tests. We suggest a name for our triple-labeling technique, substrate-tracking autoradiographic fluorescent in situ hybridization (STARFISH), which should aid in the "dissection" of microbial communities by type and function.  (+info)

High-throughput cultivation studies have been successful at bringing numerous important marine bacterioplankton lineages into culture, yet these frequently utilize natural seawater media that can hamper portability, reproducibility, and downstream characterization efforts. Here we report the results of seven experiments with a set of newly developed artificial seawater media and evaluation of cultivation success via comparison with community sequencing data from the inocula. Eighty-two new isolates represent highly important marine clades, including SAR116, OM60/NOR5, SAR92, Roseobacter, and SAR11. For many, isolation with an artificial seawater medium is unprecedented, and several organisms are also the first of their type from the Gulf of Mexico. Community analysis revealed that many isolates were among the 20 most abundant organisms in their source inoculum. This method will expand the accessibility of bacterioplankton cultivation experiments and improve repeatability by avoiding normal ...
Insight into the response of reef corals and other major marine calcifiers to ocean acidification is limited by a lack of knowledge about how seawater pH and carbonate chemistry impact the physiological processes that drive biomineralization. Ocean acidification is proposed to reduce calcification rates in corals by causing declines in internal pH at the calcifying tissue-skeleton interface where biomineralization takes place. Here, we performed an in vivo study on how partial-pressure CO2-driven seawater acidification impacts intracellular pH in coral calcifying cells and extracellular pH in the fluid at the tissue-skeleton interface [subcalicoblastic medium (SCM)] in the coral Stylophora pistillata. We also measured calcification in corals grown under the same conditions of seawater acidification by measuring lateral growth of colonies and growth of aragonite crystals under the calcifying tissue. Our findings confirm that seawater acidification decreases pH of the SCM, but this decrease is ...
An improved composition for preparing artificial sea-water comprises an electrolyte mixture which, upon being dissolved in a proper amount of water, forms an aqueous solution which simulates natural sea-water in composition except that it contains one or more boron compounds within a concentration range from 0.002 to 0.05 w/v % calculated as boron. The pH stability of an artificial sea-water is improved by adding one or more boron compounds thereto.
Due to the global warming, worldwide climatic change has been deepening recently.Seawater temperature rising and acidification of ocean due to the climate change have a great influence such as the change of marine ecosystem. Therefore, this research mainly focused on understanding change of seawater temperature in the Southern sea of Korea, especially detecting hot spot where shows distinctive changeable aspect. As a first step of this research, database of seawater temperature collected by National Fisheries Research and Development Institute bimonthly from 1980 to 2007 was constructed. Using constructed database, regression analysis was carried out to grasp temporal gradients. As a result, inclination of regression of equation, rates of change in study area, was calculated. After then, seawater temperature point maps for each observation points werecreated. Applying these maps to spatial estimation technique, raster maps were created. Temperature point maps of whole study area were created ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of ocean acidification on the speciation of metals in seawater. AU - Millero, Frank J.. AU - Woosley, Ryan. AU - Ditrolio, Benjamin. AU - Waters, Jason. PY - 2009/12. Y1 - 2009/12. N2 - Increasing atmospheric CO 2 over the next 200 years will cause the pH of ocean waters to decrease further. Many recent studies have examined the effect of decreasing pH on calcifying organisms in ocean waters and on other biological processes (photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, elemental ratios, and community structure). In this review, we examine how pH will change the organic and inorganic speciation of metals in surface ocean waters, and the effect that it will have on the interactions of metals with marine organisms. We consider both kinetic and equilibrium processes. The decrease in concentration of OH - and CO 3 2- ions can affect the solubility, adsorption, toxicity, and rates of redox processes of metals in seawater. Future studies are needed to examine how pH affects the ...
Samples for seawater chemistry were collected in Niskin and borosilicate bottles and analyzed for total alkalinity (TA), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and nutrients following standard procedures as indicated in the supplemental information.. Seawater samples from Palauan reefs were collected during daylight hours in September 2011 and March 2012. Samples from Rose Atoll, Palmyra Atoll, Kingman Atoll, and Jarvis Island were collected during NOAA Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (RAMP) cruises during daylight hours of March/April of 2006, 2008 2010, 2012, and a September 2012 cruise to Jarvis Island. Panama Ω and nitrate are taken from Manzello et al. (2008) and DCroz and ODea (2007), respectively. Parentheses indicate climatological values from World Ocean Atlas and the Global Data Analysis Project (GLODAP).. Aragonite saturation state was determined from TA and DIC of seawater preserved with HgCl2 following methods and calculations described in Shamberger et al. (2014). The ...
Water was collected via Niskin bottles mounted on a rosette, equipped with a CTD.. Experiments on (operationally defined) particles were carried out by gravity-filtering water through 3 um pore size filters. 1/12th sections of the 3 um pore-size filters were submerged in 15 mL artificial seawater; enzyme activities were measured as described below.. The potential of the seawater microbial community associated with large particles (, 3 micrometer pore size filter) to hydrolyze six high-molecular-weight polysaccharides (arabinogalactan, chondroitin sulfate, fucoidan, laminarin, pullulan, and xylan) was investigated in surface and bottom water. For each substrate, three 15 mL falcon tubes were filled with autoclaved artificial seawater and one 15 mL falcon tube was filled with autoclaved seawater and a blank filter piece to serve as a killed control. Substrate was added at 3.5 uM monomer-equivalent concentrations, except for fucoidan, which was added at 5 uM concentrations (a higher concentration ...
I feel like Ive always known that its bad to drink seawater but I cant remember ever learning why. This excerpt from Rose Georges excellent 90% of Everything: Inside Shipping gives a fair idea:. In a lecture to the Royal College of Physicians in 1942, MacDonald Critchley, a physician who had studied survival at sea, said that seawater poisoning must be accounted, after cold, the commonest cause of death in shipwrecked sailors.. At first, it wouldnt seem so: seawater is liquid and it quenches. The relief would be immediate. But seawater has an average salt content of 3 percent. This increases thirst dramatically so that more seawater is drunk, and more, and salt levels go ever more haywire, until the body tries to regulate it by urination, and you expel a quart of urine for every quart of seawater drunk, making matters worse. There are also complicated and intricate effects of seawater on cells, blood, and tissue, but in essence, too much seawater can fry your brain.. Then this ...
Seawater Solutions is a partnership predominantly engaged with the conceptual design and specification development for large Seawater Intakes associated with Power and Industrial complexes. This includes large Desalination Plants of all types where seawater is the feed stock and Thermal and Nuclear Power Plants where seawater is the cooling medium. Seawater Solutions works closely with main contractors and consultants where specialist knowledge concerning the screening and treatment of seawater is needed. The Partnership has a long experience of all types of screening installations and has the ability and expertise to advise the best approach to any Seawater intake. We can determine budget costs in advance of seeking bids, we can bench mark intake costs and can assist on intakes using Travelling Band Screens or Rotating Drum Screens for abstraction capacities from 1-500M3/sec.. Members of our team have been involved with such intakes for over 30 years and have firsthand experience in supplying ...
A novel Gram-stain-negative, straight or slightly curved rod-shaped, non-spore-forming, non-flagellated, strictly aerobic strain, designated RZG4-3-1T, was isolated from coastal seawater of Rizhao, China (119.625° E 35.517° N). The organism grew optimally at 24-28 °C, at pH 7.0 and in the presence of 2.0 % (w/v) NaCl. The strain required seawater or artificial seawater for growth, and NaCl alone did not support growth. Strain RZG4-3-1T contained ubiquinone 8 (Q-8) as the major respiratory quinone and contained C16 : 1 ω7c and/or C16 : 1 ω6c and C16 : 0 as the dominant fatty acids. The polar lipids of strain RZG4-3-1T were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and one unidentified aminophospholipid. The DNA G+C content of strain RZG4-3-1T was 40.1 mol%. Strain RZG4-3-1T exhibited the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity value (96.0 %) to Thalassotalea eurytherma JCM 18482T. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain RZG4-3-1T belonged to the genus
TY - CHAP. T1 - Physico-Chemical Controls on Seawater. AU - Millero, F. J.. PY - 2013/11/1. Y1 - 2013/11/1. N2 - The physical-chemical controls on seawater can be attributed to the effect that the composition of the major components have on the thermodynamics and kinetics of processes in the oceans. In this chapter, an earlier review on the experimental and modeling work that has been done on how the major components of seawater control rates and equilibria of processes in the oceans has been updated. The effect of major components on the physical-chemical properties of seawater, the carbonate system in the oceans and the effect of ocean acidification on speciation of metals in seawater has been emphasized.. AB - The physical-chemical controls on seawater can be attributed to the effect that the composition of the major components have on the thermodynamics and kinetics of processes in the oceans. In this chapter, an earlier review on the experimental and modeling work that has been done on how ...
7-7.5mm 3A grade 18K Pure Yellow Gold Real Natural Seawater Japanese Akoya Pearl Pendant Necklace, US $ 28.5 - 29 / Piece, NECKLACES, Third Party Appraisal, Strand.Source from Zhuji Integrity Pearl Co., Ltd. on
Drixine PureSea Baby Nasal Spray 75ml is made from natural seawater and restores easy breathing. It helps to clear nasal congestion and wash away allergens, vir
Elongation of the dorsal trunk ectoderm closely matches that of the ventral body side, but shows very little convergence. This time-lapse movie shows ...
To label cellular outlines, embryos were incubated for 15 min in 5 μM BODIPY564/570 coupled to propionic acid (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) in natural seawater, then rinsed twice in natural seawater and mounted in a 1:1 mixture of natural seawater and 7.5% MgCl2 to prevent muscular contractions. Time-lapse recordings were performed with a PerkinElmer (Wellesley, MA) Ultraview RS System (spinning disk confocal). Embryos were kept during recordings (12 frames per hour) at a constant temperature of 25C or 26C in natural seawater between slide and coverslip separated by two layers of adhesive tape and silicone paste. The chamber was sealed with mineral oil (Sigma, St. Louis, MO).. ...
Recent advances in studying the dynamics of marine microbial communities have shown that the composition of these communities follows predictable patterns and involves complex network interactions, which shed light on the underlying processes regulating these globally important organisms. Such holi …
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The small-angle approximation to the radiative transport equation is applied to particle suspensions that emulate ocean water. A particle size distribution is constructed from polystyrene and glass spheres with the best available data for particle size distributions in the ocean. A volume scattering function is calculated from the Mie theory for the particles in water and in oil. The refractive-index ratios of particles in water and particles in oil are 1.19 and 1.01, respectively. The ratio 1.19 is comparable to minerals and nonliving diatoms in ocean water, and the ratio 1.01 is comparable to the lower limit for microbes in water. The point-spread functions are measured as a function of optical thickness for both water and oil mixtures and compared with the point-spread functions generated from the small-angle approximation. Our results show that, under conditions that emulate ocean water, the small-angle approximation is valid only for small optical thicknesses. Specifically, the ...
Binghamton graduate student Mebrahtu Weldeghebriel is a man of many firsts: He is the Universitys first student from Eritrea, and he is presenting the first interpretation of what changed the chemistry of ancient seawater by analyzing minor and trace elements.. Scientists initially thought the chemical composition of seawater was constant. In the late 20th century, however, indirect evidence revealed that seawater chemistry has changed systematically at particular time periods during the past 550 million years. Knowing how the oceans and climate changed previously gives scientists insights into how it might change in the future.. Weldeghebriel aims to understand what caused these changes. He believes they could be a result of variations in the rate of seafloor spreading and fluctuations in hydrothermal vents, which release ions that react with the existing seawater.. To substantiate this idea, Weldeghebriel and his advisor, Tim Lowenstein, analyze marine halite, a mineral that traps and ...
This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grant DEB#1545288, 10/1/2015-9/30/19 and DEB#1929393, 09/01/2019-08/31/2024. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in the material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.. ...
Research Background. 97.5% of the water on Earth is seawater and only 2.5% is freshwater. Within this percentage, a mere 0.01% of freshwater resources can be easily treated in order to be utilized by humankind. However, the human population continues to increase every year. Consequently, it has been predicted that in several years time, two thirds of the worlds population will have insufficient access to freshwater. A worldwide water shortage is one of the gravest issues facing humankind. Therefore, technologies that can obtain the necessary resources by converting the Earths abundant seawater into freshwater are paramount.. Evaporation methods have been used to convert seawater to freshwater, however they require large amounts of energy in order to evaporate the seawater and remove the salt (desalination). On the other hand, membrane separation methods provide a low energy alternative; they enable freshwater to be produced by filtering water out of seawater and removing the salt. Methods of ...
There are two oceans in Earth s polar regions: the Arctic Ocean, which occupies most of the north polar region, and the Southern Ocean, which surrounds the continent of Antarctica in the south polar region. Oceans in the polar regions are a bit different from the other oceans on Earth (the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Ocean). There is often sea ice at the surface of polar oceans, especially during the winter months. Both the Arctic Ocean and the Southern Ocean are homes to unique marine ecosystems that thrive in the cold conditions. Seawater from polar regions can be denser than seawater from other regions. This is because seawater in the polar oceans is often colder than other seawater. It can also become more saline than normal in the winter when sea ice freezes at the ocean surface. The salty part of the water does not freeze, making the remaining seawater saltier. Because it is denser, this seawater sinks to the bottom of the ocean. It travels in slow currents around the bottom of the world ...
Although pH is a fundamental property of Earths oceans, critical to our understanding of seawater biogeochemistry, its long-timescale geologic history is poorly constrained. We constrain seawater pH through time by accounting for the cycles of the major components of seawater. We infer an increase from early Archean pH values between ~6.5 and 7.0 and Phanerozoic…
All products in the MARIMER sprays range are made using quality seawater rich in dietary-minerals such as copper, zinc and manganese, known for their therapeutic properties in treatment of respiratory infections. This pure seawater is taken from the bay of Mont Saint Michel in Saint-Malo, France, reputed for its high tides of more than 15 metres which, due to violent currents, provide high-levels of water oxygenation and an abundance of minerals ...
Abstract. Observations indicate an expansion of oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) over the past 50 years, likely related to ongoing deoxygenation caused by reduced oxygen solubility, changes in stratification and circulation, and a potential acceleration of organic matter turnover in a warming climate. The overall area of ocean sediments that are in direct contact with low-oxygen bottom waters also increases with expanding OMZs. This leads to a release of phosphorus from ocean sediments. If anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions continue unabated, higher temperatures will cause enhanced weathering on land, which, in turn, will increase the phosphorus and alkalinity fluxes into the ocean and therefore raise the oceans phosphorus inventory even further. A higher availability of phosphorus enhances biological production, remineralisation and oxygen consumption, and might therefore lead to further expansions of OMZs, representing a positive feedback. A negative feedback arises from the enhanced ...
Korean university UNIST will be working with public organisations in the energy sector to develop a new type of eco-friendly battery that can store and produce electricity using seawater. The project is expected to accelerate the commercialisation of eco-friendly, cost-efficient, and high-stability seawater batteries.. The projects consortium includes Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO), Korea East-West Power Company Ltd. (EWP), and the Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST).. Seawater batteries use sodium, the sixth-most abundant element on earth, to generate electricity. This makes this system an attractive supplement to existing battery technologies. Furthermore, this new type of battery is much cheaper and more environmentally friendly than lithium and will, therefore, offer a low-cost route to large-scale energy storage. Moreover, the use of seawater can also considerably reduce fire risks, as it keeps the thermal fluid in good condition.. Seawater batteries ...
​The life of a seawater pump is limited, even if maintenance activities such as replacement of sealing and impeller are performed regularly. The reason for this is corrosion, which is caused by the constant condensation of the pump even if the engine is at a standstill, as well as material removal due to erosions as a result of the high flow speed of the seawater inside the pump housing. Often small but steadily increasing leakages, usually at the bottom of the housing, are signs of a seawater pump's demise. At that point, you should think about a replacement. In order to assist skilled skippers in carrying out their own repairs without causing a total financial loss, we have now offered seawater pumps for the most common types of engines on the market since 2015. Dimensions, connection widths, flow rates and shaft diameters can be found in the table. There you will also find information on which pump is suitable for which manufacturer/motor type. We have seawater pumps (impeller pumps) from the
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Researchers are looking for ways that crab and fish in Alaska may be able to adapt to more acidic ocean water.. With carbon dioxide levels rising on the planet, ocean water absorbs some of that CO2 and water becomes more acidic. That change is already impacting a variety of sea creatures.. Members of the Alaska Ocean Acidification Network gave an update to Alaskas Board of Fisheries and a public presentation on the topic in Anchorage in October. The network is a group of researchers, managers and stakeholders interested in the looming problem.. Its not that there hasnt been variability in the amount of carbon dioxide. Its not that this hasnt happened before, said Robert Foy, director of NOAA Fisheries Alaska Fisheries Science Center. Its the speed at which it is happening during our lifetime and whether or not the animals and plants in the ocean are able to adapt fast enough given the speed at which its occurring.. Foy outlined recent research from a variety of sources on the impacts ...
Superoxide, produced photochemically as well as microbially, is an important reactant present in seawater and a major source of hydrogen peroxide. Superoxide decay may occur through catalyzed or uncatalyzed dismutation forming H2O2 and O2, through oxidation to O2, or through reduction into H2O2. Under definite circumstances, the redox processes that are different from dismutation could produce or consume H+, thereby altering the pH of seawater. In order to alter the pH, these processes have to involve, together with O2•, redox couples that exchange e and H+ in a ratio other than 1:1. This potential pH modification is dependent on several factors, including the extent of H+ imbalance, the rate of formation/transformation of superoxide (which reaches a steady-state concentration in seawater), and the alkalinity of seawater (which varies globally from 2.10 to 2.45 mmol L1 and buffers the pH variations). In the present study, an estimate of the possible pH changes associated with photochemically
General. Aplysia californica (75-350 gm) were obtained from Alacrity Marine Biological Specimens (Redondo Beach, CA) and Marinus (Long Beach, CA) and were individually caged and kept in an aquarium containing artificial seawater (ASW) at ∼15°C with a 12 hr light/dark cycle. Animals were fed dried seaweed every other day. Three types of artificial seawater were used. Normal ASW contained (in mm): NaCl, 460; KCl, 10; CaCl2, 11; MgCl2, 30; MgSO4, 20; NaHCO3, 2.5; and HEPES, 10; pH 7.7. Low Ca2+/high Mg2+ ASW contained (in mm): NaCl, 400; KCl, 10; CaCl2, 1; MgCl2, 80; MgSO4, 20; NaHCO3, 2.5; and HEPES, 10; pH 7.7. High Ca2+/high Mg2+ ASW contained (in mm): NaCl, 386; KCl, 8; CaCl2, 13.8; MgCl2, 90; MgSO4, 20; NaHCO3, 2.5; and HEPES, 10; pH 7.7. During all procedures, except the initial dissection of the reduced tail preparation (see below), the preparations were maintained at ∼15°C. Tail sensory and motor neurons were identified based on their location, size, and electrical properties (Walters ...
Looking for Bight of Biafra? Find out information about Bight of Biafra. town, SE Nigeria, in the Niger River delta, on the Bight of Biafra. In the 18th and 19th cent., Bonny was the center of a powerful trading state, and in the... Explanation of Bight of Biafra
Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) has always been one of the favourite desalination technologies worldwide due to its high efficiency and low operating cost. However, one of the inherent drawbacks of SWRO is its prone to membrane fouling because of the high total dissolved solids concentration in seawater. As such, pre-treatment units have become more vital since they can effectively filter the seawater before the feed reaches the main reverse osmosis (RO) unit. Among the pre-treatment units, nanofiltration (NF) membrane has attracted more attention recently because with its nanoscale pores, NF can reject the divalent ions and in turn, reduces the scaling potential in RO membrane. In this project, the objective was to investigate the performance of the novel low-pressure hollow fibre NF membranes from Singapore Membrane Technology Centre in actual seawater conditions. The membranes, namely NF Loose (NFL) and NF Tight (NFT), were fabricated by the layer-by-layer deposition process and were compared ...
Tropic Marin BIO-Calcium ACTIF, 64 oz. - At AquaCave, we offer Best Prices, 5% Back, and Free Shipping on Tropic Marin BIO-Calcium ACTIF, 64 oz.. - Buy Tropic Marin BIO-Calcium ACTIF, 64 oz. - Now Only $34.95 - Tropic Marin BIO-Calcium ACTIF, 64 oz. Biologically ideal calcium supply & pH optimization Increases calcium, alkalinity & pH for optimum coral growth without disturbing the ionic balance Contains all 70 trace elements in the concentrations found in natural seawater No unnatural by-products Stabilization of optimal pH level to promote coral growth Calcium, alkalinity, and pH work together in the water to reach calcite saturation, which is essential for optimum growth of corals and coralline algae. Our Tropic Marin Bio-Calcium Actif is a simple, efficient way to raise all three factors for optimal growth of corals and coralline algae while creating the ideal conditions for successful reef aquariums. Natural seawater has a calcium content of approximately 410 mg/l, an alkalinity of 6.5 dKH
The Keahole Point pipeline shore crossing project involved open water construction that included driving two sets of parallel 67″ steel cased tunnels, from a 50 foot deep drive shaft located 15 feet from the Pacific Ocean. These tunnels were unique in that the shaft was located on the beach while two of the tunnels were at approximately 8% downward grade and the other two at a 1% upward grade. The shafts required extensive engineering to withstand both the jacking and uplift forces. A seven-foot thick concrete base was placed for the floor slab and an innovative sealant technique was implemented to minimize water seepage into the shaft.. Nova utilized a microtunneling system specifically designed for this contract. The cutterhead is hydraulically driven by a 170 HP motor yielding 195,000 ft-lbs of torque. Steel sheet piles were driven to allow deep excavations while retaining the soil excavation to a minimum at the microtunnel entry and exit pits. Two of the drives were approximately 420 feet ...
Raglan-Whale Bay water temperature - check out the ocean temperature for surfing, kayaking and windsurfing. Wetsuit guide based on current sea temperature observations.
Why is the sea water salty? Other ions are found in very small concentrations. (Also know about dead sea) William Dittmar, a scientist collected several samples of ocean water to detect the salinity. Because of the huge ocean size, it is very difficult to correctly assess its chemical composition. The high salt content in the sea water makes it unfit for human consumption. Coral reefs that are seen in warmer areas of oceans comprise of limestone. This releases ions that are carried away to streams and rivers that eventually feed into the ocean. Stated in another way, about 3.5 percent of the weight of seawater comes from the dissolved salts. Little known Facts about Fresh Water and Salt Water. Salt in the ocean comes from two sources: runoff from the land and openings in the seafloor. Rocks on land are the major source of salts dissolved in seawater. Another reason why ocean water is salty is submarine volcanism or the eruption of volcanoes under the ocean. Here, the salty water gets diluted ...
ABSTRACT: Understanding the vertical distribution and migratory behaviour of shelled holoplanktonic gastropods is essential in determining the environmental conditions that they are exposed to. This is increasingly important in understanding the effects of imminent ocean acidification and climate change. Here we investigate the vertical distribution of atlantid heteropods by collating data from publications and collections and using the oxygen isotope (δ18O) composition of single aragonitic shells. Data from publications and collections show two patterns of migration behaviour; small species that reside in shallow water at all times, and larger species that make diurnal migrations from the surface at night to deep waters during the daytime. The δ18O data show that all species analysed (n=16) calcify their shells close to the Deep Chlorophyll Maximum. This was within the upper 110 m of the ocean for 15 species, and down to 146 m for a single species. These findings confirm that many atlantid ...
Gould, J, Kienast, M, Dowd, M and Schefuß, E (2019) An open-ocean assessment of alkenone δD as a paleo-salinity proxy. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 246. 478-497. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2018.12.004 ...
Powerful moisturizing energy of Jeju lava seawater produced during the creation of Jeju Island. Jeju lava seawater with special minerals gives a boost to skin hydration to help the skin fight against onset of aging. Highly functional barrier with three types of moisturizing factors. Jeju lava seawater strengthens three types of moisturizing factors as well as natural moisturizing factors to build up a strong moisture barrier.. Direction: Take an adequate amount after using the essence and gently apply it all over the face and neck.. Brand: Innisfree. 160 ml. ...
Dont worry; were not going all scientific. Theres no need to anyway, the detail the marine aquarist needs to know is straightforward.. Oxygen is a very important dissolved gas in the seawater. The livestock need it to survive as we do - no oxygen, no life. If dissolved oxygen is in short supply then the aquarium livestock will be subject to stress, and if the oxygen level is continuously too low disease and maybe death will follow.. It isnt just the livestock that will suffer either, the bacteria in the bio-filter will too. These bacteria operate the nitrogen cycle when ammonia is converted to nitrite which in turn is converted to nitrate. The ammonia and nitrite are toxins and will kill at quite low levels, so the bacterias welfare is paramount. The bacteria that convert the toxins are oxygen hungry and rely on the amount available in the seawater.. In addition if there is a good supply of dissolved oxygen in the seawater the redox potential will be reasonably high meaning a clean ...
The Indus Delta, which is 150 kms wide at its mouth and covers almost 85% of Sindhs coastal belt, is the most prominent ecological feature of the coast east of Karachi. It comprises of 17 major creeks and numerous minor creeks, all intermingling with mangrove forests in the creek pockets, as well as expansive mudflats.. Cash crops like rice and wheat used to be grown here in abundance and though the percentage of people deriving income from farming has dwindled to barely 20%, this source is coming under increasing strain from the twin scourges of water-logging and salinity, exacerbated by the influx of seawater.. This degradation has been precipitated, amongst other associated factors, by the gradual ingress of seawater, some 70 kms inland by some estimates, during the past 30 yrs. The reasons for this are threefold: drastically reduced waterflows downstrem of Kotri, dwindling mangrove cover and overall seawater rise due to global warming.. Although the Water Apportionment Accord of 1991 ...
Innisfree - Jeju Lava Seawater Lotion 160ml Jeju lava-rich seawater to cultivate subungam lotion to the skin elastic skin moisture by activating the energy Rich moist lotion with Jeju lava seawater for revitalizing of skin moisture energy which makes your skin elastic. Special mineral is contained for anti-aging effect
Raincoast Education Society is our partner organization in Tofino who is working with citizen scientists to help us collect seawater to monitor for the arrival of Fukushima contamination along our coastline. The video below shows a volunteer wading into the surf at Cox Bay to collect seawater today for the project. Cox Bay Beach, Tofino…
LG Chems NanoH2O™ seawater RO membranes, incorporated with innovative Thin Film Nanocomposite (TFN) technology, reduce the cost of desalination while delivering superior water quality. Our seawater RO membranes provide industry leading salt rejection and produce 20% more flow than membranes manufactured with conventional technologies. We continue to leverage the technological advantages of our seawater RO membranes to expand our market share accruing more than 1,000 Million Liter per Day (MLD). Datasheet_LG_SW_400_R_ENG. 200120_Brochure_SW_ENG ...
1. Seawater is a solution of about 96. 5% water and 3 1. Seawater is a solution of about 96.5% water and 3.5% dissolved salts. The most abundant salt in seawater is sodium chloride (NaCl).
The oceans are full of water. Ocean water is not just pure water, though. Ocean water has many different chemicals in it, especially salt. The salt in sea water is a lot like the salt we sprinkle on food. Sea salt has other chemicals in it too. The main other chemicals in sea salt are magnesium, sulfate, calcium, and potassium.. Why is the ocean salty? When it rains on land, some of the water dissolves minerals in rocks. That water flows in rivers to the sea. It carries the minerals with it. When the water evaporates back out of the ocean, it leaves the minerals behind. The minerals make sea water salty. Some parts of the ocean have more salt than others. For example, melting glaciers dump lots of fresh water into the ocean. Places in the ocean near melting glaciers arent as salty as the rest of the ocean. Some gases are dissolved in sea water too. There is carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere dissolved in sea water. That is important because carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas. Scientists ...
Scientists from the University of Toronto and the University of California Santa Cruz are shedding light on one potential cause of the cooling trend of the past 45 million years that has everything to do with the chemistry of the worlds oceans.
Scientists from the University of Toronto and the University of California Santa Cruz are shedding light on one potential cause of the cooling trend of the past 45 million years that has everything to do with the chemistry of the worlds oceans.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production with concentrated natural seawater produced by membrane process. AU - Oh, Seichang. AU - Nam, Wonsik. AU - Joo, Hyunku. AU - Sarp, Sarper. AU - Cho, Jaeweon. AU - Lee, Chang Ha. AU - Yoon, Jaekyung. PY - 2011/9. Y1 - 2011/9. N2 - Water shortages are anticipated to occur all over the world and are likely to have a significant effect on the availability of water for processes such as photocatalysis and electrolysis, as well as for drinking and industrial water. To overcome this problem, it has been suggested that seawater could be used as an alternative resource for the various water industries, such as hydrogen production, industrial and drinking water. Seawater contains a large amount of dissolved ion components, thus allowing it to be utilized as an electrolyte in photoelectrochemical system for producing hydrogen. Especially, the concentrated shows higher salinity (total dissolved solids, TDS) than the general seawater fed to the ...
The effect of microstructure of nickel-aluminum bronze alloy (NAB) on the corrosion behavior in artificial seawater is studied using linear polarization, impedance and electrochemical noise tests. The alloy was heat treated in different heating cycles including quenching, normalizing and annealing. Microstructure of the specimens was characterized before and after heat treatment by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that the value of pearlite phase in the normalized alloy is much more than other specimens, leading to higher corrosion resistance. Polarization test showed that starting point of passivation in the polarization of the normalized alloy is lower than other specimens. The dissolution of Mn and Fe rich phases increased the Mn and Fe contents in solid solution, and this enhanced the passivation power of the surface of the alloy. The effect of the alloying elements was seen by a lower corrosion potential and an inflexion at around 280 mV (SCE) in the polarization
The analysis of the iron (Fe) isotopic composition of seawater can provide unique information about Fe sources to seawater, and Fe cycling within the oceans, which are important for understanding global climate because of the links between the marine carbon and iron cycles. The low dissolved Fe (dFe) concentrations found in seawater mean that analyses of the iron isotopic composition of seawater is an analytical challenge. This thesis describes the development methods for accurate and precise analysis of Fe isotopes in seawater with concentrations as low as ~0.4 nM Fe, and the results of iron isotope analysis of seawater samples from within the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the tropical Atlantic Ocean, and the dissolved phase of hydrothermal plumes in the Southern Ocean ...
Understanding how rising seawater pCO2 and temperatures impact coral aragonite accretion is essential for predicting the future of reef ecosystems. Here we report 2 long term (10-11 month) studies assessing the effects of temperature (25 and 28°C) and both high and low seawater pCO2 (180-750 μatm) on the calcification, photosynthesis and respiration of individual massive Porites spp. genotypes. Calcification rates were highly variable between genotypes but high seawater pCO2 reduced calcification significantly in 4 of 7 genotypes cultured at 25°C but in only 1 of 4 genotypes cultured at 28°C. Increasing seawater temperature enhanced calcification in almost all corals but the magnitude of this effect was seawater pCO2 dependent. The 3°C temperature increase enhanced calcification rate on average by 3% at 180 μatm, by 35% at 260 μatm and by ,300% at 750 μatm. The rate increase at high seawater pCO2 exceeds that observed in inorganic aragonites. Responses of gross/net photosynthesis and ...
Due to biological uptake, the photic zone has relatively low levels of nutrient concentrations. As a result, phytoplankton dont receive enough nutrients when there is high water-column stability.[5] The spatial distribution of organisms can be controlled by a number of factors. Physical factors include: temperature, hydrostatic pressure, turbulent mixing such as the upward turbulent flux of inorganic nitrogen across the nutricline.[6] Chemical factors include oxygen and trace elements. Biological factors include grazing and migrations.[7] Upwelling carries nutrients from the deep waters into the photic zone, strengthening phytoplankton growth. The remixing and upwelling eventually bring nutrient-rich wastes back into the photic zone. The Ekman transport additionally brings more nutrients to the photic zone. Nutrient pulse frequency affects the phytoplankton competition. Photosynthesis produces more of it. Being the first link in the food chain, what happens to phytoplankton creates a rippling ...
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The crc handbook of chemistry and physics hbcp contains over 700 tables in over 450 documents which may be divided into several pages, all categorised into 17 major subject areas. Seawater is made up mainly of liquid water about 96. Introduction to co2 chemistry in seawater part 2 duration. A firstlevel text stressing chemistry of natural and polluted water and its application to wastewater treatment. Option questions option a modern analytical chemistry 1 4 option b human biochemistry 5 9 option c chemistry in industry and technology 10 option d medicines and drugs 14 16.. History of seawater carbonate chemistry, atmospheric co2. Analyze and interpret data on the properties of substances before and after the substances interact to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred. The table below gives the concentration of some ions in the sample. Some workers feel that the raman and jr data indicate that two.. Answer key for worksheet on seawater compostion microsoft word 2007. A schematic ...
Terrestrial larvae of B. antarctica tolerated extensive osmotic dehydration when challenged by hyperosmotic seawater. Nearly 50% of the larvae survived a 10-day exposure in ∼1000 mOsm kg-1 seawater, during which the total body water content of the larvae was reduced by∼ 30% to ,1.80 g H2Og-1 DM. Survival declined rapidly during exposure to higher seawater concentrations; however, even in ∼2000 mOsm kg-1 seawater ∼25% of larvae survived a 6-day exposure. As the larvae are known to tolerate an extensive loss of body water, survival during exposure to hyperosmotic seawater is probably not solely dependent on tolerance to dehydration. During desiccation in air, larvae survive the loss of nearly 70% of their body water to ,1.0 g H2Og-1 DM (Benoit et al., 2007). Instead, during seawater exposure, an incurred salt load from the external medium probably contributed to the observed mortality. Inorganic ions, and especially Na+ and Cl-, are well known to disrupt cellular activity by binding to and ...
Krause, Evamaria; Wichels, Antje; Erler, Rene; Gerdts, Gunnar (2013): Study on the effects of near-future ocean acidification on marine yeasts: a microcosm approach. PANGAEA,, Supplement to: Krause, E et al. (2013): Study on the effects of near-future ocean acidification on marine yeasts: a microcosm approach. Helgoland Marine Research, 67(4), 607-621,
A flow injection-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric (FI-ICP-MS) procedure, utilising ultrasonic nebulisation with membrane desolvation (USN/MD), has been developed for the determination of plutonium (Pu) in seawater at fg l−1 concentration levels. Seawater samples (1 l), after filtration, were subjected to co-precipitation with NdF3, followed by ion exchange to enrich Pu and to reject seawater matrix ions and co-existing uranium. The seawater concentrate (1.0 ml) was then analysed by FI-ICP-MS. The limit of detection for in seawater based on an enrichment factor of 1000 was 5 fg l−1, and precision at the 0.80 pg l−1 level was 12% RSD. Accuracy was verified via recovery experiments, and by comparing survey data for the Irish Sea with that derived by standard methodology based on co-precipitation and α-spectrometry. Concentrations for dissolved in the Irish Sea were in the range of 0.267-0.941 pg l−1 (0.614-2.164 mBq l−1) and 0.051-0.196 pg l−1 (0.428-1.646 mBq l−1), ...
Comeau, S, Tambutté, E, Carpenter, RC, Edmunds, PJ, Evensen, NR, Allemand, D, Ferrier-Pagès, C, Tambutté, S and Venn, AA (2017). Coral calcifying fluid pH is modulated by seawater carbonate chemistry not solely seawater pH. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 284(1847 ...
The residues and risks of heavy metals in the environment and organisms have attracted great concern for many years. However, the information on their long-term spatiotemporal trends and potential health and ecological risks are scarce. In this study, a total of 1815 seawater samples, 451 sediment samples, and 54 seafood samples were collected in Xiangshan Bay, China, between 2011 and 2016. The residue, distribution, seasonal variation, and potential health risks of seven heavy metals in seawater, sediment, and seafood were evaluated. Dissolved Zn (mean = 16.8 μg L−1) and Cu (mean = 3.4 μg L−1) concentrations were high in seawater. Sediments were mainly contaminated by Zn (mean = 120.8 mg kg−1) and Cr (mean = 81.7 mg kg−1). The highest levels of Cu and Zn were observed in Ostreidae with the concentrations of 84.3 and 99.0 mg kg−1, respectively. The Kendall test indicated that only As, Cu, Cd, and Hg showed decreasing trends in seawater with time and no significant temporal trends ...
Bacterioplankton communities are deeply diverse within and across environments, yet also display repeatable patterns over seasonal and annual time scales. We assessed patterns of bacterioplankton community variability across the Columbia River coastal margin over space and time. Coastal zones encompass a complex spectrum of environmental gradients, which impact the composition of bacterioplankton communities. Few studies have attempted to address these gradients comprehensively, especially across large spatial and long temporal scales. We generated a synoptic, 16S rRNA gene-based bacterioplankton community profile of a coastal zone from water samples collected from the Columbia River, estuary, plume, and along coastal transects covering 360 km of the Oregon and Washington coasts and extending to the deep ocean (,2000 m). Over 600 water samples were collected across four consecutive years and eleven research cruises. Spatially, bacterioplankton communities separated into seven environments across ...
We observed the initial release rate of metals from four fresh (i.e., without long time exposure to the atmosphere) hydrothermal sulfide cores into artificial seawater. The sulfide samples were collected by seafloor drilling from the Okinawa Trough by D/V Chikyu, powdered under inert gas, and immediately subjected to onboard metal-leaching experiments at different temperatures (5 °C and 20 °C), and under different redox conditions (oxic and anoxic), for 1-30 h. Zinc and Pb were preferentially released from sulfide samples containing various metals (i.e., Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) into seawater. Under oxic experimental conditions, Zn and Pb dissolution rates from two sulfide samples composed mainly of iron disulfide minerals (pyrite and marcasite) were higher than those from two other sulfide samples with abundant sphalerite, galena, and/or silicate minerals. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the high metal-releasing sample contained several galvanic couples of iron disulfide with other
Abstract Maxent niche model was used to project the potential distribution of alien plant species Spartina alterniflora in China, with 96 S. alterniflora records and marine and climatic data along China coastal area. The results showed that suitable area for the distribution of S. alterniflora occupied 85% of coastal areas, with the highly suitable area, the medium, and low suitable area accounting for 18%, 34% and 33%, respectively. Only 15% of the coastal areas were regions with distribution possibility of less than 5%. Its distribution suitability was mainly related to annual lowest seawater temperature, annual mean seawater temperature, annual mean air temperature, and annual lowest temperature in January. However, the importance of annual mean precipitation, annual mean daily diurnal range, seawater salinity, annual highest seawater temperature, annual highest tempe-rature in June and current velocity was relatively small. At the highly suitable areas for S. alterni-flora, the annual lowest ...
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DANISH OPERATORS Offshore Oil and Gas Operators in Denmark Use of Nitrogen Purge in Flare and Vent Systems 7 September 2009 Esplanaden 50 6 1263 Copenhagen K 6 Denmark Telephone: +45 3363 4097 6 E-mail: [email protected] 1. Title of Initiative Use of Nitrogen Purge in Flare and Vent Systems. 2. Description of Initiative The offshore installations flare and atmospheric vent headers are required to be purged in order to prevent oxygen ingress to the flare and atmospheric vent systems. This is required in order to avoid the formation of explosive mixtures in the headers, which could lead to explosions if ignited. Fuel gas or nitrogen can be used as purge gas. The purge gas is injected at different locations in the systems in order to maintain a positive pressure in the flare headers thus preventing air ingress. Cold vents (atmospheric vent headers) are used to vent hydrocarbon gas from low pressure sources where insufficient pressure is available to allow the gas to be flared. Under normal ...
In order to evaluate performs of lightly cross-linked highly porous amidoxime resins in uranium-adsorption systems utilizing natural seawater motions, uranium uptake by the resins from seawater was studied by different approaches, such as simulated sea current exposure tests, towing trials, and/or mooring trials. In general, the efficiency of uranium uptake became higher with a decrease in the thickness of packing layers, indicating important roles of fluidization of the resin particles. On the basis of these fundamental data, mooring tests in the natural sea current were designed and conducted. By mooring flat adsorption beds (base area 260 cm2, height 3.0 cm) packed with 780 mL of the resin for 40 h, promising uranium uptake as high as 44 mg/kg of resin (9.9 mg/L of resin) was achieved under sea conditions in which the velocity of sea currents and the vertical velocity of waves were 5.5-49.7 cm/s and 3.4-27 cm/s, respectively. ...
The natural alternative to the Otrivin medicated range. It contains a seawater formulation that provides a nasal decongestant effect. Otrivin Natural Seawater & Eucalyptus contains, hypertonic seawater with eucalyptus essential oil and extract of wild mint. The solution also retains the richness of all the importan
This study examines the potential effects of ocean acidification on countries and fisheries of the Mediterranean Sea. The implications for seafood security and supply are evaluated by examining the sensitivity of the Mediterranean to ocean acidification at chemical, biological, and macro-economic levels. The limited information available on impacts of ocean acidification on harvested (industrial, recreational, and artisanal fishing) and cultured species (aquaculture) prevents any biological impact assessment. However, it appears that non-developed nations around the Mediterranean, particularly those for which fisheries are increasing, yet rely heavily on artisanal fleets, are most greatly exposed to socioeconomic consequences from ocean acidification.
A taxonomic study was carried out on strain CIC4N-9T, which was isolated from deep-sea water of the Indian Ocean. The bacterium was Gram-stain-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, rod-shaped and non-motile. Growth was observed at salinities of 0-9% and at temperatures of 4-41 °C. The isolate was able to degrade gelatin but not aesculin. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain CIC4N-9T belonged to the genus Pararhodobacter , with the highest sequence similarity to the only recognized species, Pararhodobacter aggregans D1-19T (96.9 %). The average nucleotide identity and estimated DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain CIC4N-9T and P. aggregans D1-19T were 80.4 and 23.0 %, respectively. The principal fatty acids were summed feature 8 (C18 : 1 ω7c and/or C18 : 1 ω6c), C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω7c 11-methyl, C18 : 0 and C17 : 0. The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA was 66.8 mol%. The sole respiratory quinone was determined to be Q-10. Phosphatidylcholine,
The goal of the Arabian Sea section of the TARA oceans expedition was to study large particulate matter (LPM , 100 μm) distributions and possible impact of associated midwater biological processes on vertical carbon export through the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of this region. We propose that observed spatial patterns in LPM distribution resulted from the timing and location of surface phytoplankton bloom, lateral transport, microbial processes in the core of the OMZ, and enhanced biological processes mediated by bacteria and zooplankton at the lower oxycline. Indeed, satellite-derived net primary production maps showed that the northern stations of the transect were under the influence of a previous major bloom event while the most southern stations were in a more oligotrophic situation. Lagrangian simulations of particle transport showed that deep particles of the northern stations could originate from the surface bloom while the southern stations could be considered as driven by 1-D vertical ...
Title:Experimental Study on Seawater Applications in Organic Reactions. VOLUME: 13 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Gang Liu, Mingxiang Qiu, Lin Sun, Quanwu Wen, Shengguang Xu, Xuyuan Wang and Peng Wang. Affiliation:School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Ludong University, Yantai 264025, P.R. China.. Keywords:3-amino-2-chloro-4-methyl pyridine, anthranilic acid, hofmann degradation, quinazolin-4-one, seawater.. Abstract:Background: Total water resources account for only 2.5% of freshwater on earth, and only 1% of total water resources can be exploited by humans. The development of practical methods of seawater desalination and comprehensive utilization technology can help address the shortage of freshwater resources in the world, and achieve sustainable use of water resources to ensure sustainable development in a society. Direct seawater utilization currently involves industrial cooling water, water for agricultural irrigation, and flushing water. Applications in aqueous phase organic reactions, ...
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Coral skeletal Sr/Ca is a palaeothermometer commonly used to produce high resolution seasonal sea surface temperature (SST) records and to investigate the amplitude and frequency of ENSO and interdecadal climate events. The proxy relationship is typically calibrated by matching seasonal SST and skeletal Sr/Ca maxima and minima in modern corals. Applying these calibrations to fossil corals assumes that the temperature sensitivity of skeletal Sr/Ca is conserved, despite substantial changes in seawater carbonate chemistry between the modern and glacial ocean. We present Sr/Ca analyses of 3 genotypes of massive Porites spp. corals (the genus most commonly used for palaeoclimate reconstruction), cultured under seawater pCO2 reflecting modern, future (year 2100) and last glacial maximum (LGM) conditions. Skeletal Sr/Ca is indistinguishable between duplicate colonies of the same genotype cultured under the same conditions, but varies significantly in response to seawater pCO2 in two genotypes of ...
The package consists of 3 main pumps - vertically mounted ZW 20x16x30 model - and 1 startup Seawater Lift Pump - vertically mounted ZW 12x8x19 (A) model. In order to provide water for firing up the steam boilers, the startup seawater lift pump is first started. Once the power generation system is running, high voltage power supply is available to activate the main seawater lift pumps whose function will be to supply seawater for the topside processes such as water injection and for the accommodation quarters.. These pumps were manufactured, tested and commissioned by RP India and designed by RP Specialists in México combining specialized analysis and the latest software technology. The pumps are designed to meet the very specific needs of the offshore industry and operate according to DNV Marine Class Certification.. The package is located in the sea chest of the FPSO Cyrus. This vessel has a storage capacity of 600,000 barrels and utilizes a tri-fuel (gas, crude oil and heavy fuel oil) fired ...
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The ability to collect uranium from seawater offers the potential for a long-term green fuel supply for nuclear energy. However, extraction of uranium, and other trace minerals, is challenging due to the high ionic strength and low mineral concentrations in seawater. Herein we evaluate the use of nanostructured metal oxide sorbents for the collection and recovery of uranium from seawater. Chemical affinity, chemical adsorption capacity and kinetics of preferred sorbent materials were evaluated. High surface area manganese and iron oxide nanomaterials showed excellent performance for uranium collection from seawater. Inexpensive nontoxic carbonate solutions were demonstrated to be an effective and environmental benign method of stripping the uranium from the metal oxide sorbents. Various formats for the utilization of the nanostructured metals oxide sorbent materials are discussed including traditional and nontraditional methods such as magnetic separation. Keywords: Uranium, nano, manganese, ...
Several investigations have recently considered the possible impacts of climate change and seawater level rise on seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers. All have revealed the severity of the problem and the significance of the landward movement of the dispersion zone under the condition of seawater …
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January 16, 2018 , Four students from Tel Aviv University won first place in the Accenture Israels Universities Competition, according to a statement from the company. The first place winners, Gal Meshulam-Lautker of the Faculty of Law and Economics, Mahmoud Meidlij of the Faculty of Accounting and Economics, Matan Marudi studying Industrial Engineering and Management, and Sari Kader of the Department of East Asia and Japan, proposed an interactive virtual store and built a VR-based digital strategy to implement the idea. The students have won a one month at the Herzeliya-based Accenture office, with a stipend, that could potentially lead to a job offer, as was the case with winners from last years competition. As part of the competition, Accenture presented students with a business problem the company has deal with in the past - to build a strategic plan for a toy company interested in conquering the digital sales market. The teams were asked to propose solutions and methods of action ...
As humans release more and more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, the gas is dissolving into the ocean, making seawater more acidic. This threatens the growth and survival of animals such as some corals and snails, whose skeletons and shells may become thinner under more acidic conditions.. But ocean acidification can have more subtle consequences, such as affecting animal behavior and the relationships between predators and prey. Researchers in Senior Scientist Jim Barrys lab at MBARI have been studying these effects in the institutes state-of-the-art seawater lab. They recently published a paper showing how ocean acidification makes some snails more susceptible to being eaten by invasive (and predatory) green crabs.. The study, published in early May 2019 in the journal Marine Ecology Progress Series, involved placing green crabs in containers with three different species of marine snails, and exposing the animals to seawater at different temperatures and levels of acidity. The idea was to ...
Investigations of the compositions of microbial communities are important steps in understanding the role of bacterial and archaeal populations in biogeochemical processes. Due to poor culturability of natural bacteria, particularly anaerobic bacteria, we used molecular approaches based on rDNA sequences to investigate microbial community structure in the anoxic Cariaco Basin. However, we caution that the 16S rDNA library strategy for sequence retrieval contains several sources of potential bias. A bias caused by the reannealing kinetics of product molecules can skew gene frequencies when PCR product concentrations exceed threshold values (39). Another important potential bias is that organisms belonging to the domain Archaea have been found to have only one or a few gene copies of the 16S rRNA gene, while members of the domain Bacteria can have from one to seven or more copies, which may bias amplification towards theBacteria (26). Therefore, the frequency of rDNA clones should be regarded as ...
Pseudohaliea rubra strain DSM 19751 ᵀ is an aerobic marine gammaproteobacterium that was isolated from surface coastal seawater of the Mediterranean Sea. Here, we present its genome sequence and annotation. Genome analysis revealed the presence of genes involved in the synthesis of bacteriochlorophyll- a and the reserve compound glycogen ...
The Chilean region of Aysén has 19 fishing coves operated by artisanal fishermen who depend on fish -sea urchin in northern Aysén, southern hake and other species in central Aysén- for their livelihoods. The conservation status of these resources and the precarious existence led by the fishermen are a cause for concern.. The climate crisis has raised seawater temperatures, causing changes in marine wildlife. We do not know for certain how ocean resources are faring in the face of such abrupt shifts.. These circumstances call for new technologies enabling fishermen to actively monitor their fisheries management zones; for example, for seawater temperature, a factor that directly impacts fish behavior. This would improve fishing opportunities and sustainable resource management by artisanal fishermen. In addition, the region can make a valuable contribution to marine research. Because of its subantarctic influence, scientists regard Aysén as highly suitable for the study of biodiversity and ...
Seawater Greenhouse has developed horticultural solutions for some of the most arid of conditions by utilising two abundant resources - sunshine and seawater - to grow crops in hot and desert environments. Through a method of desalination, these completely solar-powered greenhouse operations use saltwater - piped directly from the sea into wells - to create ideal growing…
The Black Sea is the largest anoxic water basin on Earth and its stratified water column comprises an upper oxic, middle suboxic and a lower permanently anoxic, sulfidic zone. The abundance of sulfatereducing bacteria (SRB) in water samples was determined by quantifying the copy number of the dsrA gene coding for the alpha subunit of the dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The dsrA gene was detected throughout the whole suboxic and anoxic zones. The maximum dsrA copy numbers were 5 ¥ 102 and 6.3 ¥ 102 copies ml-1 at 95 m in the suboxic and at 150 m in the upper anoxic zone, respectively. The proportion of SRB to total Bacteria was 0.1% in the oxic, 0.8-1.9% in the suboxic and 1.2-4.7% in the anoxic zone. A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA clones showed that most clones from the anoxic zone formed a coherent cluster within the Desulfonema-Desulfosarcina group. A similar depth profile as for dsrA copy numbers was obtained for the concentration of ...
According to FAO estimates, by 2025 nearly 2 billion people may not have enough drinking water to satisfy their daily needs. One of the possible solutions to this problem is desalination, namely treating seawater to make it drinkable. However, removing salt from seawater requires 10 to 1000 times more energy than traditional methods of freshwater supply, namely pumping water from rivers or wells.. Motivated by this problem, a team of engineers from the Department of Energy of Politecnico di Torino has devised a new prototype to desalinate seawater in a sustainable and low-cost way, using solar energy more efficiently. Compared to previous solutions, the developed technology is in fact able to double the amount of water produced at given solar energy, and it may be subject to further efficiency improvement in the near future. The group of young researchers who recently published these results in the journal Nature Sustainability is composed of Eliodoro Chiavazzo, Matteo Morciano, Francesca ...
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Abstract. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) are ubiquitous organic pollutants derived from pesticide application. They are subject to long-range transport, persistent in the environment, and capable of accumulation in biota. Shipboard measurements of HCH isomers (α-, γ- and β-HCH) in surface seawater and boundary layer atmospheric samples were conducted in the Atlantic and the Southern Ocean in October to December of 2008. ΣHCHs concentrations (the sum of α-, γ- and β-HCH) in the lower atmosphere ranged from 12 to 37 pg m−3 (mean: 27 ± 11 pg m−3) in the Northern Hemisphere (NH), and from 1.5 to 4.0 pg m−3 (mean: 2.8 ± 1.1 pg m−3) in the Southern Hemisphere (SH), respectively. Water concentrations were: α-HCH 0.33-47 pg l−1, γ-HCH 0.02-33 pg l−1 and β-HCH 0.11-9.5 pg l−1. Dissolved HCH concentrations decreased from the North Atlantic to the Southern Ocean, indicating historical use of HCHs in the NH. Spatial distribution showed increasing concentrations from the equator ...
Seawater is probably the most common aqueous salt solution. Not only is it encountered in marine transportation and offshore oil rigs, but it is also used as a coolant in coastal facilities. Listed are data generated as part of a U.S. Navy study at the LaQue Laboratories in Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina (and published by D.M. Aylor et al, Paper No. 329, CORROSION 99, NACE International, 1999). Crevice tests were performed in both still (quiescent) and flowing seawater, at 29°C, plus or minus 3°C. Two samples (A & B) of each alloy were tested in still water for 180 days, and likewise in flowing water. Each sample contained two possible crevice sites. The results indicate that C-22® alloy is very resistant to crevice corrosion in seawater.. ...
Scientists from the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) demonstrated a fuel they created from seawater could power an off-the-shelf internal combustion engine. A radio controlled P-51 Mustang modelled after the famous Red Tailed Tuskegee Squadron was flown using the lab created fuel without any modifications to the planes engine.. The fuel is the combination of two NRL projects. The first is uses an electrolytic cation exchange module that removes CO2 from seawater. Seawater contains a lot more carbon than air - nearly 140 times as much. Most of this carbon is in the form of bicarbonate with smaller amounts carbonate and carbonic acid. The NRL process converts the carbonate and bicarbonate into carbon dioxide and hydrogen gas.. The second project uses CO2 and hydrogen gases to synthesize hydrocarbon liquids. This project is a two step process. The first step creates unsaturated hydrocarbon olefins from the gases using an iron catalyst. The second step polymerizes the olefins into into the ...
Effect of Surface Charging on the SIMS Depth Profile of Bismuth Titanate Thin Film SIMS;bismuth titanate;FRAM;charging effect;depth profile; The effect of SIMS analysis conditions such as mesh grid, offset voltage and ion species on the in-depth profile for bismuth titanate thin film was examined in terms of charging effect and detection limit. The results shows that the use of offset voltage -40 V reduces the charging effect and the detection limit. The employment of mesh grid in sample preparation leads to the reduction of the charging effect in small amount, but deteriorate the detection limit. Utilization of primary $O^-$ ion for SIMS analysis of bismuth titanate thin film showed almost the same effect as using offset voltage -40 V. However, it takes approximately triple acquisition time than using $O_2{^+}$ ion due to the poor beam current of the source in the experiment.
New Orleans, La. - The 2013 Arthur D. Smith Endourology Lectureship has been awarded to Thomas Knoll, MD, Associate Professor of Urology at University Medical Center Mannheim and the head of the Department of Urology at the Sindelfingen Medical center of the University of Tuebingen, Germany.. Dr. Knoll was presented the award, commonly known as the Arthur award, today at the World Congress of Endourology (WCE) annual meeting in New Orleans. Knoll received the Arthur award for his extensive scientific and clinical work on the interventional treatment of urolithiasis and benign hyperplasia. Knoll recently performed a large study on the pathogenesis and prevention of calcium oxalate and cystine stone formation.. ...
A seawater greenhouse is a greenhouse structure that enables the growth of crops in arid regions, using seawater and solar energy. The technique involves pumping seawater (or allowing it to gravitate if below sea level) to an arid location and then subjecting it to two processes: first, it is used t...
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Management strategies use information provided by research and tools that can be used to make sound decisions to effectively conserve marine resources. Baseline research about organism and community sensitivity to ocean acidification is incorporated into these strategies, in an effort to sustain these resources for the future. Before management plans can be created it is necessary to have baseline research about the effects of ocean acidification on marine resources, such as Pacific oysters, Dungeness crabs and rockfish. The OAP funds NOAA Fisheries Science Centers to expose various life stages of valuable species to present and future acidification conditions. The biological response research is then incorporated into models that can be used to create tools for managers to use so that they can test different scenarios on species populations and habitats. Modeling efforts led by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution are now being used to produce one of these tools for Atlantic sea scallop ...
Watering Tomato Plants With Diluted Seawater Boosts Levels Of AntioxidantsWatering tomato plants with diluted seawater boosts ... This Seawater Is 20,000 Years Old, and Has Remained Untouched Since the Last Ice Age. 05/27/2019 5:50:07 AM PDT · by BenLurkin ... Can making seawater drinkable quench the worlds thirst?. 10/13/2015 6:36:11 AM PDT · by moose07 · 26 replies BBC ^ , 13 ... Antarctic sea water shows no sign of warming. 01/12/2010 10:06:41 AM PST · by Signalman · 3 replies · 483+ views The ...
SEA-WATER INJECTIONS. Br Med J 1911; 2 doi: (Published 21 October 1911) Cite this as: ...
A new company is claiming to have solved the problem of hydrogen production from seawater, but offers little in the way of ...
... Experts weigh in on whats holding desalination back. ... This method wastes much less energy than earlier desalination techniques, such as heating seawater and harvesting fresh water ...
Collecting Sea Water Samples Photo , 14 September, 2011 zoom May 2011. Supported by the Rainbow Warrior, Greenpeace experts ...
sea water. SC refuses to stop fuel loading in Kundankulam plant. September 13th, 2012 - 5:01 pm ICT by IANS. New Delhi, Sep 13 ... Sea water off Kukushima has high level of radioactive iodine. March 24th, 2011 - 5:20 pm ICT by IANS. Moscow, March 24 (IANS/ ... Radioactive iodine 4,385 times legal limit found in sea water near Fukushima nuke plant. March 31st, 2011 - 6:56 pm ICT by ANI ... Radioactive iodine 3,355 times legal limit found in sea water near Fukushima nuke plant. March 30th, 2011 - 4:46 pm ICT by ANI ...
Sea water and cameras dont mix. The Wonder List with Bill Weir. The Wonder Lists Philip Bloom was looking for endangered ... Sea water and cameras dont mix. The Wonder Lists Philip Bloom was looking for endangered wildlife in Galapagos when he ...
Nuclear fuel made with uranium extracted from seawater would make nuclear power as renewable as solar, hydro and wind. ... Department of Energy laboratories have put removing uranium from seawater within economic reach. ... The hurdle is making it economic to extract uranium from seawater, because the amount of uranium in seawater is truly ... Its not just that the 4 billion tons of uranium in seawater now would fuel a thousand 1,000-MW nuclear power plants for a ...
... using acrylic fibers to extract it from seawater. Matthew Stock reports.} ... Scientists extract uranium powder from seawater. Tuesday, August 14, 2018 - 01:49 ... Scientists extract uranium powder from seawater. Tuesday, August 14, 2018 - 01:49 ... using acrylic fibers to extract it from seawater. Matthew Stock reports. ...
Artificial sea-water 1 100 98Artificial sea-water 2 99 99Natural sea-water 100 98Control (a) 95 0 ... The artificial sea-water according to the present invention, when compared with these conventional artificial sea-waters, is ... A fundamental artificial sea-water with composition close to the aforementioned major elemental composition of the natural sea- ... As a result, as shown in Table 4, the three artificial sea-waters examined were equivalent to the natural sea-waters far as the ...
Sea Water is water obtained from the sea or from inland bodies of salt water. ...
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The temperature of the seawater around Antarctica is rising according to new University of East Anglia research. New findings ... Antarctic seawater temperatures rising. University of East Anglia. Journal. Science. Funder. Natural Environment Research ... The temperature of the seawater around Antarctica is rising according to new research from the University of East Anglia. ... There are other implications of higher seawater temperatures around Antarctica. Ocean biodiversity could also be affected - for ...
Sea water pumps pollutants into coastal aquifers. 17 May 2003 By Nicola Jones ...
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I live in mexico city (almost 20 million of people live here) the problem of water is so big, seawater desalination is not the ... Water removed from the air will not impact the environment as the use of sea water or tap water will, since the contaminants ... Ocean desalination-a process that converts seawater into drinking water-is being hailed as the solution to water supply ...
In this article: green, hydrogen, hydrogen fuel, renewable energy, saltwater, seawater, stanford university, tomorrow ... Scientists can turn regular seawater into hydrogen fuel. The ocean may soon be a valuable source of renewable energy. ... What happens without the nickel coating? The water-splitting device lasts roughly 12 hours, unable to withstand seawater ...
Medical use of sea water in Nicaragua". Drinking Sea Water. ISBN 979-8666741658. "Medical use of sea water in Nicaragua". ... Seawater pH is limited to the range 7.5 to 8.4. The speed of sound in seawater is about 1,500 m/s (whereas speed of sound is ... Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean. On average, seawater in the worlds oceans has a salinity of about 3.5 ... Brines generated by seawater desalination plants can have salinities up to 120 g/kg. The density of typical seawater brine of ...
South Korea plans to meet demand for lithium batteries in electronics by extracting the rare metal from seawater, according to ... South Korea plans to extract lithium from seawater. South Korea plans to meet demand for lithium batteries in electronics by ... As electronics proliferate around the world, South Korea plans to meet demand by extracting lithium from seawater, according to ... the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources has developed technology to draw lithium from sea water, the second ...
Chennai has this vast coastline and implementing a sea water desalination system like in Israel would help provide a long term ...
The Microsoft founder recently announced plans to invest $300,000 in research into machines that suck up seawater and spray it ... Part of that research included lab tests on machines that suck up seawater and spray it into the air, seeding white clouds that ... Part of that research included lab tests on machines that suck up seawater and spray it into the air, seeding white clouds that ... Part of that research included lab tests on machines that suck up seawater and spray it into the air, seeding white clouds that ...
But now that the basic recipe is figured out for electrolysis with seawater, the new method will open doors for increasing the ... Dai and his team wanted to find a way to stop those seawater components from breaking down the submerged anodes. ... Without the negatively charged coating, the anode only works for around 12 hours in seawater, according to Michael Kenney, a ... Stanford researchers create hydrogen fuel from seawater. Splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen presents an alternative to ...
... the door of Americas new largest seawater desalination plant opened to journalists, elected officials and the public. ... Revealed: Largest Seawater Desalination Plant in America. Michelle Moons/Breitbart News. Michelle Moons. 15 Dec 2015. Carlsbad ... The brine portion left over at the plant is diluted with more seawater to achieve what has been deemed an acceptable level of ... From each two gallons of seawater, one gallon of drinking water and one gallon of highly concentrated salt water or "brine" is ...
Hydrolysis of explosives in sea water. *Authors. *Authors and affiliations. *John C. Hoffsommer ...
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December 24th 2015 , International Solidarity Movement, Gaza Team , Gaza, occupied Palestine During recent months the subsidence of the land along the Egyptian border have become a great danger for the population of Rafah. This is due .... Read More » ...
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Purchase CO2 in Seawater: Equilibrium, Kinetics, Isotopes, Volume 65 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780444509468, ... CO2 in Seawater: Equilibrium, Kinetics, Isotopes, Volume 65 1st Edition. 0 star rating Write a review ... The key for understanding critical processes of the marine carbon cycle is a sound knowledge of the seawater carbonate ... It also deals with the nonequilibrium properties of the seawater carbonate chemistry. Whereas principle of chemical kinetics ...
  • Now, thanks to new technologies, costs have been halved and huge desalination plants are opening around the world.The largest seawater desalination plant ever, Israel's Sorek plant near Tel Aviv, just ramped up to full production. (
  • CARLSBAD, CA - On Monday, the door of America's new largest seawater desalination plant opened to journalists, elected officials and the public with the lofty promise of helping to solve California's drought distress. (
  • The Americas' largest seawater desalination plant in Carlsbad, Calif., will help determine the future of seawater desalination in the US. (
  • CARLSBAD, Calif. - There's far more riding on the Americas' largest seawater desalination plant than the 50 million gallons of drinking water it will produce for the San Diego area each day. (
  • Once the water is cleared of an acceptable level of impurities it is run through the highly technical "reverse osmosis" process to remove salt from the seawater. (
  • As most of the plants for seawater desalination are relying on reverse osmosis, and they are dumping all separated salts back into the seas, consequently the salinity of seas increased dramatically. (
  • A worker climbs stairs among some of the 2,000 pressure vessels that will be used to convert seawater into fresh water through reverse osmosis in the western hemisphere's largest desalination plant in Carlsbad, Calif. (
  • Current desal methods - which either employ reverse osmosis to push high-pressure seawater through salt-extracting membranes, or electrodialysis to pull ions out of water using electricity - require a great deal of power. (
  • Poseidon's reverse osmosis system isn't the only option for seawater desalination. (
  • Diluting seawater makes our feed for reverse osmosis very energy efficient, why? (
  • So if you have diluted seawater, which is something equivalent to brackish water, let's say, then the energy required for reverse osmosis is much, much, less. (
  • Gary Gill, deputy director of PNNL's Coastal Sciences Division who coordinated the marine testing, noted, "Understanding how the adsorbents perform under natural seawater conditions is critical to reliably assessing how well the uranium adsorbent materials work. (
  • This marine testing shows that these new fibers had the capacity to hold 6 grams of uranium per kilogram of adsorbent in only about 50 days in natural seawater. (
  • However, there are situations in which the collection of the natural sea-water is disturbed due to rough weather or in which it is difficult to obtain the natural seawater due to the remoteness of the location form the sea. (
  • Natural Seawater Desalination is a new process imitating the natural process for generating pure rain water from sea water. (
  • The effects of various alkaline conditioning parameters such as the type of alkaline reagent, reaction temperature, and reaction time were investigated with respect to uranium adsorption capacity from simulated seawater (spiked with 8 ppm uranium) and natural seawater (from Sequim Bay, WA). (
  • NasalAsalt All-Natural Seawater (spray) Nasal and Sinus Health, Inc. (
  • When there is a drought, local officials and enterprises all come to see us and say, 'We want to desalinate seawater,'" says Wang Zhi, director of the Key Laboratory of Membrane Science and Desalination Technology at Tianjin University. (
  • TNO had earlier developed a method, the Memstill® technology, to desalinate seawater using membranes and extract pure drinking water from it. (
  • Saadeh, M. and Wakim, E. (2017) Deterioration of Groundwater in Beirut Due to Seawater Intrusion. (
  • Historically, several salinity scales were used to approximate the absolute salinity of seawater. (
  • Red Sea's Seawater Refractometer offers exceptional accuracy, for measuring the absolute salinity of seawater at a temperature of 25C/77F Most refract. (
  • Red Sea's Seawater Refractometer offers exceptional accuracy, for measuring the absolute salinity of seawater at a temperature of 25C/77F Most refractometers used within the aquarium hobby are not specifically designed for reef aquariums and use an algorithm for the measurement of brine (NaCl - rather than seawater) and at a temperature of 15C/59F rather than 25C/77F. (
  • Situated on Montauk's most pristine stretch of oceanfront real estate, Gurney's Montauk Resort & Seawater Spa is a Hampton's icon and the only four-season resort in Montauk. (
  • Gurney's Montauk Resort & Seawater Spas features 109 rooms, suites and beachfront cottages, each with dramatic ocean views. (
  • The rooms, suites, and cottages at Gurney's Montauk Resort & Seawater Spa deliver an unparalleled blend of upscale, residential sophistication and casual, beachside comfort. (
  • No rentals available for Gurney's Montauk Resort & Seawater Spa . (
  • Acidification occurs when oceans absorb more carbon dioxide from the air, altering seawater chemistry. (
  • The key for understanding critical processes of the marine carbon cycle is a sound knowledge of the seawater carbonate chemistry, including equilibrium and nonequilibrium properties as well as stable isotope fractionation. (
  • It also deals with the nonequilibrium properties of the seawater carbonate chemistry. (
  • I want to get the latest chemistry news from C&EN in my inbox every week. (
  • Unfortunately, these natural sinks aren't equipped to handle the high levels of gases humans generate, and when oceans absorb a large amount of CO 2 -, the gas changes the chemistry of the seawater so that the natural weathering of rocks can't balance acidification. (
  • A scientist who studies ocean species to develop adhesives is now looking at the changing chemistry of seawater to see how it may affect the ability of mussels to adhere to their surroundings. (
  • Seawater chemistry is characterized by long phases of stability, which are interrupted by short intervals of rapid change,' says geoscientist Ulrich Wortmann of the University of Toronto, lead author of a paper reporting the results and published this week in the journal Science . (
  • When India and Eurasia collided, it caused dissolution of ancient salt deposits, which resulted in drastic changes in seawater chemistry. (
  • Abrupt changes in seawater composition are a new twist in our understanding of the links among ocean chemistry, plate tectonics, climate and evolution,' says Candace Major, program director in NSF's Division of Ocean Sciences. (
  • While it's been known for a long time that gypsum deposits can be formed and destroyed rapidly, the effect of these processes on seawater chemistry has been overlooked,' says Wortmann. (
  • Space shuttle view of Earth's 'gypsum belt,' which likely changed seawater chemistry. (
  • Scientists, including those from Northeastern University in the U.S., developed carbon nanotube pores that can exclude salt from seawater. (
  • Scientists say they have created five grams of yellowcake - a powdered form of uranium used to produce fuel for nuclear power production - using acrylic fibers to extract it from seawater. (
  • Ever since an unusually warm mass of seawater began spreading along the Pacific Coast of North America a year ago - wreaking havoc on the marine food chain - scientists have struggled to explain its presence. (
  • Seawater includes uranium in low concentrations but great quantities, and many scientists see it as a key to meeting the world's future energy needs through nuclear power. (
  • Scientists have tried to extract uranium from seawater since the 1960s, Rogers noted. (
  • Scientists have long known that uranium dissolved in seawater combines chemically with oxygen to form uranyl ions with a positive charge. (
  • To counteract the overwhelmed oceans, scientists are proposing adding lime to seawater to boost the sink's efficiency. (
  • Washington (AFP) - The US Navy believes it has finally worked out the solution to a problem that has intrigued scientists for decades: how to take seawater and use it as fuel. (
  • The scientists have developed four scenarios that describe how the seawater levels will change on a regional scale within 100 years. (
  • Over a 10-year period, NOAA scientists have collected 72,000 seawater samples, and their data show that the ocean is becoming more acidic because of climate change . (
  • They found that seawater sulfate reflects huge changes in the accumulation and weathering of gypsum, which is the mineral form of hydrated calcium sulfate. (
  • Researchers have found that seawater can replace freshwater to produce the sustainable fuel Bioethanol, reducing the need to drain precious resources. (
  • The hurdle is making it economic to extract uranium from seawater, because the amount of uranium in seawater is truly inexhaustible. (
  • It's not just that the 4 billion tons of uranium in seawater now would fuel a thousand 1,000-MW nuclear power plants for a 100,000 years. (
  • December 17, 2015 - An ultra-high-resolution technique used for the first time to study polymer fibers that trap uranium in seawater may cause researchers to rethink the best methods to harvest this potential fuel for nuclear reactors. (
  • A new company is claiming to have solved the problem of hydrogen production from seawater, but offers little in the way of concrete evidence. (
  • This means that every kilogram (roughly one liter by volume) of seawater has approximately 35 grams (1.2 oz) of dissolved salts (predominantly sodium (Na+ ) and chloride (Cl− ) ions). (
  • Seawater contains more dissolved ions than all types of freshwater. (
  • For instance, although seawater contains about 2.8 times more bicarbonate than river water, the percentage of bicarbonate in seawater as a ratio of all dissolved ions is far lower than in river water. (
  • Bicarbonate ions constitute 48% of river water solutes but only 0.14% for seawater. (
  • The most abundant dissolved ions in seawater are sodium, chloride, magnesium, sulfate and calcium. (
  • Extracting these uranyl ions involves dipping plastic fibers containing a compound called amidoxime into seawater. (
  • In the new paper, the researchers show that in the presence of alkali metal ions such as sodium -- for example, in seawater -- these clusters are stable enough to persist in solution or as small particles even when the oxidizing agent is removed. (
  • fibers able to economically extract uranium from seawater. (
  • Trace amounts of uranium exist in seawater, but efforts to extract that critical ingredient for nuclear power have produced insufficient quantities to make it a viable source for those countries that lack uranium mines. (
  • Even as researchers work to improve reactor safety and solve the waste disposal issues, he believes that a practical way to extract uranium from seawater is needed to reduce the energy insecurity of nations that depend on nuclear power but lack uranium within their own borders. (
  • US experts have found out how to extract carbon dioxide and hydrogen gas from seawater. (
  • The machines, developed by a San Francisco-based research group called Silver Lining, turn seawater into tiny particles that can be shot up over 3,000 feet in the air. (
  • In the end, they decided to build a desalination facility to turn seawater into drinking water. (
  • The system uses seawater and solar energy. (
  • The overall process could be significantly less expensive and more efficient than any conventional magnesium extraction method available today and uses seawater as an abundant, free resource. (
  • A seawater greenhouse is a greenhouse structure that enables the growth of crops and the production of fresh water in arid regions which constitute about one third of the earth's land area. (
  • A Stanford-led team has now developed a way to harness seawater - Earth's most abundant source - for chemical energy. (
  • Despite the planet being made up of 70 percent water, almost all of this water is seawater (Seawater makes up 97.3 percent of the Earth's water) and people cannot drink water from the sea. (
  • Desalination - the process of obtaining freshwater from the earth's vast reserves of seawater - is the obvious answer. (
  • Seawater tends to corrode water-splitting systems. (
  • But negatively charged chloride in seawater salt can corrode the positive end, limiting the system's lifespan. (
  • But Navrotsky and others have since discovered a new way in which seawater can corrode nuclear fuel, forming uranium compounds that could potentially travel long distances, either in solution or as very small particles. (
  • But now that the basic recipe is figured out for electrolysis with seawater, the new method will open doors for increasing the availability of hydrogen fuel powered by solar or wind energy. (
  • Could Seawater Solve the Freshwater Crisis? (
  • The third pilot seawater greenhouse, which is 864 m2, is near Muscat in Oman which produces 0.3 to 0.6 m3 of freshwater per day. (
  • A seawater greenhouse uses the surrounding environment to grow temperate crops and produce freshwater. (
  • Desalination plant means we are making freshwater from seawater and here, as you can see, we are in front of red sea water. (
  • Seawater is a freely available and plentiful resource, and contains a spectrum of minerals, some of which have to be added to freshwater. (
  • The fermentation process using seawater also produces salt and freshwater as bi-products adding to economic benefits of the process. (
  • The encroaching seawater will encounter an area known as the zone of dispersion, where the freshwater and seawater mix and form a broad interface. (
  • Researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory exposed this special uranium-sorbing fiber developed at ORNL to Pseudomonas fluorescens and used the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory to create a 3-D X-ray microtomograph to determine microstructure and the effects of interactions with organisms and seawater. (
  • Specifically, this latest technology builds on work by researchers in Japan and uses polyethylene fibers coated with amidoxime to pull in and bind uranium dioxide from seawater (see figure above). (
  • But researchers at Penn State think they've solved the problem by creating a process that cleans wastewater while generating electricity, simultaneously removing 90 percent of salt from seawater. (
  • In an effort to better understand those cycles, John L. Loeb Associate Professor of the Natural Sciences David Johnston, Ph.D. student Andrew Masterson, and research assistant Erin Beirne worked with colleagues to develop a tool to measure levels of seawater sulfate in situ , giving researchers a clearer picture of how much sulfur cycling is taking place in oxygen minimum zones. (
  • To make the discovery, the researchers combined past seawater sulfur composition data collected by Paytan with Wortmann's recent discovery of the strong link between marine sulfate concentrations and carbon and phosphorus cycling. (
  • The study - ' The establishment of a marine focused biorefinery for bioethanol production using seawater and a novel marine yeast strain ' - has been published in Scientific Reports and was carried out by researchers at the University of Nottingham. (
  • On average, seawater in the world's oceans has a salinity of about 3.5% (35 g/l, 35 ppt, 599 mM). (
  • At typical salinity, it freezes at about −2 °C (28 °F). The coldest seawater still in the liquid state ever recorded was found in 2010, in a stream under an Antarctic glacier: the measured temperature was −2.6 °C (27.3 °F). Seawater pH is typically limited to a range between 7.5 and 8.4. (
  • Although the vast majority of seawater has a salinity of between 31 g/kg and 38 g/kg, that is 3.1-3.8%, seawater is not uniformly saline throughout the world. (
  • The density of surface seawater ranges from about 1020 to 1029 kg/m3, depending on the temperature and salinity. (
  • At a temperature of 25 °C, salinity of 35 g/kg and 1 atm pressure, the density of seawater is 1023.6 kg/m3. (
  • The density of seawater also changes with salinity. (
  • The density of typical seawater brine of 120 g/kg salinity at 25 °C and atmospheric pressure is 1088 kg/m3. (
  • The speed of sound in seawater is about 1,500 m/s (whereas speed of sound is usually around 330 m/s in air at roughly 101.3kPa pressure, 1 atmosphere), and varies with water temperature, salinity, and pressure. (
  • The thermal conductivity of seawater is 0.6 W/mK at 25 °C and a salinity of 35 g/kg. (
  • 1) Seawater is indeed about the same salinity as 2 tablespoons of salt per quart. (
  • This edition of the Industrial Bioprocessing TOE features trends and innovations in production of bioplastic for packaging applications and seawater fermentation process enabling to reduce water footprint in bioethanol production. (
  • Marine fermentation is the approach where seawater,marine biomass and marine microorganisms are used in the fermentation process. (
  • Despite the low concentration of uranium and the presence of many other metals extracted from seawater, we were able to investigate the local atomic environment around uranium and better understand how it is bound by the polymer fibers," Abney said. (
  • Surprisingly, the spectrum for the seawater-contacted polymer fibers was distinctly different from what was expected based on small molecule and computational investigations. (
  • This illustrative video shows the seawater desalination process in action. (
  • In seawater, amidoxime attracts and binds uranium dioxide to the surface of the fiber braids, which can be on the order of 15 centimeters in diameter and run multiple meters in length depending on where they are deployed (see figure below). (
  • Postdoctoral scholar Chong Liu examines a carbon-amidoxime electrode as part of research to improve extraction of uranium from seawater. (
  • What's more, the electrified fiber captured three times as much uranyl during an 11-hour test using seawater from Half Moon Bay, about an hour from Stanford, and had three times the useful lifespan of the standard amidoxime. (
  • Alkaline conditioning of the amidoxime based adsorbents is a significant step in the preparation of the adsorbent for uranium uptake from seawater. (
  • Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean. (
  • The freezing point of seawater decreases as salt concentration increases. (
  • From each two gallons of seawater, one gallon of drinking water and one gallon of highly concentrated salt water or "brine" is produced. (
  • This is because seawater contains salt. (
  • When humans drink seawater the body cells are take in water and salt, with the salt at a very high concentration and this level of sodium would be deadly if it was consumed regularly. (
  • This means that to get rid of all the excess salt taken in by drinking seawater the kidneys would need to take existing water from the body. (
  • Provided the holes are less-than-one-nanometre in size, seawater can pass through and salt are retained, producing clean water . (
  • Today's methods are energy intensive and expensive because the magnesium concentration in seawater is so low that significant energy is needed to evaporate off water and precipitate magnesium chloride salt. (
  • Each seawater has it's own osmotic pressure depending on the concentration of salt. (
  • How much salt in seawater? (
  • What would the correct proportions of salt to water be to get that seawater -21 C freezing temperature? (
  • Apparatus for seawater acidification including an ion exchange, cathode and anode electrode compartments and cation-permeable membranes that separate the electrode compartments from the ion exchange compartment. (
  • Their results showed that seawater can be used in Bioethanol production along with a new strain of marine based yeast. (
  • The Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology Tuesday announced that it has developed the world s first next generation seawater distillation technology that allows consumable water to be produced in low temperatures and under low pressure, which increases energy efficiency and production capacity. (
  • Seawater is denser than both fresh water and pure water (density 1.0 kg/l at 4 °C (39 °F)) because the dissolved salts increase the mass by a larger proportion than the volume. (
  • This method wastes much less energy than earlier desalination techniques, such as heating seawater and harvesting fresh water from the steam. (
  • The seawater greenhouse evaporates 50 m3 of seawater and harvests 5 m3 of fresh water per hectare per day. (
  • A simple seawater greenhouse consists of two evaporative coolers (evaporators), a condenser, fans, seawater and distilled water pipes and crops in between the two evaporators. (
  • A SWAC system consists of a cold seawater supply pipe (intake), a pumping unit and heat exchanger (at the shoreline), and a closed loop with fresh water distribution to cover cooling needs of each building connected through a secondary heat exchanger. (
  • Ocean desalination-a process that converts seawater into drinking water-is being hailed as the solution to water supply problems. (
  • The water-splitting device lasts roughly 12 hours, unable to withstand seawater corrosion. (
  • To add to the company's array of desalination solutions , Fluence's water experts have designed a family of pre-engineered building blocks that can be assembled into cost-effective seawater desalination systems that match any water sourcing need. (
  • This process does not consume any energy while separating pure water from seawater. (
  • Santa Barbara has completed a $71 million reactivation of its seawater desalination plant to bolster its water supplies. (
  • Manchester - A graphene-based sieve has successfully turned seawater into drinking water. (
  • The use of seawater for industrial cooling is a vital technology that poses some of the most profound environmental impact on the water quality in the Arabian Gulf. (
  • Will Turning Seawater Into Drinking Water Help Drought-Hit California? (
  • In seawater, the slime deploys in less than a second entrapping large quantities of water by a well-timed thread skein unravelling and mucous gel swelling. (
  • Seawater is water from a sea or ocean . (
  • The site of a seawater desalination plant that could provide up to one-third of the water consumed by Beijing's households lies about 200 kilometers southeast of the parched Chinese capital. (
  • Indeed, the demand for seawater desalination grows and wanes as the levels of local surface water and groundwater fluctuate from year to year, putting future projects on hold. (
  • The rapid development of the entire seawater desalination industry in China will not happen unless most of the desalinated seawater can enter municipal water supplies," says Fan Zhifeng, senior engineer of the seawater desalination division at Shanghai Electric. (
  • For northern China, the South-North Water Diversion Project has made seawater desalination seem less urgent. (
  • Corpus Christi was one of the first cities where seawater desalination feasibility studies were conducted by the water development board in 2002. (
  • In a statement, the water development board said the funding would help the city continue development conducting planning tasks related to seawater desalination, such as plant site selection, source water characterization, and economic impact and cost modeling. (
  • building a brackish water desalination plant is usually cheaper than a seawater desalination plant because brackish water is generally cleaner and contains less total dissolved salts. (
  • The state later created a water plan that included seawater desalination as a water management strategy. (
  • It calls for seawater desalination to produce about 116,000 acre-feet of new water supply per year by 2070. (
  • So we need pressure to pressurise seawater much above 30 bars in order to get this fresh water from the other side. (
  • So we put waste water in one side of the membrane and on the other side we put our sea water, So according to what I explained, what will happen is the dirty water, which is the wastewater, will start moving towards the seawater but this membrane only allows clean water to pass. (
  • Normally, seawater intrusion occurs in unconfined and confined coastal aquifers whenever the water table or piezometric head is inadvertently lowered through excessive pumping. (
  • This can cause lateral intrusion (from the ocean due to excessive water withdrawals from coastal aquifers) as well as upcoming (from deeper seawater to pumping wells). (
  • The temperature of the seawater around Antarctica is rising according to new research from the University of East Anglia. (
  • Global Seawater Desalination Membrane Market 2016 Industry. (
  • Without the negatively charged coating, the anode only works for around 12 hours in seawater, according to Michael Kenney, a graduate student in the Dai lab and co-lead author on the paper. (
  • Means is provided for feeding seawater through the ion exchange compartment and for feeding a dissociable liquid media through the anode and cathode electrode compartments. (
  • Fabrication and structure of the dual-layer NiFe/NiS x -Ni foam (Ni 3 ) anode for seawater splitting. (
  • And previous ideas, such as pumping the seawater past an adsorbent and genetically engineering seaweed to absorb uranium, have all stalled. (
  • Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a radically new process to produce magnesium from seawater. (
  • This means that for every 1 liter (1000mL) of seawater there are 35 grams of dissolved salts (mostly, but not entirely, sodium chloride ). (
  • Hongjie Dai and his research lab at Stanford University have developed a prototype that can generate hydrogen fuel from seawater. (
  • Previous studies attempting to split seawater for hydrogen fuel had run low amounts of electric current, because corrosion occurs at higher currents. (
  • A prototype device used solar energy to create hydrogen fuel from seawater. (
  • Dorner and colleagues found that using the usual cobalt-based catalyst on seawater-derived CO 2 produced almost entirely methane gas. (
  • The findings, published March 18 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , demonstrate a new way of separating hydrogen and oxygen gas from seawater via electricity. (
  • But they also designed a solar-powered demonstration machine that produced hydrogen and oxygen gas from seawater collected from San Francisco Bay. (
  • The findings, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , demonstrate a new way of separating hydrogen and oxygen gas from seawater via electricity. (
  • What we've developed is an isotope tool - what we can do is measure the oxygen isotopic composition of seawater sulfate in these regions, and use that as a measurement to assess how much cycling is going on. (
  • New technological breakthroughs from DOE's Pacific Northwest (PNNL) and Oak Ridge (ORNL) national laboratories have made removing uranium from seawater within economic reach and the only question is - when will the source of uranium for our nuclear power plants change from mined ore to seawater extraction? (
  • A nice video of U extraction from seawater can be seen on the University of Tennessee Knoxville website . (
  • Seawater represents a virtually unlimited source of magnesium, which could supply worldwide demand for centuries given an economic and environmentally sound method for its extraction. (
  • Seawater extraction gives countries that don't have land-based uranium the security that comes from knowing they'll have the raw material to meet their energy needs. (
  • Chu, a former U.S. secretary of energy who encouraged seawater extraction research before he left the Department of Energy (DOE) to return to Stanford, observed that nuclear power currently generates 20 percent of U.S. electricity and 13 percent worldwide. (
  • Chu emphasized that research on seawater extraction has to proceed in parallel with reactor safety and waste disposal challenges. (
  • Now, an electrochemical method using modified carbon electrodes is shown to be promising for the extraction of uranium from seawater. (
  • article{osti_1361344, title = {Uranium extraction: Fuel from seawater}, author = {Tsouris, Costas and Oak Ridge National Lab. (
  • It is currently a 20 hectare seawater greenhouse owned and run by Sundrop Farms which has developed it further. (
  • Sundrop Farms CEO Philipp Saumweber, a former investment banker, says the agriculture model as "innovative" in that it harnesses only seawater and sunlight. (
  • Chlorination of seawater has shown significant increase in total THMs (TTHMs) and in bromoform concentrations. (
  • To accurately analyze phytoplankton growth, the Vernet lab has nutrient technician Lindsey Ekern measure the concentrations of these nutrients from all seawater samples, which includes the experimental cultures in the light van, CTD casts, trace-metal-clean Niskin casts, towfish deployments, and samples collected by the ROV. (
  • Lebanon's groundwater is contaminated by myriad sources, but none rivals that of seawater intrusion when it comes to the coastal aquifers of Beirut. (
  • These concurrent tensors have led to seawater replacing fresh groundwater in many wells of Beirut. (
  • The brine portion left over at the plant is diluted with more seawater to achieve what has been deemed an acceptable level of concentration for seawater. (
  • A new way of extracting uranium from seawater could help even countries without uranium mines harness nuclear power in the post-carbon energy future. (
  • Abney and colleagues plan to use this knowledge to design adsorbents that can harness the vast reserves of uranium dissolved in seawater. (
  • But Dai, Kenney and their colleagues were able to conduct up to 10 times more electricity through their multi-layer device, which helps it generate hydrogen from seawater at a faster rate. (
  • Seawater is heated in a thermal process, flashed into steam in a series of evaporation chambers and then condensed. (
  • The new plant takes in seawater through a 72-inch pipeline to the tune of 100 million gallons a day. (
  • Part of that research included lab tests on machines that suck up seawater and spray it into the air, seeding white clouds that reflect rays of sunlight away from Earth. (
  • In South Australia, sunlight + seawater = tomatoes. (
  • Nuclear fuel made with uranium extracted from seawater makes nuclear power completely renewable. (
  • Faced with global warming and potential oil shortages, the US navy is experimenting with making jet fuel from seawater. (
  • Navy chemists have processed seawater into unsaturated short-chain hydrocarbons that with further refining could be made into kerosene-based jet fuel. (
  • In order to ensure a sustainable reserve of fuel for nuclear power generation, tremendous research efforts have been devoted to developing advanced sorbent materials for extracting uranium from seawater. (
  • Japan used seawater to cool nuclear fuel at the stricken Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear plant after the tsunami in March 2011 -- and that was probably the best action to take at the time, says Professor Alexandra Navrotsky of the University of California, Davis. (
  • In other words, these clusters could form on the surface of a fuel rod exposed to seawater and then be transported away, surviving in the environment for months or years before reverting to more common forms of uranium, without peroxide, and settling to the bottom of the ocean. (
  • The predicted cost of jet fuel using the technology is in the range of three to six dollars per gallon, say experts at the US Naval Research Laboratory, who have already flown a model airplane with fuel produced from seawater. (
  • For the first time we've been able to develop a technology to get CO2 and hydrogen from seawater simultaneously, that's a big breakthrough," she said, adding that the fuel "doesn't look or smell very different. (
  • Developing a game-changing technology like this, seawater to fuel, really is something that reinvents a lot of the way we can do business when you think about logistics, readiness. (
  • The latest "German" Submarines before the end of the war were using seawater and peroxide as fuel, and were as efficient as if not more than nuclear according to Vladamir Terzisky, the Bulgarian born Engineer. (
  • Monsoon), seawater can be substantially less saline. (
  • SHAH ALAM: There have been no reports of overflowing of seawater along the Selangor coastline due to the high tide phenomenon which occurred early yesterday. (
  • While Texas' 367-mile coastline offers promise for seawater desalination, there isn't such a facility here yet. (
  • In the end, the report includes Seawater Desalination Membrane new project SWOT analysis, investment feasibility analysis, investment return analysis, and development trend analysis. (
  • Seeing a fairly direct correlation between seawater iron content and mussel adhesive performance provides us with ideas for designing new and robust synthetic materials," Wilker said. (
  • The Songdo Central Park, located in the newly built city 30 kilometer west of Seoul, has begun filling its canal with 85,500 tons of seawater, Gale International Korea, co-developer of the city, said in an emailed statement yesterday. (

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