Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Gills: Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Ostreidae: A family of marine mollusks in the class BIVALVIA, commonly known as oysters. They have a rough irregular shell closed by a single adductor muscle.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Rhodobacteraceae: A family in the order Rhodobacterales, class ALPHAPROTEOBACTERIA.Fundulidae: Family of small, surface-dwelling fish that inhabit fresh and brackish waters, and coastal marine areas.Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Flavobacteriaceae: A family of bacteria in the order Sphingobacteriales, class Sphingobacteria. They are gram-negative rods, mostly saprophytic in terrestrial and aquatic habitats.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.AnguillaPacific OceanCalcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Eels: Common name for an order (Anguilliformes) of voracious, elongate, snakelike teleost fishes.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Alphaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Salmo salar: A commercially important species of SALMON in the family SALMONIDAE, order SALMONIFORMES, which occurs in the North Atlantic.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Aquaculture: Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Heterotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Tilapia: A freshwater fish used as an experimental organism and for food. This genus of the family Cichlidae (CICHLIDS) inhabits Central and South America (one species extends north into Texas), West Indies, Africa, Madagascar, Syria, and coastal India.Mediterranean SeaPlankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Shellfish: Aquatic invertebrates belonging to the phylum MOLLUSCA or the subphylum CRUSTACEA, and used as food.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Dinoflagellida: Flagellate EUKARYOTES, found mainly in the oceans. They are characterized by the presence of transverse and longitudinal flagella which propel the organisms in a rotating manner through the water. Dinoflagellida were formerly members of the class Phytomastigophorea under the old five kingdom paradigm.Crassostrea: A genus of oysters in the family OSTREIDAE, class BIVALVIA.Vibrio parahaemolyticus: A species of bacteria found in the marine environment, sea foods, and the feces of patients with acute enteritis.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Korea: Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Decapodiformes: A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.Coral Reefs: Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.Alteromonadaceae: A family of marine, gram-negative PROTEOBACTERIA including the genera ALTEROMONAS; Colwellia; Idiomarina; MARINOBACTER; MORITELLA; PSEUDOALTEROMONAS; and SHEWANELLA.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Vibrio Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus VIBRIO.Biofouling: Process by which unwanted microbial, plant or animal materials or organisms accumulate on man-made surfaces.Bays: An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Brachyura: An infraorder of chiefly marine, largely carnivorous CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, including the genera Cancer, Uca, and Callinectes.Fish Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Water Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in water or bodies of water, which exhibit radioactivity.Vibrio vulnificus: A species of halophilic bacteria in the genus VIBRIO, which lives in warm SEAWATER. It can cause infections in those who eat raw contaminated seafood or have open wounds exposed to seawater.Flounder: Common name for two families of FLATFISHES belonging to the order Pleuronectiformes: left-eye flounders (Bothidae) and right-eye flounders (Pleuronectidae). The latter is more commonly used in research.Quinones: Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Tenacibaculum: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria in the family FLAVOBACTERIACEAE. Tenacibaculum adheres to surfaces of marine organisms and is pathogenic to fish.Porifera: The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.SvalbardSewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Bacteroidetes: A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.Pseudoalteromonas: A genus of GRAM-NEGATIVE AEROBIC BACTERIA of marine origin. Many species were formerly classified under ALTEROMONAS.Mollusca: A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mytilus: A genus of marine mussels in the family MYTILIDAE, class BIVALVIA. The species MYTILUS EDULIS is the highly edible common mussel.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Sulfonium Compounds: Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.Vitamin K 2: A group of substances similar to VITAMIN K 1 which contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinione and an isoprenoid side chain of varying number of isoprene units. In vitamin K 2, each isoprene unit contains a double bond. They are produced by bacteria including the normal intestinal flora.Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Salmon: Fish of the genera ONCORHYNCHUS and Salmo in the family SALMONIDAE. They are anadromous game fish, frequenting the coastal waters of both the North Atlantic and Pacific. They are known for their gameness as a sport fish and for the quality of their flesh as a table fish. (Webster, 3d ed).Bryozoa: A phylum of small sessile aquatic animals living as small tufted colonies. Some appear like hydroids or corals, but their internal structure is more advanced. Most bryozoans are matlike, forming thin encrustations on rocks, shells, or kelp. (Storer & Stebbins, General Zoology, 6th ed, p443)Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Killifishes: Small oviparous fishes in the family Cyprinodontidae, usually striped or barred black. They are much used in mosquito control.Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Flatfishes: Common name for the order Pleuronectiformes. A very distinctive group in that during development they become asymmetrical, i.e., one eye migrates to lie adjacent to the other. They swim on the eyeless side. FLOUNDER, sole, and turbot, along with several others, are included in this order.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Amphipoda: An order of mostly marine CRUSTACEA containing more than 5500 species in over 100 families. Like ISOPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Isopoda, they possess thoracic gills and their bodies are laterally compressed.Cytophaga: A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.Salt-Tolerance: The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Sea Urchins: Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Protozoan Infections, Animal: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.Oceanography: The science that deals with the ocean and its phenomena. (Webster, 3d ed)Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Trout: Various fish of the family SALMONIDAE, usually smaller than salmon. They are mostly restricted to cool clear freshwater. Some are anadromous. They are highly regarded for their handsome colors, rich well-flavored flesh, and gameness as an angling fish. The genera Salvelinus, Salmo, and ONCORHYNCHUS have been introduced virtually throughout the world.Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Polychaeta: A class of marine annelids including sandworms, tube worms, clamworms, and fire worms. It includes also the genus Myxicola infundibulum.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Hydrothermal Vents: Hot springs on the ocean floor. They are commonly found near volcanically active places such as mid-oceanic ridges.Hepatopancreas: A primitive form of digestive gland found in marine ARTHROPODS, that contains cells similar to those found in the mammalian liver (HEPATOCYTES), and the PANCREAS.Atlantic OceanLocomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Indian Ocean: A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Animal Shells: The hard rigid covering of animals including MOLLUSCS; TURTLES; INSECTS; and crustaceans.Rhodophyta: Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).Republic of Korea: The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.Spectrophotometry, Atomic: Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.Serratia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the natural environment (soil, water, and plant surfaces) or as an opportunistic human pathogen.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Arbacia: A genus of SEA URCHINS in the family Arbaciidae. They have only one spheridium (stalked body) per ambulacral area (contains tube feet); most sea urchins have several spheridia per area.Alteromonas: A genus of gram-negative, straight or curved rods which are motile by means of a single, polar flagellum. Members of this genus are found in coastal waters and the open ocean. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)HydrocarbonsDiatoms: The common name for the phylum of microscopic unicellular STRAMENOPILES. Most are aquatic, being found in fresh, brackish, and salt water. Diatoms are noted for the symmetry and sculpturing of their siliceous cell walls. They account for 40% of PHYTOPLANKTON, but not all diatoms are planktonic.

Marine vibrios associated with superficial septic lesions. (1/4531)

Three cases are reported in which a marine vibrio, Vibrio alginolyticus, was isolated from superficial septic lesions. All cases had been exposed to sea-water. The possible significane of these findings and the need for further investigations are discussed.  (+info)

Growth characteristics of Heterosigma akashiwo virus and its possible use as a microbiological agent for red tide control. (2/4531)

The growth characteristics of Heterosigma akashiwo virus clone 01 (HaV01) were examined by performing a one-step growth experiment. The virus had a latent period of 30 to 33 h and a burst size of 7.7 x 10(2) lysis-causing units in an infected cell. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the virus particles formed on the peripheries of viroplasms, as observed in a natural H. akashiwo cell. Inoculation of HaV01 into a mixed algal culture containing four phytoplankton species, H. akashiwo H93616, Chattonella antiqua (a member of the family Raphidophyceae), Heterocapsa triquetra (a member of the family Dinophyceae), and Ditylum brightwellii (a member of the family Bacillariophyceae), resulted in selective growth inhibition of H. akashiwo. Inoculation of HaV01 and H. akashiwo H93616 into a natural seawater sample produced similar results. However, a natural H. akashiwo red tide sample did not exhibit any conspicuous sensitivity to HaV01, presumably because of the great diversity of the host species with respect to virus infection. The growth characteristics of the lytic virus infecting the noxious harmful algal bloom-causing alga were considered, and the possibility of using this virus as a microbiological agent against H. akashiwo red tides is discussed.  (+info)

Effects of salinity and temperature on long-term survival of the eel pathogen Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 (serovar E). (3/4531)

Vibrio vulnificus biotype 2 (serovar E) is a primary eel pathogen. In this study, we performed long-term survival experiments to investigate whether the aquatic ecosystem can be a reservoir for this bacterium. We have used microcosms containing water of different salinities (ranging from 0.3 to 3.8%) maintained at three temperatures (12, 25, and 30 degrees C). Temperature and salinity significantly affected long-term survival: (i) the optimal salinity for survival was 1.5%; (ii) lower salinities reduced survival, although they were nonlethal; and (ii) the optimal temperature for survival was dependent on the salinity (25 degrees C for microcosms at 0.3 and 0.5% and 12 degrees C for microcosms at 1.5 to 3.8%). In the absence of salts, culturability dropped to zero in a few days, without evidence of cellular lysis. Under optimal conditions of salinity and temperature, the bacterium was able to survive in the free-living form for at least 3 years. The presence of a capsule on the bacterial cell seemed to confer an advantage, since the long-term survival rate of opaque variants was significantly higher than that of translucent ones. Long-term-starved cells maintained their infectivity for eels (as determined by both intraperitoneal and immersion challenges) and mice. Examination under the microscope showed that (i) the capsule was maintained, (ii) the cell size decreased, (iii) the rod shape changed to coccuslike along the time of starvation, and (iv) membrane vesicles and extracellular material were occasionally produced. In conclusion, V. vulnificus biotype 2 follows a survival strategy similar to that of biotype 1 of this species in response to starvation conditions in water. Moreover, the aquatic ecosystem is one of its reservoirs.  (+info)

Isolation of Vibrio vulnificus serovar E from aquatic habitats in Taiwan. (4/4531)

The existence of strains of Vibrio vulnificus serovar E that are avirulent for eels is reported in this work. These isolates were recovered from water and oysters and differed from eel virulent strains in (i) fermentation and utilization of mannitol, (ii) ribotyping after HindIII digestion, and (iii) susceptibility to eel serum. Lipopolysaccharide of these strains lacked the highest molecular weight immunoreactive bands, which are probably involved in serum resistance.  (+info)

Prochlorococcus, a marine photosynthetic prokaryote of global significance. (5/4531)

The minute photosynthetic prokaryote Prochlorococcus, which was discovered about 10 years ago, has proven exceptional from several standpoints. Its tiny size (0.5 to 0.7 microm in diameter) makes it the smallest known photosynthetic organism. Its ubiquity within the 40 degrees S to 40 degrees N latitudinal band of oceans and its occurrence at high density from the surface down to depths of 200 m make it presumably the most abundant photosynthetic organism on Earth. Prochlorococcus typically divides once a day in the subsurface layer of oligotrophic areas, where it dominates the photosynthetic biomass. It also possesses a remarkable pigment complement which includes divinyl derivatives of chlorophyll a (Chl a) and Chl b, the so-called Chl a2 and Chl b2, and, in some strains, small amounts of a new type of phycoerythrin. Phylogenetically, Prochlorococcus has also proven fascinating. Recent studies suggest that it evolved from an ancestral cyanobacterium by reducing its cell and genome sizes and by recruiting a protein originally synthesized under conditions of iron depletion to build a reduced antenna system as a replacement for large phycobilisomes. Environmental constraints clearly played a predominant role in Prochlorococcus evolution. Its tiny size is an advantage for its adaptation to nutrient-deprived environments. Furthermore, genetically distinct ecotypes, with different antenna systems and ecophysiological characteristics, are present at depth and in surface waters. This vertical species variation has allowed Prochlorococcus to adapt to the natural light gradient occurring in the upper layer of oceans. The present review critically assesses the basic knowledge acquired about Prochlorococcus both in the ocean and in the laboratory.  (+info)

Different prevalences of Renibacterium salmoninarum detected by ELISA in Alaskan chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha spawned from freshwater and seawater. (6/4531)

Soluble antigen of Renibacterium salmoninarum (Rs) was detected by a polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at significantly higher prevalences in adult chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that matured in freshwater than in the same cohort of fish spawned after maturation in seawater. The cumulative results were consistent during 4 yr of comparison at the Little Port Walter Hatchery on Baranof Island, Alaska, USA. Possible causes for this difference are discussed. Maturation of chinook salmon broodstock in seawater has become a practical strategy at this hatchery to reduce the prevalence of Rs-positive parent fish and the numbers of culled eggs.  (+info)

Presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in sand from bathing beaches. (7/4531)

The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. in sand from non-EEC standard and EEC standard designated beaches in different locations in the UK and to assess if potentially pathogenic strains were present. Campylobacter spp. were detected in 82/182 (45%) of sand samples and Salmonella spp. in 10/182 (6%). Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 46/92 (50%) of samples from non-EEC standard beaches and 36/90 (40%) from EEC standard beaches. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was greater in wet sand from both types of beaches but, surprisingly, more than 30% of samples from dry sand also contained these organisms. The major pathogenic species C. jejuni and C. coli were more prevalent in sand from non-EEC standard beaches. In contrast, C. lari and urease positive thermophilic campylobacters, which are associated with seagulls and other migratory birds, were more prevalent in sand from EEC standard beaches. Campylobacter isolates were further characterized by biotyping and serotyping, which confirmed that strains known to be of types associated with human infections were frequently found in sand on bathing beaches.  (+info)

Combined microautoradiography-16S rRNA probe technique for determination of radioisotope uptake by specific microbial cell types in situ. (8/4531)

We propose a novel method for studying the function of specific microbial groups in situ. Since natural microbial communities are dynamic both in composition and in activities, we argue that the microbial "black box" should not be regarded as homogeneous. Our technique breaks down this black box with group-specific fluorescent 16S rRNA probes and simultaneously determines 3H-substrate uptake by each of the subgroups present via microautoradiography (MAR). Total direct counting, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and MAR are combined on a single slide to determine (i) the percentages of different subgroups in a community, (ii) the percentage of total cells in a community that take up a radioactively labeled substance, and (iii) the distribution of uptake within each subgroup. The method was verified with pure cultures. In addition, in situ uptake by members of the alpha subdivision of the class Proteobacteria (alpha-Proteobacteria) and of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium group obtained off the California coast and labeled with fluorescent oligonucleotide probes for these subgroups showed that not only do these organisms account for a large portion of the picoplankton community in the sample examined ( approximately 60% of the universal probe-labeled cells and approximately 50% of the total direct counts), but they also are significant in the uptake of dissolved amino acids in situ. Nearly 90% of the total cells and 80% of the cells belonging to the alpha-Proteobacteria and Cytophaga-Flavobacterium groups were detectable as active organisms in amino acid uptake tests. We suggest a name for our triple-labeling technique, substrate-tracking autoradiographic fluorescent in situ hybridization (STARFISH), which should aid in the "dissection" of microbial communities by type and function.  (+info)

  • When there is a drought, local officials and enterprises all come to see us and say, 'We want to desalinate seawater,'" says Wang Zhi, director of the Key Laboratory of Membrane Science and Desalination Technology at Tianjin University. (technologyreview.com)
  • TNO had earlier developed a method, the Memstill® technology, to desalinate seawater using membranes and extract pure drinking water from it. (tno.nl)
  • Scientists have long known that uranium dissolved in seawater combines chemically with oxygen to form uranyl ions with a positive charge. (stanford.edu)
  • Abney and colleagues plan to use this knowledge to design adsorbents that can harness the vast reserves of uranium dissolved in seawater. (ornl.gov)
  • The key for understanding critical processes of the marine carbon cycle is a sound knowledge of the seawater carbonate chemistry, including equilibrium and nonequilibrium properties as well as stable isotope fractionation. (elsevier.com)
  • It also deals with the nonequilibrium properties of the seawater carbonate chemistry. (elsevier.com)
  • I want to get the latest chemistry news from C&EN in my inbox every week. (acs.org)
  • Unfortunately, these natural sinks aren't equipped to handle the high levels of gases humans generate, and when oceans absorb a large amount of CO 2 -, the gas changes the chemistry of the seawater so that the natural weathering of rocks can't balance acidification. (howstuffworks.com)
  • A scientist who studies ocean species to develop adhesives is now looking at the changing chemistry of seawater to see how it may affect the ability of mussels to adhere to their surroundings. (nsf.gov)
  • Seawater chemistry is characterized by long phases of stability, which are interrupted by short intervals of rapid change,' says geoscientist Ulrich Wortmann of the University of Toronto, lead author of a paper reporting the results and published this week in the journal Science . (nsf.gov)
  • When India and Eurasia collided, it caused dissolution of ancient salt deposits, which resulted in drastic changes in seawater chemistry. (nsf.gov)
  • Abrupt changes in seawater composition are a new twist in our understanding of the links among ocean chemistry, plate tectonics, climate and evolution,' says Candace Major, program director in NSF's Division of Ocean Sciences. (nsf.gov)
  • While it's been known for a long time that gypsum deposits can be formed and destroyed rapidly, the effect of these processes on seawater chemistry has been overlooked,' says Wortmann. (nsf.gov)
  • Space shuttle view of Earth's 'gypsum belt,' which likely changed seawater chemistry. (nsf.gov)
  • Scientists, including those from Northeastern University in the U.S., developed carbon nanotube pores that can exclude salt from seawater. (freerepublic.com)
  • Scientists say they have created five grams of yellowcake - a powdered form of uranium used to produce fuel for nuclear power production - using acrylic fibers to extract it from seawater. (reuters.com)
  • Ever since an unusually warm mass of seawater began spreading along the Pacific Coast of North America a year ago - wreaking havoc on the marine food chain - scientists have struggled to explain its presence. (latimes.com)
  • Seawater includes uranium in low concentrations but great quantities, and many scientists see it as a key to meeting the world's future energy needs through nuclear power. (csmonitor.com)
  • Scientists have tried to extract uranium from seawater since the 1960s, Rogers noted. (csmonitor.com)
  • To counteract the overwhelmed oceans, scientists are proposing adding lime to seawater to boost the sink's efficiency. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Washington (AFP) - The US Navy believes it has finally worked out the solution to a problem that has intrigued scientists for decades: how to take seawater and use it as fuel. (rexresearch.com)
  • Over a 10-year period, NOAA scientists have collected 72,000 seawater samples, and their data show that the ocean is becoming more acidic because of climate change . (si.edu)
  • When humans drink seawater the body cells are take in water and salt, with the salt at a very high concentration and this level of sodium would be deadly if it was consumed regularly. (digitaljournal.com)
  • Seawater tends to corrode water-splitting systems. (engadget.com)
  • But negatively charged chloride in seawater salt can corrode the positive end, limiting the system's lifespan. (stanford.edu)
  • But Navrotsky and others have since discovered a new way in which seawater can corrode nuclear fuel, forming uranium compounds that could potentially travel long distances, either in solution or as very small particles. (eponline.com)
  • The most abundant dissolved ions in seawater are sodium, chloride, magnesium, sulfate and calcium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The overall process could be significantly less expensive and more efficient than any conventional magnesium extraction method available today and uses seawater as an abundant, free resource. (energy.gov)
  • Jason Reese, Weir Professor of Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics, and his research group say that carbon nanotubes (CNTs) - essentially sheets of one-atom thick carbon rolled into cylinders - can transform abundant seawater into pure, clean drinking water. (medindia.net)
  • Even as researchers work to improve reactor safety and solve the waste disposal issues, he believes that a practical way to extract uranium from seawater is needed to reduce the energy insecurity of nations that depend on nuclear power but lack uranium within their own borders. (stanford.edu)
  • In an effort to better understand those cycles, John L. Loeb Associate Professor of the Natural Sciences David Johnston, Ph.D. student Andrew Masterson, and research assistant Erin Beirne worked with colleagues to develop a tool to measure levels of seawater sulfate in situ , giving researchers a clearer picture of how much sulfur cycling is taking place in oxygen minimum zones. (harvard.edu)
  • December 17, 2015 - An ultra-high-resolution technique used for the first time to study polymer fibers that trap uranium in seawater may cause researchers to rethink the best methods to harvest this potential fuel for nuclear reactors. (ornl.gov)
  • To make the discovery, the researchers combined past seawater sulfur composition data collected by Paytan with Wortmann's recent discovery of the strong link between marine sulfate concentrations and carbon and phosphorus cycling. (nsf.gov)
  • In the new paper, the researchers show that in the presence of alkali metal ions such as sodium -- for example, in seawater -- these clusters are stable enough to persist in solution or as small particles even when the oxidizing agent is removed. (eponline.com)
  • The study - ' The establishment of a marine focused biorefinery for bioethanol production using seawater and a novel marine yeast strain ' - has been published in Scientific Reports and was carried out by researchers at the University of Nottingham. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • On average, seawater in the world's oceans has a salinity of about 3.5% (35 g/L, 599 mM) This means that every kilogram (roughly one litre by volume) of seawater has approximately 35 grams (1.2 oz) of dissolved salts (predominantly sodium (Na+ ) and chloride (Cl− ) ions). (wikipedia.org)
  • Seawater contains more dissolved ions than all types of freshwater. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, although seawater contains about 2.8 times more bicarbonate than river water based on molarity, the percentage of bicarbonate in seawater as a ratio of all dissolved ions is far lower than in river water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bicarbonate ions also constitute 48% of river water solutes but only 0.14% of all seawater ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extracting these uranyl ions involves dipping plastic fibers containing a compound called amidoxime into seawater. (stanford.edu)
  • The Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology Tuesday announced that it has developed the world s first next generation seawater distillation technology that allows consumable water to be produced in low temperatures and under low pressure, which increases energy efficiency and production capacity. (freerepublic.com)
  • This method wastes much less energy than earlier desalination techniques, such as heating seawater and harvesting fresh water from the steam. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean. (wikipedia.org)
  • Average density at the surface is 1.025 kg/L. Seawater is denser than both fresh water and pure water (density 1.0 kg/L at 4 °C (39 °F)) because the dissolved salts increase the mass by a larger proportion than the volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • A SWAC system consists of a cold seawater supply pipe (intake), a pumping unit and heat exchanger (at the shoreline), and a closed loop with fresh water distribution to cover cooling needs of each building connected through a secondary heat exchanger. (slideshare.net)
  • The technique involves pumping seawater (or allowing it to gravitate if below sea level) to an arid location and then subjecting it to two processes: first, it is used to humidify and cool the air, and second, it is evaporated by solar heating and distilled to produce fresh water. (wikipedia.org)
  • The technology was introduced by British inventor Charlie Paton in the early 1990s and is being developed by his UK company Seawater Greenhouse Ltd. The more concentrated salt water may either be further evaporated for the production of salt and other elements, or discharged back to the sea. (wikipedia.org)
  • The seawater greenhouse is a response to the global water crisis and peak water. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enterprise is now independently operating with an evolved set of technologies as Sundrop Farms Pty Ltd . A seawater greenhouse uses the sun, the sea and the atmosphere to produce fresh water and cool air. (wikipedia.org)
  • A seawater greenhouse evaporates much more water than it condenses back into freshwater. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, Sundrop Farms uses a more robust desalination technique in favour of the water vapour technique employed by Seawater Greenhouse, thus allowing them to construct larger scale facilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ocean desalination-a process that converts seawater into drinking water-is being hailed as the solution to water supply problems. (care2.com)
  • The water-splitting device lasts roughly 12 hours, unable to withstand seawater corrosion. (engadget.com)
  • From each two gallons of seawater, one gallon of drinking water and one gallon of highly concentrated salt water or "brine" is produced. (breitbart.com)
  • To add to the company's array of desalination solutions , Fluence's water experts have designed a family of pre-engineered building blocks that can be assembled into cost-effective seawater desalination systems that match any water sourcing need. (environmental-expert.com)
  • This process does not consume any energy while separating pure water from seawater. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Santa Barbara has completed a $71 million reactivation of its seawater desalination plant to bolster its water supplies. (scpr.org)
  • Manchester - A graphene-based sieve has successfully turned seawater into drinking water. (digitaljournal.com)
  • This means that to get rid of all the excess salt taken in by drinking seawater the kidneys would need to take existing water from the body. (digitaljournal.com)
  • Provided the holes are less-than-one-nanometre in size, seawater can pass through and salt are retained, producing clean water . (digitaljournal.com)
  • Today's methods are energy intensive and expensive because the magnesium concentration in seawater is so low that significant energy is needed to evaporate off water and precipitate magnesium chloride salt. (energy.gov)
  • The use of seawater for industrial cooling is a vital technology that poses some of the most profound environmental impact on the water quality in the Arabian Gulf. (scirp.org)
  • Will Turning Seawater Into Drinking Water Help Drought-Hit California? (npr.org)
  • This edition of the Industrial Bioprocessing TOE features trends and innovations in production of bioplastic for packaging applications and seawater fermentation process enabling to reduce water footprint in bioethanol production. (frost.com)
  • Seawater is water from a sea or ocean . (fact-index.com)
  • The site of a seawater desalination plant that could provide up to one-third of the water consumed by Beijing's households lies about 200 kilometers southeast of the parched Chinese capital. (technologyreview.com)
  • Indeed, the demand for seawater desalination grows and wanes as the levels of local surface water and groundwater fluctuate from year to year, putting future projects on hold. (technologyreview.com)
  • The rapid development of the entire seawater desalination industry in China will not happen unless most of the desalinated seawater can enter municipal water supplies," says Fan Zhifeng, senior engineer of the seawater desalination division at Shanghai Electric. (technologyreview.com)
  • For northern China, the South-North Water Diversion Project has made seawater desalination seem less urgent. (technologyreview.com)
  • Corpus Christi was one of the first cities where seawater desalination feasibility studies were conducted by the water development board in 2002. (rgj.com)
  • In a statement, the water development board said the funding would help the city continue development conducting planning tasks related to seawater desalination, such as plant site selection, source water characterization, and economic impact and cost modeling. (rgj.com)
  • building a brackish water desalination plant is usually cheaper than a seawater desalination plant because brackish water is generally cleaner and contains less total dissolved salts. (rgj.com)
  • It calls for seawater desalination to produce about 116,000 acre-feet of new water supply per year by 2070. (rgj.com)
  • Desalination plant means we are making freshwater from seawater and here, as you can see, we are in front of red sea water. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • So we need pressure to pressurise seawater much above 30 bars in order to get this fresh water from the other side. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • So we put waste water in one side of the membrane and on the other side we put our sea water, So according to what I explained, what will happen is the dirty water, which is the wastewater, will start moving towards the seawater but this membrane only allows clean water to pass. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • A student from Ottawa University in Canada has developed a technology that turns seawater into clean, drinking water much more efficiently than is available today. (medindia.net)
  • Seawater is mostly (~96.5%) water, but it contains important amounts of dissolved salts (~3.5%), which are mostly, but not all, sodium chloride , which is identical to table salt. (wisegeek.com)
  • The unique chemical properties of seawater mean that it is a drastically different living environment than fresh water, and many animals that live in it have never adapted to live in fresh water. (wisegeek.com)
  • Seawater is about 2.5% denser than fresh water. (wisegeek.com)
  • While negotiations continue between the San Diego County Water Authority and Poseidon Resources on a 30-year water purchase agreement for water from the proposed Carlsbad Seawater Desalination Project, the Water Authority Board of Directors today received reports on several major issues related to the project, including terms under which the Water Authority's member agencies could buy a portion of the project's supplies. (sdcwa.org)
  • By pursuing seawater desalination and supporting member agencies' local supply projects, by 2020 the Water Authority will reduce its reliance on imported water from MWD to about 30 percent, greatly increasing water reliability for the region. (sdcwa.org)
  • Desalination is the process of separating salt from seawater to produce fresh drinking water. (veolia.com)
  • With the amount of rainfall expected to continue decreasing, and our population on the rise, seawater desalination, a completely non-rainfall dependent source of water, is being adopted as part of an integrated approach to managing water supply and demand. (veolia.com)
  • At typical salinity, it freezes at about −2 °C (28 °F). The coldest seawater ever recorded (in a liquid state) was in 2010, in a stream under an Antarctic glacier, and measured −2.6 °C (27.3 °F). Seawater pH is typically limited to a range between 7.5 and 8.4. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the vast majority of seawater has a salinity of between 31 g/kg and 38 g/kg, that is 3.1-3.8%, seawater is not uniformly saline throughout the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • The density of seawater also changes with salinity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The density of typical seawater brine of 120 g/kg salinity at 25 °C and atmospheric pressure is 1088 kg/m3. (wikipedia.org)
  • The thermal conductivity of seawater is 0.6 W/mK at 25 °C and a salinity of 35 g/kg. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1) Seawater is indeed about the same salinity as 2 tablespoons of salt per quart. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Trace amounts of uranium exist in seawater, but efforts to extract that critical ingredient for nuclear power have produced insufficient quantities to make it a viable source for those countries that lack uranium mines. (stanford.edu)
  • US experts have found out how to extract carbon dioxide and hydrogen gas from seawater. (rexresearch.com)
  • Without the negatively charged coating, the anode only works for around 12 hours in seawater, according to Michael Kenney, a graduate student in the Dai lab and co-lead author on the paper. (stanford.edu)
  • Apparatus for seawater acidification including an ion exchange, cathode and anode electrode compartments and cation-permeable membranes that separate the electrode compartments from the ion exchange compartment. (rexresearch.com)
  • Means is provided for feeding seawater through the ion exchange compartment and for feeding a dissociable liquid media through the anode and cathode electrode compartments. (rexresearch.com)
  • Fabrication and structure of the dual-layer NiFe/NiS x -Ni foam (Ni 3 ) anode for seawater splitting. (pnas.org)
  • This means that for every 1 liter (1000mL) of seawater there are 35 grams of dissolved salts (mostly, but not entirely, sodium chloride ). (fact-index.com)
  • Despite the low concentration of uranium and the presence of many other metals extracted from seawater, we were able to investigate the local atomic environment around uranium and better understand how it is bound by the polymer fibers," Abney said. (ornl.gov)
  • Surprisingly, the spectrum for the seawater-contacted polymer fibers was distinctly different from what was expected based on small molecule and computational investigations. (ornl.gov)
  • Hongjie Dai and his research lab at Stanford University have developed a prototype that can generate hydrogen fuel from seawater. (stanford.edu)
  • Previous studies attempting to split seawater for hydrogen fuel had run low amounts of electric current, because corrosion occurs at higher currents. (stanford.edu)
  • A prototype device used solar energy to create hydrogen fuel from seawater. (eurasiareview.com)
  • The findings, published March 18 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , demonstrate a new way of separating hydrogen and oxygen gas from seawater via electricity. (stanford.edu)
  • But they also designed a solar-powered demonstration machine that produced hydrogen and oxygen gas from seawater collected from San Francisco Bay. (stanford.edu)
  • The findings, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , demonstrate a new way of separating hydrogen and oxygen gas from seawater via electricity. (eurasiareview.com)
  • What we've developed is an isotope tool - what we can do is measure the oxygen isotopic composition of seawater sulfate in these regions, and use that as a measurement to assess how much cycling is going on. (harvard.edu)
  • The seawater greenhouse technology was adopted and subsequently modified by Sundrop Farms in Port Augusta, Australia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sundrop Farms CEO Philipp Saumweber, a former investment banker, says the agriculture model as "innovative" in that it harnesses only seawater and sunlight. (greenprophet.com)
  • Aside from calcium chloride salts, seawater also contains sulfates (7.7% of dissolved salts), magnesium (3.7%), calcium (1.2%), potassium (1.1%), and minor constituents (0.7%), including trace amounts of inorganic carbon (0.2%), bromide (0.08%), uranium (0.00000001%), and gold (similar amount). (wisegeek.com)
  • The new plant takes in seawater through a 72-inch pipeline to the tune of 100 million gallons a day. (breitbart.com)
  • Part of that research included lab tests on machines that suck up seawater and spray it into the air, seeding white clouds that reflect rays of sunlight away from Earth. (inhabitat.com)
  • In South Australia, sunlight + seawater = tomatoes. (technologyreview.com)
  • Japan used seawater to cool nuclear fuel at the stricken Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear plant after the tsunami in March 2011 -- and that was probably the best action to take at the time, says Professor Alexandra Navrotsky of the University of California, Davis. (eponline.com)
  • The seawater greenhouse concept was first researched and developed in 1991 by Charlie Paton's company Light Works Ltd, now Seawater Greenhouse Ltd. The first pilot project commenced in 1992 with the search for a test site that was eventually found on the Canary Island of Tenerife. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seawater represents a virtually unlimited source of magnesium, which could supply worldwide demand for centuries given an economic and environmentally sound method for its extraction. (energy.gov)
  • Seawater extraction gives countries that don't have land-based uranium the security that comes from knowing they'll have the raw material to meet their energy needs. (stanford.edu)
  • Chu, a former U.S. secretary of energy who encouraged seawater extraction research before he left the Department of Energy (DOE) to return to Stanford, observed that nuclear power currently generates 20 percent of U.S. electricity and 13 percent worldwide. (stanford.edu)
  • Chu emphasized that research on seawater extraction has to proceed in parallel with reactor safety and waste disposal challenges. (stanford.edu)
  • article{osti_1361344, title = {Uranium extraction: Fuel from seawater}, author = {Tsouris, Costas and Oak Ridge National Lab. (osti.gov)
  • Seeing a fairly direct correlation between seawater iron content and mussel adhesive performance provides us with ideas for designing new and robust synthetic materials," Wilker said. (nsf.gov)
  • Seawater is heated in a thermal process, flashed into steam in a series of evaporation chambers and then condensed. (outokumpu.com)
  • Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a radically new process to produce magnesium from seawater. (energy.gov)
  • If successful, PNNL would enable a low-cost, low-energy metal-organic process for producing magnesium from seawater without the energy intensive steps associated with conventional processes. (energy.gov)
  • Faced with global warming and potential oil shortages, the US navy is experimenting with making jet fuel from seawater. (newscientist.com)
  • In order to ensure a sustainable reserve of fuel for nuclear power generation, tremendous research efforts have been devoted to developing advanced sorbent materials for extracting uranium from seawater. (osti.gov)
  • In other words, these clusters could form on the surface of a fuel rod exposed to seawater and then be transported away, surviving in the environment for months or years before reverting to more common forms of uranium, without peroxide, and settling to the bottom of the ocean. (eponline.com)
  • The predicted cost of jet fuel using the technology is in the range of three to six dollars per gallon, say experts at the US Naval Research Laboratory, who have already flown a model airplane with fuel produced from seawater. (rexresearch.com)
  • For the first time we've been able to develop a technology to get CO2 and hydrogen from seawater simultaneously, that's a big breakthrough," she said, adding that the fuel "doesn't look or smell very different. (rexresearch.com)
  • Developing a game-changing technology like this, seawater to fuel, really is something that reinvents a lot of the way we can do business when you think about logistics, readiness. (rexresearch.com)
  • The latest "German" Submarines before the end of the war were using seawater and peroxide as fuel, and were as efficient as if not more than nuclear according to Vladamir Terzisky, the Bulgarian born Engineer. (rexresearch.com)
  • For technical data and manufacturing plants analysis, the report analyzes Seawater Desalination Membrane leading suppliers on capacity, commercial production date, manufacturing plants distribution, R&D Status, technology sources, and raw materials sources. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • This illustrative video shows the seawater desalination process in action. (rgj.com)
  • We are diluting seawater because of that process. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Fritz Haber, the German scientist known for his invention of the Haber process and Zyklon poison gas, spent the last years of his life attempting to come up with an efficient way of extracting large quantities of gold from seawater so that Germany could pay off its war debts. (wisegeek.com)