Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Influenza B virus: Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Influenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.SqualeneVaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Cross Protection: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.Influenza A Virus, H2N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Vaccines, Virosome: Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.United StatesHemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Reassortant Viruses: Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.Technology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Mice, Inbred BALB CPapillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Oseltamivir: An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Ferrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Influenza A Virus, H7N7 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells: An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Influenzavirus B: A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRUS causing HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. In contrast to INFLUENZAVIRUS A, no distinct antigenic subtypes of hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE are recognized.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Influenza A Virus, H5N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle: Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Influenzavirus A: A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Vaccine Potency: The relationship between an elicited ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE and the dose of the vaccine administered.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Guillain-Barre Syndrome: An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Product Surveillance, Postmarketing: Surveillance of drugs, devices, appliances, etc., for efficacy or adverse effects, after they have been released for general sale.Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Alum Compounds: Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Chickenpox Vaccine: A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.Influenza A Virus, H1N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Neonatology: A subspecialty of Pediatrics concerned with the newborn infant.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay: A method of detection of the number of cells in a sample secreting a specific molecule. With this method, a population of cells are plated over top of the immunosorbent substrate that captures the secreted molecules.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Child Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of children; frequently through a legal process.Amantadine: An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.Streptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.Zanamivir: A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)DucksAnthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Dengue Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.Aluminum Hydroxide: A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Reverse Genetics: The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.Rubella Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Licensure: The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Tetanus ToxoidRNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral: A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Yellow Fever Vaccine: Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.Hemagglutination, Viral: Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.Plague Vaccine: A suspension of killed Yersinia pestis used for immunizing people in enzootic plague areas.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Fungal Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Treatment Refusal: Patient or client refusal of or resistance to medical, psychological, or psychiatric treatment. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Thimerosal: An ethylmercury-sulfidobenzoate that has been used as a preservative in VACCINES; ANTIVENINS; and OINTMENTS. It was formerly used as a topical antiseptic. It degrades to ethylmercury and thiosalicylate.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Influenzavirus C: A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising viruses similar to types A and B but less common, more stable, more homogeneous, and lacking the neuraminidase protein. They have not been associated with epidemics but may cause mild influenza. Influenza C virus is the type species.Rimantadine: An RNA synthesis inhibitor that is used as an antiviral agent in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Influenza A Virus, H7N3 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 3. It was first detected in turkeys in Britain in 1963 and there have been several outbreaks on poultry farms since that time. A couple cases of human infections have been reported.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Parental Consent: Informed consent given by a parent on behalf of a minor or otherwise incompetent child.Cloaca: A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.Pneumococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Vaccines, Acellular: Vaccines that are produced by using only the antigenic part of the disease causing organism. They often require a "booster" every few years to maintain their effectiveness.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Egg Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to eggs that is triggered by the immune system.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.SAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Salmonella Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.Hospitals, Pediatric: Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Ebola Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.

*Influenza treatment

Hampson AW (June 2008). "Vaccines for pandemic influenza. The history of our current vaccines, their limitations and the ... some data suggest that this could be a useful treatment for influenza. Peramivir, an experimental anti-influenza drug, ... "Prevention of influenza: recommendations for influenza immunization of children, 2007-2008". Pediatrics. 121 (4): e1016-31. doi ... "Current and future antiviral therapy of severe seasonal and avian influenza". Antiviral Res. 78 (1): 91-102. doi:10.1016/j. ...

*Thiomersal

"Prevention and Control of Seasonal Influenza with Vaccines". MMWR. Recommendations and Reports. 65 (5): 1-54. doi:10.15585/mmwr ... and the American Academy of Pediatrics asked vaccine manufacturers to remove thiomersal from vaccines as a purely precautionary ... "Safety data sheet, Thiomersal Ph Eur, BP, USP" (PDF). Merck. 2005-06-12. Retrieved 2010-01-01. Clarkson TW (2002). "The three ... "Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Supply for the U.S. 2016-2017 Influenza Season , Seasonal Influenza (Flu) , CDC". www.cdc.gov. ...

*Egg allergy

Prevention and Control of Seasonal Influenza with Vaccines. MMWR Recomm Rep 2017;66(No. RR-2):1-20. "Recommendations for ... Each year the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) publishes recommendations for prevention and control of influenza in ... National survey data in the United States collected in 2005 and 2006 showed that from age six and older, the prevalence of ... "Prevention and Control of Seasonal Influenza with Vaccines: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices ...

*Poliomyelitis

It is seasonal in temperate climates, with peak transmission occurring in summer and autumn. These seasonal differences are far ... American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases". Pediatrics. 99 (2): 300-5. 1997. doi:10.1542/peds.99.2.300. ... "WHO: Vaccines for routine use". International travel and health. p. 12. Archived from the original on 6 June 2008. Retrieved 23 ... Wild Poliovirus case list 2000-2010; data in WHO/HQ as of 9 November 2010 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 ...

*Clinical trial

... seasonal affective disorder, influenza, and skin diseases), the study may be done during a limited part of the year (such as ... Web-based electronic data capture (EDC) and clinical data management systems are used in a majority of clinical trials to ... These approaches may include medicines, vitamins, vaccines, or lifestyle changes. Screening trials test the best way to detect ... Additional ethical concerns are present when conducting clinical trials on children (pediatrics), and in emergency or epidemic ...
Seasonal influenza vaccination is the most important way of preventing seasonal influenza virus infections and potentially severe complications, including death. Seasonal influenza vaccination reduces the likelihood of becoming ill with influenza or transmitting influenza to others.•Seasonal influenza vaccines do not contain the 2009 H1N1 strain and are not expected to provide significant cross-protection against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenzaInfluenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccines to prevent the 2009 H1N1 virus have been licensed; initial doses of licensed vaccine are expected to be available by mid-October 2009.•Two types of seasonal influenza vaccine are licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the United ...
Lancet Infectious Diseases Jan 2018 Volume 18 Number 1 p1-122 e1-e32 http://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/issue/current Personal View Urgent challenges in implementing live attenuated influenza vaccine Anika Singanayagam, Maria Zambon, Ajit Lalvani, Wendy Barclay Summary Conflicting reports have emerged about the effectiveness of the live attenuated influenza vaccine. The live attenuated influenza vaccine appears to protect particularly poorly against…
Background: Following the emergence of the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus, monovalent influenza vaccines were developed and marketed in Europe. Within the Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe (I-MOVE) project, we estimated the pandemic influenza vaccines effectiveness (PIVE) using sentinel general practitioners (GP) influenza surveillance networks in seven European countries.. Methods: We conducted a multicentre case-control study between November 2009 and March 2010. Using systematic sampling, GPs swabbed patients presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI European Union case definition) within eight days of symptom onset and collected their vaccination history and a list of potential confounders (e.g. age group, chronic diseases and related hospitalisations, seasonal influenza vaccination). Cases were ILI patients ...
Treatment of seasonal influenza is dominated by two categories of treatment options, vaccines and antiviral therapies. In the recent years it was observed that demand for seasonal influenza vaccines have increased due to changed perception of patient population. The patient population is of the opinion that preventive healthcare is better compared to curative healthcare; this led to increased demand of vaccines in Asia-Pacific region. Asia-Pacific (APAC) region is an attractive market for seasonal influenza vaccine manufacturers. Major drivers in the market is increasing awareness, increasing vaccination coverage in the APAC countries and rising government support for immunization against seasonal influenza. Major restraints of the market are variable demand and limited production capacity. Traditional egg based ...
Influenza viruses primarily include influenza A virus and influenza B virus. Due to high variability, influenza A viruses, including H1N1, H5N1, H7N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7, H7N9, H9N2, and H10N8, are the typical culprits of pandemic influenza [9-12], while influenza B viruses only lead to limited influenza epidemics [13]. Influenza virus infection always leads to high fever, cough, runny nose and myalgia; many patients have severe pneumonia. Heart, kidney or other organ failure may cause death directly in the most serious cases.. The WHO has established a global influenza program (GIP) to monitor influenza case reports and carry out epidemiological analysis of human influenza, human avian influenza infection, human swine influenza infection and severe acute respiratory infection (SARI). GIP also ...
Results: The overall sample consisted of 4,011 people. The influenza vaccination coverage rate in Germany increased from 22.3% in 2002/2003 to 25.1% in 2003/2004. This increase is not significant. The most frequent reasons for being vaccinated given by vaccinees were: influenza considered to be a serious illness, which people wanted to avoid (90.1%), having received advice from the family doctor or nurse to be vaccinated (71.3%), and not wanting to infect family and friends (70.4%). Reasons for not being vaccinated mentioned by people who have never been vaccinated were: thinking about it, however, not being vaccinated in the end (47.7%), not expecting to catch influenza (43.6%), and not having received a recommendation from the family doctor to be vaccinated (36.6%). Options encouraging influenza vaccination are: recommendation by the family doctor or nurse (66.6%), more available information on the vaccine regarding efficacy and tolerance ...
The report firstly introduced Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated basic information included Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated definition classification application industry chain structure industry overview; international market analysis, China domestic market analysis, Macroeconomic environment and economic situation analysis and influence, Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated industry policy and plan, Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated product specification, manufacturing process, product cost structure etc. then statistics Global and China key manufacturers Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated capacity production cost price profit production value gross margin etc details information, at the same time, statistics these manufacturers Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated products customers application capacity market position company contact information ...
Annual recommendations on influenza seasonal vaccination include community pharmacists, who have low vaccination coverage. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between influenza vaccination in community pharmacists and their knowledge of and attitudes to vaccination. An online cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists in Catalonia, Spain, was conducted between September and November 2014. Sociodemographic, professional and clinical variables, the history of influenza vaccination and knowledge of and attitudes to influenza and seasonal influenza vaccination were collected. The survey response rate was 7.33% (506 out of 6906); responses from 463 community pharmacists were included in the final analyses. Analyses were performed using multivariable logistic regression models and stepwise backward selection method for variable selection. The influenza ...
PubMed journal article Effectiveness of intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine against all-cause acute otitis media in childre were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
Please cite this paper as: Erkoreka A. (2010) The Spanish influenza pandemic in occidental Europe (1918-1920) and victim age. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 4(2), 81-89.. Background Studies of the Spanish Influenza pandemic (1918-1920) provide interesting information that may improve our preparation for present and future influenza pandemic threats.. Methods We studied archives from France, Italy, Spain and Portugal, obtaining high-quality data that allowed us to calculate mortality rates associated with the Spanish flu and to characterize the proportional distribution of influenza deaths by age in the capital cities of these countries.. Results French and American troops who fought in the First World War began to be affected from April 1918 onwards by a benign influenza epidemic, which hardly caused any deaths. The first occidental European country in which the pandemic spread to ...
Author Summary Human influenza infections have a pronounced seasonal cycle in temperate regions. Recent laboratory and epidemiological evidence suggests that low humidity conditions in the winter may increase virus survival and enable the virus to transmit efficiently between hosts. However, seasonal influenza activity in some tropical locations occurs during the rainy season, whereas other tropical locations do not experience a well-defined influenza season. The primary goal of this study was to identify the relationship between the timing of seasonal influenza epidemics and climate variability across the globe. We show the importance of thresholds in humidity, temperature and precipitation that affect the epidemiology, and potentially the transmission route, of influenza. A better understanding of the environmental, demographic and behavioral drivers of ...
The development of broadly reactive influenza vaccines raises the need to identify the most appropriate immunoassays that can be used for the evaluation of so-called "universal" influenza vaccines, and to explore a path towards the standardisation of such assays. To address this critical topic, a workshop on "Immunoassay standardisation for universal influenza vaccines" was co-organised in June 2015 by the EDUFLUVAC consortium, a European Union funded project coordinated by the European Vaccine Initiative, and the National Institutes of Health / National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, USA. The workshop agenda encompassed a wide range of immunoassays that can be used to assess immune responses to broadly reactive influenza vaccines, from classical serological assays to assays measuring cell mediated immunity. The workshop audience agreed that it was not ...
In June 2006, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) expanded its 2004 recommendation for routine influenza vaccination of children aged 6--23 months to include children aged 24--59 months. The 2006 ACIP recommendations also reemphasized that previously unvaccinated children aged ,9 years should receive 2 doses of influenza vaccine administered at least 1 month apart to be fully vaccinated (1). In 2007, using data from six immunization information system (IIS)* sentinel sites, CDC conducted the first assessment of influenza vaccination coverage among children aged 6--59 months during the 2006--07 influenza season. The findings demonstrated that, at all six sites, ,30% of children aged 6--23 months and ,20% of children aged 24--59 months were fully vaccinated. Vaccination coverage data from national and state surveys for an influenza season generally are not available until ...
INTRODUCTION: Seasonal (inactivated) influenza vaccination is recommended for all individuals aged 65+ and in individuals under 65 who are at an increased risk of complications of influenza infection, for example, people with asthma. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) was recommended for children as they are thought to be responsible for much of the transmission of influenza to the populations at risk of serious complications from influenza. A phased roll-out of the LAIV pilot programme began in 2013/2014. There is limited evidence for vaccine effectiveness (VE) in the populations targeted for influenza vaccination. The aim of this study is to examine the safety and effectiveness of the live attenuated seasonal influenza vaccine programme in children and the inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination programme among ...
Background: Human Parainfluenza viruses are a common cause of both upper and lower respiratory tract infections, particularly in children. Of the four Parainfluenza virus serotypes, Parainfluenza 4 is least well characterised from both the clinical, epidemiological and genetic perspectives. Methods: Flocked nose or throat swabs from a previous study investigating viral prevalence in community-based adults suffering from influenza like illness were used as the basis for this study. Samples in which no virus was detected using a 16 viral respiratory pathogen real-time PCR panel were barcoded and pyrosequenced using the Roche 454 GS FLX Titanium chemistry. The sequences were analysed using the VirusHunter bioinformatic pipeline. Sanger sequencing was used to complete the detected Parainfluenza 4 coding region. Results: A variant Parainfluenza 4 subtype b strain (QLD-01) was discovered in an otherwise healthy ...
The early onset of the 2012-13 influenza season offered an opportunity to provide an early VE estimate. Overall, the estimate suggests that the 2012-13 influenza vaccine has moderate effectiveness against circulating influenza viruses, similar to a summary VE estimate from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trial data (2). Influenza vaccination, even with moderate effectiveness, has been shown to reduce illness, antibiotic use, doctor visits, time lost from work, hospitalizations, and deaths (6). Results for the 2012-13 season indicate that vaccination has reduced the risk for influenza-associated medical visits by approximately 60%, demonstrating the benefits of influenza vaccination during the current season. Influenza activity is likely to continue for several more weeks in the United States. As always, vaccination efforts should continue as long as ...
Feeling INFLUENZA LIKE ILLNESS while using Ibuprofen? INFLUENZA LIKE ILLNESS Causes, Patient Concerns and Latest Treatments and Ibuprofen Reports and Side Effects.
Looking for online definition of influenza vaccine in the Medical Dictionary? influenza vaccine explanation free. What is influenza vaccine? Meaning of influenza vaccine medical term. What does influenza vaccine mean?
5 Countries of Europe Collectively Control more than 80 percent in the Europe Influenza Vaccine Market. Influenza virus is mostly activated in the winter season every year in the European region. Vaccination is the best way to prevent from Influenza virus. It is anticipated that Influenza vaccine market is near to US$ 1 Billion due to a large target population, strong public healthcare infrastructure, high per capita healthcare spending and influenza vaccination program in European countries. Our research report title "Europe Influenza Vaccine Market, Vaccinated Population (23 Countries Market Data) By (Child & Adult) & Forecast" cover the following points:. • Influenza vaccinated population (Children and Adult vaccinated population). • Influenza vaccinated market (Children and Adult vaccinated market). • Influenza Vaccine Covered ...
Balish, A., Garten, R., Klimov, A. and Villanueva, J. (2013), Analytical detection of influenza A(H3N2)v and other A variant viruses from the USA by rapid influenza diagnostic tests. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, 7: 491-496. doi: 10.1111/irv.12017 ...
During the 2009--10 influenza season, the second wave of influenza activity from 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) occurred in the United States; few seasonal influenza viruses were detected. Influenza activity* peaked in late-October and was associated with higher pediatric mortality and higher rates of hospitalizations in children and young adults than in previous seasons. The proportion of visits to health-care providers for influenza-like illness (ILI), as reported in the U.S. Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet), was among the highest since ILI surveillance began in 1997 in its current form. This report summarizes influenza activity in the United States during the 2009--10 influenza season (August 30, 2009--June 12, 2010).. U.S. Viral Surveillance. Since April 2009, the beginning of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, ...
No safety signals were observed with the administration of quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine, according to a large population study.
Vol 5: Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine Enhances Colonization of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus in Mice.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
This report summarizes recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) concerning influenza vaccination of health-care personnel (HCP) in the United States. These recommendations apply to HCP in acute care hospitals, nursing homes, skilled nursing facilities, physicians offices, urgent care centers, and outpatient clinics, and to persons who provide home health care and emergency medical services. The recommendations are targeted at health-care facility administrators, infection-control professionals, and occupational health professionals responsible for influenza vaccination programs and influenza infection-control programs in their institutions. HICPAC and ACIP recommend that all HCP be vaccinated annually against influenza. Facilities that employ HCP are strongly encouraged to provide vaccine to their staff by using evidence-based ...
Provisional data reported as of February 10. Additional information about influenza activity is updated each Friday and is available from CDC at http://www.cdc.gov/flu. Levels of activity are 1) widespread: outbreaks of influenza or increases in influenza-like illness (ILI) cases and recent laboratory-confirmed influenza in at least half the regions of a state; 2) regional: outbreaks of influenza or increases in ILI cases and recent laboratory-confirmed influenza in at least two but less than half the regions of a state; 3) local: outbreaks of influenza or increases in ILI cases and recent laboratory-confirmed influenza in a single region of a state; 4) sporadic: small numbers of laboratory-confirmed influenza cases or a single influenza outbreak reported but no increase in cases of ILI; and 5) no activity. § Widespread: ...
Global Influenza Vaccine Market is worth more than US$ 5 Billion. Globally Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated Population was more than 150 Thousand, but still this figure was significantly less than the Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population. As per our research Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated population will decline in future and Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population will increase in forecast period.. Get Free 10% Customization in this Report. United States has the highest market share in Influenza Vaccine Market. United States Influenza Vaccine Market Share was almost 4 times more than China and Japan Influenza Vaccine Market Share. United States & China together captures close to 60 percent in Pediatrics Influenza Vaccine Market Share. Whereas, in adult vaccination segments, United States and Japan will share ...
Global Influenza Vaccine Market is worth more than US$ 5 Billion. Globally Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated Population was more than 150 Thousand, but still this figure was significantly less than the Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population. As per our research Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated population will decline in future and Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population will increase in forecast period.. Get Free 10% Customization in this Report. United States has the highest market share in Influenza Vaccine Market. United States Influenza Vaccine Market Share was almost 4 times more than China and Japan Influenza Vaccine Market Share. United States & China together captures close to 60 percent in Pediatrics Influenza Vaccine Market Share. Whereas, in adult vaccination segments, United States and Japan will share ...
Global Influenza Vaccine Market is worth more than US$ 5 Billion. Globally Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated Population was more than 150 Thousand, but still this figure was significantly less than the Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population. As per our research Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated population will decline in future and Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population will increase in forecast period.. Get Free 10% Customization in this Report. United States has the highest market share in Influenza Vaccine Market. United States Influenza Vaccine Market Share was almost 4 times more than China and Japan Influenza Vaccine Market Share. United States & China together captures close to 60 percent in Pediatrics Influenza Vaccine Market Share. Whereas, in adult vaccination segments, United States and Japan will share ...
Vaccination against influenza is considered the most important public health intervention to prevent unnecessary hospitalizations and premature deaths related to influenza in the elderly, though there are significant inequities among global influenza vaccine resources, capacities, and policies. The objective of this study was to assess the social determinants of health preventing adults ≥65 years old from accessing and accepting seasonal influenza vaccination. A systematic search was performed in January 2011 using MEDLINE, ISI - Web of Science, PsycINFO, and CINAHL (1980-2011). Reference lists of articles were also examined. Selection criteria included qualitative and quantitative studies written in English that examined social determinants of and barriers against seasonal influenza vaccination among adults≥65 years. Two authors performed the quality assessment and data ...
During weeks 22 and 23 in 2012, laboratory confirmed influenza activity remained low in many parts of the northern hemisphere. In the southern hemisphere the influenza season started in some countries with local outbreaks reported. Globally, A(H3N2) viruses remained the dominant virus followed by influenza B and influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses respectively. In Asia, influenza A(H3N2) activity has remained high in the China Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. In week 23, a detection of an oseltamivir resistant influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, the 20th case since 2009, was reported. In Europe, influenza activity was low with sporadic detections reported.. In North America, among the continuing declining detections of influenza viruses, influenza B viruses outnumbered A(H3N2) viruses in recent weeks. In Central America an increase of influenza ...
We used a mathematical model with two circulating influenza strains to evaluate the effect of modified pH1N1 infection risk following receipt of seasonal influenza vaccine on optimal seasonal vaccination strategies in the Canadian population. Our projections suggest that, in the presence of the best currently available information on the epidemiology of pH1N1 in Canada, the decisions by several jurisdictional health authorities to restrict or delay the use of seasonal vaccines until after the likely peak of the autumn pandemic wave represents a reasonable choice under uncertainty. Specifically, in the presence of low levels of co-circulating seasonal influenza strains, even a relatively small enhancement of risk associated with vaccination has a negative impact on total influenza-attributable mortality if the entire population is immunized at usual ...
This report updates 1999 recommendations by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) on the use of influenza vaccine and antiviral agents (MMWR 1999;48[No. RR-4]: 1-29). These recommendations include five principal changes: a) the age for universal vaccination has been lowered to 50 years from 65 years; b) scheduling of large, organized vaccination campaigns after mid-October may be considered because the availability of vaccine in any location cannot be assured consistently in the early fall; c) 2000-2001 trivalent vaccine virus strains are A/Moscow/10/99 (H3N2)-like, A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1)-like, and B/Beijing/184/93-like strains; d) information on neuraminidase-inhibitor antiviral drugs has been added; and e) a list of other influenza-related infection control documents for special populations has been added. This report and other information on influenza can be accessed at the website for the Influenza Branch, ...
What is avian influenza? Avian influenza, or "bird flu," is an infection caused by influenza A viruses, which normally infect only birds. These influenza A viruses are found in wild birds worldwide and are quite contagious among birds. In many wild species of birds, especially in birds that swim or live near water including ducks, geese and gulls, infection with avian influenza generally does not cause illness, but may lead to serious disease in domesticated birds such as chickens, ducks, and turkeys . What types of avian influenza viruses are there and which cause serious disease in birds? Influenza A viruses are classified into subtypes based on certain proteins present on the outer layer of the virus. These proteins are hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). There are 16 different H subtypes and 9 different N subtypes. Any combination of these two protein types is possible to form a ...
We therefore evaluated the efficacy of influenza vaccination in SLE patients in several ways. With respect to the percentage of patients who achieved seroconversion or a fourfold titre rise we found that influenza vaccination was less effective for A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 in SLE patients. Accordingly, fewer SLE patients achieved a protective titre after vaccination against both the influenza A strains together when compared with healthy controls, despite the fact that more patients than controls had received a vaccination with the same viral antigens the year before. We suggest that the GMT in SLE patients after vaccination did not differ from the controls because GMT before vaccination was higher in the patients-which can easily be accounted for by their higher rate of previous vaccination. The conclusion that SLE patients appear to have a decreased immune response compared with healthy controls is supported by the subanalysis of those patients and controls who ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impact of the 2009 influenza pandemic on pneumococcal pneumonia hospitalizations in the United States. AU - Weinberger, Daniel M.. AU - Simonsen, Lone. AU - Jordan, Richard. AU - Steiner, Claudia. AU - Miller, Mark. AU - Viboud, Cecile. PY - 2012/2. Y1 - 2012/2. N2 - BACKGROUND:Infection with influenza virus increases the risk for developing pneumococcal disease. The A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in autumn 2009 provided a unique opportunity to evaluate this relationship.METHODS:Using weekly age-, state-, and cause-specific hospitalizations from the US State Inpatient Databases of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project 2003-2009, we quantified the increase in pneumococcal pneumonia hospitalization rates above a seasonal baseline during the pandemic period.RESULTS:We found a significant increase in pneumococcal hospitalizations from late August to mid-December 2009, which corresponded to the timing of highest ...
Influenza remains a potentially significant and largely preventable source of morbidity and mortality, yet vaccine coverage is low. Young children are at particular risk for underimmunization because they may need to receive 2 doses in a current season. Even among those young children that initiate vaccination, only 40% receive the important second dose, yet one dose does not confer adequate protection. Low-income, urban children may be at particular risk of not receiving two doses. While traditional mail and phone immunization reminders notifying families that a vaccine is due have had limited efficacy in low-income, urban populations, we have demonstrated the success of using text messages. Comparing the effectiveness of different forms of reminders on receipt of this critical second dose of influenza vaccine has not been studied. Besides failure to remember to return for subsequent doses, receipt of 2 doses of influenza vaccine in a season can be affected ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunogenicity and safety of concomitant MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine administration in older adults. AU - Song, Joon-Young. AU - Cheong, Hee-Jin. AU - Tsai, T. F.. AU - Chang, Hyun ah. AU - Choi, Min Joo. AU - Jeon, Ji Ho. AU - Kang, Seong Hee. AU - Jeong, Eun Ju. AU - Noh, Ji Yun. AU - Kim, Woo Joo. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Background: Concomitant administration of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines facilitates their uptake by older adults; however, data on immunogenicity and safety of concomitant administration of adjuvanted trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (aIIV3) and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) have not been reported. Methods: Subjects aged ≥65 years (. N=. 224) were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive MF59-aIIV3 alone, MF59-aIIV3. +. PPSV23 in contralateral arms, MF59-aIIV3. +. PPSV23 in the same arm or PPSV23 ...
Seqirus Fluvax (previously bioCSL) is registered by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) for administration in children ≥5 years of age; however, it is not recommended for use in children , 9 years of age (refer to 4.7.11 Adverse events and 4.7.13 Variations from product information below).. All the influenza vaccines currently available in Australia are either split virion or subunit vaccines prepared from purified inactivated influenza virus that has been cultivated in embryonated hens eggs. The influenza virus composition of vaccines for use in Australia is determined annually by the Australian Influenza Vaccine Committee following recommendations by the World Health Organization based on global influenza epidemiology.23. Since the late 1970s, influenza vaccines have contained three strains of influenza virus - two ...
Latest industry research report on Influenza Vaccines Market. Influenza is a type of seasonal or pandemic condition causing fever, coryza, cough, headache, and malaise. The severity of influenza symptoms varies across age groups and type of influenza. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately, 3 to 5 million people are prone to seasonal epidemics, annually.. The growing number of ageing population and an increase in the frequency of seasonal influenza outbreak supplement the demand for influenza vaccines across the healthcare industry. Intellectual property rights are providing security to the patent holders, thereby, increases their market share. However, the upcoming patent expirations for top influenza vaccines and the growing popularity of influenza ...
[177 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Avian Influenza Vaccines Consumption 2016 Market Research Report report by QYResearch Group. The Global Avian Influenza Vaccines Consumption 2016 Market Research Report...
Abstract. Secondary or reactive hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is frequently related to viral infections. However, the novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus associated HPS has never been reported. On October 10, 2009, a 17-year-old female child with no past medical history, complaining of severe asthenia, pneumonia, myalgia, and high fever, was admitted to our department, and H1N1 DNA was detected. Five days after her hospitalization, all signs and symptoms aggravated into HPS. After treatment for H1N1 influenza, the patient had a recovery and clearance of H1N1 infection 10 days after hospitalization. Three weeks later, the patient was discharged without any complaints, indicating the etiological role of H1N1infection in HPS.
The aim of the study is to demonstrate safety and immunogenicity of the quadrivalent influenza intradermal (QIV-ID) vaccine compared to the trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) containing the B strain from the primary (Yamagata) lineage (TIV-ID1) and the trivalent influenza vaccine containing B strain from the alternate (Victoria) lineage (TIV-ID2) vaccines in producing protection against four strains of influenza virus.. Primary Objective:. ...
Because fatal infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 have been reported in birds of prey, we sought to determine detailed information about the birds susceptibility and protection after vaccination. Ten falcons vaccinated with an inactivated influenza virus (H5N2) vaccine seroconverted. We then challenged 5 vaccinated and 5 nonvaccinated falcons with HPAI (H5N1). All vaccinated birds survived; all unvaccinated birds died within 5 days. For the nonvaccinated birds, histopathologic examination showed tissue degeneration and necrosis, immunohistochemical techniques showed influenza virus antigen in affected tissues, and these birds shed high levels of infectious virus from the oropharynx and cloaca. Vaccinated birds showed no influenza virus antigen in tissues and shed virus at lower titers from the oropharynx only. Vaccination could protect these valuable birds and, through reduced virus shedding, reduce ...
The 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic placed unprecedented demand on public health authorities and the vaccine industry. Efforts were coordinated internationally to maximise the speed of vaccine development, distribution, and delivery, and the European Unions novel fast-track authorisation procedures mandated increased postmarketing surveillance to monitor vaccine safety. Clinicians in Finland and Sweden later identified an apparent increase in the incidence of narcolepsy associated with a specific adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine. After extensive review, the European Medicines Agency confirmed the existence of this association, which has since been detected in England, Ireland, France, and Norway. Assessments of the causal mechanisms continue. In this Review, we discuss how the narcolepsy association was detected, and we present the evidence according to the causality assessment criteria for adverse events following immunisation. The lessons learnt emphasise the central ...
EFSAs role is to provide EU risk managers with independent scientific advice and scientific assistance on the animal health and welfare dimension of avian influenza and any possible food safety issues. Since the risk of avian influenza was first identified, EFSA has issued a substantial body of scientific advice to assist risk managers in making appropriate decisions and actions. To carry out its scientific work, EFSA exchanges information with national food safety authorities, the European Commission, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and other international organisations active in this field.. EFSA has provided scientific advice on the food safety aspects of avian influenza confirming that there is no available epidemiological evidence that avian influenza can be transmitted to humans through consumption of food.. EFSA has also issued advice on the animal health and welfare aspects of avian ...
Three main research products are reported in this dissertation. This research focused on estimation of the seroprevalence rates in agricultural workers with exposure to pigs and poultry, and determination of risk factors for infection. Chapter 2, Are swine workers in the United States at increased risk of infection with zoonotic influenza virus?, reports controlled, cross-sectional seroprevalence studies among farmers, meat processing workers, veterinarians, and control subjects. Using a hemagglutination inhibition assay against six influenza A virus isolates, all 3 exposed study groups demonstrated markedly elevated titers against the H1N1 and H1N2 swine influenza virus isolates, compared with control subjects. Chapter 3, Infection due to 3 avian influenza subtypes in United States veterinarians, describes a controlled, cross-sectional seroprevalence study that examined veterinarians in the ...
PubMed journal article Effectiveness of influenza vaccine for preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalizations in adults, 2011-2012 influenza seaso were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Diversity, flexibility, adaptability: three key features that contribute to the efficient transmission and continued existence of influenza A viruses.. Influenza A viruses (IVA) are enveloped viruses, classified as a genus in the family Orthomyxoviridae. This virus family includes seven genera housing viruses that cause influenza in vertebrates (Influenza A-D), infect salmon (ISAvirus) or that are arboviruses (Thogotovirus) infecting vertebrates and invertebrates such as ticks and mosquitoes. In humans and farm animals IVA is the most important group, inducing dramatic diseases in humans and other mammals as well as in birds. Based on the variability of the two viral surface proteins, haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase, IVA can be divided into 16 HA- and 9 NA-subtypes, with the recent addition of two new subtypes detected in tropical bats (H17N10, H18N11). In birds, 16 HA and NA subtypes have been detected and can be specifically linked ...
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess the predictive effects of socioeconomic factors to explain influenza vaccination coverage rates in 11 European countries. METHODS: Data from national household surveys collected over up to seven consecutive seasons between 2001/2002 and 2007/2008 were analyzed to assess the associations of socioeconomic factors with immunization against influenza. RESULTS: In total, data from 92,101 household contacts representative for the national non-institutionalized population aged above 14 years were analyzed. Influenza vaccination coverage rates in Europe remain suboptimal with little or no progress in the last years. The results of this study indicate that gender, household income, size of household, educational level and population size of living residence may significantly contribute to explain chances of getting immunized against influenza apart from the known ...
Cyclophilin A (CypA) is the main member of the immunophilin superfamily that has peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity. CypA participates in protein folding, cell signaling, inflammation and tumorigenesis. Further, CypA plays critical roles in the replication of several viruses. Upon influenza virus infection, CypA inhibits viral replication by interacting with the M1 protein. In addition, CypA is incorporated into the influenza virus virions. Finally, Cyclosporin A (CsA), the main inhibitor of CypA, inhibits influenza virus replication through CypA-dependent and -independent pathways. This review briefly summarizes recent advances in understanding the roles of CypA during influenza virus infection.
Author Summary H5N1 influenza virus has been responsible for poultry outbreaks over the last 12 years-the longest recorded example of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) circulation in poultry. The ecological success of this virus in diverse species of both poultry and wild birds with sporadic introduction to humans suggests that it is a likely source of the next human pandemic. Genome sequences of H5N1 viruses reveal extensive genetic reassortment (mixing) with other influenza subtypes to produce many H5N1 genotypes that have developed into multiple genetically distinct clades, some of which have spread to affect over 60 countries. Here, we analyze all available sequence data of avian influenza viruses from Eurasia and show that the original HPAI H5N1 virus (referred to as A/goose/Guangdong/1/96) was likely introduced directly into poultry as an intact virus particle from wild aquatic birds. In contrast, H5N1 genotypes ...
海词词典,最权威的学习词典,专业出版advisory committee on immunization practices是什么意思,advisory committee on immunization practices的用法,advisory committee on immunization practices翻译和读音等详细讲解。海词词典:学习变容易,记忆很深刻。
According to Thompson, et al. (2003), approximately 51,000 people per year died annually due to influenza related diseases between 1990 and 1999. Mortality rates are appreciably higher for those over 65 years of age.. In order to reduce mortality and morbidity from influenza in the U.S., the CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) released its "Prevention and Control of Influenza" guide this summer. The report documents important information regarding influenza and gives recommendations to patients and providers regarding when/for whom/in what manner influenza vaccinations should be administered.. According to this paper, influenza is divided into two types: influenza A and influenza B. Influenza A is further divided into two subgroups: hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. Influenza represents a unique family of viruses since ...
Canine influenza H3N8 virus originated in horses, has spread to dogs, and can now spread between dogs. The H3N8 equine influenza (horse flu) virus has been known to exist in horses for more than 40 years. In 2004, however, cases of an unknown respiratory illness in dogs (initially greyhounds) were reported in the United States. An investigation showed that this respiratory illness was caused by the equine influenza A H3N8 virus. Scientists believe this virus jumped species (from horses to dogs) and has adapted to cause illness in dogs and spread among dogs, especially those housed in kennels and shelters. This is now considered a dog-specific H3N8 virus. In September 2005, this virus was identified by experts as a "newly emerging pathogen in the dog population" in the United States.. The H3N2 canine influenza virus is an avian flu virus that adapted to infect dogs. This virus is different from human seasonal H3N2 viruses. ...
To evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive hand hygiene campaign on reducing absenteeism caused by influenza-like illness (ILI), diarrhea, conjunctivitis, and laboratory-confirmed influenza, we conducted a randomized control trial in 60 elementary schools in Cairo, Egypt. Children in the intervention schools were required to wash hands twice each day, and health messages were provided through entertainment activities. Data were collected on student absenteeism and reasons for illness. School nurses collected nasal swabs from students with ILI, which were tested by using a qualitative diagnostic test for influenza A and B. Compared with results for the control group, in the intervention group, overall absences caused by ILI, diarrhea, conjunctivitis, and laboratory-confirmed influenza were reduced by 40%, 30%, 67%, and 50%, respectively (p<0.0001 for each illness). An intensive hand hygiene campaign was effective in ...
Health care providers should not use live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in the upcoming 2016-17 season due to poor effectiveness, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) committee said Wednesday.. Academy leaders say they support the interim recommendation by the CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).. "We agree with ACIPs decision today to recommend health care providers and parents use only the inactivated vaccine for this influenza season," said AAP President Benard Dreyer, M.D., FAAP.. The AAP recommends children ages 6 months and older be immunized against influenza every year. Previously, the CDC and AAP had recommended either form of flu vaccine - the inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) that is given by injection and is approved for all patients older than 6 months, or LAIV which is given by intranasal spray and is approved for healthy patients ages 2 through 49 years.. However, new ...
Influenza B viruses cause the same spectrum of disease as influenza A. However, influenza B viruses do not cause pandemics. This property may be a consequence of the limited host range of the virus - humans and seals - which limits the generation of new strains by reassortment. The virus causes significant morbidity: in the US in 2008, approximately one-third of all laboratory confirmed cases of influenza were caused by influenza B (as shown on the first graph on this CDC page). Consequently the seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine contains an influenza B virus component. ...
We at Bernville Veterinary Clinic - Pet Spa & Resort are now recommending that our dog patients be vaccinated for Canine Influenza and will require it for our Spa guests. Canine Influenza Virus (H3N8) is an influenza virus that is relatively new and highly contagious. It can be a part of a complex of viral and bacterial upper respiratory agents causing illness in dogs. Different parts of the country have experienced outbreaks, including the northeast and Pennsylvania. Signs of Canine Flu are very similar to Kennel Cough except usually more severe. These signs include coughing mainly; fever, ocular & nasal discharge, and sneezing. The disease can progress to pneumonia in severe cases. About 80% of dogs exposed to the virus will show signs of the Flu and up to 8% can die from infection. The 20% who show no signs will still shed and spread the virus. The virus can remain active on hands for up to 12 hours and 24 hours on clothing. The safe vaccine greatly ...
We limited our search to studies with laboratory-confirmed influenza virus infection, which may have underestimated case rates because of variable testing and reporting of results. Other studies have reported estimated incidence rates of influenza-associated outcomes among pregnant women without laboratory confirmation of influenza disease. A study that used multiple data sources-not all of which contained laboratory-confirmed influenza disease-to quantify influenza-associated hospitalizations in Canada from 1994-2000 reported a rate of 150 influenza-associated hospitalizations (95% CI: 140-170) per 100,000 pregnant women per influenza season [37]. This rate was more than 10-fold higher than the highest rate reported by the four studies of laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalizations among pregnant women in our study. A study of symptomatic probable and ...
The World Health Organization (WHO), the U.S. Department of Health, and Human Services (HHS) and other like-minded organizations and governments are committed to assisting in the creation of regionally-based, independent and sustainable vaccine production capacity in developing and emerging economy countries through capacity building and technology transfer. As a means of initiating a coordinated discussion among the international community regarding this shared goal, WHO and HHS convened the Sustainable Influenza Vaccine Production Capacity Stakeholders Workshop in Washington D.C. in January 2010. A key theme that emerged during the workshop discussions was the fact that sustainable vaccine production capacity cannot be achieved in the absence of robust national regulatory systems. A robust regulatory system is one the exhibits the capability to perform their regulatory functions with consistency under a wide range of conditions. There is a need to increase the current investment by WHO in ...
Avian influenza-known informally as avian flu or bird flu is a variety of influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds. The type with the greatest risk is highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). Bird flu is similar to swine flu, dog flu, horse flu and human flu as an illness caused by strains of influenza viruses that have adapted to a specific host. Out of the three types of influenza viruses (A, B, and C), influenza A virus is a zoonotic infection with a natural reservoir almost entirely in birds. Avian influenza, for most purposes, refers to the influenza A virus. Though influenza A is adapted to birds, it can also stably adapt and sustain person-to person transmission. Recent influenza research into the genes of the Spanish flu virus shows it to have genes adapted from both human and avian strains. Pigs can also be infected with human, ...
Alicia provided highlights of the influenza surveillance report from week 47, ending on November 25, 2017. Overall, influenza activity is increasing throughout the country.. The percentage of respiratory specimens testing positive for influenza in clinical laboratories was 7.2%.. The majority of specimens (75.6%) tested at public health laboratories were influenza A, and 24.4% were influenza B. Influenza A H3 continues to be the dominant strain reported, though smaller numbers of influenza A (H1) and influenza B also have been reported. For the 2017-2018 season as a whole, 89.1% of influenza A specimens were H3. For the B viruses for which lineage information was available, 62.4% were B Yamagata. Specimens characterized since May have been antigenically and genetically similar to the reference virus for this seasons vaccine. There has been no antiviral ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The clinical usefulness of the SD bioline influenza antigen test® for detecting the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus. AU - Choi, Wonseok. AU - Noh, Ji Yun. AU - Huh, Joong Yeon. AU - Kee, Sae Yoon. AU - Jeong, Hye Won. AU - Lee, Jacob. AU - Song, Joon-Young. AU - Cheong, Hee-Jin. AU - Kim, Woo Joo. PY - 2011/7/1. Y1 - 2011/7/1. N2 - Though the 2009 worldwide influenza A (H1N1) pandemic has been declared to have ended, the influenza virus is expected to continue to circulate from some years as a seasonal influenza. A rapid antigen test (RAT) can aid in rapid diagnosis and allow for early antiviral treatment. We evaluated the clinical usefulness of RAT using SD Bioline Influenza Antigen Test® kit to detect the influenza virus, considering various factors. From August 1, 2009 to October 10, 2009, a total of 938 patients who visited the outpatient clinic at Korea ...
Influenza virus kills nearly 500,000 individuals each year and this number can increase dramatically during a pandemic with a novel strain of influenza virus. Infections with influenza virus can be prevented by antiviral drugs like oseltamivir or vaccinations. However, antiviral drugs are not prescribed prophylactically and vaccination is not monitored for efficacy providing ample opportunity for influenza to infect and cause disease. If we can identify individuals that are at increased risk of severe influenza virus we can tailor our care to provide drugs prophylactically to improve health and longevity. The goal of our research is to define genetic biomarkers that predict susceptibility to influenza disease. The interferon pathway is very important for restricting influenza virus replication and therefore disease. Individuals with unique or rare polymorphisms in essential genes in this ...
Protective immunity against influenza virus infection is mediated by neutralizing antibodies, but the precise role of T cells in human influenza immunity is uncertain. We conducted influenza infection studies in healthy volunteers with no detectable antibodies to the challenge viruses H3N2 or H1N1. We mapped T cell responses to influenza before and during infection. We found a large increase in influenza-specific T cell responses by day 7, when virus was completely cleared from nasal samples and serum antibodies were still undetectable. Preexisting CD4+, but not CD8+, T cells responding to influenza internal proteins were associated with lower virus shedding and less severe illness. These CD4+ cells also responded to pandemic H1N1 (A/CA/07/2009) peptides and showed evidence of cytotoxic activity. These cells are an important statistical correlate of homotypic and heterotypic response and may limit severity ...
Intercell Supports the Japanese Encephalitis Vaccination Recommendations of CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices - Expanded Guidelines to include availability of IXIARO(R) vaccine for
During week 52 in 2011 and week 1 in 2012, laboratory confirmed influenza activity continued to increase in some countries in the northern hemisphere but in general influenza activity remained low. Globally influenza A(H3N2) remained the predominant virus subtype detected. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 detection was very low, while the proportion of circulating B virus varied. Co-circulation of both B/Yamagata and B/Victoria lineage viruses were reported in some countries.. In Europe, the Middle East, North Africa and North America, influenza A(H3N2) activity continued to increase in some countries with localized to widespread activity reported. Influenza B virus was detected at low levels with A(H1N1)pdm09 detected sporadically.. In Asia, activity of influenza viruses in various proportions increased in some countries ranging from local to regional levels. Influenza A(H3N2) virus ...
Summary Parenteral immunization of BALB/c mice at 3 months of age with inactivated influenza virus vaccine elicited a haemagglutinin (HA)-specific serum IgG antibody response. The magnitude of this response declined with advancing age at the time of vaccination. By contrast, HA-specific IgA and IgG antibody levels observed in lung lavage fluids of mice immunized at 1 and 2 years of age were comparable to those of 5 month old mice when inactivated influenza virus vaccine was administered intragastrically. The secretory immune response was not fully developed in the first 3 weeks of life. However, the HA-specific IgA and IgG responses to oral vaccination in sera were reduced in 1 or 2 year old mice when compared to 5 month old mice. These data demonstrated the preservation of the virus-specific secretory IgA response in the pulmonary fluids of aged mice after oral vaccination with inactivated influenza virus vaccine. An age-dependent ...
The antiviral drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu(®)) is a cornerstone in influenza pandemic preparedness plans worldwide. However, resistance to the drug is a growing concern. The active metabolite oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) is not degraded in surface water or sewage treatment plants and has been detected in river water during seasonal influenza outbreaks. The natural influenza reservoir, dabbling ducks, can thus be exposed to OC in aquatic environments. Environmental-like levels of OC induce resistance development in influenza A/H1N1 virus in mallards. There is a risk of resistance accumulation in influenza viruses circulating among wild birds when oseltamivir is used extensively. By reassortment or direct transmission, oseltamivir resistance can be transmitted to humans potentially causing a resistant pandemic or human-adapted highly-pathogenic avian influenza virus. There is a need for more ...
http://www.cdc.gov/swineflu/clinician_pregnant.htm (2 of 4) [4/28/2009 4:21:44 PM] CDC - Influenza (Flu) , Interim Guidance Pregnant Women and Swine Influenza: Considerations for Clinicians The risk for swine influenza A (H1N1) might be reduced by taking steps to reduce the chance of being exposed to respiratory infections. There is no vaccine available yet to prevent swine influenza A (H1N1). These actions include frequent handwashing, covering coughs, and having ill persons stay home, except to seek medical care, and minimize contact with others in the household who may be ill with swine flu. Additional measures that can limit transmission of a new influenza strain include voluntary home quarantine of members of households with confirmed or probable swine influenza cases, reduction of unnecessary social contacts, and avoidance whenever possible of crowded settings. If used correctly, facemasks and ...
Influenza A and B viruses cause a pandemic threat to human health throughout the world [1]. Sporadic transmission of influenza viruses from birds to humans could lead to unpredictable pandemic outbreaks. Influenza is an infectious disease of the respiratory tract that can infect millions of people and kills hundreds of thousands of them [2]. Humans, infected with influenza A, manifest typically an acute upper respiratory tract illness characterized by fever, cough, and sore throat. Disease severity depends mainly on the virulence of the influenza virus strain and immune competence of the patients [3]. Influenza viruses are members of the Orthomyxoviridae family, and they are further classed as A, B, and C viruses [4]. Until now, 17 influenza A hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes have been described. However, only a limited number of influenza A viruses (IAV), such as H1, H2, H3, H5, ...
A multidisciplinary research team, including scholars from the Institute of Medical Virology at Justus Liebig University Giessen, has recently developed a tool, which is suitable to identify candidate pandemic influenza viruses circulating in animal hosts.. On the basis of a combined application of a computational technique (ISM) and experimental molecular virological methods, the research team from Germany and Serbia was able to develop and validate a new tool to predict possible biological effects resulting from naturally occurring mutations as they are found for example in H5N1 viruses in Egypt. Thus, the ISM technique can help to identify those influenza viruses circulating in animal hosts that could efficiently transmit to humans and therewith possess a possible pandemic potential.. The research team involves the Institute of Medical Virology (JLU), the Georg-Speyer-Haus - Institute for Tumor Biology and Experimental Therapy (Frankfurt am Main), the ...
Heterosubtypic immunity, defined as cross-reactive immune responses to influenza virus of a different serotype than the virus initially encountered, was investigated in association with virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses induced in systemic and mucosa-associated lymph nodes after immunization via different routes. Mice immunized by the pulmonary route with live nonpathogenic influenza virus, strain Udorn (H3N2), survived challenge with mouse-adapted pathogenic influenza virus, strain PR/8/34 (H1N1). These mice developed strong heterosubtypic CTL responses in spleen, cervical lymph nodes (CLN), and mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN). Alternately, only 20% of mice immunized intravenously, intraperitoneally, or intranasally survived the challenge; all of these developed CTL responses in spleen and CLN, but not in MLN. Direct correlation between short-term and long-term memory heterosubtypic CTL responses induced in MLN and host recovery after ...
Background: In 2006, Nigeria reported Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in poultry. In 2007, the first human case was detected linked to poultry from a Live Bird Market (LBM). The West and Central African Regional Laboratory for Avian Influenza in Nigeria is responsible for investigating specimens from birds meeting the case definition of HPAI (passive surveillance) and for specimens collected routinely from LBMs and high risk areas (active HPAI surveillance). We evaluated the laboratory component of the surveillance systems to determine whether it meets their objectives of early detection and response.. Methods: We used CDCs updated guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems, conducted six key informant interviews, reviewed laboratory reports and analyzed HPAI surveillance data from 2006-2009.. Results: The active system employed a simple case definition with timely submission of specimens. Laboratory results were available within ...
What Can Traditional Chinese Medicine Do For You During The Flu Season? The flu season is hitting us particularly hard this season. Its been everywhere in the news. Some hospitals are making it mandatory that workers in high-risk areas receive the flu vaccine. Generally, most flu activity in the US occurs from November through March. The best way to treat a disease is to prevent it. It is absolutely a bad idea to wait to dig a well until you are thirsty. So, do something to enhance your qi now, before the influenza virus shoots you down. In China, special anti-virus teas are usually given in public schools to help prevent illness during the flu season. Chinese herbs such as Huang Qi (Astralagus) and Dang Shen (Codonopsis) are used to strengthen qi and to boost the immune system. Herbs such as Ban Lan Gen (Isatis) and Da Qing Ye (Daqingye) are commonly used as anti-virus herbs. ...
The 2006 outbreaks of H5N1 avian influenza in Egypt interrupted poultry production and caused staggering economic damage. In addition, H5N1 avian influenza viruses represent a significant threat to public health. Therefore, the rapid detection of H5 viruses is very important in order to control the disease. In this study, a qualitative reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the detection of hemagglutinin gene of H5 subtype influenza viruses was developed. The results were compared to the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Anin vitrotranscribed RNA standard of 970 nucleotides of the hemagglutinin gene was developed and used to determine the assay sensitivity. The developed H5 RT-RPA assay was able to detect one RNA molecule within 7min, while in real-time RT-PCR, at least 90min was required. H5 RT-RPA assay did not detect nucleic acid extracted from H5 negative samples or from other ...
Since prehistoric times, the Bering Strait area (Beringia) has served as an avenue of dispersal between the Old and the New Worlds. On a field expedition to this area, we collected fecal samples from dabbling ducks, geese, shorebirds, and gulls on the Chukchi Peninsula, Siberia, and Pt. Barrow, Alaska, and characterized the subtypes of avian influenza virus present in them. Four of 202 samples (2%) from Alaska were positive for influenza A virus RNA in two independent polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based screening assays, while all shorebird samples from the Chukchi Peninsula were negative. Subtypes H3N8 and H6N1 were recorded once, while subtype H8N4 was found in two samples. Full-length sequences were obtained from the three unique isolates, and phylogenetic analysis with representative sequences for the Eurasian and North American lineages of influenza A virus showed that one HA gene clustered with the Eurasian rather than the North American lineage. ...
Common symptoms of influenza infection include fever, chills, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache, weakness/fatigue, and a nonproductive cough. Certain patients, including infants, the elderly, the immunocompromised, and those with impaired lung function, are at risk for serious complications. Influenza viruses cause annual outbreaks of influenza worldwide. In Canada, influenza or "flu" season usually runs from November to April and an estimated 10-25% of Canadians may get the flu each year. Although most of these people recover completely, an estimated 4,000 to 8,000 Canadians, mostly seniors, die every year from pneumonia related to influenza and many others may die from other serious complications of influenza.. Influenza infection may be treated with supportive therapy, as well as antiviral drugs such as the neuraminidase inhibitors, oseltamivir (TAMIFLU) and zanamivir (RELENZA), ...
Influenza Influenza virus got first acknowledged in 1933. There are two main types of influenza: influenza A and influenza B. Influenza A usually causes a more severe illness than influenza B. So what is influenza exactly? Influenza or flu (as we know it commonly) is a respiratory illness associated with infection by influenza virus. Some of the symptoms of influenza are headache, fever, cough, cold, sore throat, aching muscles and joints. Though, these symptoms are mild, there may arise serious complications like bronchitis and secondary bacterial pneumonia. However you dont need to worry if you are attacked by the influenza virus, treatment for this nasty illness is now available. On 9 February 2006 the UK Department of Health issued a letter to all general practitioners in England to inform them that the ...
Influenza A virus causes influenza in birds and some mammals, and is the only species of influenza virus A genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses. Strains of all subtypes of influenza A virus have been isolated from wild birds, although disease is uncommon. Some isolates of influenza A virus cause severe disease both in domestic poultry and, rarely, in humans. Occasionally, viruses are transmitted from wild aquatic birds to domestic poultry, and this may cause an outbreak or give rise to human influenza pandemics. Influenza A viruses are negative-sense, single-stranded, segmented RNA viruses. The several subtypes are labeled according to an H number (for the type of hemagglutinin) and an N number (for the type of neuraminidase). There are 18 different known H antigens (H1 to H18) and 11 different known N antigens (N1 to N11). H17 was isolated from fruit bats in 2012. H18N11 was ...
Background: In humans, the inability to provide lasting protection against influenza B virus infection is due, in part, to the rapid evolution of the viral surface glycoprotein, haemagglutinin (HA), which leads to a change in its antigenic nature. Therefore, the evolution of the haemagglutinin (HA) an important influenza antigen has and continues to be a subject of intensive research. In this study, we analyzed the evolution occurring in the haemagglutinin of influenza B viruses from Kenya since virological surveillance began in 2005. Methods: Thirty (30) influenza B haemagglutinin sequences of viruses isolated from different parts of the country between 2005-2009 at the NIC were analyzed. Nucleotide sequences, prediction of amino acid sequences, alignments, and phylogenetic tree construction were completed using BioEdit and MEGA® software Results: During the five year study period, the two influenza B lineages B/Yamagata ...
Because fatal infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 have been reported in birds of prey, we sought to determine detailed information about the birds susceptibility and protection after vaccination. Ten falcons vaccinated with an inactivated influenza virus (H5N2) vaccine seroconverted. We then challenged 5 vaccinated and 5 nonvaccinated falcons with HPAI (H5N1). All vaccinated birds survived; all unvaccinated birds died within 5 days. For the nonvaccinated birds, histopathologic examination showed tissue degeneration and necrosis, immunohistochemical techniques showed influenza virus antigen in affected tissues, and these birds shed high levels of infectious virus from the oropharynx and cloaca. Vaccinated birds showed no influenza virus antigen in tissues and shed virus at lower titers from the oropharynx only. Vaccination could protect these valuable birds and, through reduced virus shedding, reduce ...
Public Health in the National News - During the recent government shutdown, news media frequently mentioned that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) had stopped surveillance testing for the influenza virus. What is surveillance testing and why is tracking influenza outbreaks important? The Nebraska Public Health Labs assistant director, Anthony Sambol, and state training coordinator, Karen Stiles, help shed some light on the process recommended by the CDC.. The Nebraska Department of Health and Human Services Office of Epidemiology has had a comprehensive, statewide influenza surveillance testing system in place since 1999. This system actively tracks the type and incidence of influenza infections in our state. When a patient is diagnosed by the Rapid Influenza Detection Test as having an influenza virus type "A" or "B" or other influenza-like illness under the state ...
Background: In June 2009 a global influenza pandemic was declared by the World Health Organisation. A vaccination programme against H1N1 influenza was introduced in many countries from September 2009, but there was low uptake in both the general population and health professionals in many, though not all, countries. Purpose: To examine the psychological and demographic factors associated with uptake of vaccination during the 2009 pandemic. Method: A systematic literature review searching Web of Science and PubMed databases up to 24 January 2011. Results: 37 articles met the study inclusion criteria. Using the framework of Protection Motivation Theory the review found that both the degree of threat experienced in the 2009 pandemic influenza outbreak and perceptions of vaccination as an effective coping strategy were associated with stronger intentions and higher uptake of vaccination. Appraisal of threat resulted from both believing oneself ...
Wild birds are considered natural reservoirs of avian influenza virus (AIV) and at least 105 species of wild birds have been reported to harbor these viruses [1]. The migratory nature of these bird populations may help disseminate AIV across countries and continents. Most of the wild birds have been reported to harbor low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses [2-5] although highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have also been isolated from some species [6]. To understand how AIV is evolving in nature, it is important to identify the AIV subtypes circulating within wild bird populations.. A number of surveillance programs have been undertaken to isolate and identify the subtypes of AIV present in wild bird species e.g., waterfowl and geese [3, 7, 8] with limited reports in raptors. Thus, van Borm et al [9] detected HPAI H5N1 in Thai eagles that were smuggled into Belgium and Ducatez et al [10] isolated HPAI H5N1 from vultures in Burkina Faso. ...
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) cleared a new test developed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to diagnose human influenza infections and the highly pathogenic influenza A (H5N1) viruses. The device, called the Human Influenza Virus Real-Time RT-PCR Detection and Characterization Panel (rRT-PCR Flu Panel), uses a molecular biology technique to detect flu virus and differentiate between seasonal and novel influenza. The device is used to isolate and amplify viral genetic material present in secretions taken from a patients nose or throat. The viral genetic material is labeled with fluorescent molecules, which are then detected and analyzed by a diagnostic instrument called the Applied Biosystems 7500 Fast Dx, also cleared today by the FDA for diagnostic use simultaneously with the CDCs rRT-PCR Flu Panel. The test panel and diagnostic system can detect and identify commonly circulating ...
P2Y6 receptors are involved in mediating the effect of inactivated avian influenza virus H5N1 on IL-6 and CXCL8 mRNA expression in respiratory epithelium. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza viruses is a cylindrically shaped homotrimer, where each monomer comprises two disulfide-linked subdomains HA1 and HA2. Influenza infection is initiated by binding of HA1 to its host cell receptors and followed by the fusion between viral and host endosomal membranes mediated by HA2. Human influenza viruses preferentially bind to sialic acid that is linked to galactose by an α2,6-linkage (α2,6), whereas avian and swine influenza viruses preferentially recognize α2,3 or α 2,3/α2,6. For animal influenza viruses to cross host species barriers, their HA proteins must acquire mutations to gain the capacity to allow human-to-human transmission. In this study, the informational spectrum method (ISM), a bioinformatics approach, was applied to identify mutations and to elucidate the contribution to the receptor binding specificity from each mutation in HA1 in various subtypes within or between hosts, ...
A quantitative real time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay with specific primers recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) has been widely used successfully for detection and monitoring of the pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza A virus. In this study, we report the design and characterization of a novel set of primers to be used in a qRT-PCR assay for detecting the pandemic H1N1/2009 virus. The newly designed primers target three regions that are highly conserved among the hemagglutinin (HA) genes of the pandemic H1N1/2009 viruses and are different from those targeted by the WHO-recommended primers. The qRT-PCR assays with the newly designed primers are highly specific, and as specific as the WHO-recommended primers for detecting pandemic H1N1/2009 viruses and other influenza viruses including influenza B viruses and influenza A viruses of human, swine, and raccoon dog origin. Furthermore, the qRT-PCR assays ...
Influenza virus infection is one of the major causes of human morbidity and mortality. Between humans, this virus spreads mostly via aerosols excreted from the respiratory system. Current means of prevention of influenza virus infection are not entirely satisfactory because of their limited efficacy. Safe and effective preventive measures against pandemic influenza are greatly needed. We demonstrate that infection of mice induced by aerosols of influenza A virus was prevented by chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas at an extremely low concentration (below the long-term permissible exposure level to humans, namely 0.1 p.p.m.). Mice in semi-closed cages were exposed to aerosols of influenza A virus (1 LD50) and ClO2 gas (0.03 p.p.m.) simultaneously for 15 min. Three days after exposure, pulmonary virus titre (TCID50) was 102.6±1.5 in five mice treated with ClO2, whilst it was 106.7±0.2 in five mice that had not been treated (P=0.003). ...
Vaccination against influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae is recommended for elderly and immunocompromised individuals. However, there is little information concerning the efficacy of vaccination in specific groups of patients. In this study, 52 patients underwent vaccination against influenza, S. pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) as they attended hospital outpatient clinics. Serum was analysed prior to vaccination and 4-6 weeks afterwards. Antibody titres against S. pneumoniae and Hib were compared with reference values corresponding to the geometric mean titres of a healthy UK population. For influenza vaccination, haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titres were measured against three inactivated strains; a titre of , or = 1/40 was considered protective. No patient had protective titres to all three antigens prior to vaccination and 41 patients (85%) had titres , 1/40 to all 3 strains. Post vaccination only 9/48 patients ...
Serological assays based on hemagglutination inhibition (HI) are historically the most common way to determine antigenic characteristics of influenza A viruses, and the HI test also serves as a functional assay for detection of anti-influenza antibodies in sera.11 The HI test exploits the ability of influenza viruses to agglutinate red blood cells (RBCs), a characteristic for which the HA gene was named. Thus, an influenza virus can be identified as to its subtype in an HI assay. A standard concentration of influenza virus (antigen) and serial dilutions of HA-subtype-specific antiserum are mixed, and after a short incubation period, RBCs are added to the antigen-antibody mixture.12 If the serum antibodies bind to the viral hemagglutinin, hemagglutination is inhibited, and the RBCs settle to the bottom of the test well. Hemagglutination reactions are compared among the sets of antisera and viral antigens in a test panel, and ...
Phylogenetic analyses performed in this study and by others (7, 19, 24) have shown that each segment of the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus clusters with an established swine influenza lineage, suggesting that the progenitors of this virus likely originated in pigs. In previously documented instances of swine influenza virus infections of people, only limited human transmission was evident (22, 23, 30). The pandemic H1N1 2009 virus has demonstrated the ability for sustained human-to-human transmission, and the results of this and an associated study (10) confirm that the virus is also capable of human-to-swine, swine-to-swine, and swine-to-human transmission.. Based on a presumed single point source of infection for this swine herd (10), it is worth noting that none of the isolates, based on the sequences obtained for the H1, N1, NP, or M gene, were identical. This is in contrast to the apparent genetic stability of pandemic H1N1 2009 viruses that have ...
Currently, this region is battling against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 and the virus has been isolated in non-poultry birds in various countries in Middle East as well as in the European and African continents. These developments have ignited global fears of an imminent influenza pandemic. The adoption of a vaccination policy, targeted either to control or to prevent infection in poultry, is generally discouraged. Nevertheless, the need to boost eradication efforts in order to limit further spread of infection and avoid heavy economic losses, and advances in modern vaccine technologies, have prompted a re-evaluation of the potential use of vaccination in poultry as an additional tool in comprehensive disease control strategies. Hence, several types of vaccines are available and some of them have been tested experimentally and/or used in commercial farms. DNA vaccines have been shown to be an effective approach to ...
McElligott JT, Darden PM. Pediatrics 2010 Mar;125(3):e467-72. PMID: 20156897. OBJECTIVE: The goal was to determine whether patient-held vaccination records improve vaccination rates.. METHODS: The public-use files of the 2004-2006 National Immunization Survey, a national, validated survey of households with children 19 to 35 months of age, were used. The main outcome was up-to-date (UTD) vaccination status (4 diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis/diphtheria-tetanus vaccine, 3 poliovirus vaccine, 1 measles vaccine, 3 Haemophilus influenza type B vaccine, and 3 hepatitis B vaccine doses), and the main predictor was the use of a vaccination record. Control variables were race/ethnicity, maternal education, poverty status, language, number of children in the home, state of residence, and number of health care providers.. RESULTS: Overall, 80.8% of children were UTD, and 40.8% of children had vaccination records. Children with vaccination records were more likely to be UTD ...
As of April 27, 2009, the Government of Mexico has reported 18 laboratory confirmed human cases of swine influenza A/H1N1 infection. Investigation is continuing to clarify the spread and severity of the disease in Mexico. Suspect clinical cases have been reported in 19 of the countrys 32 states. The World Health Organization (WHO), the Global Alert and Response Network (GOARN), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have sent experts to Mexico to work with health authorities. CDC has confirmed that seven of 14 respiratory specimens sent to CDC by the Mexican National Influenza Center are positive for swine influenza virus and are similar to the swine influenza viruses recently identified in the United States.. On April 25, the WHO Director-General declared this event a Public Health Emergency of International Concern under the rules of the International Health Regulations. CDC and state public and animal health authorities ...
The 64-year-old male patient from Kunming, who was known to have contact with dead poultry, had onset on November 21 and was in a serious condition.. "This is the first human case reported in the Mainland since October 2017. As winter approaches, based on the seasonal pattern of avian influenza (H7N9) viruses, their activity in the Mainland is expected to increase," a spokesman for the Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection (CHP). LISTEN: H7N9 avian influenza in China: Should we be worried?. Since 2013, 1,564 human cases have been reported with all but 31 reported in China. 766 cases have been reported just since Oct. 2016.. Most human cases are exposed to avian influenza A(H7N9) virus through contact with infected poultry or contaminated environments, including live poultry markets. Since the virus continues to be detected in animals and environments, and live poultry vending continues, further human cases can be expected.. Related: Avian ...
WHO/Europe aim to reduce influenza-related morbidity and mortality by strengthening virological and epidemiological surveillance for mild and severe influenza; using surveillance data to estimate the burden of influenza in order to prioritize national influenza vaccination programmes; and maintaining and strengthening pandemic preparedness activities at the national level. WHO/Europe also monitors the emergence of other respiratory pathogens that have the potential to spread among humans. These include coronaviruses, which cause a range of illnesses from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to the common cold.. ...

Autism, mercury, thimerosal and vaccines: Natural News releases large collection of scientific knowledge thats been suppressed...Autism, mercury, thimerosal and vaccines: Natural News releases large collection of scientific knowledge that's been suppressed...

Just as the CDC advertises with seasonal flu vaccines, even when vaccines fail to prevent infections, they can make the ... In developing nations, hepatitis B (and other) vaccines still contain mercury. In the United States, some influenza vaccines ... Figures for the number of autism cases came from US Department of Education data sets. The researchers compared this data and ... and though no causal relationship has yet been established between thimerosal and autism the American Academy of Pediatrics and ...
more infohttps://www.naturalnews.com/2017-03-05-autism-mercury-thimerosal-and-vaccines-natural-news-releases-collection-of-scientific-knowledge-thats-been-suppressed.html

Safety and Immunogenicity of a Recombinant Influenza Vaccine: A Randomized Trial | Articles | PediatricsSafety and Immunogenicity of a Recombinant Influenza Vaccine: A Randomized Trial | Articles | Pediatrics

Guidance for industry: clinical data needed to support the licensure of seasonal inactivated influenza vaccines. 2007. ... Seasonal influenza vaccines have transitioned recently to quadrivalent formulations containing antigens representing both ... Prevention and control of seasonal influenza with vaccines. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices ... OBJECTIVES: The recombinant influenza vaccine is well established in adults ≥18 years of age for preventing seasonal influenza ...
more infohttps://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/141/5/e20173021

Recommendations for Prevention and Control of Influenza in Children, 2019-2020 | American Academy of PediatricsRecommendations for Prevention and Control of Influenza in Children, 2019-2020 | American Academy of Pediatrics

Seasonal Influenza Vaccines. Table 2 summarizes information on the types of influenza vaccines licensed for children and adults ... after influenza vaccine is considered a precaution for the administration of influenza vaccines. Data on the risk of GBS after ... All 2019-2020 seasonal influenza vaccines contain the same influenza strains as recommended by the World Health Organization ( ... Recommended Seasonal Influenza Vaccines for Different Age Groups: United States, 2019-2020 Influenza Season ...
more infohttps://pediatrics.aappublications.org/node/14851.full.print

Safety of Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccines --- United States, October 1--November 24, 2009Safety of Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccines --- United States, October 1--November 24, 2009

Data from VAERS indicated that the overall reporting rate after H1N1 vaccination was higher than the rate after seasonal ... pediatrics, immunology, and vaccine safety. The group will meet every 2 weeks and will provide reports to the public through ... TABLE 1. Adverse events reported after receipt of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccines and seasonal influenza vaccines ... 2009 monovalent vaccines, seasonal influenza vaccines, and antiviral medications in pregnancy and subsequent maternal and fetal ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5848a4.htm

Facts About Vaccine-Preventable DiseasesFacts About Vaccine-Preventable Diseases

Pediatrics. 2011;127;387-388.. *CDC. Misconceptions about Seasonal Influenza and Influenza Vaccines. Accessed February 2011. ... Thimerosal and the Occurrence of Autism: Negative Ecological Evidence From Danish Population-Based Data. Pediatrics, Sep 2003; ... Addressing Parents Concerns: Do Vaccines Contain Harmful Preservatives, Adjuvants, Additives, or Residuals? PEDIATRICS Vol. ... More than 80 candidate vaccines are in late stages of clinical testing, including vaccines for malaria and dengue fever. ...
more infohttps://www.verywellhealth.com/facts-about-vaccines-2633704

Safety of the 2011-12, 2012-13, and 2013-14 seasonal influenza vaccines in pregnancy: Preterm delivery and specific...Safety of the 2011-12, 2012-13, and 2013-14 seasonal influenza vaccines in pregnancy: Preterm delivery and specific...

Department of Pediatrics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States; Vaccines and Medications in ... We used data from the Slone Epidemiology Centers Birth Defects Study. For PTD, propensity score-adjusted time-varying hazard ... Safety of the 2011-12, 2012-13, and 2013-14 seasonal influenza vaccines in pregnancy: Preterm delivery and specific ... The few risks that were observed are compatible with chance, but warrant testing in other data. Given that vaccine components ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27452865

Influenza treatment - WikipediaInfluenza treatment - Wikipedia

Hampson AW (June 2008). "Vaccines for pandemic influenza. The history of our current vaccines, their limitations and the ... some data suggest that this could be a useful treatment for influenza. Peramivir, an experimental anti-influenza drug, ... "Prevention of influenza: recommendations for influenza immunization of children, 2007-2008". Pediatrics. 121 (4): e1016-31. doi ... "Current and future antiviral therapy of severe seasonal and avian influenza". Antiviral Res. 78 (1): 91-102. doi:10.1016/j. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Influenza_treatment

Influenza - Chapter 4 - 2020 Yellow Book | Travelers Health | CDCInfluenza - Chapter 4 - 2020 Yellow Book | Travelers' Health | CDC

Seasonal influenza vaccines are not expected to provide protection against human infection with animal-origin influenza viruses ... Global epidemiology of avian influenza A H5N1 virus infection in humans, 1997-2015: a systematic review of individual case data ... Recommendations for prevention and control of influenza in children, 2017-2018. Pediatrics. 2018 Jan;141(1):e20172550. ... Seasonal Influenza. Influenza circulation varies geographically. The risk of exposure to influenza during travel depends on the ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2012/chapter-3-infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/influenza-seasonal-zoonotic-and-pandemic.htm

Influenza - Chapter 4 - 2020 Yellow Book | Travelers Health | CDCInfluenza - Chapter 4 - 2020 Yellow Book | Travelers' Health | CDC

Seasonal influenza vaccines are not expected to provide protection against human infection with animal-origin influenza viruses ... Global epidemiology of avian influenza A H5N1 virus infection in humans, 1997-2015: a systematic review of individual case data ... Recommendations for prevention and control of influenza in children, 2017-2018. Pediatrics. 2018 Jan;141(1):e20172550. ... Seasonal Influenza. Influenza circulation varies geographically. The risk of exposure to influenza during travel depends on the ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2020/travel-related-infectious-diseases/influenza

Influenza Vaccination Coverage among Children Aged 6-23 Months - United States, 2008-09 Influenza Season  | FluVaxView |...Influenza Vaccination Coverage among Children Aged 6-23 Months - United States, 2008-09 Influenza Season | FluVaxView |...

The Journal of Pediatrics 2006; 149:755-762.. *CDC. Prevention and control of influenza with vaccines: recommendations of the ... Prevention and control of seasonal influenza with vaccines: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices ... Data source and methods. The estimates are based on data from the 2009 National Immunization Survey (NIS). The NIS is an ... Children who received only 1 dose of seasonal vaccine in the 2009-10 season and had no prior seasonal vaccines should also ...
more infohttps://espanol.cdc.gov/enes/flu/fluvaxview/coverage_6-23months.htm

Safety of Vaccines Used for Routine Immunization in the United States | Effective Health Care ProgramSafety of Vaccines Used for Routine Immunization in the United States | Effective Health Care Program

SOE was high for the following associations in nonpregnant adults: seasonal influenza vaccine and arthralgia, myalgia, malaise ... Safety of Vaccines Used for Routine Immunization of US Children: A Systematic Review. Pediatrics. Published online July 1, 2014 ... Data sources. We included placebo-controlled clinical trials and cohort studies comparing vaccinated and unvaccinated patients ... and a lack of association between influenza and pneumococcal vaccines and cardiovascular events in the elderly. Risk of GBS was ...
more infohttps://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/topics/vaccine-safety/research

Global Influenza Vaccine Market & Forecast (30 Countries Market & Vaccinated Population Data) By (Pediatrics & Adult) & Vaccine...Global Influenza Vaccine Market & Forecast (30 Countries Market & Vaccinated Population Data) By (Pediatrics & Adult) & Vaccine...

5. Seasonal Influenza Vaccination Market in Hungary, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia (East Europe) By (Infant & Adult) Forecast ... View more reports of this category by Renub Research at: http://www.renub.com/vaccines-12-c.php ... 1. Influenza Vaccine Market & Forecast (2011 - 2022). a. Pediatrics Influenza Vaccine Market& Forecast. b. Adult Influenza ... 1. Influenza Vaccine Market has been divided into two segments Pediatrics Influenza Vaccine Market and Adult Influenza Vaccine ...
more infohttp://www.pennsylvania-magazine.com/story/123541/global-influenza-vaccine-market-forecast-30-countries-market-vaccinated-population-data-by-pediatrics-adult-vaccine-brands-analysis.html

Global Influenza Vaccine Market & Forecast (30 Countries Market & Vaccinated Population Data) By (Pediatrics & Adult) & Vaccine...Global Influenza Vaccine Market & Forecast (30 Countries Market & Vaccinated Population Data) By (Pediatrics & Adult) & Vaccine...

5. Seasonal Influenza Vaccination Market in Hungary, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia (East Europe) By (Infant & Adult) Forecast ... View more reports of this category by Renub Research at: http://www.renub.com/vaccines-12-c.php ... 1. Influenza Vaccine Market & Forecast (2011 - 2022). a. Pediatrics Influenza Vaccine Market& Forecast. b. Adult Influenza ... 1. Influenza Vaccine Market has been divided into two segments Pediatrics Influenza Vaccine Market and Adult Influenza Vaccine ...
more infohttp://www.saintpaulchronicle.com/story/123240/global-influenza-vaccine-market-forecast-30-countries-market-vaccinated-population-data-by-pediatrics-adult-vaccine-brands-analysis.html

Global Influenza Vaccine Market & Forecast (30 Countries Market & Vaccinated Population Data) By (Pediatrics & Adult) & Vaccine...Global Influenza Vaccine Market & Forecast (30 Countries Market & Vaccinated Population Data) By (Pediatrics & Adult) & Vaccine...

5. Seasonal Influenza Vaccination Market in Hungary, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia (East Europe) By (Infant & Adult) Forecast ... View more reports of this category by Renub Research at: http://www.renub.com/vaccines-12-c.php ... 1. Influenza Vaccine Market & Forecast (2011 - 2022). a. Pediatrics Influenza Vaccine Market& Forecast. b. Adult Influenza ... 1. Influenza Vaccine Market has been divided into two segments Pediatrics Influenza Vaccine Market and Adult Influenza Vaccine ...
more infohttp://www.iowanewsheadlines.com/story/119520/global-influenza-vaccine-market-forecast-30-countries-market-vaccinated-population-data-by-pediatrics-adult-vaccine-brands-analysis.html

Influenza - Renal and Urology NewsInfluenza - Renal and Urology News

Influenza vaccines do not cause influenza. Two types of trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine are used to immunize both children ... If local or national influenza surveillance data indicate a predominance of a particular influenza strain with known antiviral ... "Recommendations for prevention and control of influenza in children, 2010-2011". Pediatrics.. vol. 126. 2010. pp. 816-826. ... Influenza is vaccine-preventable, so all people 6 months of age and older should receive trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine ...
more infohttp://www.renalandurologynews.com/pediatrics/influenza/article/623466/

Influenza: Optimizing Prevention and Treatment StrategiesInfluenza: Optimizing Prevention and Treatment Strategies

Prevention and control of seasonal influenza with vaccines. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices ... a meta-analysis of individual participant data. Lancet Respir Med. 2014;2:395-404. 13. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee ... Seasonal influenza is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Prevention of infection is key, and influenza ... quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (IIVs) and live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) ( TABLE 1 ). ...
more infohttps://uspharmacist.com/article/influenza-optimizing-prevention-and-treatment-strategies

Immunizations - National Association of School NursesImmunizations - National Association of School Nurses

Expansion of recommended immunizations (e.g., universal seasonal influenza vaccination and adolescent vaccines) presents ... Pediatrics, 127 (Supp 1), S92-S99. doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-1722N. Salmon, D., Moulton, L., Omer, S., Chace, L., Klassen, A., ... State IIS can provide consolidated vaccination data that can be used to design effective school-located immunization ... While immunization rates remain high for vaccines mandated for school entry, recommended childhood vaccines remain below the ...
more infohttps://www.nasn.org/advocacy/professional-practice-documents/position-statements/ps-immunizations

Influenza virus-related critical illness: prevention, diagnosis, treatment | Critical Care | Full TextInfluenza virus-related critical illness: prevention, diagnosis, treatment | Critical Care | Full Text

Based upon observational data that suggest harms, adjunctive corticosteroid treatment is currently not recommended for children ... In temperate climate countries, including the U.S., influenza activity peaks during the winter months. Annual influenza ... and respiratory failure during influenza season. Molecular tests are recommended for influenza testing of respiratory specimens ... A diagnosis of influenza should be considered in critically ill patients admitted with complications such as exacerbation of ...
more infohttps://ccforum.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13054-019-2491-9

Thiomersal - wikidocThiomersal - wikidoc

"Thimerosal in seasonal influenza vaccine". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 2008-04-02.. ... "Mercury levels in newborns and infants after receipt of thimerosal-containing vaccines". Pediatrics. 121 (2): e208-14. doi ... "Thiomersal Ph Eur, BP, USP material safety data sheet" (PDF). Merck. 2005-06-12. Retrieved 2007-10-01.. Check date values in: , ... Vaccines and autism: *. "Thimerosal in vaccines". Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug ...
more infohttp://wikidoc.org/index.php/Thiomersal

Influenza Vaccination: Prevent the Flu with Vaccination - EpidemiologyInfluenza Vaccination: Prevent the Flu with Vaccination - Epidemiology

Some seasonal flu vaccines will be formulated to protect against three flu viruses (trivalent flu vaccines). For many vaccine ... FluVaxView (CDC) - estimates of annual influenza vaccination coverage for the United States utilizing data from several ... information for healthcare professionals from the American Academy of Pediatrics ... National Influenza Vaccine Summit (NIVS) - array of resources intended to encourage and facilitate seasonal influenza ...
more infohttp://www.vdh.virginia.gov/epidemiology/influenza-flu-in-virginia/influenza-vaccination-prevent-the-flu-with-vaccination/

Call Transcript: September 27, 2017 | Clinicians Outreach and Outreach Communication (COCA)Call Transcript: September 27, 2017 | Clinicians Outreach and Outreach Communication (COCA)

"Prevention and Control of Seasonal Influenza with Vaccines: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices ... This is data from the CDC Influenza-like Illness Network or ILI.net which is in this slide comparing data from several seasons ... My conclusion are that as you can see, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that influenza vaccine is given to ... along with the data that CDC provides any activity of influenza this season and as well which type of influenza virus is going ...
more infohttps://emergency.cdc.gov/coca/transcripts/2018/call-transcript-092718.asp

Effect of recent seasonal influenza vaccination on serum antibody responses to candidate pandemic influenza A/H5N1 vaccines: A...Effect of recent seasonal influenza vaccination on serum antibody responses to candidate pandemic influenza A/H5N1 vaccines: A...

... antibody responses after influenza A/H5N1 vaccination using data from a series of randomized controlled trials. The primary ... Department of Pediatrics-Center for Human Immunobiology, Texas Childrens Hospital, Houston, TX, United States.. ... Effect of recent seasonal influenza vaccination on serum antibody responses to candidate pandemic influenza A/H5N1 vaccines: A ... Recent studies have suggested that among those receiving seasonal influenza vaccine (SIV), reduced immunogenicity is observed ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=huge&id=175682

UC San Diego Researchers Help Create New System to Improve Safe Use of Medicines and Vaccines by Pregnant Women - Healthcanal...UC San Diego Researchers Help Create New System to Improve Safe Use of Medicines and Vaccines by Pregnant Women - Healthcanal...

... seasonal and H1N1 influenza vaccines, and antiviral medications used to prevent and treat influenza. Although there is no ... The Vaccines and Medications in Pregnancy Surveillance System (VAMPSS) will collect data from women who are pregnant or have ... associate professor of Pediatrics and Family and Preventive Medicine at UCSD School of Medicine. "But many medical conditions, ... Pregnant women who have taken asthma medications and/or have received the seasonal influenza vaccine, the H1N1 vaccine or any ...
more infohttps://www.healthcanal.com/pregnancy-childbirth/6051-uc-san-diego-researchers-help-create-new-system-to-improve-safe-use-of-medicines-and-vaccines-by-pregnant-women.html

AAFP Calls on Members to Promote Influenza Vaccination This SeasonAAFP Calls on Members to Promote Influenza Vaccination This Season

20, the AAFP signed on to a CDC letter asking health care professionals to help promote the influenza vaccine for the 2017-2018 ... The CDC offered a similar set of data to support influenza vaccination with pregnant patients, including noting that the flu ... The CDC referenced a study published in the April 2017 issue of Pediatrics(pediatrics.aappublications.org) that examined ... An additional CDC letter(246 KB PDF) that the AAFP signed on to focuses specifically on flu vaccines for pregnant patients. ...
more infohttps://www.aafp.org/news/health-of-the-public/20170929fluvaccletter.html

Immunizations | HealthLink BCImmunizations | HealthLink BC

2004). Thimerosal-containing vaccines and autistic spectrum disorder: A critical review of published original data. Pediatrics ... National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) (2012). Statement on seasonal influenza vaccine for 2012-2013. Canada ... 2004). Thimerosal-containing vaccines and autistic spectrum disorder: A critical review of published original data. Pediatrics ... Canadian Paediatric Society (2004). Recommendation for the use of influenza vaccine for children. Paediatrics and Child Health ...
more infohttps://www.healthlinkbc.ca/health-topics/immun
  • It was determined that there was a close correlation between mercury doses from thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines and the prevalence of autism from the late 1980s through the mid-1990s. (naturalnews.com)
  • In addition, it was found that there were statistically significant odds ratios for the development of autism following increasing doses of mercury from thimerosal-containing vaccines (birth cohorts: 1985 and 1990-1995) in comparison to a baseline measurement (birth cohort: 1984). (naturalnews.com)
  • In contrast, there was a potential correlation between the number of primary pediatric measles-containing vaccines administered and the prevalence of autism during the 1980s. (naturalnews.com)
  • Natural News ) The fake news media (CNN, WashPo, NYT, etc.) doesn't want you to see any of the scientific evidence presented here for the simple reason that it shows mercury in vaccines is damaging to children . (naturalnews.com)
  • Yes, there is an overwhelming amount of scientific evidence that conclusively and convincingly establishes the irrefutable fact that mercury is toxic when injected into the bodies of children via vaccines. (naturalnews.com)
  • Brains are being damaged - and lives destroyed - every single day that mercury continues to be allowed in vaccines… especially those given to children and expectant mothers. (naturalnews.com)
  • Read this Natural News story to see the documented proof that California's HHS Secretary openly encourages injecting children with mercury-laden vaccines. (naturalnews.com)
  • Outline background information about updated recommendations for the use of intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV4) in children. (cdc.gov)
  • The CDC reminded physicians that its recommendation against using live attenuated influenza vaccine has been extended through the 2017-2018 flu season. (aafp.org)
  • When receiving the influenza vaccine for the first time, children aged 6 months through 8 years should receive a second dose 1 month after the first dose is administered to help elicit an appropriate immune response. (uspharmacist.com)
  • For 2010-2011, NACI recommends that three additional groups that experienced a higher incidence of severe outcomes during both waves of the pH1N1 pandemic be considered as priority recipients for influenza vaccine. (canada.ca)
  • The United Nations Environment Program backed away from an earlier proposal of adding thiomersal in vaccines to the list of banned compounds in a treaty aimed at reducing exposure to mercury worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citing medical and scientific consensus that thiomersal in vaccines posed no safety issues, but that eliminating the preservative in multi-dose vaccines, primarily used in developing countries, will lead to high cost and a requirement for refrigeration which the developing countries can ill afford, the UN's final decision is to exclude thiomersal from the treaty. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the U.S., the European Union , and a few other affluent countries, the compound is being phased out from vaccines routinely given to children. (wikidoc.org)
  • Pregnant women have higher risks of influenza complications, but vaccine coverage is incomplete. (nih.gov)
  • Dr. Flor Munoz would like to disclose that the use of influenza antivirals in hospitalized, severely ill patients is off label, and the use of influenza vaccines in pregnant women is off label. (cdc.gov)
  • The Vaccines and Medications in Pregnancy Surveillance System (VAMPSS) will collect data from women who are pregnant or have recently completed their pregnancies in order to provide information on issues that could be of concern to women and their babies. (healthcanal.com)
  • Although there is no evidence to suggest that influenza vaccines pose any harm to pregnant women or their offspring, the newer and more comprehensive data provided by VAMPSS will improve understanding of the safety of these and other medicines and vaccines that are taken in pregnancy. (healthcanal.com)
  • An additional CDC letter (246 KB PDF) that the AAFP signed on to focuses specifically on flu vaccines for pregnant patients. (aafp.org)
  • It is recommended that pregnant women get a flu vaccine during any trimester of their pregnancy because flu poses a danger to pregnant women, and a flu vaccine can prevent influenza in pregnant women,' a related CDC factsheet (www.cdc.gov) said. (aafp.org)
  • And if you live with a pregnant woman, make sure your vaccines are up-to-date. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • In those years, out of approximately 150 million flu shots given in the U.S. annually, less than 50 million or 34% of those vaccines available for pregnant women were thimerosal-free. (healthimpactnews.com)
  • In flu shot package inserts , vaccine manufacturers acknowledge that flu vaccines have never been shown to be safe for pregnant women. (healthimpactnews.com)
  • Based upon observational data that suggest harms, adjunctive corticosteroid treatment is currently not recommended for children or adults hospitalized with influenza, including critically ill patients, unless clinically indicated for another reason, such as treatment of asthma or COPD exacerbation, or septic shock. (biomedcentral.com)
  • What vaccines are recommended for adults? (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Rare but severe infections with influenza A subtype H5N1 viruses have been identified since 1997 in Asia, Africa, Europe and the Middle East, areas where these viruses are present in domestic or wild birds. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Packaging the vaccines in single-dose vials eliminates the need for bacteriostatics such as thiomersal. (wikidoc.org)
  • Thiomersal was used as a preservative (bactericide) so that multidose vials of vaccines could be used instead of single-dose vials, which are more expensive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharmacists play a crucial role in optimizing prevention through advocating and delivering influenza immunizations and recommending antiviral therapy when indicated. (uspharmacist.com)
  • The success of vaccines in disease prevention and eradication has resulted in a shift in public focus from the risk of diseases to the risk of vaccines (Freed, Clark, Butchart, Singer, & Davis, 2010). (nasn.org)
  • The multi-dose versions of the influenza vaccines Fluvirin and Fluzone can contain up to 25 micrograms of mercury per dose from thiomersal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Risk assessment for effects on the nervous system have been made by extrapolating from dose-response relationships for methylmercury , which is why thiomersal was removed from U.S. childhood vaccines, starting in 1999. (wikidoc.org)
  • Its use as a vaccine preservative was controversial, and it was phased out from routine childhood vaccines in the European Union, and a few other countries in response to popular fears. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dates have anti-inflammatory and anti-infective qualities, making them a great choice for those with autoimmune disorders or who are prone to chronic infections. (collective-evolution.com)