Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose: A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chromatography, Agarose: A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Noble Gases: Elements that constitute group 18 (formerly the zero group) of the periodic table. They are gases that generally do not react chemically.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Chromatography, Reverse-Phase: A chromatography technique in which the stationary phase is composed of a non-polar substance with a polar mobile phase, in contrast to normal-phase chromatography in which the stationary phase is a polar substance with a non-polar mobile phase.Gas PoisoningBlood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Gas, Natural: A combustible, gaseous mixture of low-molecular weight PARAFFIN hydrocarbons, generated below the surface of the earth. It contains mostly METHANE and ETHANE with small amounts of PROPANE; BUTANES; and higher hydrocarbons, and sometimes NITROGEN; CARBON DIOXIDE; HYDROGEN SULFIDE; and HELIUM. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)SepharoseChemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Gas Gangrene: A severe condition resulting from bacteria invading healthy muscle from adjacent traumatized muscle or soft tissue. The infection originates in a wound contaminated with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM. C. perfringens accounts for the majority of cases (over eighty percent), while C. noyvi, C. septicum, and C. histolyticum cause most of the other cases.Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Countercurrent Distribution: A method of separation of two or more substances by repeated distribution between two immiscible liquid phases that move past each other in opposite directions. It is a form of liquid-liquid chromatography. (Stedman, 25th ed)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Oil and Gas Fields: Areas of the earth where hydrocarbon deposits of PETROLEUM and/or NATURAL GAS are located.Chromatography, Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary: A hybrid separation technique combining both chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles. While the method was invented to separate neutral species, it can also be applied to charged molecules such as small peptides.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Isoelectric Point: The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Flame Ionization: Pyrolysis of organic compounds at the temperature of a hydrogen-air flame to produce ionic intermediates which can be collected and the resulting ion current measured by gas chromatography.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Microchemistry: The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Hydroxyapatites: A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)PolysaccharidesSwine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Mustard Gas: Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Solid Phase Extraction: An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.Acetonitriles: Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Limit of Detection: Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Ammonium Sulfate: Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Glycoside HydrolasesIsomerism: The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Anion Exchange Resins: High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Databases, Bibliographic: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Chemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.EstersSpectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Streptococcus pyogenes: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid: A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Solid Phase Microextraction: A solventless sample preparation method, invented in 1989, that uses a fused silica fiber which is coated with a stationary phase. It is used for sample cleanup before using other analytical methods.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Medical Subject Headings: Controlled vocabulary thesaurus produced by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. It consists of sets of terms naming descriptors in a hierarchical structure that permits searching at various levels of specificity.TritiumGlycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.GlucosidesCytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Trifluoroacetic Acid: A very strong halogenated derivative of acetic acid. It is used in acid catalyzed reactions, especially those where an ester is cleaved in peptide synthesis.Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
The Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer searched for organics, and found no trace of them. The Gas Exchange experiment searched ... Gas chromatography - this is the idea used for the MOMA (Mars Organic Molecule Analyser). Used to analyse volatiles evolved ... Another way to search for volcanic activity is through searches of trace gases produced in volcanic eruptions. So far nothing ... which will search for trace gases indicating current volcanic activity, as well as searching directly for organics that could ...
Gas chromatography can be coupled to mass spectrometry to analyze the extracted aromatic fraction. Compounds elute from the ... Some molecules have characteristic peaks that allow easy searches at particular mass-to-charge ratios. For the trimethylaryl ... Peaks are assigned to compounds based on library searches, standards, and relative retention times. ...
have used fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography to distinguish the species, while Lederer et al. employed thin layer ... "Spaghetti Bolognese". In Search of Perfection. BBC Two. Wang, G. W.; Hu, W. T.; Huang, B. K.; Qin, L. P. (2011). "Illicium ... by fluorescent microscopy and gas chromatography". Journal of AOAC International. 88 (3): 703-706. PMID 16001842. Retrieved 10 ... chromatography with HPLC-MS/MS. ISO 11178:1995 - a specification for its dried fruits GB/T 7652:2006 - a Chinese standard of ...
Major Volatile Compounds Analysis Produced from Mezcal Fermentation Using Gas Chromatography Equipped Headspace (GC-HS). doi: ... In Search of the Blue Agave. Retrieved 20 May 2012. Ian Chadwick (May 2011). "Agave: More than just tequila". In Search of the ... "In Search of the Blue Agave: Jalisco State". Ianchadwick.com. Retrieved 2010-12-25. Jacinto, Rodolfo. "How Is Tequila Made". ... that contribute to the overall taste and aroma of tequila can be quantitatively assessed and evaluated by gas chromatography. ...
Recently, gas chromatography has been used in order to identify the female sex chromosomes of O. scapulalis. The pheromone ... More modulation occurs with older males, demonstrating that mate-searching behavior is influenced by female condition and male ...
"Determination of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes in cigarette smoke by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection". ... "Search for a Safer Cigarette". Godish T (2001). Indoor environmental quality. Chelsea, Michigan: Lewis Publishers. pp. 77-9. ... similarly to mustard gas or aflatoxin. Acrolein is only one of them present in cigarette smoke; for example, crotonaldehyde has ... nicotine and other compounds contained in the uncured leaf and various oxides of nitrogen found in all combustion gasses. ...
2014). Identification of indigoid compounds present in archaeological Maya blue by pyrolysis-silylation-gas chromatography-mass ... Jump to navigation Jump to search Chicanná Ruins. Location. Becán, Rio Bec, Mexico. ... https://search-proquest-com.offcampus.lib.washington.edu/docview/302685108?pq-origsite=primo ...
I. Correlation of Crooked Calf Disease Incidence with Alkaloid Distribution Determined by Gas Chromatography." Teratology 7.1 ( ... 21, 2017) 486-89-5(ANAGYRINE) Product Description." ChemicalBook---Chemical Search Engine. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Apr. 2017. "AAHP ... I. Correlation of Crooked Calf Disease Incidence with Alkaloid Distribution Determined by Gas Chromatography." Teratology 7.1 ( ...
... exhaust particulate matter by high-performance liquid chromatography fractionation and high-resolution gas chromatography". ... "recovering water from diesel exhaust - Google Search". www.google.co.uk. Vidal, John (Jan 27, 2013). "Diesel fumes more ... Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), on diesel engines, can be used to achieve a richer fuel to air mixture and a lower peak ... Recirculated exhaust gas and the compressed air from the turbochargers have separate coolers, and air merges before entering ...
Conventionally, detection of chemicals at low vapor pressures has been based on mass spectrometry, gas chromatography and the ... Insect olfaction is sensitive down to parts per trillion and the use of insects to conduct searches for illegal drugs, and ...
... technology which leaves the plant and its flowers intact by analyzing the surrounding air with the help of gas chromatography. ... His main research activity centers around the study and the reconstitution of the scents of nature, and the search for as well ...
The separation method that EI is usually coupled with is gas chromatography (GC), where in GC the particles are separated by ... which causes significant fragmentation that can be used in a library search to identify the compounds. ... Hays, Michael D.; Lavrich, Richard J. (2007). "Developments in direct thermal extraction gas chromatography- mass spectrometry ... and it is often coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) which provides quality determination of polar and ...
The samples can then be analyzed using techniques such as gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, or Carbon-13 NMR. Several ... The Search for Fragrance Ingredients". The Chemistry of Fragrances (2nd ed.). Royal Society of Chemistry Publishing. pp. 254- ... Inert gases are passed into the space containing the object or a vacuum is established such that the odor compounds are removed ... Compounds from Aromatic Plants by Means of Dynamic Headspace Extraction and Multiple Headspace Extraction-Gas Chromatography- ...
Retention index information is used to limit the amount of VUV library searching and fitting performed for each analyte, ... Gas Chromatography - Vacuum Ultraviolet (GC-VUV) spectroscopy is a recent innovation introduced in 2014 as a universal ... guidelines, or more broadly, International Council for Harmonization (ICH) Guideline Q3C(R6). The gas chromatography (GC) ... detection platform for gas chromatography. The vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) absorbance spectrum measured by VUV detectors (120 - ...
... the silica stationary phase in some gas chromatography columns can be replaced by GeO2. In recent years germanium has seen ... James Challis started searching for it in July 1846, and he sighted this planet on September 23, 1846. R. Hermann published ... Sol-Gel Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Coatings for Capillary Microextraction and Gas Chromatography". Anal. Chem. 79 (24): 9441-9451 ... For example, germanium chloride and germane (GeH4) are a liquid and gas, respectively, that can be very irritating to the eyes ...
For example, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-infrared spectroscopy, liquid chromatography-mass ... Jump to navigation Jump to search For the journal, see Analytical Chemistry (journal). ... Bartle, Keith D.; Myers, Peter (2002). "History of gas chromatography". TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry. 21 (9-10): 547. ... Chromatography, electrophoresis and Field Flow Fractionation are representative of this field. Hybrid techniques[edit]. ...
The two scientists initially determined, by ion chromatography and mass spectrometry, that there was hydrogen gas present in ... the researchers then searched for compounds of this type. Although the analysis methods were very sensitive in detecting such ... This faulty electrolyte allowed the unimpeded formation of hydroxide and produced hydrogen gas. There are no known public court ... Unimpeded formation of hydroxide (hydration) and associated hydrogen gas production, occurring during "capacitor plague" or " ...
In chemical analysis, petroselinic acid can be separated from other fatty acids by gas chromatography of methyl esters; ... doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)81830-0. R. Kleiman & G. Spencer (1982). "Search for new industrial oils". J. A. O. S. C. 59: 29. doi ... additionally, a separation of unsaturated isomers is possible by argentation thin-layer chromatography. Petroselinic acid can ... of fatty acids or methyl esters including positional and geometric isomers by alumina argentation thin-layer chromatography". J ...
Gladney, HM; Dowden, BF; Swalen, JD (1969). "Computer-Assisted Gas-Liquid Chromatography". Anal. Chem. 41 (7): 883-888. doi: ... "What are the shapes of response time distributions in visual search?". J Exp Psychol. 37 (1): 58-71. doi:10.1037/a0020747. ... An alternative but equivalent form of the EMG distribution is used for description of peak shape in chromatography. This is as ... Laplace-normal distribution Grushka, Eli (1972). "Characterization of Exponentially Modified Gaussian Peaks in Chromatography ...
"Analysis of benzodiazepine derivative mixture by gas-liquid chromatography". Medicina (Kaunas) 38 (3): 316-20. PMID 12474705. ... Jump to: navigation, search Rohypnol is the common name for a drug called flunitrazepam. A slang term for it is roofies. The ...
SEARCHING FOR LIFE ON MARS: The Development of the Viking GCMS. NASA ... Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is an analytical method that combines the features of gas-chromatography and mass ... Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. References[edit]. *^ O. David Sparkman; Zelda Penton; Fulton G. Kitson (17 May ... Niessen, W. M. A. (2001). Current practice of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. New York, N.Y: Marcel Dekker. ISBN 978-0- ...
Jump to navigation Jump to search Chromatography is a method using mixed substances that depends on the speed at which they ... It consists of a stationary phase (a solid) and a mobile phase (a liquid or a gas). The mobile phase flows through the ... Thin layer chromatography[change , change source]. Main article: Thin layer chromatography. Thin layer chromatography (TLCC) is ... Column chromatography[change , change source]. Column chromatography separates compounds using many chemical actions between ...
Most forms of mass spectrometry require some form of separation using liquid chromatography or gas chromatography. This ... The YMDB supports a wide variety of queries including text searches, chemical structure searches, sequence similarity searches ... chemical structure searches, sequence similarity searches and spectral similarity searches. This makes it particularly useful ... chemical structure searches, sequence similarity searches and spectral similarity searches. This makes it particularly useful ...
Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) can be used with electron ionization on full scan mode as a screening test. ... This discovery led to a search for viable antidepressants with similar structures and fewer side effects, culminating in the ... Pragst F (2007). "Chapter 13: High performance liquid chromatography in forensic toxicological analysis". In Smith RK, Bogusz ... invention of fluoxetine (Prozac), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). A similar search had previously led to the ...
Sol-Gel Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Coatings for Capillary Microextraction and Gas Chromatography". Anal. Chem. 79 (24): 9441-9451 ... Crystals of high purity germanium are used in detectors for gamma spectroscopy and the search for dark matter.[76] Germanium ... the silica stationary phase in some gas chromatography columns can be replaced by GeO2.[73] ... 3) were found to be less hazardous and may be used as a liquid substitute for toxic germane gas in semiconductor applications. ...
... derivatives are amenable to analysis by gas chromatography. From carboxylic acids[edit]. Modification of the Appel reaction ... Jump to navigation Jump to search Oxazoline Names IUPAC name 2-oxazoline ...
Evaluation of Initial Flavor Fade in Fresh Roasted Peanuts using Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection, Gas ... Gas chromatography-Olfactometry identified potent pyrazines contributing to fresh roasted peanutty aroma in fresh peanuts. ... Initial flavor notes were explored through sensory work, Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry, and chemical analysis. The fresh ...
T2 - Determination of benzoylecgonine in urine by gas chromatography-quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry ... Determination of benzoylecgonine in urine by gas chromatography-quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry. / Hall, Brad J.; Parikh ... Determination of benzoylecgonine in urine by gas chromatography-quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry. In: Journal of Forensic ... Determination of benzoylecgonine in urine by gas chromatography-quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry. Journal of Forensic ...
Subsequent acrylamide determination was made by gas chromatography with electron capture detection using a Traco 560 gas ... NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search. Search Results. Search for NIOSH Publications:. *Advanced Search ... Determination of acrylamide in nerve tissue homogenates by electron-capture gas chromatography.. ... Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content ...
A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system based on the combination of an automated vapor sample inlet, a transfer l ... A portable gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system was developed for use in situations where site location, contamination, ... A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system based on the combination of an automated vapor sample inlet, a transfer line gas ... A portable gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system was developed for use in situations where site location, contamination, ...
SEARCHING FOR LIFE ON MARS: The Development of the Viking GCMS. NASA ... Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is an analytical method that combines the features of gas-chromatography and mass ... Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. References[edit]. *^ O. David Sparkman; Zelda Penton; Fulton G. Kitson (17 May ... Niessen, W. M. A. (2001). Current practice of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. New York, N.Y: Marcel Dekker. ISBN 978-0- ...
SEARCH. Search Scope. All content. Publication titles. In this journal. In this issue. Search String. ... Validation of a gas chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry based method for the quantification of pesticides in ... Validation of a gas chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry based method for the quantification of pesticides in ...
Search for your institutions name below to login via Shibboleth.. Institution Name. ... Infrared Spectroscopy, Gas Chromatography/Infrared in Food Analysis. Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry. . ...
Chemical Sciences: A Manual for CSIR-UGC National Eligibility Test for Lectureship and JRF/Gas chromatography ... Jump to: navigation, search What links here. Page:. Namespace:. all. (Main). Talk. User. User talk. Wikibooks. Wikibooks talk. ... A Manual for CSIR-UGC National Eligibility Test for Lectureship and JRF/Gas chromatography ... A Manual for CSIR-UGC National Eligibility Test for Lectureship and JRF/Gas chromatography". ← ...
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Gas chromatography (GC) is frequently used in qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile organic molecules. In its most ... Search articles by author. Hsu Ting. Jie-Bi Hu. Kai-Ta Hsieh. ... Gas chromatography (GC) is frequently used in qualitative and ... A pinch-valve interface for automated sampling and monitoring of dynamic processes by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry H. ... A pinch-valve interface for automated sampling and monitoring of dynamic processes by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ...
Comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) provides greater separation space than conventional GC. Because of ... Search articles by author. Ying Zhang. Herbert J. Tobias. J. Thomas Brenna. ... gas chromatography. combined with positive chemical ionization. quadrupole mass spectrometry. Ying Zhang,*a Herbert J. Tobiasa ... gas chromatography. combined with positive chemical ionization. quadrupole mass spectrometry. Y. Zhang, H. J. Tobias and J. T. ...
Showing 1 - 1 of 1 Search: Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry, query time: 0.15s ... Search Tools. Get RSS Feed Share Search https://ebooks.mpdl.mpg.de/ebooks/Search/Results?filter%5B%5D=author_facet%3A%22Salek% ... 2C+Reza%22&filter%5B%5D=dewey-ones%3A%22570+-+Life+sciences%3B+biology%22&lookfor=%22Gas+Chromatography-mass+Spectrometry%22& ...
You searched for: Subject gas chromatography-mass spectrometry Remove constraint Subject: gas chromatography-mass ... Search in. All Fields. Title. Author. Subject. Journal. search for. Search Advanced Search ... gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, etc ; X-ray diffraction; X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy; acid value; aluminum; ammonia; ... gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, etc ; Morus alba; NADP (coenzyme); animal disease models; bark; beta oxidation; ...
You searched for: Subject gas chromatography-mass spectrometry Remove constraint Subject: gas chromatography-mass ... gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, etc ; cadaverine; comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography; derivatization; ... from western Himalaya were studied and compared using gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography-mass ... based on gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 509 ...
Arabidopsis thaliana Polar Glycerolipid Profiling by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) Coupled with Gas-Liquid Chromatography ( ... Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences. Determination of iodide in urine ... Pitfalls associated with the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in the clinical laboratory. Abstract ... Protein identification with Liquid Chromatography and Matrix Enhanced Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (LC-ME-SIMS). Abstract ...
Some Diesel Exhaust Reactivity Information Derived by Gas Chromatography. 1974-02-01 ... The scaled compressor was built and tested as a separate component, and as a component of a gas turbine engine. This paper ...
Measurement of the effect of salt on vapor- liquid equilibria by using headspace gas chromatography. Author. TAKAMATSU, Hideaki ... Alcohol Azeotropic mixture Calcium Chlorides Gas chromatography Salt effect Liquid vapor equilibrium Phase equilibrium ... liquid equilibria by using headspace gas chromatography;s:8:\u0000*\u0000place;s:14:Washington, DC;s:6:\u0000*\ ... liquid equilibria by using headspace gas chromatography;s:8:\u0000*\u0000place;s:14:Washington, DC;s:6:\u0000*\ ...
Gas chromatography. An analytical technique for separating volatile components based on their boiling points and the rate at ... Gas constant. The universal constant R that appears in the ideal gas law. This law is given by Eq. (1), 1 where P is the ... A law of gases which states that at constant temperature the volume of a gas varies inversely with its pressure. This law, ... Go to search Go to header Go to navigation Go to main content Go to footer ...
Search outside of DiVA. GoogleGoogle Scholar. Total: 18 downloads. The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full ... Methodology for non-target screening of sewage sludge using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to high- ... We developed non-discriminating sample preparation methods for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. ... I describe the development of sample preparation methods for analyzing sewage sludge with gas chromatography (GC) and liquid ...
Search in DiVA By author/editor. Veenaas, CathrinLiljelind, PerHaglund, Peter By organisation Department of Chemistry In the ... Gas chromatography, GC×GC, non-target screening, time-trend analysis, sewage sludge, data reduction National Category ... Nontarget Screening and Time-Trend Analysis of Sewage Sludge Contaminants via Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography-High ... Nondestructive sample cleanup and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCXGC) high-resolution mass spectrometry ( ...
... a study by thermochemolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry, Journal of Soils and Sediments" on DeepDyve, the largest ... Evaluation of angiosperm and fern contributions to soil organic matter using two methods of pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass ... Search. Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly ... Analysis of molecular proxies of a peat core by thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation-gas chromatography combined with ...
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... 14 - 18 October 2019, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom ... Independent experts providing training and consultancy in the analytical science fields of Gas Chromatography, Liquid ... This 5-day course provides a complete training solution enabling you to understand your Gas Chromatograph or GC-MS instrument, ... This course provides the essential and practical theory about all available GC & GC-MS techniques, covering ​gases and plumbing ...
Search: Brenneman TM[au] *. Format. Summary. Summary (text). Abstract. Abstract (text). MEDLINE. XML. PMID List. MeSH and Other ... Identification of clinical isolates of non-Enterobacteriaceae gram-negative rods by computer-assisted gas-liquid chromatography ...
... 31 January 2020, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom ... This 1-day course provides an introduction for complete beginners to gas chromatography and GC-MS, explaining the principles of ... Independent experts providing training and consultancy in the analytical science fields of Gas Chromatography, Liquid ... You will learn about the components of the gas chromatograph and the mass spectrometer, the purpose and prinicples of data ...
  • North America has a significant international presence in the global Gas Chromatography (GC) market in 2020 accompanied by the Middle East/Africa, Europe, and the Asia Pacific, respectively. (news.blog)
  • The capillary-column inverse gas chromatography method was used to measure the diffusion and partition coefficients of ethylbenzene, styrene, and acrylonitrile in polybutadiene (PBD) at infinite dilution of the solvents. (iyte.edu.tr)
  • Due to the easy relapse characteristic, BC has been the focus of researchers to search tumor markers for the early diagnosis and postoperative evaluation to improve the survival rate of bladder cancer patients [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A comprehensive evaluation of impacting factors the influence growth opportunities for Gas Chromatography (GC) market players and remuneration. (news.blog)
  • A combination of gasoline and diesel engine exhaust gases was introduced into the auger drill hole using a short section of pipe located at the collar. (cdc.gov)
  • Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers are commonly used in diesel engines to reduce the temperature of recirculated exhaust gases in order to reduce NOX emissions. (sae.org)
  • Hydrogen was used as the carrier gas with the FID, and hydrogen or argon containing 5% methane was the carrier gas used with the ECD. (cdc.gov)
  • The ExoMars trace gas orbiter is designed to search for methane and other minor constituents of the Martian atmosphere on a global scale. (space.com)
  • Gas samples were taken and analyzed on-site with infrared detectors for oxygen, carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide. (cdc.gov)
  • The levels of inert gas (carbon dioxide and nitrogen) were significantly high to prevent any ignition of the methane. (cdc.gov)
  • ExoMars has a special set of instruments designed to search for organic molecules, particularly lipids and organics that have characteristics that are favorable for life. (space.com)
  • Data from national dietary surveys and population studies published from 1995 onward were searched via Scopus and websites of national public health institutes. (mdpi.com)
  • In conclusion, nowadays, in the majority of countries for which data are available, average trans fat intake is lower than the recommended maximum intake of 1 En%, with intakes from animal sources being higher than from industrial sources. (mdpi.com)
  • The key objective of the study is to evaluate global Gas Chromatography (GC) market size (volume and value) by market players, major regions, product, application, and end-user, historical data, and predictions for 2026. (news.blog)
  • Fast gas chromatography (GC) as a method of separating and analyzing complex mixtures of organic vapors in ambient air was evaluated. (cdc.gov)
  • Intended for incorporation in a gas chromatographic microsystem (μGC) for analyzing organic vapor mixtures, the μPPI captures vapors from the air at a known rate by means of passive diffusion ( i.e. , without pumping) and then desorbs the vapor sample thermally by means of an integrated heater and injects it downstream (with pumping). (rsc.org)
  • Yang, H.-Y. , Determination of sulfur compounds in gasoline fraction of microreactor products by gas chromatography - Atomic emission detector , Petrochemical Technology (Shiyou Huagong) , 2003, 32, 11, 995-998. (nist.gov)
  • Use Thermo Scientific™ General Gas Chromatography Tubing and Tools to maintain and optimize your GC system and support your GC applications. (thermofisher.com)
  • This device comprises a gas module with microfluidics and Thermo Scientific™ SilTite™ FingerTite fittings for easy set up and a reliable seal. (thermofisher.com)
  • The U.S. Bureau of Mines investigated a method of using inert gas to prevent the formation of explosive gas mixtures in auger highwall mining of coal. (cdc.gov)
  • Coal samples from various depths were used to obtain the gas content of the coal using the modified direct method. (cdc.gov)
  • Han, S.-J. , Determination of infinite dilution activity coefficients of acetone- cycloalkane systems by gas stripping method , Gaodeng Xuexiao Huaxue Xuebao , 1993, 14, 1280-3. (nist.gov)
  • Han, S.-J. , Measurement of infinite dilution activity coefficients of alcohol-n-alkane systems by gas stripping method , Zhejiang Daxue Xuebao, Ziran Kexueban , 1990, 24, 374-82. (nist.gov)
  • Questions about how practical proposed gas chromatography (GC) method changes are often come up during optimization for speed and resolution, or while converting to a different carrier gas. (chromatographyonline.com)
  • The relationships between flow or velocity and resolution have recently received attention in the context of a drive towards faster separations, and the on-going substitution of hydrogen carrier gas for helium in many laboratories also fuels the discussion. (chromatographyonline.com)