Vaginal Smears: Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.Papanicolaou Test: Cytological preparation of cells collected from a mucosal surface and stained with Papanicolaou stain.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A malignancy arising in uterine cervical epithelium and confined thereto, representing a continuum of histological changes ranging from well-differentiated CIN 1 (formerly, mild dysplasia) to severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ, CIN 3. The lesion arises at the squamocolumnar cell junction at the transformation zone of the endocervical canal, with a variable tendency to develop invasive epidermoid carcinoma, a tendency that is enhanced by concomitant human papillomaviral infection. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Benzophenoneidum: An aniline dye used as a disinfectant and an antiseptic agent. It is weakly fluorescing and binds specifically to certain proteins.Uterine Cervical Dysplasia: Abnormal development of immature squamous EPITHELIAL CELLS of the UTERINE CERVIX, a term used to describe premalignant cytological changes in the cervical EPITHELIUM. These atypical cells do not penetrate the epithelial BASEMENT MEMBRANE.Cytodiagnosis: Diagnosis of the type and, when feasible, the cause of a pathologic process by means of microscopic study of cells in an exudate or other form of body fluid. (Stedman, 26th ed)Colposcopy: The examination, therapy or surgery of the cervix and vagina by means of a specially designed endoscope introduced vaginally.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Azure Stains: PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Papillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.Uterine Cervical Diseases: Pathological processes of the UTERINE CERVIX.Cytological Techniques: Methods used to study CELLS.Sodium Hypochlorite: It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Gentian Violet: A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Root Canal Irrigants: Chemicals used mainly to disinfect root canals after pulpectomy and before obturation. The major ones are camphorated monochlorophenol, EDTA, formocresol, hydrogen peroxide, metacresylacetate, and sodium hypochlorite. Root canal irrigants include also rinsing solutions of distilled water, sodium chloride, etc.Uterine Cervicitis: Inflammation of the UTERINE CERVIX.Parasitemia: The presence of parasites (especially malarial parasites) in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)PhenazinesNeoplasms, Squamous Cell: Neoplasms of the SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in tissue composed of squamous elements.Early Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Vaginosis, Bacterial: Polymicrobial, nonspecific vaginitis associated with positive cultures of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic organisms and a decrease in lactobacilli. It remains unclear whether the initial pathogenic event is caused by the growth of anaerobes or a primary decrease in lactobacilli.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Dentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dentin Permeability: The property of dentin that permits passage of light, heat, cold, and chemical substances. It does not include penetration by microorganisms.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Eosine Yellowish-(YS): A versatile red dye used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, textiles, etc., and as tissue stain, vital stain, and counterstain with HEMATOXYLIN. It is also used in special culture media.Root Canal Preparation: Preparatory activities in ROOT CANAL THERAPY by partial or complete extirpation of diseased pulp, cleaning and sterilization of the empty canal, enlarging and shaping the canal to receive the sealing material. The cavity may be prepared by mechanical, sonic, chemical, or other means. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1700)Biopsy, Fine-Needle: Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.IndiaHistocytological Preparation Techniques: Methods of preparing cells or tissues for examination and study of their origin, structure, function, or pathology. The methods include preservation, fixation, sectioning, staining, replica, or other technique to allow for viewing using a microscope.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Centrifugation: Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Methyl Green: A tri-benzene-ammonium usually compounded with zinc chloride. It is used as a biological stain and for the dyeing and printing of textiles.Dental Pulp Cavity: The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Mycobacterium: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Gardnerella vaginalis: A species in the genus GARDNERELLA previously classified as Haemophilus vaginalis. This bacterium, also isolated from the female genital tract of healthy women, is implicated in the cause of bacterial vaginosis (VAGINOSIS, BACTERIAL).Malaria, Vivax: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM VIVAX. This form of malaria is less severe than MALARIA, FALCIPARUM, but there is a higher probability for relapses to occur. Febrile paroxysms often occur every other day.Plasmodium: A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.Vaginal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the VAGINA.Babesiosis: A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.Trichomonas Vaginitis: Inflammation of the vagina, marked by a purulent discharge. This disease is caused by the protozoan TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Blood Buffy Coat: The fraction of a blood sample, following CENTRIFUGATION, that is distinguished as a thin light-colored layer between the RED BLOOD CELLS, underneath it, and the PLASMA, above it. It is composed mostly of WHITE BLOOD CELLS and PLATELETS.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.PeruTuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.HondurasMicrotomy: The technique of using a microtome to cut thin or ultrathin sections of tissues embedded in a supporting substance. The microtome is an instrument that hold a steel, glass or diamond knife in clamps at an angle to the blocks of prepared tissues, which it cuts in sections of equal thickness.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.DNA Probes, HPV: DNA probes specific for the identification of human papilloma virus.Ethinyl Estradiol-Norgestrel Combination: ETHINYL ESTRADIOL and NORGESTREL given in fixed proportions. It has proved to be an effective contraceptive (CONTRACEPTIVES, ORAL, COMBINED).Histological Techniques: Methods of preparing tissue for examination and study of the origin, structure, function, or pathology.Cheese: A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.Diagnostic Tests, Routine: Diagnostic procedures, such as laboratory tests and x-rays, routinely performed on all individuals or specified categories of individuals in a specified situation, e.g., patients being admitted to the hospital. These include routine tests administered to neonates.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Microbiological Techniques: Techniques used in microbiology.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Vaginitis: Inflammation of the vagina characterized by pain and a purulent discharge.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Conization: The excision of a cone of tissue, especially of the CERVIX UTERI.Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Plasmodium vivax: A protozoan parasite that causes vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species is found almost everywhere malaria is endemic and is the only one that has a range extending into the temperate regions.Urethritis: Inflammation involving the URETHRA. Similar to CYSTITIS, clinical symptoms range from vague discomfort to painful urination (DYSURIA), urethral discharge, or both.Directly Observed Therapy: A treatment method in which patients are under direct observation when they take their medication or receive their treatment. This method is designed to reduce the risk of treatment interruption and to ensure patient compliance.Vaginal Diseases: Pathological processes of the VAGINA.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Preservation, Biological: The process of protecting various samples of biological material.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Genital Diseases, Female: Pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Tuberculosis, Lymph Node: Infection of the lymph nodes by tuberculosis. Tuberculous infection of the cervical lymph nodes is scrofula.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Hematologic Tests: Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.Trichomonas vaginalis: A species of TRICHOMONAS that produces a refractory vaginal discharge in females, as well as bladder and urethral infections in males.Image Cytometry: A technique encompassing morphometry, densitometry, neural networks, and expert systems that has numerous clinical and research applications and is particularly useful in anatomic pathology for the study of malignant lesions. The most common current application of image cytometry is for DNA analysis, followed by quantitation of immunohistochemical staining.Gonorrhea: Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.Coccidia: A subclass of protozoans commonly parasitic in the epithelial cells of the intestinal tract but also found in the liver and other organs. Its organisms are found in both vertebrates and higher invertebrates and comprise two orders: EIMERIIDA and EUCOCCIDIIDA.Alphapapillomavirus: A genus of DNA viruses in the family PAPILLOMAVIRIDAE. They preferentially infect the anogenital and ORAL MUCOSA in humans and primates, causing both malignant and benign neoplasms. Cutaneous lesions are also seen.Nontuberculous Mycobacteria: So-called atypical species of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM that do not cause tuberculosis. They are also called tuberculoid bacilli, i.e.: M. buruli, M. chelonae, M. duvalii, M. flavescens, M. fortuitum, M. gilvum, M. gordonae, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. obuense, M. scrofulaceum, M. szulgai, M. terrae, M. ulcerans, M. xenopi.Rosaniline Dyes: Compounds that contain the triphenylmethane aniline structure found in rosaniline. Many of them have a characteristic magenta color and are used as COLORING AGENTS.Babesia: A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Suppuration: A pathologic process consisting in the formation of pus.Venereology: A branch of medicine which deals with sexually transmitted disease.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.BrazilGynecological Examination: Inspection and PALPATATION of female breasts, abdomen, and GENITALIA, as well as obtaining a gynecological history. (from Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology)Gynecology: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.Granuloma Inguinale: Anogenital ulcers caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis as distinguished from lymphogranuloma inguinale (see LYMPHOGRANULOMA VENEREUM) caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. Diagnosis is made by demonstration of typical intracellular Donovan bodies in crushed-tissue smears.Plasmodium malariae: A protozoan parasite that occurs primarily in subtropical and temperate areas. It is the causal agent of quartan malaria. As the parasite grows it exhibits little ameboid activity.Sodium Hydroxide: A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Histology: The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Hematoxylin: A dye obtained from the heartwood of logwood (Haematoxylon campechianum Linn., Leguminosae) used as a stain in microscopy and in the manufacture of ink.Pacific Islands: The islands of the Pacific Ocean divided into MICRONESIA; MELANESIA; and POLYNESIA (including NEW ZEALAND). The collective name Oceania includes the aforenamed islands, adding AUSTRALIA; NEW ZEALAND; and the Malay Archipelago (INDONESIA). (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p910, 880)Carcinoma, Adenosquamous: A mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma.Human papillomavirus 16: A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS especially associated with malignant tumors of the CERVIX and the RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Urethral Diseases: Pathological processes involving the URETHRA.Helminthiasis: Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.Mansonella: A genus of parasitic nematodes whose organisms are distributed in Central and South America. Characteristics include a smooth cuticle and an enlarged anterior end.Mansonelliasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus MANSONELLA. Symptoms include pruritus, headache, and articular swelling.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.TurkeyDNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Chlamydia trachomatis: Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.Chlamydia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.Human papillomavirus 18: A type of human papillomavirus especially associated with malignant tumors of the genital and RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.Protozoan Infections, Animal: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Leprosy: A chronic granulomatous infection caused by MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. The granulomatous lesions are manifested in the skin, the mucous membranes, and the peripheral nerves. Two polar or principal types are lepromatous and tuberculoid.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Bone Marrow Examination: Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Blood Cells: The cells found in the body fluid circulating throughout the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Periodic Acid-Schiff Reaction: A histochemical technique for staining carbohydrates. It is based on PERIODIC ACID oxidation of a substance containing adjacent hydroxyl groups. The resulting aldehydes react with Schiff reagent to form a colored product.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Drama: A composition in prose or verse presenting in dialogue or pantomime a story involving various characters, usually intended to be acted on a stage and to be regarded as a form of entertainment. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Automation: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)Theileria: A genus of tick-borne protozoa parasitic in the lymphocytes, erythrocytes, and endothelial cells of mammals. Its organisms multiply asexually and then invade erythrocytes, where they undergo no further reproduction until ingested by a transmitting tick.Mouth Mucosa: Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Tuberculosis, Female Genital: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Mycobacterium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM.Tissue Preservation: The process by which a tissue or aggregate of cells is kept alive outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Asymptomatic Infections: Infections that do not exhibit symptoms.Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures: Methods, procedures, and tests performed to diagnose disease, disordered function, or disability.Unnecessary Procedures: Diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative procedures prescribed and performed by health professionals, the results of which do not justify the benefits or hazards and costs to the patient.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Leprosy, Paucibacillary: A form of LEPROSY classified by the World Health Organization for the purpose of treatment, based on clinical manifestations and skin smear results. Patients with paucibacillary leprosy have fewer than six skin lesions with no causative agent MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE on any slit-skin smear testing. Paucibacillary leprosy encompasses indeterminate, borderline tuberculoid, and tuberculoid leprosy.Protozoan Infections: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Isoniazid: Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.Methenamine: An anti-infective agent most commonly used in the treatment of urinary tract infections. Its anti-infective action derives from the slow release of formaldehyde by hydrolysis at acidic pH. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p173)Anaplasmosis: A disease of cattle caused by parasitization of the red blood cells by bacteria of the genus ANAPLASMA.Microscopy, Ultraviolet: Microscopy in which the image is formed by ultraviolet radiation and is displayed and recorded by means of photographic film.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Epoxy Resins: Polymeric resins derived from OXIRANES and characterized by strength and thermosetting properties. Epoxy resins are often used as dental materials.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Therapeutic Irrigation: The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.Ophthalmia Neonatorum: Acute conjunctival inflammation in the newborn, usually caused by maternal gonococcal infection. The causative agent is NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE. The baby's eyes are contaminated during passage through the birth canal.Urology Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of diagnostic and therapeutic services for the urologic patient.
He stated that women go through more preventive screening; they give birth; they have mammograms and PAP smears; men do not ...
As such, it is used for cervical cancer screening in gynecology. The entire procedure is known as Pap smear. The classic form ... the specimens can be gynecological smears (Pap smears), sputum, brushings, washings, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, abdominal ... The process differs in rehydration of the air-dried smear with saline, use 4% formaldehyde in 65% ethanol fixative, and use of ... Pap staining is used to differentiate cells in smear preparations of various bodily secretions; ...
The pattern on the screen is another smear, but shifted by a. Now, this point is important: if Alice never tells him directly, ... d is the distance from the slits to the screen and x is the distance to the middle of the screen. The intensity of light on the ... So what Bob actually sees on his screen is the sum of the two intensities: I ( x ) = I 1 ( x ) + I 2 ( x ) ∝ 1 d 2 + ( x + a / ... From that slit, they hit the screen according to the wave-function: f 1 ( x ) = 1 2 π d 2 + ( x + a / 2 ) 2 exp ⁡ [ i ( h / λ ...
Press release: New screening exam, used with Pap smear, improves cervical screening. Speculoscopy Speculite. ... It was FDA approved as an add-on to Pap smear screening in 1995. At this time there is no CPT/HCPCS code for this and most ... The test can be used to complement a pap smear in screening of cervical cancer. A negative speculoscopy, along with a negative ... pap smear provides greater assurance of absence of disease.[citation needed] It was developed in 1988. ...
An example of this is the Pap smear for cervical cancer screening. Since the development of the Pap smear in the 1940s, a ... These examples demonstrate how intervening mechanisms, e.g., the Pap smear and the polio vaccine, did not decrease health ... despite advances in screening techniques, vaccinations, or any other piece of health technology or knowledge, the underlying ... disparity has existed in utilization of this screening test given differences in resources mentioned above. Another example is ...
This also prevents smearing the screen with oils from one's fingers. Styluses may also be used for handwriting; or for drawing ... A passive or capacitive stylus is a stylus that acts just like a finger when touching a device screen. There is no electronic ... Active pens are typically used for note taking, on-screen drawing/painting, and electronic document annotation. As before, the ...
A cervical screening test, such as a Pap smear, is not a useful diagnostic tool for endometrial cancer because the smear will ... A pap smear is not typically sufficient to show endometrial cancer. Regular screening in those at normal risk is not called for ... A Pap smear can detect disease that has spread to the cervix. Results from a pelvic examination are frequently normal, ... Routine screening of asymptomatic people is not indicated, since the disease is highly curable in its early, symptomatic stages ...
Otherwise, smearing may occur in enzyme restricted form of plasmid DNA. High Throughput miniprep of plasmid for sequencing ... Birnboim HC, Doly J (November 1979). "A rapid alkaline extraction procedure for screening recombinant plasmid DNA". Nucleic ...
The Papanicolaou smear ("Pap" smear) is a widely used cancer screening test for cervical cancer. DNA-based tests to identify ...
Aurel Babeș: discovered the vaginal smear as screening test for cervical cancer. Victor Babeș: he discovered a parasitic ...
The procedure is considered a screening test for cervical cancer and is complementary to Pap smear. The technique was initially ... Cervicography is no more sensitive than Pap smear screening, and has a higher false positive rate (thus increasing the number ... Whether cervicography could have a role in countries where Pap smear screening programs are not in place depends on cost ... Inappropriate gold standard bias in cervical cancer screening studies. Int J Cancer. 2007 Nov 15;121(10):2218-24. PMID 17657715 ...
CIN is usually discovered by a screening test, the Papanicolau or "Pap" smear. The purpose of this test is to detect ... Pap smear results may be reported using the Bethesda System. An abnormal Pap smear result may lead to a recommendation for ... Endocervical brush sampling at time of pap smear to detect adenocarcinoma and its precursors is necessary along with doctor/ ... test is highly accurate and serves as both a direct diagnosis and adjuvant to the all important pap test which is a screening ...
During each song, the screen design and logo will rotate to prevent burn-in on television screens. Banner advertisements are ... Stingray countersued Music Choice on August 29, 2016 calling it a "smear campaign". Muzak Holdings Sirius XM Radio Pandora ... While a song is playing, artist, song and album information appears on screen as well as trivia facts, artist photos and ... 8,769,602, 9,357,245, 7,320,025 and 9,351,045 pertaining to the on screen formatting of Stingray Digital's channels. ...
In the practice of medicine, there is a significant difference between the applications of screening and testing. Screening ... Pap smears). Testing involves far more expensive, often invasive, procedures that are given only to those who manifest some ... Perhaps the most widely discussed false positives in medical screening come from the breast cancer screening procedure ... One consequence of the high false positive rate in the US is that, in any 10-year period, half of the American women screened ...
Receiving a recommendation by one's physician is strongly correlated with patients seeking out to be screened by a Pap smear. ... The implementation of Pap smear screening programs has resulted in a steady decline in incidence and mortality rates from ... Disparities amongst different minority groups have been attributed to different Pap smear screening practices. African ... Since the development of the Papanicolou smear or Pap smear in 1941, cervical cancer has been highly preventable. ...
Women with ID are less likely to be given Pap smears because the process itself may be upsetting to the patient. Women with ... Women with disabilities have the same health issues as any other women, such as routine breast and cervical cancer screening. ... Many women with a disability do not regularly receive or are not regularly referred for breast cancer screenings. Women with ... Women with disabilities are less likely than women without disabilities to receive recommended Pap smears. Women who have a ...
By screening those samples, the very high costs of destructive analysis are required only for those samples deemed interesting ... Samples of smears, vegetation, soil, rock, plastics, wood, metal, and sand are equally amenable to delayed neutron analysis. ... Delayed neutron analysis can be used for accurate screening of various materials for fissile content. The determination ...
... concentration smear, microscopic wet mount, or iodine stains of fecal smears are adequate. But for easy screening, acid-fast ... routine screening of parasites especially in patients with lower CD4 count should be emphasized. Isospora belli was discovered ... "Molecular Diagnosis of Cystoisosporiasis Using Extended-Range PCR Screening". The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics : JMD. 13 (3 ...
Systematic screening may be in the form of mobile clinics or fixed screening centres where teams travel daily to areas of high ... Diagnosis is via finding the parasite in a blood smear or in the fluid of a lymph node. A lumbar puncture is often needed to ... Systematic screening of at-risk communities is the best approach, because case-by-case screening is not practical in endemic ... Such screening efforts are important because early symptoms are not evident or serious enough to warrant patients with ...
Further, Pap smears are not as effective at detecting adenocarcinomas, so where Pap screening programs are in place, a larger ... Diane Harper, a researcher for the HPV vaccines, were interpreted as indicating that in countries where Pap smear screening is ... Therefore, experts recommend that women combine the benefits of both programs by seeking regular Pap smear screening, even ... "Pap smear" screening programs has reduced the incidence of invasive cervical cancer by 50% or more. Current preventive vaccines ...
The storyline helped millions of women realize the importance of regular checkups and pap smear screenings. Bauer received a ...
It aims to give 7,000 screenings to underprivileged women per year for the next five years. The Center provides breast and ... The Foundation offers free pap smears, clinical breast examinations, pelvic examinations, and mammography. Additionally, the ... The center provides health screening and emotional support and is currently looking into education support for these children. ... cervical cancer diagnostic screening free of charge at the fully equipped facilities established by the Convent with support ...
Outside of his cervical cancer work he was an early proponent of the Pap smear, although not of screening programmes. He also ... Cervical cancer and cytology screening in New Zealand. Green GH. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1978 Dec;85(12):881-6. Cytology and ... 117 (1199). Green, GH (1985). "Screening for cervical cancer". NZ Med J. 98: 698. Skegg, DCG; Paul, C; Seddon, RJ; Fitzgerald, ... "The Hidden Bits": Understanding Cervical Screening" (PDF). p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2007. Retrieved ...
... and annual Pap smears. Since 1997, the Wellness Center has observed October as Breast Cancer Awareness Month. Breast screening ... To provide screening services to rural Armenians, the Wellness Center began monthly Medical Outreach Missions in 1997. Using a ... providing free screenings. Patients with abnormalities are referred to the Center in Yerevan for mammograms and further ... medical professionals and helped install mammography units and other equipment to establish the first breast cancer screening ...
The direct smear technique allows examination of larval motion, helping in the distinction of D. immitis from Acanthocheilonema ... The accuracy of these tests, typically used for routine screening or diagnosis of heartworm infection, is improved by multiple ... detection was accomplished most commonly in the past by the microscopic identification of microfilariae on a direct blood smear ...
... many lesbians are not screened regularly with Pap smears. The U.S. government reports that some lesbians neglect seeking ... Unlike processes to screen out male homosexuals, which had been in place since the creation of the American military, there ... that the lower rate of lesbians tested by regular Pap smears makes it more difficult to detect cervical cancer at early stages ... medical screening in the U.S.; they lack health insurance because many employers do not offer health benefits to domestic ...
Anyone with a cervix between the age of 25 and 64 is eligible for cervical screening. But 1 in 4 women currently skip cervical ... also known as a smear test, is a free health test that helps to prevent cervical cancer. ... screening altogether for a variety of reasons. Psychosexual and relationship therapist Sarah Berry explains how it works, what ... What is cervical screening? Cervical screening, also known as a smear test, is a free health test that helps to prevent ...
... NetWellness experts receive many questions on pap smears and cervical cancer ... Age 30-65: should have screening pap smear every 3 years unless found to be abnormal and then more frequent screening may be ... Another piece of good news is that the test to screen for cervical cancer, called a Pap smear, is quick, easy, and part of your ... Screening Guidelines[ED2]. * Age 18: Once a young woman has become sexually active in any way and/or has reached the age of 18 ...
Women with screen-detected cervical cancer had a 26% absolute increase in the cure rate as compared with women who were ... Moreover, screen-detected cancers (as opposed to those detected in the intervals between screenings) exhibited even more drift ... An earlier audit of Swedens cervical screening program showed that regular screening detected invasive cancers at earlier ... cancer is diagnosed between screening intervals than when diagnosed in women who are overdue for screening or not screened." ...
Pap tests are one of the most familiar and successful cancer screening tests. But now, a growing number of scientists say, the ... Pap tests are one of the most familiar - and successful - cancer screening tests ever invented. Since their introduction in the ... PAP smear saved my life otherwise my cancer (which was UTERINE) may have gone undetected for a long time. Strange cells ... PAP smears seem to be helpful in initially identifying other possible problems, as was my case. ...
Pap Smear Screening and Cancer of the Cervix in Women of Victoria ... Cervical Screening Providers. Cancer Council Victoria is dedicated to supporting the work of Nurse Cervical Screening providers ...
MEASUREMENTS: Pap smear screening frequency, categorized as no regular screening or screening at 1 of 3 discrete screening ... Among women with no history of abnormal smears, 55% undergo Pap smear screening annually, 17% report a 2-year screening ... Among these women, rates of frequent Pap smear screening are considerably higher-80% undergo annual screening, with only a ... smear screening annually. There are no data, however, regarding the frequency at which women actually undergo screening. ...
Yet despite regular screening offered to all women aged 25 to 64, one in four women skip screening. ... Cervical screening: what to expect from your smear test. What, why and how a cervical smear test could save your life. ... Those over 65 will only be invited for cervical screening if they have had an abnormal test result from a recent smear test. ... Does cervical screening hurt?. For some women, a cervical screening test feels a little uncomfortable. You may experience a ...
Thousands of women every year could be spared invasive tests thanks to simple screening for the virus that causes cervical ... A team of nursing staff in the North West have set up a smear test clinic for hospital employees in a bid to help encourage ... Their cervical screening samples were tested for HPV, and the results showed that around 35% (3,581 women) were HPV negative ... It is these lower-risk women, the new study suggests, that could go back to having routine three-yearly smear tests to check if ...
Read about screening, using pap smears and testing for the HPV virus, which causes most cases. ... Pap Smear (National Library of Medicine) Also in Spanish * Screening for Cervical Cancer (U.S. Preventive Services Task Force) ... Cervical Cancer Screening (National Cancer Institute) Also in Spanish * Get Screened for Cervical Cancer (Office of Disease ... Cervical cancer -- screening and prevention (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * HPV DNA test (Medical Encyclopedia) Also ...
... also known as smear test). The test takes less than 5 minutes and can save lives. ... Cervical Screening (Smear Tests). In Scotland, the cervical screening test is offered to all women:. *between the ages of 25 ...
This comprehensive guide to the smear test answers the most common questions and concerns women have about cervical screening. ... How do I book a smear test?. To book a free NHS smear test, call your GP and ask to book a cervical screening test with the ... What is a cervical screening test?. The cervical screening test (also known as a smear test), is used to detect abnormal cell ... How old do I need to be to have a smear test?. All women over the age of 25 will be invited for a cervical screening test every ...
Why get a smear test?. Each year, five million women in the UK are invited to attend a smear test. In fact, screenings are ... www.jostrust.org.uk/about-cervical-cancer/cervical-screening-smear-test-and-abnormal-cells/cervical-screening-under25 ... Preparing for your smear test Although its perfectly normal to feel anxious before your smear test, there really is no need. ... The NHS cervical screening programme offers screening every three years to women aged 25-49, and every five years to women aged ...
Read our fact sheet on symptoms, screening and risk. ... A Pap smear every two years offers the best chance of ... Why have a Cervical Screening test?. The new Cervical Screening Test is more accurate than the Pap smear test and the best test ... The new Cervical Screening Test procedure is similar to a Pap smear test. For both tests a doctor or nurse takes a sample of ... However, the Pap smear test used to look for abnormal cells in the cervix, while the Cervical Screening Test looks for HPV ...
Pain predicts non-adherence to pap smear screening among middle-aged African American women.. Hoyo C1, Yarnall KS, Skinner CS, ... incidence and mortality of invasive cervical cancer in the United States and the lowest adherence to pap smear screening. ... The perception that the Pap test was painful was associated with non-adherence to screening recommendations (OR = 4.78; 95%CI: ... In 2001, we identified factors associated with non-adherence to screening recommendations using three focus group interviews ...
Conventional Pap smear method has been the mainstay of most of the screening programs since decades. However, this technique is ... The smears were studied in detail and were interpreted as per the Bethesda system of reporting Pap smears. The results were ... Sensitivity of Pap smear, LBC and HPV DNA was 75.80%, 76.47% and 89.89%, respectively. Specificity of Pap smear, LBC and HPV ... Evaluation of Sensitivity and Specificity of Pap Smear, LBC and HPV in Screening of Cervical Cancer. ...
... smear testing), including what happens if you get an abnormal result. ... Find out some further information from Bupa about screening for cervical cancer ( ... Cervical screening used to be called a smear test. You might also have heard the term Pap smear, which is what people call it ... Can cervical screening identify infections? Can cervical screening identify infections? The aim of cervical screening is to ...
We evaluated the performance of the Papanicolaou smear in screening and diagnostic sett ... In a screening setting, a Papanicolaou smear result of HSIL or worse is 39 times more likely in a patient with CIN 2,3/cancer ... Home , October 2008 - Volume 12 - Issue 4 , The Accuracy of the Papanicolaou Smear in the Screening and... ... Screening and diagnosis groups were based on the history of previous Papanicolaou smear results. We calculated sensitivities, ...
... revolutionise screening has been found to outperform current UK tests at a reduced cost, according to a study. ... Cervical cancer screening is usually done through the Pap smear, which can only detect around 50% of pre-cancerous cells in the ... The Pap smear detected one quarter, while the HPV test detected half of the cancers in the group of women aged 25-65 in Canada. ... A new test for cervical cancer that could revolutionise screening has been found to outperform current UK tests at a reduced ...
... formerly Pap Smear or Pap Test) is a 5-yearly test for those between the ages of 25 - 74 years, to check cervical health. Book ... The new cervical screening test is collected in the same way as the previous Pap smear test:. *A speculum is used to open the ... Book a cervical screening test at one of our clinics.. Cervical Screening for HPV instead of Papsmears. The Australian National ... What age do I need to start routine cervical screening? In Australia, cervical screening starts at age 25. ...
... specificity and sensitivity of the routine smear and the tampon self-t... ... Cervix Cytological Screening - Comparison of Tampon Self-Test and the Routine Smear.. 2014-07-23 21:35:18 , BioPortfolio ... Home » Topics » Womens Health » Research » Cervix Cytological Screening - Comparison of Tampon Self-Test and the Routine Smear ... More From BioPortfolio on "Cervix Cytological Screening - Comparison of Tampon Self-Test and the Routine Smear.". *Related ...
Cervix Cytological Screening - Comparison of Tampon Self-Test and the Routine Smear.. The safety and scientific validity of ... Cervix Cytological Screening - Comparison of Tampon Self-Test and the Routine Smear.. ... The purpose of this study is to compare suitability, specificity and sensitivity of the routine smear and the tampon self-test ... Study hypothesis: The tampon self-test correspond to the routine cervical smear. ...
Smear,Follow-Up,Needed,Among,Lower-Income,Women,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current ... Disparities seen in screening rates appropriate care in Canadian stud...THURSDAY Aug. 20 (HealthDay News) -- In the Canadian ... Better Pap Smear Follow-Up Needed Among Lower-Income Women. ...Disparities seen in screening rates appropriate care in Canadian ... The study also found that the overall rate of cervical cancer screening in Ontario was 69 percent, with screening rates of 61 ...
They concluded that using HPV testing as the first line screening test, as well as smear testing for women who received a ... The NHS Cervical Screening Programme routinely invites women aged 25 to 49 for a cervical screening test every three years, and ... regardless of their smear test result, and so could safely return to routine screening every five years.** ... gave around 26,000 women both smear and HPV tests to determine how best to use HPV testing for cervical screening. ...
Rates of recent screening mammography and Pap smears are high among older women in California. Although screening rates drop ... They were counted as screened for cervical cancer if they reported a routine screening Pap smear within the past 3 years (21, ... The main outcome was self-reported receipt of screening mammography within the previous 2 years and a screening Pap smear ... Seventy-eight percent of women reported recent screening mammography, and 77% reported a recent Pap smear. Screening rates ...
Lakewood Health recommends screenings and immunizations for women at average risk for most diseases. Your provider will ... Pap Smear Results & What They Mean. Pap smear test looks at cells taken from the cervix. The cervix is made up of layers of ... Womens Health Screenings. The chart lists recommended screenings and immunizations for women at average risk for most diseases ... It takes about two weeks for the Pap smear test results to be completed. A nurse will contact you with the results and any ...
  • My hope is to explain current thoughts on preventive health screenings- starting with women's health: pap smears, mammograms… and moving into general recommendations for everyone. (nwpc.com)
  • Conventional Pap smear method has been the mainstay of most of the screening programs since decades. (springer.com)
  • To optimize the diagnostic accuracy of using chromatin distribution, shortest distance between nuclei, and/or the ratio of nucleoli area to nucleus area in a conventional Pap smear from patients with a cytologic diagnosis of AGUS to predict the presence of significant glandular lesions (i.e. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Prevalence of abnormal conventional Pap smear in pregnant women, Chonburi Hospital. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • A separate analysis of patients who were symptomatic at diagnosis showed a cure rate of 74% among those who had participated in the screening program (interval-detected cancer) versus 60% for women who were not screened in accordance with national recommendations. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The data showed wide differences in cure rates between screen-detected and symptomatic cancer patients according to FIGO stage, ranging from a 4% difference for stage IA cancer to 19% for stage IB and 29% for stage II. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Approximately 5% patients having epithelial cell abnormalities on Pap smear, 5.33% on LBC and 6.86% had abnormal report on HPV DNA testing. (springer.com)
  • Following the introduction of Cancer Care Ontario's 2012 cervical cancer screening guidelines, female patients were 50 per cent less likely to undergo screening for sexually transmitted infections, a new St. Michael's study has found. (healthcanal.com)
  • Female patients were also less likely to be screened for syphilis, hepatitis C and HIV under the new guidelines. (healthcanal.com)
  • Primary care providers must explore other opportunities to discuss sexual health with their female patients and screen for STIs in at-risk women," said Dr. Bogler. (healthcanal.com)
  • Primary aim was to investigate the diagnostic value of PAS-positive vacuolated lymphocytes on blood smear in Late Onset Pompe Disease (LOPD) patients and, secondly, to evaluate its potential utility in monitoring treatment effects. (frontiersin.org)
  • We examined blood smear of 26 LOPD patients. (frontiersin.org)
  • Blood smear was also sampled from 82 controls and 19 patients with other muscle glycogenoses (MGSDs). (frontiersin.org)
  • If your patients require further information we have Information Standard accredited information on cervical screening, HPV and HPV testing, cervical abnormalities, online and printed resources. (jostrust.org.uk)
  • This booklet describes the rationale for the change in policy so that primary care staff and smear takers can provide appropriate and accurate advice to patients. (hscni.net)
  • OUTLINE: Previously collected slides from Pap smears of patients enrolled on clinical trial GOG-171 are assessed for nuclear chromatin distribution, the shortest distances between the central points of neighboring cell nuclei, and nucleoli area/nucleus area (N/N) ratio via morphometric analysis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • How often should patients get a Pap smear or Pap test? (mercy.com)
  • Knowledge of cervical cancer and the Pap smear test was inadequate in less-educated and older patients. (who.int)
  • Can someone help me with the billing of pap smears for medicare patients? (aapc.com)
  • Patients were interviewed using a questionnaire before carrying out a gynaecological examination and taking a cervical smear sample. (who.int)
  • The vaccines do not confer complete protection against all strains of HPV, so it is important for patients to continue to get Pap smears according to the schedule outlined by the physician. (rxlist.com)
  • An informal survey of local infectious-disease doctors in southeast Michigan suggested that few know where to send patients for an anal Pap smear. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), most women who are sexually active will be infected at least once during their lifetime and never even know it unless they have the HPV screening. (cookgyn.com)
  • Dear Dr. Bruce,IN your response of 12/29/02 regarding anal pap smears, hemorrhoids and HPV, you said if you it is more likely one is HPV infected if the Pap smear is normal. (thebody.com)