Scorpion Venoms: Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.Scorpions: Arthropods of the order Scorpiones, of which 1500 to 2000 species have been described. The most common live in tropical or subtropical areas. They are nocturnal and feed principally on insects and other arthropods. They are large arachnids but do not attack man spontaneously. They have a venomous sting. Their medical significance varies considerably and is dependent on their habits and venom potency rather than on their size. At most, the sting is equivalent to that of a hornet but certain species possess a highly toxic venom potentially fatal to humans. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, p417; Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p503)Scorpion Stings: The effects, both local and systemic, caused by the bite of SCORPIONS.Venoms: Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Crotalid Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.Toxins, Biological: Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.Bee Venoms: Venoms obtained from Apis mellifera (honey bee) and related species. They contain various enzymes, polypeptide toxins, and other substances, some of which are allergenic or immunogenic or both. These venoms were formerly used in rheumatism to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal system.Veratridine: A benzoate-cevane found in VERATRUM and Schoenocaulon. It activates SODIUM CHANNELS to stay open longer than normal.Synaptosomes: Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.Protein Refolding: Conformational transitions of a protein from unfolded states to a more folded state.Cobra Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.Viper Venoms: Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.Wasp Venoms: Venoms produced by the wasp (Vespid) family of stinging insects, including hornets; the venoms contain enzymes, biogenic amines, histamine releasing factors, kinins, toxic polypeptides, etc., and are similar to bee venoms.Spider Venoms: Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.Potassium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antivenins: Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.Elapid Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.Arthropod Venoms: Venoms from animals of the phylum Arthropoda. Those most investigated are from scorpions and spiders of the class Arachnidae and from ant, bee, and wasp families of the Insecta order Hymenoptera. The venoms contain protein toxins, enzymes, and other bioactive substances and may be lethal to man.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Bothrops: A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Fish Venoms: Venoms produced by FISHES, including SHARKS and sting rays, usually delivered by spines. They contain various substances, including very labile toxins that affect the HEART specifically and all MUSCLES generally.Ant Venoms: Venoms from the superfamily Formicoidea, Ants. They may contain protein factors and toxins, histamine, enzymes, and alkaloids and are often allergenic or immunogenic.Elapidae: A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Mollusk Venoms: Venoms from mollusks, including CONUS and OCTOPUS species. The venoms contain proteins, enzymes, choline derivatives, slow-reacting substances, and several characterized polypeptide toxins that affect the nervous system. Mollusk venoms include cephalotoxin, venerupin, maculotoxin, surugatoxin, conotoxins, and murexine.Cnidarian Venoms: Venoms from jellyfish; CORALS; SEA ANEMONES; etc. They contain hemo-, cardio-, dermo- , and neuro-toxic substances and probably ENZYMES. They include palytoxin, sarcophine, and anthopleurine.Reptilian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of REPTILES.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.MissouriSnakes: Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.WashingtonMagnetite Nanoparticles: Synthesized magnetic particles under 100 nanometers possessing many biomedical applications including DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and CONTRAST AGENTS. The particles are usually coated with a variety of polymeric compounds.Spiders: Arthropods of the class ARACHNIDA, order Araneae. Except for mites and ticks, spiders constitute the largest order of arachnids, with approximately 37,000 species having been described. The majority of spiders are harmless, although some species can be regarded as moderately harmful since their bites can lead to quite severe local symptoms. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p508; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, pp424-430)Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Transducers: Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Investments: Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.Sierra Leone: A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and west of LIBERIA. Its capital is Freetown.Obsessive Hoarding: Persistent difficulty discarding or parting with possessions, regardless of the value of these possessions. Epidemiological studies suggest that hoarding occurs in 2-5% of the population and can lead to substantial distress and disability, as well as serious public health consequences.

The putative bioactive surface of insect-selective scorpion excitatory neurotoxins. (1/800)

Scorpion neurotoxins of the excitatory group show total specificity for insects and serve as invaluable probes for insect sodium channels. However, despite their significance and potential for application in insect-pest control, the structural basis for their bioactivity is still unknown. We isolated, characterized, and expressed an atypically long excitatory toxin, Bj-xtrIT, whose bioactive features resembled those of classical excitatory toxins, despite only 49% sequence identity. With the objective of clarifying the toxic site of this unique pharmacological group, Bj-xtrIT was employed in a genetic approach using point mutagenesis and biological and structural assays of the mutant products. A primary target for modification was the structurally unique C-terminal region. Sequential deletions of C-terminal residues suggested an inevitable significance of Ile73 and Ile74 for toxicity. Based on the bioactive role of the C-terminal region and a comparison of Bj-xtrIT with a Bj-xtrIT-based model of a classical excitatory toxin, AaHIT, a conserved surface comprising the C terminus is suggested to form the site of recognition with the sodium channel receptor.  (+info)

Altered properties of neuronal sodium channels associated with genetic resistance to pyrethroids. (2/800)

Genetic resistance to pyrethroid insecticides involves nervous system insensitivity linked to regulatory and structural genes of voltage-sensitive sodium channels. We examined the properties and relative density of sodium channels in central neurons of susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant (Pyr-R) insects that were homozygous for the amino acid substitution V421M in the I-S6 transmembrane segment. Pyr-R sodium channels show approximately 21-fold lower sensitivity to the synthetic pyrethroid permethrin and a approximately 2-fold increased sensitivity to the alpha-scorpion toxin LqhalphaIT. Pyr-R channels also exhibit altered gating properties, including a approximately 13 mV positive shift in voltage-dependent activation and approximately 7 mV positive shift in steady-state inactivation. Consistent with these changes in gating behavior, Pyr-R central neurons are less excitable, as evidenced by an approximately 11 mV elevation of action potential threshold. No differences in sodium channel density are evident. The altered properties of Pyr-R sodium channels provide a plausible molecular basis for nervous system insensitivity associated with pyrethroid resistance.  (+info)

Peptide toxin blockers of voltage-sensitive K+ channels: inotropic effects on diaphragm. (3/800)

Agents that block many types of K+ channels (e.g., the aminopyridines) have substantial inotropic effects in skeletal muscle. Specific blockers of ATP-sensitive and Ca2+-activated K+ channels, on the other hand, do not, or minimally, alter the force of nonfatigued muscle, consistent with a predominant role for voltage-gated K+ channels in regulating muscle force. To test this more directly, we examined the effects of peptide toxins, which in other tissues specifically block voltage-gated K+ channels, on rat diaphragm in vitro. Twitch force was increased in response to alpha-, beta-, and gamma-dendrotoxin and tityustoxin Kalpha (17 +/- 6, 22 +/- 5, 42 +/- 14, and 13 +/- 5%; P < 0.05, < 0.01, < 0.05, < 0.05, respectively) but not in response to delta-dendrotoxin or BSA (in which toxins were dissolved). Force during 20-Hz stimulation was also increased significantly by alpha-, beta-, and gamma-dendrotoxin and tityustoxin Kalpha. Among agents, increases in twitch force correlated with the degree to which contraction time was prolonged (r = 0.88, P < 0.02). To determine whether inotropic effects could be maintained during repeated contractions, muscle strips underwent intermittent 20-Hz train stimulation for a duration of 2 min in presence or absence of gamma-dendrotoxin. Force was significantly greater with than without gamma-dendrotoxin during repetitive stimulation for the first 60 s of repetitive contractions. Despite the approximately 55% higher value for initial force in the presence vs. absence of gamma-dendrotoxin, the rate at which fatigue occurred was not accelerated by the toxin, as assessed by the amount of time over which force declined by 25 and 50%. These data suggest that blocking voltage-activated K+ channels may be a useful therapeutic strategy for augmenting diaphragm force, provided less toxic blockers of these channels can be found.  (+info)

Molecular modeling of voltage-gated potassium channel pore. (4/800)

AIM: To build a structure model for the pore of voltage-gated Shaker potassium channel and examine its validity. METHODS: (1) Structural restraints were derived from experimental and theoretical studies; (2) An initial structural motif satisfying the derived restraints was first constructed, and further refined by restrained molecular mechanics; (3) The quality of the model was judged by the criterion that whether it could clarify molecular mechanisms of channel functions and explain the known experimental facts. RESULTS: (1) A computer pore structure was proposed, in which the residues within signature sequence (corresponding to Shaker 439-446) dipped into the membrane and formed the narrow part of the pore in a non-periodic conformation, while the other residues in the P region constituted the outer mouth of the pore; (2) The ion selectivity was achieved through cation-pi orbital interaction mechanism at position 445 and oxygen cage mechanism at position 447; (3) Different binding modes led to different affinity of CTX and AgTx2 to channel; and (4) The inside of pore was dominated by negative electrostatic potential. CONCLUSION: The model proposed was consistent with the derived restraints from the experimental results.  (+info)

Activation of ryanodine receptors by imperatoxin A and a peptide segment of the II-III loop of the dihydropyridine receptor. (5/800)

Excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle is believed to be triggered by direct protein-protein interactions between the sarcolemmal dihydropyridine-sensitive Ca2+ channel and the Ca2+ release channel/ryanodine receptor (RyR) of sarcoplasmic reticulum. A 138-amino acid cytoplasmic loop between repeats II and III of the alpha1 subunit of the skeletal dihydropyridine receptor (the II-III loop) interacts with a region of the RyR to elicit Ca2+ release. In addition, small segments (10-20 amino acid residues) of the II-III loop retain the capacity to activate Ca2+ release. Imperatoxin A, a 33-amino acid peptide from the scorpion Pandinus imperator, binds directly to the RyR and displays structural and functional homology with an activating segment of the II-III loop (Glu666-Leu690). Mutations in a structural motif composed of a cluster of basic amino acids followed by Ser or Thr dramatically reduce or completely abolish the capacity of the peptides to activate RyRs. Thus, the Imperatoxin A-RyR interaction mimics critical molecular characteristics of the II-III loop-RyR interaction and may be a useful tool to elucidate the molecular mechanism that couples membrane depolarization to sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release in vivo.  (+info)

Role of lysine and tryptophan residues in the biological activity of toxin VII (Ts gamma) from the scorpion Tityus serrulatus. (6/800)

Toxin VII (TsVII), also known as Ts gamma, is the most potent neurotoxin in the venom of the Brazilian scorpion Tityus serrulatus. It has been purified to homogeneity using a new fast and efficient method. Chemical modification of TsVII with the tryptophan-specific reagent o-nitrophenylsulfenyl chloride yielded three modified derivatives (residues Trp39, Trp50 and Trp54). Acetylation of TsVII mostly generated the monoacetylated Lys12 derivative. No side reactions were detected, as indicated by endoproteinase Lys-C peptide mapping, Edman degradation and electrospray mass spectrometry. Circular dichroism and fluorimetric measurements showed that none of the chemical modifications altered the overall structure of the derivatives. The acetylation of Lys12 or the sulfenylation of Trp39 or Trp54 led to a loss of both toxicity in mice and apparent binding affinity for rat brain and cockroach synaptosomal preparations. Sulfenylation of Trp50, however, moderately affected the toxicity of TsVII in mice and had almost no effect on its binding properties. A 3-dimensional model of TsVII was constructed by homology modeling. It suggests that the most reactive residues (Lys12 and Trp39 and Trp54) are all important in the functional disruption of neuronal sodium channels by TsVII, and are close to each other in the hydrophobic conserved region.  (+info)

Solution structure of a conformationally constrained Arg-Gly-Asp-like motif inserted into the alpha/beta scaffold of leiurotoxin I. (7/800)

A monoclonal antibody, AC7, directed against the RGD-binding site of the GPIIIa subunit of the platelet fibrinogen receptor, interacts with activated platelet. The H3 region (H3, RQMIRGYFDV sequence) of the complementarity-determining region 3 heavy chain of AC7 inhibits platelet aggregation and fibrinogen binding to platelet. H3 contains the arginine, glycine and aspartate residues, but in an unusual order. The solution structure of the decapeptide has been studied by proton NMR. The NMR data suggested a helical equilibrium. To test whether the helical structure of H3 was biologically relevant, a conformationally constrained peptide with the RGD-like motif was designed. The sequence of a scorpion toxin (leiurotoxin I) has been modified in order to constrain the H3 sequence in a rigid helical conformation. The structure of leiurotoxin I consists of a beta-sheet and an alpha-helix, linked by three disulfide bridges. The structural feature of the chimeric peptide (H3-leiurotoxin) has been determined by standard two-dimensional NMR techniques. H3-Leiurotoxin structure closely resembles that of leiurotoxin I.  (+info)

A new scorpion toxin (BmK-PL) stimulates Ca2+-release channel activity of the skeletal-muscle ryanodine receptor by an indirect mechanism. (8/800)

A peptide toxin isolated from the Chinese scorpion Buthus martensi Karsch (BmK-PL) stimulated Ca2+-release channel activity in both triad membranes and reconstituted ryanodine receptors partially purified from rabbit skeletal muscle. In [3H]ryanodine binding experiments, the toxin increased the affinity of ryanodine for the receptor, from a Kd of 24.3 nM to 2.9 nM, which is an enhancement similar to that seen with known receptor activators, such as ATP and high concentrations of KCl. In contrast, toxin enhancement was not observed with purified receptors, although intrinsic binding activity and stimulation by the conventional receptor activators were retained. In single channel recordings of Ca2+-release activity, the toxin increased the open channel probability (Po) from 0.019 to 0.043 (226% of control) in triad preparations. Further toxin enhancement of Po from 0.07 to 0.37 (529% of control) was observed using partially-purified receptors in the presence of ATP. When purified receptors were assayed in the presence of ATP, however, they showed a high value of Po (0.33) and no further increase was observed following application of the toxin. Results derived from two different experimental methods consistently suggest that a molecule(s) required for toxin-induced enhancement is absent from the purified receptor preparation. Western blot analysis of receptors prepared using three different protocols showed that triadin was missing from the purified receptor preparation. The scorpion toxin minimally enhanced Ca2+-release channel activity of cardiac preparations. From these results, we conclude that the toxin preferentially increases the activity of skeletal-muscle ryanodine receptors by an indirect mechanism, possibly binding to associated protein molecule(s). Triadin is a strong candidate for such a molecule.  (+info)

1 The effect of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom and its toxin components on the rabbit isolated corpus cavernosum was investigated by use of a bioassay cascade. 2 Tityus serrulatus venom (3-100 mu g), acetylcholine (ACh; 0.3-30 nmol) and glyceryl trinitrate (GTN; 0.5-10 nmol) dose-dependently relaxed rabbit isolated corpus cavernosum preparations precontracted with noradrenaline (3 mu M). The selective soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3, alquinoxalin-1-one] (ODQ; 30 mu m) increased the basal tone of the rabbit isolated corpus cavernosum and abolished the relaxations induced by the agents mentioned above. Methylene blue (30 am) also inhibited the relaxations induced by Tityus serrulatus venom but, in contrast to ODQ, the inhibition was irreversible. 3 The non-selective NO synthase (NOS) N-omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10 mu M) and N-G-iminoethyl-L-ornithine (L-NIO; 30 mu M) also increased the tone of the rabbit isolated corpus cavernosum and markedly ...
Kaliotoxin (KTX) inhibits potassium flux through the Kv1.3 voltage-gated potassium channel and calcium-activated potassium channels by physically blocking the channel-entrance and inducing a conformational change in the K+-selectivity filter of the channel. KTX is a neurotoxin derived from the scorpion Androctonus mauretanicus mauretanicus, which is found in the Middle East and North Africa. (Crest M et al.) Kaliotoxin is a 4-kDa polypeptide chain, containing 38 amino acids. The formula is C171H283N55O49S8. The sequence has a large homology with iberiotoxin from Buthus tumulus, charybdotoxin from Leiurus quinquestriatus and noxiustoxin from Centruroides noxius. An Important site of the toxin is the K27 side chain (a lysine at place 27 of the protein sequence), which enters the pore and protrudes into the selectivity filter of the channel. (Lange A et al., Korukottu J et al.) KTX binds to the Kv1.3 voltage-gated potassium channel and the Calcium-activated potassium channels (BK channels). (Lange ...
In the UK and Netherlands scientists have genetically engineered an enzyme into the Clostridium sporogenes bacteria to deliver a cancer drug into anaerobic brain tumors. If their work continues to demonstrate success, this bacteria will be used to transport anti-cancer agents into previously inaccessible forms of cancer. The findings of this group will be presented at the annual meeting of the Society of Microbiology at the UKs University of York. Key to the findings of the group is that the use of this bacteria as a drug delivery system appears to leave healthy tissue surrounding tumors unharmed, in contrast to both chemotherapy and radiation treatment. This in and of itself is a milestone in cancer therapy.. Meanwhile, according to findings reported in the American Chemical Society (ACS), a compound called chlorotoxin from the highly poisonous venom of the deathstalker scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus may also help to deliver anti-cancer genes to glioma, the most common and serious form of ...
Maurotoxin (MTX) is a 34-residue toxin that was isolated initially from the venom of the scorpion Scorpio maurus palmatus. Unlike the other toxins of the α-KTx6 family (Pi1, Pi4, Pi7, and HsTx1), MTX exhibits a unique disulfide bridge organization of the type C(1) C(5) , C(2) C(6) , C(3) C(4) , and C(7) C(8) (instead of the conventional C(1) C(5) , C(2) C(6) , C(3) C(7) , and C(4) C(8) , herein referred to as Pi1-like) that does not prevent its folding along the classic α/β scaffold of scorpion toxins. MTX(Pi1) is an MTX variant with a conventional pattern of disulfide bridging without any primary structure alteration of the toxin. Here, using MTX and/or MTX(Pi1) as models, we investigated how the type of folding influences toxin recognition of the Shaker B potassium channel. Amino acid residues of MTX that were studied for Shaker B recognition were selected on the basis of their homologous position in charybdotoxin, a three disulfide-bridged scorpion toxin also active on this
One of the key features of clinical learning at Sydney Medical School are the SCORPIO sessions (SCORPIO apparently stands for "structured, clinical, objective, referenced, problem-orientated, integrated and organised"). With the exception of a few pseudo-SCORPIOs during haematology block, Ive generally found SCORPIOs to be great learning experiences and Im quite fortunate that my clinical school reputedly organises more SCORPIOs than the other USyd clinical schools.. Each SCORPIO session generally starts with a short introductory session to outline the session, after which students divide into small groups and rotate around several teaching stations. Each station features either a patient with a certain clinical presentation to solve/discuss - e.g. a young lady with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) - or known clinical signs to elicit - e.g. a gentleman with a pronounced aortic valve ejection systolic murmur and carotid bruits.. For endocrinology block, the clinical school has organised a ...
The Scorpio and Jones families are fictional families on the American soap opera General Hospital, which is set in the fictional town of Port Charles, New York. Over time, the two families intertwined and became one large blended family, often referred to as the Scorpio/Jones family. The Scorpio family was introduced in December 1980 by head writers Pat Falken Smith and Margaret DePriest, when Robert Scorpio arrived in town to assist Luke Spencer in locating a rare diamond called the Ice Princess. Four years later, the Jones family was introduced in 1984 by Gloria Monty when Frisco Jones arrived in town after he is hired to be the lead singer for "Blackie and the Riff Raff". The Scorpio and Jones families are known for their many adventures, with members of both families working as secret agents with the fictional World Security Bureau (WSB). Andrew Jones Sr. (Mentioned character) Andrew Sr. is mentioned as the father of Tony and Frisco Jones. Andrew Sr. married a woman named Cindy, with whom he ...
Most recent works on chymotrypsins have been focused on marine animals and insects. However, no study was reported in chelicerate. Scorpion chymotrypsin-like protease (SCP) was purified to homogeneity from delipidated hepatopancreases. The protease NH2-terminal sequence exhibited more than 60% monoacids identity with those of insect putative peptidases. The protease displayed no sequence homology with classical proteases. From this point of view, the protease recalls the case of the scorpion lipase which displayed no sequence homology with known lipases. The scorpion amylase purified and characterized by our time, has an amino-acids sequence similar to those of mammalian amylases. The enzyme was characterized with respect its biochemical properties: it was active on a chymotrypsin substrate and had an apparent molecular mass of 25 kDa, like the classically known chymotrypsins. The dependence of the SCP activity and stability on pH and temperature was similar to that of mammalian chymotrypsin proteases.
Most recent works on chymotrypsins have been focused on marine animals and insects. However, no study was reported in chelicerate. Scorpion chymotrypsin-like protease (SCP) was purified to homogeneity from delipidated hepatopancreases. The protease NH2-terminal sequence exhibited more than 60% monoacids identity with those of insect putative peptidases. The protease displayed no sequence homology with classical proteases. From this point of view, the protease recalls the case of the scorpion lipase which displayed no sequence homology with known lipases. The scorpion amylase purified and characterized by our time, has an amino-acids sequence similar to those of mammalian amylases. The enzyme was characterized with respect its biochemical properties: it was active on a chymotrypsin substrate and had an apparent molecular mass of 25 kDa, like the classically known chymotrypsins. The dependence of the SCP activity and stability on pH and temperature was similar to that of mammalian chymotrypsin proteases.
The combined effects of batrachotoxin (BTX) and either scorpion (Leiurus quinquestriatus quinquestriatus) venom (LqqV) or alpha-scorpion toxin (alpha-LqqTX) purified from LqqV on single voltage-gated Na channels were studied in planar lipid bilayers. In the presence of BTX, LqqV caused the channels to remain open at membrane potentials at least 50 mV more hyperpolarized than with BTX alone. alpha-LqqTX mimicked the effect of LqqV, suggesting that this toxin is the active component of the venom. LqqV did not significantly alter single-channel conductance, voltage-dependent block by saxitoxin, or voltage-dependent block by Ca2+, indicating that the venom preferentially affects gating rather than ion permeation. The results indicate that a cooperative interaction between alpha-LqqTX and BTX strongly favors the open state of the Na channel by causing a large hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of activation. This effect on activation gating is not predicted from the individual effects of ...
University of Washington researchers are reporting that they created chlorotoxin-bound nanoparticles that have an augmented anti brain cancer properties.
Safe Harbor statement under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995: PetLife encourages those interested in our Company to rely only on information included in our filings with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission which can be found at www.sec.gov. Statements released by the Company, that are not purely historical are forward-looking within the meaning of the "Safe Harbor" provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, including statements regarding the companys expectations, hopes, intentions, and strategies for the future. Investors are cautioned that forward-looking statements involve risk and uncertainties that may affect the Companys business prospects and performance. The Companys actual results could differ materially from those in such forward-looking statements. Risk factors include but are not limited to general economic, competitive, governmental, and technological factors as discussed in the Companys filings with the SEC on Forms ...
Olson came to pediatric oncology after realizing he had a "high tolerance for [the] heartbreak" inevitable when treating seriously ill children. Koerner follows him on his rounds: "A fourth-grader who may not live to celebrate another birthday, a teenage girl whose gloomy prognosis has made her suicidal - none of these encounters erase Olsons tranquil smile." This "steady bedside manner" has endeared him to many heartsick families. Some critics fear that Koerner may be giving "undue hope" to people with cancer, and others are squeamish about patient-based funding. But Koerner concludes: "Perhaps the ethical purists might feel rather differently if they, like [Olson], had to walk around a pediatric cancer ward every day ...
Everything is expensive these days. Focusing on debt relief is tough when so many liquids we use are budget-busting by the gallon.
The Challenge of Scorpio: Anger, Power and Transformation By Ray Grasse and Linda Puffer, 1999 Within the twelve signs of the zodiac, some signs have been considered more desirable than others and too often Scorpio has borne the brunt of some of the most negative associations. One reason for this might be that many of…
Western Digital Scorpio Blue 1 To à partir de 196,00 € (12 déc. 2017). Comparer les prix pour acheter votre disque dur interne Western Digital Scorpio Blue 1 To - wikio.fr
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Taking one placement in a horoscope and exploring it in depth can be a rewarding endeavour, particularly if that placement involves Scorpio. Scorpio is heavily maligned and misunderstood because it is a sign that provokes many unconscious projections from others who refuse (or are unable) to deal with the issues and buttons it often unwittingly pushes in them.
Depressant insect beta-toxins cause a transient contraction paralysis followed by a slow flaccid paralysis. They bind voltage-independently at site-4 of sodium channels (Nav) and shift the voltage of activation toward more negative potentials thereby affecting sodium channel activation and promoting spontaneous and repetitive firing. This toxin is active only on insects.
This is a short cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) derived from the venom peptide of Tunician scorpion. It can permeate cell membrane at low micromolar concentration in minutes without significantly affecting cell membrane. Maurocalcine can be conjugated with large molecules and used as a drug delivery vehicle.
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Mahindra Scorpio, claimed to be Indias first indigenously built SUV will complete a decade long innings on June 20. It has the most prominent rival in the....
Re: Booked Scorpio VLX BS4 4WD AirBag 8 seater Yes, although the design of the new alloys is not bad, i feel the old ones looked more rugged.
One pandemic Gear download transit to scorpio involved taking works at their Mom( Epidemic) illustrations through some socialists and even peeking. The reform for the shortest seizing team would say a places music of characters. Hammond: What go they have by poem ?
Bee, snake or scorpion venom could form the basis of a new generation of cancer-fighting drugs, scientists say. They have devised a method for targeting venom proteins specifically to malignant cells while sparing healthy ones, which reduces or eliminates side effects that the toxins would otherwise cause.
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Its important to take the emotion out of investing. Keay Nakae, senior research analyst with Ascendiant Capital Markets, looks at micro- and small-cap biotech stocks from an engineers perspective: Its all about the data. In this interview with The Life Sciences Report, Nakae reports on four companies with upcoming catalysts that potentially position them for significant growth and the ability to grab investors attention. more>. The Next Step in Killing Cancer (09/16/2013). "After several years of trial and error, Olson and his team at the privately owned Seattle biotech firm Blaze Bioscience, have created something called tumor paint. And the solution has come from the most unlikely of places. . .Scorpion venom.". more>. Hidden Finds in Regenerative and Medical Technology: Jeff Cohen (09/12/2013). Ladenburg Thalmann & Co. Inc.s Jeff Cohen regularly explores the frontiers of regenerative and medical technology looking for solid investment opportunities. In this interview with The Life ...
Surrounding ones self with strong women inspires strength. My sister-in-law Nancy is one such strong woman. Her visit to my granddaughter saved us from the terrifying failure to thrive syndrome.
hi buddy, i would recommend you the innova since you drive mostly on the highways. but on the other hand, since you drive yourself, you would prefer the scorpio. the scorpio is more fun to drive than
2)um.. No need and dont ever have to talk about your interesting life, just the kinda things you look for in a wife.. ha. But seriously though dont wanna be just another fan, wanna be a friend. This blogger is feelin you.. your inner most thoughts, flows, stories, words.. believe they are all herd. If you ever need to escape from fame, allow this blogger to try and approach your lane. Not expecting a fairytale ending nor a game that would last only one inning. Seriously though cant keep writing this long on your posts. to be quite vague This blogger is a private person, who is successful. Successful on another level.. ordinary people level. Born the same year, with not many fears.. Home owner. With a diploma. Currently working on a degree, and lord KnowS they aint free. Good job, independent, no kids. LoYaL. Made a twit account just for u and linked it to the celly. Aint this all funny? Told you last time liked Scorpio people.. well, they say the fish like to dream.. Always patiently waiting ...
Your input is mostly appreciated here. Btw for that 10/12 meridians I had my thoughts before. Even few times tried to apply it on the zodiac wheel. My last guess goes with Spleen in Libra and Heart in Scorpio as all the other meridians follow subsequently like on the following scheme. At that point when I fixed them it looked amazing discovery, yet nothing else I could combine of the western and eastern methods. I take this overlapping still not proved on 100%, nevermind my astrologist mind suggest it is quite true. (Thats why Leos are assh---s ::] *laugs ...
This week on Looking Up Hal tells the tale of a star in the tail of Scorpio. Hopefully, youve never had to deal with a really bad neighbor. But if you are
Astrokings.com horoscope monthly for Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Caprocorn, Aquarius, Pisces
Hi After our succussful road trips to leh & Uttaranchal by road, now we are planning for another long trip this year. Vehicle - Scorpio 2 families (Myself & wife, friend & his wife)
Complete amino acid sequence of the Aa6 submit of the scorpion Androctonus australis hemocyanin determined by Edman degradation and mass spectrometry
Copyright © 2009 PestControlPhoenix. Visit the original article at http://pestcontrolphoenixaz.net/Pest-Control/2009/06/scorpion-venom-a-cure-for-cancer/. Scientists battle brain tumors with scorpion venom - From: wmbfnews.com. AJ the Scorpion Guru was telling me about this the other day and I didnt believe him. In fact, he said that someone had called to find out the going price for a gallon of scorpion venom. I laughed until he explained that medical facilities are purchasing scorpion venom.. "So you are telling me I should be keeping my scorpions? and not killing them?". "No," AJ replied, "unfortunately Arizona Bark Scorpions do not carry the venom they are looking for.". I guess he really is the Scorpion Guru!. Thanks AJ, too bad you didnt beat NBC to the punch…. ...
Scorpion Control Polacca Az Nov 28, 2012 … Scorpions thrive in our Arizona climate and can leave homeowners feeling uneasy about being stung in their own home. Scorpion control is by … Effective and fast scorpion control. Our multi-step treatment gets scorpions where they nest and breed. Trained professionals and top rated service! coalmine chapter House Vice President Phillip Zahne. Scorpion Control that kills SCORPIONS, not just the bugs they eat. GUARANTEED Scorpion Pest Control in Mesa & Phoenix AZ Valley areas. SEE treatment …. Bird Control Hackberry Az SCOTTSDALE, AZ (3TV/CBS 5) - Jeff and Kathryn Dannay spent the day relaxing at home … [RELATED: $3.4 trillion has been … Phoenix Pigeon Control Company is the #1 Bird Control Service In Arizona. Specializing in Humane Relocation and Prevention in Phoenix, AZ, were a local … Bed Bug Treatment Young Az Scorpion Control Gadsden. Contact our Arizona scorpion control experts today to find out more. Get Rid of Scorpions in AZ by ...
BmP02, a short-chain peptide with 28 residues from the venom of Chinese scorpion Buthus martensi Karsch, has been reported to inhibit the transient outward potassium currents (Ito) in rat ventricular muscle cells. However, it remains unclear whether BmP02 modulates the Kv4.2 channel, one of the main contributors to Ito. The present study investigated the effects of BmP02 on Kv4.2 kinetics and its underlying molecular mechanism. The electrophysiological recordings showed that the inactivation of Kv4.2 expressed in HEK293T cells was significantly delayed by BmP02 in a dose-response manner with EC50 of ~850 nM while the peak current, activation and voltage-dependent inactivation of Kv4.2 were not affected. Meanwhile, the recovery from inactivation of Kv4.2 was accelerated and the deactivation was slowed after the application of BmP02. The site-directed mutagenesis combined with computational modelling identified that K347 and K353, located in the turret motif of the Kv4.2, and E4/E5, D20/D21 in BmP02 are
Methamphetamine Ingestion Misdiagnosed as Centruroides sculpturatus Envenomation. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The best-studied components of scorpion venom are the polypeptides that recognise ion channels and receptors in excitable membranes. They are harmful to a variety of organisms including man (for reviews, see Possani et al., 1999a, 2000). The molecules responsible for the toxicity of the scorpion venom are polypeptides of 4-8 kDa that have been classified according to their receptor targets. Four different families of toxin have been found to interact specifically with ion channels: Na+ channels (for a review, see Catterall, 1996), K+ channels (for a review, see Garcia et al., 1997), Cl- channels (Debin et al., 1993) and Ca2+ channels (for a review, see Valdivia and Possani, 1998). Scorpion toxins that affect Na+ channels are basic proteins with 60-76 amino acid residues, are stabilized by four disulphide bridges and are capable of specifically recognizing the Na+ channels of mammals, insects and crustaceans (Possani et al., 1999a). Their molecular mechanism of action has been described as being ...
Best_Wordpress_Gallery id="24″ gal_title="Scorpino Enduro"]. Scorpion Enduro: The Enduro is HPs offroad trike - its basically an fs 26 but with knobbly tyres and components more suited to messing about off road! Its got Shimano XT gearing with bar-end shifters and hydraulic disc brakes as standard. The Scorpion Order Form has all the prices and options…. [Best_Wordpress_Gallery id="25″ gal_title="Scorpion Plus"]. Scorpion Plus: The Plus Scorpions have the same full suspension design as the fs, but with a higher seating position - the base of the seat is 57cm (22.5″) off the ground, making it easier to get in and out of the trike. Like the fs, the Plus can also come with a 20″ or 26″ back wheel, and of course it can have an electric assist system if you need it like all the Scorpion models. The Scorpion Order Form has all the prices and options…. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oxygen transport proteins. T2 - III. Structural studies of the scorpion (Buthus sindicus) hemocyanin, partial primary structure of its subunit Bsin1. AU - Ali, Syed Abid. AU - Abbasi, Atiya. AU - Stoeva, Stanka. AU - Kayed, Rakez. AU - Dolashka-Angelova, Pavlina. AU - Schwarz, Heinz. AU - Voelter, Wolfgang. PY - 2000/1/1. Y1 - 2000/1/1. N2 - The hemocyanin (Hc) from Buthus sindicus, studied in the native state, demonstrated to be an aggregate of eight different types of subunits arranged in four cubic hexamers. Both, the top and the side views of the native molecule have been identified from the negatively stained specimens using transmission electron microscopy. Out of these, eight different polypeptide chains, the partial primary structure (68%) of a subunit Bsin1 (M(r) = 72422.7 Da) was established using a combination of automated Edman degradation and mass spectrometry. A multiple sequence alignment with other closely related cheliceratan Hc subunits revealed average ...
Define false scorpions. false scorpions synonyms, false scorpions pronunciation, false scorpions translation, English dictionary definition of false scorpions. n any small predatory arachnid of the order Pseudoscorpionida , which includes the book scorpion and is named from the claw-shaped palps, which are poison...
The diagnostic characters are reassessed and defined for the genera Lychas C. L. Koch, 1845, Mesobuthus Vachon, 1950, and Olivierus Farzanpay, 1987 (the latter is restored from synonymy with Mesobuthus). Four new genera are described: Aegaeobuthus gen. n. (type species Buthus gibbosus Brullé, 1832), Afrolychas gen. n. (type species Isometrus burdoi Simon, 1882), Janalychas gen. n. (type species Lychas srilankensis Lourenço, 1997), and Spelaeolychas gen. n. (type species Isometrus hosei Pocock, 1891). Type species are designated for subgenera Lychas (Distotrichus) Tikader & Bastawade, 1983 (type species Isometrus nigristernis Pocock, 1899), Lychas (Alterotrichus) Tikader & Bastawade, 1983 (type species Scorpio mucronatus Fabricius, 1793), and Lychas (Endotrichus) Tikader & Bastawade, 1983 (type species Isometrus scaber Pocock, 1893). All these three subgenera are now in synonymy with Lychas C. L. Koch, 1845. Lychas kaimana Lourenço, 2011 is synonymized with Lychas shelfordi (Borelli, 1904). ...
I first learned about scorpions growing up on the Arizona desert. It was not unusual for one to walk across our living room floor! The scorpion is yet another one of Gods amazing creatures. Though commonly thought of as desert animals, they actually live all over the world. Similar to spiders, mites, and ticks, scorpions have eight legs and belong to the Arachnidaclass with some 1,400 species worldwide. Scorpions have a long body and a segmented tail that is tipped with a venomous stinger. They have a pair of plier-like pincers (pedipalps) for grasping. At the end of the abdomen is the telson-a bulb that contains venom glands and has a sharp, curved stinger to inject the venom (see Revelation 9:5).. Evolutionists say that fossilized scorpions are found in the Paleozoic strata and date back 430 million years ago. But, of course, that is silly since God made the first ones only about 6,000 years ago. Even evolutionists admit that the fossilized scorpions "appear very similar to present day ...
Affects the activity of ryanodine-sensitive calcium-release channels RyR1, RyR2 and RyR3. At lower concentrations the toxin increases full openings of the RyRs, and at higher concentrations it inhibits full openings and induce openings to subconductance levels and reduces the number of full conductance openings. The different actions may be attributed to the toxins binding at different sites on the RyRs, with binding at a high-affinity site mediating the increase in full openings and the induction of subconductance states evoked upon binding to a lower-affinity site.
Market Price $10.99 Our Low Price $9.99 Special Price for 3 Bottles $26.97 - Save $6.00 Bottle Price $8.99 Fantastic Price for 12 Bottles $95.88 - Save $36.00 Bottle Price $7.99 Ass Kickin Scorpion Pepper Hot Sauce is made from one of the worlds hottest peppers-the Scorpion, thought to originally be from the island of Trinidad. Scorpion Pepper Hot Sauce brings out the flavor of any food, as well as satisfies anyones desire for self-inflicted pain. Not only does Scorpion Pepper Hot Sauce enhance ones appetite and increase dining enjoyment, chili peppers are thought to stimulate blood circulation, open nasal passages, and contain a good dose of vitamin C. Scorpion Pepper Hot Sauce is ideal to spice up bland hunting camp food, burritos, and does wonders when cooking wild game. You can also throw a couple drops of this into soups and chilis! From Arizona. Ingredients: Scorpion Peppers, vinegar, carrots, salt, fresh garlic, and spices. ...
Tweet Malaysian Forest ScorpionHeterometrus spinifer Although I am an impressive looking scorpion, I do not settle down in captivity! The Malaysian Forest Scorpion is a strikingly beautiful and tough scorpion! It is often mistaken for an Emperor Scorpion, however is is a much more aggressive scorpion! The pros of keeping the Malaysian Forest Scorpion include […]. ...
Scorpion stings and venoms [1]. ... Due to their stings' quick acting venom they rely to lesser ... Parabuthus is a genus of large and highly venomous Afrotropical scorpions, that show a preference for areas of low rainfall. ... It is suspected that three species, P. schlechteri, P. transvaalicus and P. villosus can spray venom from their tails. These ... Jonathan Leeming (2003). "Southern African species". Scorpions of Southern Africa. Struik. pp. 49-50. ISBN 978-1-86872-804-6. ...
... is a peptide that can be isolated from the venom produced by the glands of Isometrus maculatus (lesser brown scorpion ... Quintero-Hernández, V.; Jiménez-Vargas, J. M.; Gurrola, G. B.; Valdivia, H. H.; Possani, L. D. (2013-12-15). "Scorpion venom ... ImKTx88 is a selective inhibitor of the Kv1 ion channel family that can be isolated from the venom of the Isometrus maculatus ( ... The name ImKTx88 is derived from the scorpion species, Isometrus maculatus, its target, K channels, the abbreviation of toxin, ...
... is an α-scorpion toxin found in the venom of the Chinese scorpion Buthus martensi Karsch. By blocking the ... is a neurotoxin that is expressed and secreted by the venom gland of the scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch (Chinese Scorpion). ... An overview of toxins and genes from the venom of the Asian scorpion Buthus martensi Karsch. Toxicon, 40, 1239-1258 Gwee M.C.E ... Nirthanan S., Khoo H.-E., Gopalakrishnakone P., Kini R.M., Cheah L.S. (2002). Autonomic effects of some scorpion venoms and ...
The scorpion venom ErgTx also targets the hERG channel. However, ErgTx has only a 20% sequence homology with APETx1. APETx1 ... APETx1 is a peptide toxin from the venom of the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. The toxin acts as a gating modifier on ... APETx1 is a peptide toxin purified from the venom of the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima, which produces multiple toxins ...
Scorpion venoms can be toxic for mammals, insects, and crustaceans. Pi4 is lethal in mice upon injection in the ventricular ... "Two similar peptides from the venom of the scorpion pandinus imperator, one highly effective blocker and the other inactive on ... Pi4 (α-KTx 6.4) is a short toxin from the scorpion Pandinus imperator that blocks specific potassium channels. The name Pi4 is ... "Kalium: Scorpion Toxins Active on Potassium Channels". kaliumdb.org. Retrieved 2016-10-09. Dauplais, Marc; Lecoq, Alain; Song, ...
For isolation of slotoxin, scorpions of the species Centruroides noxius are milked for venom in the laboratory. The crude venom ... Slotoxin is a peptide from Centruroides noxius Hoffmann scorpion venom. It belongs to the short scorpion toxin superfamily. ... Garcia-Valdes J, Zamudio FZ, Toro L, Possani LD, Possan LD (September 2001). "Slotoxin, αKTx1.11, a new scorpion peptide ...
... is present in the venom of several scorpion species. It belongs to the α-KTx12 toxin subfamily and has a high ... Butantoxin (BuTX) is a compound of the venom of three Brazilian and an Argentinean scorpion species of the genus Tityus. ... Butantoxin is one of multiple toxins isolated from the venom of three Brazilian and one Argentinean scorpion species of the ... The blockage of K+ channels gives the scorpion venom its neurotoxic activity. Butantoxin weakly blocks Shaker B, Kv1.2 and ...
Bougis, PE; Martin-Eauclaire, MF (25 June 2015). "Shal-type (Kv4.x) potassium channel pore blockers from scorpion venoms". ... This subfamily currently exists of six very homologous peptides, originating from scorpion venom: Aa1, AaTX1, AaTX2, AmmTX3, ... AmmTX3, produced by Androctonus mauretanicus, is a scorpion toxin of the α-KTX15 subfamily. The toxin is known for its ability ... Androctonus mauretanicus is a fat-tailed scorpion with its origins in North Africa. AmmTX3 has a molecular mass of 3823.5 Da ...
... are a group of six antibacterial peptides from the venom of the Tityus discrepans scorpion. They exclusively target ... As a defense mechanism, bactridines protect scorpions from pathogens, they are antibacterial. When T. discrepans venom is ... Tityus discrepans scorpion venom activates platelets through GPVI and a novel Src-dependent signaling pathway. Platelets, 22, ... Antibacterial activity of six novel peptides from Tityus Discrepans scorpion venom. A fluorescent probe study of microbial ...
... is a 36-amino acid peptide found in the venom of the deathstalker scorpion (Leiurus quinquestriatus) which blocks ... DeBin JA, Strichartz GR (1991). "Chloride channel inhibition by the venom of the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus". Toxicon. 29 ... a chloride channel ligand from the venom of the scorpion". Am. J. Physiol. 264 (2 Pt 1): C361-9. PMID 8383429. Lippens G, Najib ... "Isolation and characterization of a novel lepidopteran-selective toxin from the venom of South Indian red scorpion, Mesobuthus ...
This scorpion produces a venom in which the Cn2 toxin is the most abundant component; it comprises approximately 6.8% of the ... Cn2 toxin is a single chain β-scorpion neurotoxic peptide and the primary toxin in the venom of the Centruroides noxious ... Amino acid sequence and immunological characterization with monoclonal antibodies of two toxins from the venom of the scorpion ... Exploiting cross-reactivity to neutralize two different scorpion venoms with one single chain antibody fragment. J Biol Chem. ...
Kurotoxin is from venom of the scorpion Parabuthus. In neurons in the thalamus, kurtoxin decreases high threshold calcium ... Calcicludine is from venom of Dendroaspis angusticeps, which is a green mamba. It has the ability to voltage-dependently block ... The toxins from this venom which show selectivity for P-type channels are ω-agatoxin IVA and ω-agatoxin IVB. Each of these ... ω-Grammotoxin SIA is a peptide toxin derived from the venom of the spider Grammostola spatulata. It acts to modify the P-type ...
Zhu, Wenxin Li (2000). "Evidence for the Existence of Insect Defensin-Like Peptide in Scorpion Venom". IUBMB Life. 50 (1): 57- ... The latter are more similar to protein scorpion toxins. Subsequent investigations confirmed relationships between scorpion ... deletion of a small loop of a defensin molecule from a Hymenopteran parasitoid venom that shares attributes of scorpion toxin, ... Defensin-like proteins are also a component of platypus venom. The alpha defensin peptides are increased in chronic ...
Miguel's half-brother becomes the future Scorpion instead of the future Venom. Alchemax is the de facto ruler of all of America ...
In TCM, powdered scorpion is toxic and is therefore used to treat poisoning. A scorpion venom peptide was found to help with ... Dried scorpions (Chinese: 全蠍, Pinyin:quan xie) may be ground into a powder and mixed with water. ... www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/2004/01.08/01-scorpion.html Jones, Kenneth (1990), Reishi: Ancient Herb for Modern Times, Sylvan ...
Gómez-Lagunas F, Olamendi-Portugal T, Zamudio FZ, Possani LD (1996). "Two novel toxins from the venom of the scorpion Pandinus ... They are selective blockers of voltage-gated potassium channels The source for the pandinotoxins is the venom of the scorpion ... Pandinotoxins are toxins from the venom of the emperor scorpion Pandinus imperator. ... H. Darbon, E. Blanc & J.M. Sabatier (1999). "Three-dimensional structure of scorpion toxins: Towards a new model of interaction ...
... was isolated from the venom of the South African Spitting scorpion. It is a peptide that is moderately toxic but very ... Birtoxin is a neurotoxin from the venom of the South African Spitting scorpion (Parabuthus transvaalicus). By changing sodium ... "Isolation and characterization of a novel type of neurotoxic peptide from the venom of the South African scorpion Parabuthus ... "Primary and NMR three-dimensional structure determination of a novel crustacean toxin from the venom of the scorpion ...
NTX accounts for only about 1% of the scorpion venom. NTX is one of the best-studied toxic peptides from scorpion venoms.. It ... Although the venom of Centruroides noxius Hoffmann is the most toxic of all the Mexican scorpions, it is less medically ... Noxiustoxin (NTX) is a toxin from the venom of the Mexican scorpion Centruroides noxius Hoffmann which block voltage-dependent ... NTX was first purified from homogenized crude venom extract of the Mexican scorpion Centruroides noxius Hoffmann, found in the ...
... scorpion venom, crushed Viking bones, and the saliva of a rabid wolverine. The actors also state that the can is made from the ... and Maybe Scorpion Venom. Pepsi Max, the First Diet Cola for Men," signaling a definitively different message than the one used ...
... (TsPep2) is a peptide isolated from the venom of the Tityus serrulatus (Brazilian yellow scorpion). It ... 2012). "Profiling the resting venom gland of the scorpion Tityus stigmurus through a transcriptomic survey". BMC Genomics. 13: ... and on its similarities in the patterns of disulfide bridges with other short scorpion venom toxins. The biological function of ... "Potassium channel blockers from the venom of the Brazilian scorpion Tityus serrulatus". Toxicon. 119: 253-265. doi:10.1016/j. ...
... is a toxin from the venom of the scorpion Heterometrus spinifer. HsTx1 is a very potent inhibitor of the rat Kv1.3 ... Scorpion venom usually contains different toxins that could influence the physiological functioning of nervous system binding ... HsTx1 is produced by Heterometrus spinifer, also known as Asia Giant Forest Scorpion or Malaysian Black Scorpion. Taxon ... from Pandinus imperator scorpion) and Maurotoxin (MTX, from Scorpio maurus scorpion). Main structural characteristics are the ...
Rather than being a lethal toxin, the giant scorpion's venom is paralytic. The venom is distilled into medicines against ... Heterometrus laoticus is a scorpion species found in peaty areas of Vietnam and Laos. They can reach lengths of 12 centimetres ...
Centruroides suffusus suffusus toxin II (CssII) is a scorpion β-toxin from the venom of the scorpion Centruroides suffusus ... Bark scorpion venom is generally considered neurotoxic, and stings can be fatal. Buthidae stings are highly prevalent, ... "Solution structure of native and recombinant expressed toxin CssII from the venom of the scorpion Centruroides suffusus ... C. suffusus suffusus has at least seven different β-toxins, of which CssII is considered the major toxin in the venom affecting ...
T G Tare (1 August 1992). "Circadian variation in venom yield by the scorpion Heterometrus indus (De Geer)". ResearchGate. ... Heterometrus indus, the Giant forest scorpion, is a species of scorpions belonging to the family Scorpionidae. It is found only ... "Giant Forest Scorpion - Heterometrus spp". carnivoraforum.com. Retrieved 13 March 2015. Tare TG, et al. "Burrow patterns of the ... scorpion Heterometrus indus". Med Vet Entomol. 7: 102-4. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2915.1993.tb00660.x. PMID 8435482. ...
... is a component of the venom of the Thai giant scorpion Heterometrus laoticus. This species is a member of the scorpion family ... 2013). "Scorpion venom components that affect ion-channels function". Toxicon. 76 (1): 328-342. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2013.07. ... 2013). "Scorpion venom components that affect ion-channels function". Toxicon. 65 (1): 187-200. doi:10.1007/s00018-007-7370-x. ... 2007). "Purification and characterization of Heteroscorpine-1 (HS-1) toxin from Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom". Toxicon ...
Predigestion avoids exposure to internal parasites.[5] Several groups secrete venom from specialized glands to kill prey or ... Amblypygi - "blunt rump" tailless whip scorpions with front legs modified into whip-like sensory structures as long as 25 cm or ... Thelyphonida - vinegarroons or whip scorpions (formerly Uropygida) forelegs modified into sensory appendages and a long tail on ... Schizomida - "split middle" whip scorpions with divided exoskeletons (220 species). * ...
scorpion venom. nitrergic nerves. tetrodotoxin. non-adrenergic non-cholinergic nerves. nitric oxide. ODQ. ... Effect of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom on the rabbit isolated corpus cavernosum and the involvement of NANC nitrergic nerve ... 1 The effect of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom and its toxin components on the rabbit isolated corpus cavernosum was ... 8 Our results indicate that Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom (and the active fractions X, XI and XII) relaxes rabbit corpus ...
Scorpion venom a lucrative weapon. By Satarupa Bhattacharjya (China Daily Europe) Updated: 2017-04-09 14:01 ... But Nongjing has found a novel way to raise its standard of living - scorpion farming - mainly to supply venom for use in ... Residents of a rural pocket in southern China breed scorpions for venom prized in TCM ... Scorpion toxins are used in traditional Chinese medicine to "smooth the flow of blood in the human body". The arachnid is also ...
After six weeks of nightly arguments, they found the right compound in the most unlikely of places: scorpion venom. ... Decades into research, a molecule that illuminates cancer cells-developed from scorpion venom-may someday help surgeons ... The researchers grew a human brain tumor on the back of a mouse and injected it with the venom compound. Within an hour, the ... "Scorpions have had millions of years to optimize the drug-like properties," Olson said. "Only the best survived." ...
Scorpion Venom: Can It Really Cure What Ails You?. Dominican-based company promises scorpion venom drug can help fight cancer. ... The scorpions venom is extracted in a modest rented lab in Santo Domingo. Each scorpion yields only five to seven drops of ... So did scorpion venom make her cancer go away? Escozine isnt the first natural remedy purported to cure diseases. Some have ... He said he has seen too many claims about alternative medicines, such as scorpion venom, that turn out not to work and leave ...
... the study of venomous animals has focused on the isolation and biochemical characterization of specific venom components that ... cDNA Library cDNA Library Construction Venom Gland Scorpion Venom Scorpion Toxin These keywords were added by machine and not ... The first scorpion venom gland cDNA library was reported in 1989 (Bougis et al. 1989) for the North African scorpion ... In scorpions, the venom is produced exclusively in the venom glands, two very well-delimited structures within the last segment ...
Scorpion Venom Addiction. Stories from the other side of the world have people wondering if scorpion venom is more likely to be ... Medical Uses for Venom. Scorpion venom is a substance that has recently gone through testing to determine its possible benefits ... Current research on scorpion venom is slow going, but there are a number of medical possibilities. Some people believe scorpion ... Some people hope scorpion venom will be used as a painkiller one day. Pain is so debilitating to patients that doctors are ...
"Brazilian scorpion Brotheas amazonicus venom peptidomics.". Ireno I.C., Rates B.A., Pimenta A.M.C.. Submitted (JUL-2009) to ... "Brazilian scorpion Brotheas amazonicus venom peptidomics.". Ireno I.C., Rates B.A., Pimenta A.M.C.. Submitted (JUL-2009) to ... "Brazilian scorpion Brotheas amazonicus venom peptidomics.". Ireno I.C., Rates B.A., Pimenta A.M.C.. Submitted (JUL-2009) to ... "Brazilian scorpion Brotheas amazonicus venom peptidomics.". Ireno I.C., Rates B.A., Pimenta A.M.C.. Submitted (JUL-2009) to ...
Scorpion venom has compounds that block potassium channels and this property is used to reduce inflammation and pain in special ... Scorpion Venom for Rheumatoid Arthritis. "Scorpion venom has hundreds of different components. One of the components in the ... Animals such as scorpions have venoms that block potassium and other ion channels. They use the venoms to paralyze and kill ... Targeting KCa1.1 channels with a scorpion venom peptide for the therapy of rat models of rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of ...
Its venom costs $39 million per gallon, making it the most expensive liquid in the world. ... The deathstalker is one of the most dangerous scorpions on the planet. ... Scorpions are almost always milked by hand, one by one. And one scorpion produces, at the most, just two milligrams of venom at ... Scorpion venom is the most expensive liquid in the world - heres why it costs $39 million per gallon. David Anderson and Abby ...
Tumors light up with scorpion venom and a laser. February 25, 2014. ScienceBlog.com ... It first was derived from the venom of the yellow Israeli scorpion, also called the deathstalker. Article co-author Adam ... found in the venom of the deathstalker scorpion. The imaging agent, Tumor Paint BLZ-100, a product of Blaze Bioscience Inc., ...
sp,P0CJ12,VP59_LYCMC Venom protein 59.1 OS=Lychas mucronatus OX=172552 PE=2 SV=1 ... Lychas mucronatus (Chinese swimming scorpion). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand% ...
A relative of the spider, scorpions are arthorpods (member of the arachnida class). ... Scorpions are definitely my least favorite of all the creepy-crawly-make-me-shudder family of pests. ... Scorpion Venom May Reduce Number of Bypass Graft Failures. By Mary Kyle Blogger ... This Scorpion Venom May Reduce Number of Bypass Graft Failures page on EmpowHER Womens Health works best with javascript ...
Scorpion venom and nanoparticles could yield a cure for cancer.. U. WASHINGTON (US)-Its an odd but potent brew. Researchers ... For more than a decade scientists have looked at using chlorotoxin, a small peptide isolated from scorpion venom, to target and ... compared to 45 percent for the scorpion venom alone. The University of Washington study represents the first time nanoparticles ... have found that by adding nanoparticles to a curative compound found in scorpion venom they can create a mixture that could ...
... and the scientist who developed a compound using a protein found in deathstalker scorpion venom. When the compound is injected ... Doctor uses scorpion venom to locate cancer cells. 7.23.14. http://www.foxnews.com/on-air/happening-now/index.html#/v/ ...
... a database for peptide toxins from scorpion venom. It enables scientists to systematize information on ... ... The Kalium database is a set of information on peptide toxins extracted from scorpion venom that act on potassium channels. ... Scientist create a database for scorpion venom. by Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences ... Kalium: a database of potassium channel toxins from scorpion venom, Database (2016). DOI: 10.1093/database/baw056 ...
... about the study based on scorpion venom. We saw that there was a peptide in the scorpion venom, chlorotoxin, which has the ... about the study based on scorpion venom. "We saw that there was a peptide in the scorpion venom, chlorotoxin, which has the ... The study in question is inspired on the scorpion venom to deliver medicines to brain. The scientists have modified a peptide ... Researchers at IRB Barcelona modify chlorotoxin-a small protein present in scorpion venom with blood-brain barrier permeability ...
Scientists Augment Scorpion Venom with Nanoparticles; Promise Super Brain Cancer Killer. April 17th, 2009 Editors Nanomedicine ... Press release: Scorpion venom with nanoparticles slows spread of brain cancer…. Abstract: Inhibition of Tumor-Cell Invasion ... a scorpion venom, seem to have substantially enhanced cellular uptake, hence their anticancer properties. ...
Available measurements find that spiders venom averages to 0.33 milligrams. Some scientists estimate that the average... ... it is thought that scorpions have the most venom on average. ... As of 2014, it is thought that scorpions have the most venom on ... What does black widow venom do when you are bitten?. A: The venom from a black widow bite initially causes pain, swelling and ... A collation of several studies shows the average venom yield using electrical stimulation to milk scorpions ranges from 0.006 ...
A novel imaging technique that uses a synthesized form of scorpion venom to light up brain tumors has shown promise in a ... Newswise - LOS ANGELES (May 9, 2019) - A novel imaging technique that uses a synthesized form of scorpion venom to light up ... The agent contains a synthetic version of an amino acid compound found in scorpion venom. ... Scorpion, Tumor fluorescence, Blaze Bioscience, Adam Mamelak, Glioblastoma, GBM, tumor imaging , Tumor Paint ...
... a method for making a polarized dilute scorpion venom solution, and a method for administering dilute sc ... Various embodiments of this invention disclose a polarized dilute blue scorpion venom solution, ... diluting said blue scorpion venom; polarizing a dilute blue scorpion venom; and administering a polarized dilute scorpion venom ... diluting a blue scorpion venom in a distilled water to create a dilute scorpion venom solution; circulating the dilute scorpion ...
... Vera L. ... In conclusion, an increase in the serum levels of TNF and IL-6 may be a useful marker for scorpion envenomation. ...
... compared to 45 percent for the scorpion venom alone. Scorpion venom with nanoparticles slows spread of brain cancer Seattle, WA ... For more than a decade scientists have looked at using chlorotoxin, a small peptide isolated from scorpion venom, to target and ... By combining nanoparticles with a scorpion venom compound already being investigated for treating brain cancer, University of ...
Transcriptome analysis of the venom gland of the scorpion Scorpiops jendeki : implication for the evolution of the scorpion ... Molecular diversity of Chaerilidae venom peptides reveals the dynamic evolution of scorpion venom components from Buthidae to ... lunatus scorpion venom (Hlsv) was classified as moderately toxic when compared with Tityus spp. venoms, symptoms such as ... Comparison between two methods of scorpion venom milking in Morocco. J Venom Anim Toxins incl Trop Dis. 2013;19(1):5. doi: ...
Cancer cure? Venom from snakes, scorpions and Bees studied. * George Brown and CNN Wire ... Pans technique uses nanotechnology to deliver a synthesized element similar to the venom found in bees, snakes and scorpions. ... Alternative doctors in Cuba have used scorpion venom to fight brain tumors. ... The properties in venom that destroy cancer cells can have the same effect on healthy cells - much in the same way chemotherapy ...
Scorpion and Snake Venom May Hold Cancer Cure.". PetLife Comments on CNN Story on Scorpion Venom Health Benefits Beverly Hills ... Alternative doctors in Cuba have used scorpion venom to fight brain tumors.. The properties in venom that destroy cancer cells ... Dipanjan Pan and his team have confirmed the validity of scorpion venom as an effective tool against cancer, joining a long and ... "Having started our research and development on the Blue Scorpion venoms anti-cancer properties over ten years ago, at PetLife ...
  • Indeed, scorpions have been extensively studied under this optics, which has led to the identification of hundreds of different transcripts encoding toxic peptides. (springer.com)
  • But Pan's lab has developed a technique to separate out the important proteins and peptides in the venom so they can be used to stop cancer cell growth. (wreg.com)
  • The Peptides and Proteins lab at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine has published a paper in Chemical Communications describing the capacity of a small protein derived from chlorotoxin, found in scorpion venom, to carry drugs across the blood-brain barrier. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Thousands of venoms that hold millions of peptides with the shuttle potential have been described. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Scorpion venoms are rich in ion channel-modifying peptides, which have proven to be invaluable probes of ion channel structure-function relationship. (mdpi.com)
  • We previously isolated imperatoxin A (IpTxa), a 3.7 kDa peptide activator of Ca 2+ -release channels/ryanodine receptors (RyRs) [1,2,and founding member of the calcin family of scorpion peptides. (mdpi.com)
  • Functional evolution of scorpion venom peptides with an inhibitor cystine knot fold. (inserm.fr)
  • Functionally, this peptide selectively inhibits the Drosophila Shaker K+ channel but is not capable of activating skeletal-type Ca2+ release channels/ryanodine receptors, which is remarkably different from the previously known scorpion venom ICK peptides. (inserm.fr)
  • The presence of a functional dyad in λ-MeuKTx-1 supports functional convergence among scorpion venom peptides with different folds. (inserm.fr)
  • Canadian health and wellness company PreveCeutical Medical Inc. (PMI) has signed a research and option agreement with UniQuest, The University of Queensland's main commercialization company, to develop stabilised natural and synthetic peptides from scorpion venom for immune-boosting applications. (uniquest.com.au)
  • This includes the CellB9 Immune System Booster product, which contains peptides that are obtained from the Caribbean Blue Scorpion. (uniquest.com.au)
  • Wellness products developed from scorpion venom-derived natural and synthetic peptides have the potential to be applied across a number of therapeutic applications including boosting the immune system," he said. (uniquest.com.au)
  • Scorpion venom is a source of bioactive peptides, and some antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been found in the venom gland of scorpions. (ac.ir)
  • The cDNA sequences encoding all the three peptides were obtained from the cDNA library of scorpion venom gland and were deposited in the GenBank database. (ac.ir)
  • Except for the Ca2+ channel specific scorpion toxins, whose threedimensional structure is still unknown, all scorpion toxic peptides have a highly conserved, dense core formed by an α helix and two to three strands of β sheet structural motifs, maintained by disulfide bridges. (diff.org)
  • Peptides extracted from scorpion venom fights off drug-resistant bacterial infections in mice. (the-scientist.com)
  • Scorpion venom has been gaining interest as a source of new drugs, it contains a mixture of biological chemicals called peptides. (blogspot.com)
  • Centruroides tecomanus species is one of the most poisonous scorpion found in colima and we have identified a highly selective group of peptides, which indicates that they could specifically bind to cancer cells and cause their deaths" she indicates. (blogspot.com)
  • The stimulatory effect is associated with the lowest molecular mass venom peptides as gel filtration fractions TzII and TzIII significantly enhanced peroxide production. (ucv.ve)
  • The venom of animals, including snakes, scorpions, and spiders is a complex combination of proteins, peptides, and other biomolecules as well as some minerals. (kowsarpub.com)
  • Among the biomolecules of some animal's venom, small peptides that lack disulfide bands known as Non-Disulfide Bridge Peptides (NDBPs) potentiate the bradykinin by preventing the conversion of angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 2 using the mechanism of inhibiting the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme activity and finally reducing the blood pressure in the victims. (kowsarpub.com)
  • The bioassays resulted in the peptides, including Z 1 and Z 2 regions in the venom fractionsof the Hottentotta saulcyi , Z 2 in Odontobuthus doriae , as well as Z 2 and Z 3 in Mesobuthus eupeus demonstrated bradykinin potentiating effect. (kowsarpub.com)
  • The idea was that, unlike manmade chemicals, the venom peptides wouldn't leave residues that could persist in the environment for years, and because they targeted specific types of insects, they wouldn't harm fish, reptiles, birds or mammals. (greenbiz.com)
  • Scorpion venoms are rich sources of peptides with the varieties of pharmacological functions cause massive discharge of catecholamines and death. (ac.ir)
  • However, scorpions are interesting organisms not only because of their toxin diversity but also because they represent the most ancient terrestrial animals that fossil records have identified. (springer.com)
  • Beestings, for example, hurt and become inflamed because melittin, the main toxin in a bee's venom, destroys cell membranes. (wreg.com)
  • For example, Dr. Samuel Wickline at Washington University in St. Louis helped develop "nanobees" that are also being tested to see if they can deliver a synthesized version of the toxin found in bee venom to cancer cells in prostate cancer. (wreg.com)
  • We saw that there was a peptide in the scorpion venom, chlorotoxin, which has the ability to reach the central nervous system and then act as toxin, "said Teixidó. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • The Indian red scorpion, or Buthus tamulus, has a toxin in its venom that may have special powers in treating rheumatoid arthritis, scientists at Baylor College of Medicine believe. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • This toxin is the most insecticidal among scorpion alpha-neurotoxins and, therefore, serves as a model for clarifying the structural basis for their biological activity and selective toxicity. (rcsb.org)
  • The ratio between these conformations was temperature-dependent, and the rate of their interconversions was estimated to be on the order of 1-5 s(-1) at 308 K. The conformation of the polypeptide backbone of Lqh(alpha)IT is very similar to that of the most active antimammalian scorpion alpha-toxin, AaHII, from Androctonus australis Hector (60% amino acid sequence homology). (rcsb.org)
  • Now researchers have identified the one toxin in scorpion venom that can treat and reverse joint damage caused by rheumatoid arthritis. (azpest.com)
  • Here, we describe a new scorpion venom-derived K+ channel toxin (named λ-MeuKTx-1) with an ICK fold through gene cloning, chemical synthesis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Ca2+ release measurements and electrophysiological recordings. (inserm.fr)
  • The structural and functional characterizations of the first scorpion venom ICK toxin with K+ channel-blocking activity sheds light on functionally divergent and convergent evolution of this conserved scaffold of ancient origin. (inserm.fr)
  • Researchers discover scorpion toxin that triggers pain through a previously unknown pathway, potentially opening up new avenues of investigation for treating chronic pain. (biopharma-reporter.com)
  • The toxin, produced by the Australian Black Rock scorpion, targets the 'wasabi receptor' - a sensory protein, also known as TRPA1, that is embedded in sensory nerve endings throughout the human body. (biopharma-reporter.com)
  • Positively selected sites of scorpion depressant toxins: possible roles in toxin functional divergence. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Some scorpions are known to produce a transparent prevenom in addition to the more potent opaque venom which is loaded with additional toxin. (desertusa.com)
  • Venom is a form of toxin secreted by some animals (e.g. scorpion, bee, snake e.tc) for the purpose of defending or causing harm to another. (blogspot.com)
  • Laura Leticia ValdezVelazquez , Head of research, said that when the toxin, derived from scorpion venom, invades channels in the cells with this disease it produces cellular damage until killing them. (blogspot.com)
  • Hemitoxin, the first potassium channel toxin from the venom of the Iranian scorpion Hemiscorpius lepturus. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • This finding call for further studies on Tc venom to identify the toxin responsible for its direct inotropic activity as it may have clinical applications. (unicamp.br)
  • Secretory epithelium in venom glands of specimens of Centruroides vittatus (Say) from Texas and the dangerously venomous Centruroides limpidus tecomanus Hoffman from Colima, México, was examined by light and electron microscopy. (ajtmh.org)
  • A few weeks ago an article by Bradley Hopp and co-workers presented a study of the Pallid Bat ( Antrozous pallidus ) using the Arizona Bark Scorpion ( Centruroides sculpturatus Ewing, 1928) as prey. (blogspot.com)
  • Here we show with behavioral measures and direct injection of venom that the pallid bat is resistant to venom of the Arizona bark scorpion, Centruroides sculpturatus . (blogspot.com)
  • Documentation on the biological activity (including the lethality) of the venom (BSV) from the black scorpion Heterometrus longimanus is lacking. (nus.edu.sg)
  • has reported a marked reversible contracture in CBC nerve-musclepreparation caused by the black scorpion Heterometrus spinifer venom which was blocked by d -tubocurarine but not by tetrodotoxin (12). (ac.ir)
  • Newswise - LOS ANGELES (May 9, 2019) - A novel imaging technique that uses a synthesized form of scorpion venom to light up brain tumors has shown promise in a clinical trial. (newswise.com)
  • In conclusion, an increase in the serum levels of TNF and IL-6 may be a useful marker for scorpion envenomation. (hindawi.com)
  • Our results showed that H. lunatus venom is capable of inducing cardiorespiratory alterations, a typical systemic effect of scorpionism, stressing the importance of medical monitoring in envenomation cases. (scielo.br)
  • H. lunatus venom has not been extensively studied and there are not sufficient case reports describing human envenomation by this species. (scielo.br)
  • In a first attempt to characterize the effects of this venom, our group reported initial data of H. lunatus experimental envenomation in rodents [ 5 , 6 ]. (scielo.br)
  • To ascertain the role played by granulocytes in the envenomation by T. zulianus (TzV) and T. discrepans (TdV), human peripheral blood neutrophils, eosinophils, and monocytes were exposed to scorpion venoms (0.001-5 ug/mL) and the kinetics (5-15 min) of peroxide production determined by flow cytometry, using 2´,7´-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (succinimidyl ester) as a fluorescent substrate. (ucv.ve)
  • Dominican-based company promises scorpion venom drug can help fight cancer. (go.com)
  • Nov. 4, 2013 -- A Dominican Republic-based company is making the controversial claim that its scorpion venom drug can help fight cancer, but some oncologists in the United States warn it may provide nothing more than a stiff dose of false hope. (go.com)
  • So did scorpion venom make her cancer go away? (go.com)
  • In addition to attacking cancer cells, Medolife says that scorpion venom might also combat auto-immune diseases, everything from HIV to hepatitis, and even male impotence. (go.com)
  • When asked why large pharmaceutical companies, which spend billions of dollars on cancer research each year, haven't marketed scorpion venom, Mikaelin said, pharmaceutical companies don't study "natural compounds because you can't patent [a] natural product. (go.com)
  • Lab tests of the combined therapy show a 98 percent drop in the growth of cancer cells, compared to 45 percent for the scorpion venom alone. (futurity.org)
  • CNN) -A cure to cancer could be in snake venom. (wreg.com)
  • The properties in venom that destroy cancer cells can have the same effect on healthy cells - much in the same way chemotherapy causes cell damage, and painful side effects, while treating cancer. (wreg.com)
  • Particles in bee venom seem to specifically stop the cancer stem cells. (wreg.com)
  • Pan's research builds on a growing body of scientific research that has shown toxins in venom can fight cancer cells without harming healthy cells. (wreg.com)
  • Next Pan's lab will try the synthesized venom and nanotechnology combination on cancer cells in rats and pigs. (wreg.com)
  • The polarized dilute scorpion venom solution relieves pain, improves immune-system response, treats cancer, prevents cancer, improves quality of sleep, reduces inflammation, and minimizes negative biological response to chemotherapy and radiation treatment. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 4. The method of claim 1, wherein said polarized scorpion venom solution prevents cancer and tumor growth. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 5. The method of claim 1, wherein said polarized scorpion venom solution treats cancer. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • PetLife Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (PINKSHEETS: EVGI) (PINKSHEETS: EVGID) today reported that CNN News has published a story, dated August 12, titled, "Bee, Scorpion and Snake Venom May Hold Cancer Cure. (nanotech-now.com)
  • Can Scorpion Venom Slow the Spread of Brain Cancer? (amog.com)
  • However in low doses, venom will not affect normal cells while it may affect cancer cells, since cancer cells are most sensitive to e.g. modulation of various channels much needed for the very fast cellular division. (blogspot.com)
  • Diluted venom from blue scorpions from cuba, has been used to fight cancer for long time now by tens of thousands of patients. (blogspot.com)
  • Although the research is at a primary stage, this indicates the use of venom from scorpions used against cancer. (blogspot.com)
  • Using the method of molecular design, the authors artificially changed the specificity of a component of Scorpion venom so that he began to only block the potassium channels responsible for the development of autoimmune diseases and cancer. (buzzon.live)
  • Collected venomous fluid is diluted in distilled water and venom concentration in solution depends on the cancer type and the patient's condition. (legallchems.com)
  • Furthermore, similarities in precursor organization, exon-intron structure, 3D-fold and function suggest that scorpion venom ICK-type K+ channel inhibitors and Ca2+ release channel activators share a common ancestor and their divergence occurs after speciation between buthidae and non-buthids. (inserm.fr)
  • These findings suggest that the effects of venom and isolated fractions on blood pressure parameters are mediated by different mechanisms, which deserve further pharmacological investigation. (mdpi.com)
  • The obtained ranges of venom fractions (zones) were tested on isolated tissues of guinea-pig ileum and rat uterus using organ bath instrumentation in several replicates. (kowsarpub.com)
  • Two Biological Active Fractions Isolated from Buthotus schach (BS) Scorpion Venom Examined on Striated Muscle Preparation, In-vitro', Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 11(3), pp. 905-911. (ac.ir)
  • Finally, according to our results venom as well as fractions F4 and F6 act mostly prejunctionally on Ach release. (ac.ir)
  • The effects of its crude venom at 1, 3, 10 µg/mL and its obtained fractions by gel filtrations were investigated on neuromuscular transmission. (ac.ir)
  • Both fractions show the same effects but stronger than venom on twitch height responses in indirectly stimulated CBC preparations. (ac.ir)
  • Snake venom Snake Wizards- In some parts of the world, especially in India, snake mourning is one of the street plays. (venommarket.com)
  • Snake venom galactoside-binding lectins (SVgalLs) comprise a class of toxins capable of recognizing and interacting with terminal galactoside residues of glycans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Crude venom obtained from Apis mellifera was selected. (venommarket.com)
  • The anti-coagulation factor of the crude venom from this species was purified by using gel filtration chromatography ( sephadex G-50), and the molecular weights of the anti-coagulants in this venom estimated by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). (venommarket.com)
  • Effect of crude Venom of Odonthobuthus doriae scorpion in cell culture using ion channel modulators', Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 16(2), pp. 648-652. (ac.ir)
  • In this study the cytotoxic effect of the crude venom of O.doriae on the 1321N1 cell line (cancerous nerve cells). (ac.ir)
  • The result showed that the O.doriae crude venom has cytotoxic effect via Na channels. (ac.ir)
  • Despite the fact that the primary structure of scorpion toxins can be quite different, there is a constant structural motif or scaffold conserved among these families of proteins. (diff.org)
  • Bee venom (BV) is a complex mixture of proteins and contains proteins such as phospholipase and melittin, which have an effect on blood clotting and blood clots. (venommarket.com)
  • The mechanism of action of honey bee venom (HBV, Apis mellifera ) on human plasma proteins and its anti-thrombotic effect were studied. (venommarket.com)
  • The venom contains low molar mass proteins which can prevent tumor cell occurrence and spreading. (legallchems.com)
  • Turn over any rock, or peer down a bamboo segment designated as the scorpion's home, and you'll find a scorpion about as long as a credit card. (go.com)
  • The scorpion's venom is extracted in a modest rented lab in Santo Domingo. (go.com)
  • The drug, Vidatox 30 CH, is a biotherapeutic, with scorpion venom as active ingredient, manufactured by Cuba-based firm Labiofam and was formally introduced on the Nigerian market yesterday, the Daily Trust reports. (radiohc.cu)
  • According to Cuban doctors that support Vidatox treatment in oncology, active ingredients of scorpion venom block certain cell enzymes and prevent angiogenesis, i.e. the creation of new blood vessels inside tumors. (legallchems.com)