Sclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Tupaiidae: The only family of the order SCANDENTIA, variously included in the order Insectivora or in the order Primates, and often in the order Microscelidea, consisting of five genera. They are TUPAIA, Ananthana (Indian tree shrew), Dendrogale (small smooth-tailed tree shrew), Urogale (Mindanao tree shrew), and Ptilocercus (pen-tailed tree shrew). The tree shrews inhabit the forest areas of eastern Asia from India and southwestern China to Borneo and the Philippines.Scleral Diseases: General disorders of the sclera or white of the eye. They may include anatomic, embryologic, degenerative, or pigmentation defects.Myopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Posterior Eye Segment: The back two-thirds of the eye that includes the anterior hyaloid membrane and all of the optical structures behind it: the VITREOUS HUMOR; RETINA; CHOROID; and OPTIC NERVE.Tupaia: A genus of tree shrews of the family TUPAIIDAE which consists of about 12 species. One of the most frequently encountered species is T. glis. Members of this genus inhabit rain forests and secondary growth areas in southeast Asia.Sensory Deprivation: The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Scleritis: Refers to any inflammation of the sclera including episcleritis, a benign condition affecting only the episclera, which is generally short-lived and easily treated. Classic scleritis, on the other hand, affects deeper tissue and is characterized by higher rates of visual acuity loss and even mortality, particularly in necrotizing form. Its characteristic symptom is severe and general head pain. Scleritis has also been associated with systemic collagen disease. Etiology is unknown but is thought to involve a local immune response. Treatment is difficult and includes administration of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids. Inflammation of the sclera may also be secondary to inflammation of adjacent tissues, such as the conjunctiva.Bromphenol Blue: A dye that has been used as an industrial dye, a laboratory indicator, and a biological stain.Conjunctiva: The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.Uvea: The pigmented vascular coat of the eyeball, consisting of the CHOROID; CILIARY BODY; and IRIS, which are continuous with each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Diffusion Chambers, Culture: Devices used in a technique by which cells or tissues are grown in vitro or, by implantation, in vivo within chambers permeable to diffusion of solutes across the chamber walls. The chambers are used for studies of drug effects, osmotic responses, cytogenic and immunologic phenomena, metabolism, etc., and include tissue cages.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Eye Enucleation: The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Pterygium: An abnormal triangular fold of membrane in the interpalpebral fissure, extending from the conjunctiva to the cornea, being immovably united to the cornea at its apex, firmly attached to the sclera throughout its middle portion, and merged with the conjunctiva at its base. (Dorland, 27th ed)Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.Sclerostomy: Surgical formation of an external opening in the sclera, primarily in the treatment of glaucoma.Lenses: Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.Anterior Eye Segment: The front third of the eyeball that includes the structures between the front surface of the cornea and the front of the VITREOUS BODY.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Iris: The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.Carbon Disulfide: A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.Eye Color: Color of the iris.LizardsPigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Skin Pigmentation: Coloration of the skin.Pigmentation DisordersEye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.Jaundice: A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Yellow Fever: An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.Jaundice, Obstructive: Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS.Yellow fever virus: The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.Skin Transplantation: The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.New York CityIris Diseases: Diseases, dysfunctions, or disorders of or located in the iris.HumanitiesWireless Technology: Techniques using energy such as radio frequency, infrared light, laser light, visible light, or acoustic energy to transfer information without the use of wires, over both short and long distances.Hospitals, Voluntary: Private, not-for-profit hospitals that are autonomous, self-established, and self-supported.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Hospitals, Proprietary: Hospitals owned and operated by a corporation or an individual that operate on a for-profit basis, also referred to as investor-owned hospitals.Institutional Practice: Professional practice as an employee or contractee of a health care institution.Dictionaries, MedicalDentinogenesis Imperfecta: An autosomal dominant disorder of tooth development characterized by opalescent dentin resulting in discoloration of the teeth. The dentin develops poorly with low mineral content while the pulp canal is obliterated.Osteogenesis Imperfecta: COLLAGEN DISEASES characterized by brittle, osteoporotic, and easily fractured bones. It may also present with blue sclerae, loose joints, and imperfect dentin formation. Most types are autosomal dominant and are associated with mutations in COLLAGEN TYPE I.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Crowdsourcing: Social media model for enabling public involvement and recruitment in participation. Use of social media to collect feedback and recruit volunteer subjects.

Scleritis and temporal arteritis. (1/822)

Thirty consecutive patients with severe scleritis or episcleritis were admitted as in-patients to the Medical Ophthalmology Unit and assessed for systemic disease. There were seventeen women and thirteen men. The mean age was 53 with a median of 57 (range 23-83). Eighteen of the patients had scleritis: eleven of these had evidence of connective tissue disease and three of them had temporal arteritis. Twelve patients had episcleritis: six of them had a collagen disease and one of them developed temporal arteritis. This high incidence of temporal arteritis in association with scleritis has not been previously reported. It is important to diagnose and treat overt temporal arteritis early with parenteral steroids so that ischaemic papillopathy can be avoided. A higher incidence of collagen diseases than previously described is reported in episcleritis. It is thought that this is secondary to selection since patients with the usual self-limiting episcleritis are not normally referred for further in-patient investigation. In no patient was more than one significant diagnosis made. There was no significant medical illness in only 11% of patients with scleritis and 33% of patients with episcleritis. The majority of the non-collagen diseases (e.g. hypertension) were not previously recognized. In none of the patients with temporal arteritis was the diagnosis made before admission. It is concluded that full examination and investigation for underlying disease is indicated in both scleritis and severe episcleritis.  (+info)

Structural specializations of the eye in the vizcacha (Lagostomus maximus maximus). (2/822)

Vizcachas (Lagostomus maximus maximus, Chinchillidae) are nocturnal rodents living in burrows in many regions of Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile. We have studied the eye of the vizcacha using several light and electron microscopic procedures, with the purpose of understanding the role of vision in the behavior of this species. Our observations demonstrated an avascular, rod-rich retina, with a specialized region spanning through most of the equator of the eye. In this central band, all neural retinal layers exhibited a high cell density, whereas the photoreceptor layer was characterized by the presence of very long rods. In addition, the central region was associated with a distinct pigmentation pattern, including scarce granulation of the pigment epithelium, low pigmentation of the choroid, and the selective attachment of suprachoroidal cells to the inner scleral surface. These central modifications probably form the structural basis of a reflecting tapetum. The eye of the vizcacha received both long and short ciliary vessels, and a specialized cilio-sclero-choroidal vascular network appeared at the equatorial region. Our findings suggest that the equatorial region of the eye of the vizcacha could be a highly sensitive light detector related to foraging behaviors during crepuscular or nocturnal hours.  (+info)

Regulation of the mechanical properties of tree shrew sclera by the visual environment. (3/822)

Experiments in several species have shown that the axial elongation rate of the developing eye can be increased or decreased by manipulating the visual environment, indicating that a visually guided emmetropization mechanism controls the enlargement of the vertebrate eye during postnatal development. Previous studies in tree shrews (Tupaia glis belangeri) suggest that regulation of the mechanical properties of the sclera may be an important part of the mechanism that controls the axial elongation rate in this mammal. To learn whether the mechanical properties of the sclera change when the axial elongation rate is increased or decreased under visual control, uniaxial mechanical tests were performed on 3-mm wide strips of tree shrew sclera. The creep rate was measured under 1, 3, and 5 g of tension, maintained for 30 min at each level. The modulus of elasticity was calculated from the elastic extension that occurred when the force was increased from 0 to 1 g, 1 to 3 g, and 3 to 5 g. Both were measured in the sclera of both eyes from animals exposed to four experimental conditions: (1) Normal development, at intervals from the day of natural eyelid opening (day 1 of visual experience [VE]) to greater than 5 years of age; (2) Monocular form deprivation (MD), for varying lengths of time; (3) Recovery from MD; (4) Monocular -5 D lens treatment. The creep rate was low in normal animals (1-2% elongation/h), did not change significantly between day 1 and day 75 of VE, and was not significantly different between the two eyes. Four days of MD produced a 200-300% increase in creep rate in the sclera from deprived eyes. Creep rate remained similarly elevated after 11 and 21 days of MD. After 2 days of recovery, which followed 11 days of MD, the creep rate of sclera from the recovering eyes was below normal levels. In animals that wore a monocular -5 D lens for up to 21 days, creep rate increased, and then decreased, in concert with the increase, and decrease, in axial elongation rate as the eyes compensated for the lens. The modulus of elasticity of the sclera was not significantly affected by any manipulation. The temporal correspondence between changes in axial elongation rate and changes in creep rate support the hypothesis that regulation of the time-dependent mechanical properties of fibrous mammalian sclera plays a role in controlling axial elongation rate during both normal emmetropization and the development of refractive errors.  (+info)

Enthacrynic and acid effects on inner wall pores in living monkeys. (4/822)

PURPOSE: The influence of the inner wall of Schlemm's canal on aqueous outflow facility remains poorly understood. We examined the relationship between inner wall pore characteristics and outflow facility in living primate eyes in which facility had been pharmacologically increased by ethacrynic acid (ECA) infusion and in contralateral control eyes. METHODS: Outflow facility (two-level constant pressure perfusion) was measured in eight pairs of living monkey eyes before and after administration of a bolus dose of either 0.125 mM ECA or vehicle. After exsanguination, eyes were fixed in situ under constant-pressure conditions (mean fixation pressure approximately 19 mm Hg). The density and diameter of inner wall pores and the number and area of platelet aggregates on the inner wall of Schlemm's canal were measured by scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: In ECA-treated eyes, outflow facility increased 63% (P < 0.0001), intracellular pore density decreased 46% (P = 0.0094), intracellular pore size increased 27% (P = 0.049), platelet aggregate density increased 158% (P < 0.0001), and area covered by platelets increased 210% (P = 0.012) relative to contralateral controls. Although the average density and size of intercellular pores were essentially unaffected by ECA, an increased density of large (> or = 1.90 microm) intercellular pores was seen in ECA-treated eyes. The density of intracellular pores increased with the duration of fixative perfusion. Other than a weak negative correlation between outflow facility and intracellular pore density in ECA-treated eyes (P = 0.052), facility was not correlated with inner wall pore features. CONCLUSIONS: Our data are most consistent with a scenario in which ECA promotes formation of large intercellular pores in the inner wall of Schlemm's canal, which are then masked by platelet aggregates. Masking of intercellular pores, combined with fixation-induced alteration of inner wall pore density, greatly complicates attempts to relate facility to inner wall structure and suggests that in vivo pore density is smaller than in fixed tissue. Additionally, facility-influencing effects of ECA on the juxtacanalicular tissue cannot be excluded.  (+info)

Effects of ethacrynic acid on Schlemm's canal inner wall and outflow facility in human eyes. (5/822)

PURPOSE: The role of the inner wall of Schlemm's canal in determining aqueous outflow facility is poorly understood. To quantify the relationship between inner wall pore characteristics and aqueous outflow facility in human eyes, both control eyes and eyes in which facility had been pharmacologically increased by ethacrynic acid (ECA) infusion were studied. METHODS: Outflow facility was measured in enucleated human eyes before and after delivery of 0.25 mM ECA (one eye of each of 6 pairs) or 2.5 mM ECA (one eye of each of 13 pairs). ECA, and vehicle in contralateral eyes, was delivered into Schlemm's canal by retroperfusion, thereby largely avoiding drug exposure to the trabecular meshwork. After facility measurement, eyes were fixed under conditions of either constant pressure (physiological intraocular pressure, 13 pairs) or "equal flow" (6 pairs) and were microdissected to expose the inner wall of Schlemm's canal. The density and diameter of intercellular and intracellular inner wall pores were measured using scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: Retroperfusion with 2.5 mM ECA increased facility by 73% (P < 0.001), whereas 0.25 mM ECA increased facility by 19% (not statistically significant). The density of intercellular pores in the inner wall of Schlemm's canal was increased by 520% in 2.5 mM ECA-retroperfused eyes (P < 0.00004), whereas intracellular pore density remained approximately constant. Large pores (size > or = 1.1 microm) were particularly enhanced in ECA retroperfused eyes. The net change in facility due to ECA was not correlated with changes in pore density or other inner wall pore statistics. CONCLUSIONS: Our data are most consistent with a model in which pores in the inner wall of Schlemm's canal indirectly influence facility. However, measured changes in facility due to changes in inner wall properties did not agree with quantitative predictions of the pore funneling theory, suggesting that changes in facility may instead be due to gel leakage from the extracellular spaces of the juxtacanalicular tissue. More definitive experiments are required to confirm this hypothesis.  (+info)

Morphological variations of the peripapillary circle of Zinn-Haller by flat section. (6/822)

AIMS: To evaluate the morphometric and morphological variations of the circle of Zinn-Haller (CZH) in the human eye. METHODS: 42 human enucleated eyes were used in this study. After transverse flat thick sections were cut through the optic nerve and adjacent sclera, tissue sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin or examined immediately by wet preparation under a light microscope. The average vessel diameter of the arterial circle and the average distance between the optic nerve head (ONH) and the arterial circle were determined. Various branching patterns of the CZH were also evaluated. RESULTS: The vessel diameter of the arterial circle was 123 (SD 75) microm (range 20-230 microm). The distance of the CZH from the ONH margin was 403 (352) microm (0-1050 microm). The CZH gave off branches to the optic nerve and to the peripapillary choroid (PPC) with various branching patterns especially at the entry point of paraoptic short posterior ciliary artery. CONCLUSIONS: The CZH exists within a variable distance from the ONH and its average diameter is similar to that of the central retinal vessels though it shows marked variation even in the same circle. The CZH also shows variable configurations in branching patterns. These variations may act as contributing factors that are responsible for the individual susceptibility of the anterior optic nerve and the PPC to circulatory disturbances.  (+info)

Excimer laser effects on outflow facility and outflow pathway morphology. (7/822)

PURPOSE: To determine the relative contributions to aqueous outflow resistance of the tissues distal to the inner wall of Schlemm's canal. METHODS: While performing constant pressure perfusion at 10 mm Hg, a 193-nm excimer laser (Questek) was used to precisely remove portions of sclera, unroofing Schlemm's canal while leaving the inner wall intact. The laser beam was masked to produce a beam 2 mm by 1 mm. The laser output was constant at a fluency of 75 mJ/cm2 and 20 Hz. The excimer laser at a frequency of 1 Hz was used as the aiming beam. Photoablation was performed on human cadaver eyes at the limbus at an angle of 0 degrees to 45 degrees from the optical axis. As the excimer photoablations progressed, Schlemm's canal was visualized by the fluorescence of the Barany's solution containing fluorescein dye. After perfusion fixation the eyes were immersion-fixed overnight. The facility of outflow before (Co) and after (Ce) the excimer ablation was measured in 7 eyes. RESULTS: The facility of outflow increased in all eyes after the excimer sinusotomy, from a mean of 0.29+/-0.02 before the sinusotomy to 0.37+/-0.03 microl/min per mm Hg after (P < 0.05). The mean ratio of outflow facility after and before ablation (Ce/Co) was 1.27+/-0.08 (range, 1.20-1.39), a reduction of outflow resistance of 21.3%. Using the formula of Ellingsen and Grant (1972), percentage of resistance to outflow eliminated = 100 [1 - alphaCo/Ce - (1 - alpha)Co], where alpha = fraction of the circumference dissected. Assuming that because of circumferential flow approximately 50% of Schlemm's canal is drained by the single opening made in the outer wall ablation studies, this results in resistance to outflow eliminated of 35%, which is consistent with the calculated eliminated resistance derived from the data of Rosenquist et al., 1989. Light and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the integrity of the inner wall Schlemm's canal underlying the area of ablation. CONCLUSIONS: The results provide direct evidence indicating that approximately one third of resistance to outflow in the human eye lies distal to the inner wall Schlemm's canal in an enucleated perfused human eye.  (+info)

Glucocorticoids regulate transendothelial fluid flow resistance and formation of intercellular junctions. (8/822)

The regulation of transendothelial fluid flow by glucocorticoids was studied in vitro with use of human endothelial cells cultured from Schlemm's canal (SCE) and the trabecular meshwork (TM) in conjunction with computer-linked flowmeters. After 2-7 wk of 500 nM dexamethasone (Dex) treatment, the following physiological, morphometric, and biochemical alterations were observed: a 3- to 5-fold increase in fluid flow resistance, a 2-fold increase in the representation of tight junctions, a 10- to 30-fold reduction in the mean area occupied by interendothelial "gaps" or preferential flow channels, and a 3- to 5-fold increase in the expression of the junction-associated protein ZO-1. The more resistive SCE cells expressed two isoforms of ZO-1; TM cells expressed only one. To investigate the role of ZO-1 in the aforementioned Dex effects, its expression was inhibited using antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotides, and the response was compared with that observed with the use of sense and nonsense phosphorothioate oligonucleotides. Inhibition of ZO-1 expression abolished the Dex-induced increase in resistance and the accompanying alterations in cell junctions and gaps. These results support the hypothesis that intercellular junctions are necessary for the development and maintenance of transendothelial flow resistance in cultured SCE and TM cells and are likely involved in the mechanism of increased resistance associated with glucocorticoid exposure.  (+info)

  • The sclera is perforated by many nerves and vessels passing through the posterior scleral foramen, the hole that is formed by the optic nerve . (
  • In many vertebrates , the sclera is reinforced with plates of cartilage or bone , together forming a circular structure called the scleral ring . (
  • Sometimes, very small gray-blue spots can appear on the sclera, a harmless condition called scleral melanocytosis . (
  • This revised version of The Sclera, first published in 1994, contains the latest information on the diagnosis and treatment of scleral diseases, as well as new illustrations. (
  • Birefringence and tensile elastic moduli of sclera in humans and lower mammals are positively correlated, but the correlations differ for various scleral regions. (
  • In contrast, scleral fibrils possess inhomogeneous, tubelike structures with thin hard shells, maintaining the high stiffness and elasticity of the sclera. (
  • From outer to innermost, the four layers of the sclera are: episclera stroma lamina fusca endothelium The sclera is opaque due to the irregularity of the Type I collagen fibers, as opposed to the near-uniform thickness and parallel arrangement of the corneal collagen. (
  • To increase our understanding of the mechanisms that remodel the sclera during the development of lens-induced myopia, when the sclera responds to putative "go" signals of retinal origin, and during recovery from lens-induced myopia, when the sclera responds to retinally-derived "stop" signals. (
  • Research advances in sclera-remodeling relevant gene polymorphisms related to myopia]. (
  • And sclera-remodeling plays an important role in the development of myopia. (
  • The recent research advances in association with both sclera-remodeling relevant gene polymorphisms and myopia are reviewed in this article. (
  • In bovine and rabbit sclera, correlation slopes were 0.34 and 0.19, with Pearson r values ( p value) 0.630 (0.038) and 0.635 (0.027), respectively. (
  • There are six small muscles attached to the sclera that control the eye's movements. (
  • The procedure involves inserting a 3.5 mm (0.13 inch) wide piece of specially developed jewelry (the range includes a glittering half-moon or heart) into the eye's sclera. (
  • Toxins and impurities built up in your body and eyes can cause your eye's sclera to have a dull or yellowish appearance, instead of a bright white color that is an indication of good eye health and also of overall health. (
  • entacapone: 6000 mg) in a suicide attempt, presenting as altered mentality, xanthoderma, and yellowish sclera without hyperbilirubinemia. (
  • Tiny grey spot at the end of blood vessel in eye and discolored patch with a tinge of yellowish brown on my sclera. (
  • Fully Covering your sclera with a diameter of 22mm, the Blind Yellowish Sclera Lenses are so suitable if you want a stunning look or to play a character who has yellow eyes. (
  • The sclera is not a static container of the eye but rather a dynamic tissue that responds to changes in ocular size and refraction [ 3 ]. (
  • ******************************************************** We invite research groups working on ocular biometrics, segmentation problems or other related vision tasks to take part in the 2020 Sclera Segmentation Benchmarking Competition (SSBC 2020). (
  • Sclera biometrics have gained significant popularity among emerging ocular traits in the last few years. (
  • The sclera develops from the mesoderm simultaneously with the cornea, and forms the outer structure of the eye, contributing to the preservation of the ocular shape and serving as a functional barrier. (
  • 18 , 19 There are many ocular inflammatory diseases that involve the sclera, including infections and inflammatory conditions. (
  • The competition builds on past sclera segmentation competitions, namely SSBC 2015, SSRBC 2016, SSERBC 2017, SSBC 2018 and SSBC 2019 held in conjunction with BTAS 2015, ICB 2016, IJCB 2017, ICB 2018 and ICB 2019 respectively. (
  • The tissue that makes up the white of your eye, called the sclera, could turn yellow if you have a condition known as jaundice. (
  • Allergic reactions to food, pollen or dander will not contribute to a sclera yellowing or jaundice, but allergies may cause sclera-related symptoms. (
  • Is it okay to have permanent visible blood vessels in the sclera of the eye? (
  • All was going well until blood vessels broken in sclera in same eye yesterday. (
  • A novel device for noninvasively observing peripheral blood vessels and their blood flow using high-speed photography of the surface of the sclera was developed in our laboratory. (
  • Utilising phase-only correlation to detect the displacement of blood vessels, we eliminated the effects of fixational eye movements to stabilise the sclera images. (
  • The nerve fibers forming the optic nerve exit the eye posteriorly through a hole in the sclera that is occupied by a mesh-like structure called the lamina cribrosa . (
  • Sclera" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • The sclera is the white outer coating of the eye. (
  • General disorders of the sclera or white of the eye. (
  • In relation to the sclera, an allergic reaction may cause redness on the white of your eye. (
  • The sclera, also called "the white of the eye," is the tough, opaque tissue that serves as the protective outer coat of the eye, the St. Luke's Cataract and Laser Institute explains. (
  • Collagen cross-linking (CXL) is another method to strengthen the sclera and is divided into 2 types: chemical cross-linking (using glucose, ribose, glyceraldehyde, glutaraldehyde, aliphatic beta-nitro alcohol, etc.), and physical cross-linking (using rose bengal/white light, riboflavin/ultraviolet A light, riboflavin/blue light, etc.) [ 6 - 8 ]. (
  • The sclera is the white hard covering of the eye. (
  • Is it where the white part of the eye (sclera) usually is? (
  • A pinguecula , which is a deposit/build up on the white part of the eye (sclera) due to uv light and dryness of the eyes. (
  • Does anyone know how to make the sclera(white part of your eyes) whiter? (
  • Can sleep affect how white your sclera is? (
  • We commonly get patients who come in asking if the white part of their eye, the sclera, has a growth or is turning a gray color. (
  • The sclera - the white part of the eye - is thicker and stronger than the cornea and thus protects the eye from becoming damaged. (
  • Children typically have a thinner and more translucent sclera with a visible and bluish underlying tissue. (
  • To investigate these issues, to document recent developments and to attract (and raise) the interest of researchers in this emerging biometric trait, we are organzing SSBC 2020 - a competition (and group benchmarking effort) held in conjunction with IJCB 2020 focusing on the problem of sclera segmentation. (
  • SSBC 2020 is the next in the series of sclera segmentation challenges and aims to benchmark sclera segmentation models in both cross sensor settings as well as across different acquisition conditions. (
  • A marking device is provided for marking the sclera and/or limbus of a patient's eye to standardize and define incision location and suture placement prior to cataract removal, and to aid in the intraoperative control of astigmatism. (
  • Studies have shown that biomechanical parameters of the sclera are weaker in myopic human eyes than in age-matched nonmyopic eyes [ 4 ]. (
  • The lenses feature a unique out-of-this world design that creates the illusion of jet black eyes, covering the entire irises and most of the sclera. (
  • Mini Red Sclera contact lenses are made from 62 percent polymacon, a flexible polymer material that adapts to the shape of your eyes. (
  • The examination revealed a blue-gray appearance of the sclera in both eyes (image A). Results of a corneal pachymetry measurement revealed decreased corneal thickness. (
  • For the last four months, every 2-3 weeks, the sclera of one of my eyes turns blood shot red (a broken blood capillary). (
  • Alkaloid built a sclera corrector, , to fix eyes that tend to go black or pink when they cut far over to the side. (
  • The 'Low impact' version is my attempt to build a sclera corrector that makes as few changes to the look of the underlying eyes as possible, while still correcting their appearance when cut far over to the side. (
  • All of our Sclera Contact Lenses feature a transparent centre ensuring that you can see how scared your friends are when they first encounter those Spooky Eyes! (
  • Pictograms - , , On our website, we offer you a wide selection of coloring pages, pictures, photographs and handicrafts. (
  • Inflammation of the sclera is relatively rare. (
  • At the optic disc the outer two-thirds of the sclera continues with the dura mater (outer coat of the brain) via the dural sheath of the optic nerve. (
  • The optic nerve also connects to the sclera at the back of the eye. (
  • Cornea implants consist of a clear optic part and a surrounding ring known as the skirt, which needs to integrate with the sclera of the eye. (
  • The thickness of the sclera varies from 1mm at the posterior pole to 0.3 mm just behind the rectus muscle insertions. (
  • At 1 month after transplantation, mice were sacrificed and their sclera examined by histology, immunohistochemistry (CD11b, CD11c, CD45), and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. (