Sclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Tupaiidae: The only family of the order SCANDENTIA, variously included in the order Insectivora or in the order Primates, and often in the order Microscelidea, consisting of five genera. They are TUPAIA, Ananthana (Indian tree shrew), Dendrogale (small smooth-tailed tree shrew), Urogale (Mindanao tree shrew), and Ptilocercus (pen-tailed tree shrew). The tree shrews inhabit the forest areas of eastern Asia from India and southwestern China to Borneo and the Philippines.Scleral Diseases: General disorders of the sclera or white of the eye. They may include anatomic, embryologic, degenerative, or pigmentation defects.Myopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Posterior Eye Segment: The back two-thirds of the eye that includes the anterior hyaloid membrane and all of the optical structures behind it: the VITREOUS HUMOR; RETINA; CHOROID; and OPTIC NERVE.Tupaia: A genus of tree shrews of the family TUPAIIDAE which consists of about 12 species. One of the most frequently encountered species is T. glis. Members of this genus inhabit rain forests and secondary growth areas in southeast Asia.Sensory Deprivation: The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Scleritis: Refers to any inflammation of the sclera including episcleritis, a benign condition affecting only the episclera, which is generally short-lived and easily treated. Classic scleritis, on the other hand, affects deeper tissue and is characterized by higher rates of visual acuity loss and even mortality, particularly in necrotizing form. Its characteristic symptom is severe and general head pain. Scleritis has also been associated with systemic collagen disease. Etiology is unknown but is thought to involve a local immune response. Treatment is difficult and includes administration of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids. Inflammation of the sclera may also be secondary to inflammation of adjacent tissues, such as the conjunctiva.Bromphenol Blue: A dye that has been used as an industrial dye, a laboratory indicator, and a biological stain.Conjunctiva: The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.Uvea: The pigmented vascular coat of the eyeball, consisting of the CHOROID; CILIARY BODY; and IRIS, which are continuous with each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Diffusion Chambers, Culture: Devices used in a technique by which cells or tissues are grown in vitro or, by implantation, in vivo within chambers permeable to diffusion of solutes across the chamber walls. The chambers are used for studies of drug effects, osmotic responses, cytogenic and immunologic phenomena, metabolism, etc., and include tissue cages.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Eye Enucleation: The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Pterygium: An abnormal triangular fold of membrane in the interpalpebral fissure, extending from the conjunctiva to the cornea, being immovably united to the cornea at its apex, firmly attached to the sclera throughout its middle portion, and merged with the conjunctiva at its base. (Dorland, 27th ed)Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.Sclerostomy: Surgical formation of an external opening in the sclera, primarily in the treatment of glaucoma.Lenses: Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.Anterior Eye Segment: The front third of the eyeball that includes the structures between the front surface of the cornea and the front of the VITREOUS BODY.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Iris: The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.Carbon Disulfide: A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.Eye Color: Color of the iris.LizardsPigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Skin Pigmentation: Coloration of the skin.Pigmentation DisordersEye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.Jaundice: A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Yellow Fever: An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.Jaundice, Obstructive: Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS.Yellow fever virus: The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.Skin Transplantation: The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.New York CityIris Diseases: Diseases, dysfunctions, or disorders of or located in the iris.HumanitiesWireless Technology: Techniques using energy such as radio frequency, infrared light, laser light, visible light, or acoustic energy to transfer information without the use of wires, over both short and long distances.Hospitals, Voluntary: Private, not-for-profit hospitals that are autonomous, self-established, and self-supported.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Hospitals, Proprietary: Hospitals owned and operated by a corporation or an individual that operate on a for-profit basis, also referred to as investor-owned hospitals.Institutional Practice: Professional practice as an employee or contractee of a health care institution.Dictionaries, MedicalDentinogenesis Imperfecta: An autosomal dominant disorder of tooth development characterized by opalescent dentin resulting in discoloration of the teeth. The dentin develops poorly with low mineral content while the pulp canal is obliterated.Osteogenesis Imperfecta: COLLAGEN DISEASES characterized by brittle, osteoporotic, and easily fractured bones. It may also present with blue sclerae, loose joints, and imperfect dentin formation. Most types are autosomal dominant and are associated with mutations in COLLAGEN TYPE I.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Crowdsourcing: Social media model for enabling public involvement and recruitment in participation. Use of social media to collect feedback and recruit volunteer subjects.
Scleritis and temporal arteritis. (1/822)Thirty consecutive patients with severe scleritis or episcleritis were admitted as in-patients to the Medical Ophthalmology Unit and assessed for systemic disease. There were seventeen women and thirteen men. The mean age was 53 with a median of 57 (range 23-83). Eighteen of the patients had scleritis: eleven of these had evidence of connective tissue disease and three of them had temporal arteritis. Twelve patients had episcleritis: six of them had a collagen disease and one of them developed temporal arteritis. This high incidence of temporal arteritis in association with scleritis has not been previously reported. It is important to diagnose and treat overt temporal arteritis early with parenteral steroids so that ischaemic papillopathy can be avoided. A higher incidence of collagen diseases than previously described is reported in episcleritis. It is thought that this is secondary to selection since patients with the usual self-limiting episcleritis are not normally referred for further in-patient investigation. In no patient was more than one significant diagnosis made. There was no significant medical illness in only 11% of patients with scleritis and 33% of patients with episcleritis. The majority of the non-collagen diseases (e.g. hypertension) were not previously recognized. In none of the patients with temporal arteritis was the diagnosis made before admission. It is concluded that full examination and investigation for underlying disease is indicated in both scleritis and severe episcleritis. (+info)
Structural specializations of the eye in the vizcacha (Lagostomus maximus maximus). (2/822)Vizcachas (Lagostomus maximus maximus, Chinchillidae) are nocturnal rodents living in burrows in many regions of Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile. We have studied the eye of the vizcacha using several light and electron microscopic procedures, with the purpose of understanding the role of vision in the behavior of this species. Our observations demonstrated an avascular, rod-rich retina, with a specialized region spanning through most of the equator of the eye. In this central band, all neural retinal layers exhibited a high cell density, whereas the photoreceptor layer was characterized by the presence of very long rods. In addition, the central region was associated with a distinct pigmentation pattern, including scarce granulation of the pigment epithelium, low pigmentation of the choroid, and the selective attachment of suprachoroidal cells to the inner scleral surface. These central modifications probably form the structural basis of a reflecting tapetum. The eye of the vizcacha received both long and short ciliary vessels, and a specialized cilio-sclero-choroidal vascular network appeared at the equatorial region. Our findings suggest that the equatorial region of the eye of the vizcacha could be a highly sensitive light detector related to foraging behaviors during crepuscular or nocturnal hours. (+info)
Regulation of the mechanical properties of tree shrew sclera by the visual environment. (3/822)Experiments in several species have shown that the axial elongation rate of the developing eye can be increased or decreased by manipulating the visual environment, indicating that a visually guided emmetropization mechanism controls the enlargement of the vertebrate eye during postnatal development. Previous studies in tree shrews (Tupaia glis belangeri) suggest that regulation of the mechanical properties of the sclera may be an important part of the mechanism that controls the axial elongation rate in this mammal. To learn whether the mechanical properties of the sclera change when the axial elongation rate is increased or decreased under visual control, uniaxial mechanical tests were performed on 3-mm wide strips of tree shrew sclera. The creep rate was measured under 1, 3, and 5 g of tension, maintained for 30 min at each level. The modulus of elasticity was calculated from the elastic extension that occurred when the force was increased from 0 to 1 g, 1 to 3 g, and 3 to 5 g. Both were measured in the sclera of both eyes from animals exposed to four experimental conditions: (1) Normal development, at intervals from the day of natural eyelid opening (day 1 of visual experience [VE]) to greater than 5 years of age; (2) Monocular form deprivation (MD), for varying lengths of time; (3) Recovery from MD; (4) Monocular -5 D lens treatment. The creep rate was low in normal animals (1-2% elongation/h), did not change significantly between day 1 and day 75 of VE, and was not significantly different between the two eyes. Four days of MD produced a 200-300% increase in creep rate in the sclera from deprived eyes. Creep rate remained similarly elevated after 11 and 21 days of MD. After 2 days of recovery, which followed 11 days of MD, the creep rate of sclera from the recovering eyes was below normal levels. In animals that wore a monocular -5 D lens for up to 21 days, creep rate increased, and then decreased, in concert with the increase, and decrease, in axial elongation rate as the eyes compensated for the lens. The modulus of elasticity of the sclera was not significantly affected by any manipulation. The temporal correspondence between changes in axial elongation rate and changes in creep rate support the hypothesis that regulation of the time-dependent mechanical properties of fibrous mammalian sclera plays a role in controlling axial elongation rate during both normal emmetropization and the development of refractive errors. (+info)
Enthacrynic and acid effects on inner wall pores in living monkeys. (4/822)PURPOSE: The influence of the inner wall of Schlemm's canal on aqueous outflow facility remains poorly understood. We examined the relationship between inner wall pore characteristics and outflow facility in living primate eyes in which facility had been pharmacologically increased by ethacrynic acid (ECA) infusion and in contralateral control eyes. METHODS: Outflow facility (two-level constant pressure perfusion) was measured in eight pairs of living monkey eyes before and after administration of a bolus dose of either 0.125 mM ECA or vehicle. After exsanguination, eyes were fixed in situ under constant-pressure conditions (mean fixation pressure approximately 19 mm Hg). The density and diameter of inner wall pores and the number and area of platelet aggregates on the inner wall of Schlemm's canal were measured by scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: In ECA-treated eyes, outflow facility increased 63% (P < 0.0001), intracellular pore density decreased 46% (P = 0.0094), intracellular pore size increased 27% (P = 0.049), platelet aggregate density increased 158% (P < 0.0001), and area covered by platelets increased 210% (P = 0.012) relative to contralateral controls. Although the average density and size of intercellular pores were essentially unaffected by ECA, an increased density of large (> or = 1.90 microm) intercellular pores was seen in ECA-treated eyes. The density of intracellular pores increased with the duration of fixative perfusion. Other than a weak negative correlation between outflow facility and intracellular pore density in ECA-treated eyes (P = 0.052), facility was not correlated with inner wall pore features. CONCLUSIONS: Our data are most consistent with a scenario in which ECA promotes formation of large intercellular pores in the inner wall of Schlemm's canal, which are then masked by platelet aggregates. Masking of intercellular pores, combined with fixation-induced alteration of inner wall pore density, greatly complicates attempts to relate facility to inner wall structure and suggests that in vivo pore density is smaller than in fixed tissue. Additionally, facility-influencing effects of ECA on the juxtacanalicular tissue cannot be excluded. (+info)
Effects of ethacrynic acid on Schlemm's canal inner wall and outflow facility in human eyes. (5/822)PURPOSE: The role of the inner wall of Schlemm's canal in determining aqueous outflow facility is poorly understood. To quantify the relationship between inner wall pore characteristics and aqueous outflow facility in human eyes, both control eyes and eyes in which facility had been pharmacologically increased by ethacrynic acid (ECA) infusion were studied. METHODS: Outflow facility was measured in enucleated human eyes before and after delivery of 0.25 mM ECA (one eye of each of 6 pairs) or 2.5 mM ECA (one eye of each of 13 pairs). ECA, and vehicle in contralateral eyes, was delivered into Schlemm's canal by retroperfusion, thereby largely avoiding drug exposure to the trabecular meshwork. After facility measurement, eyes were fixed under conditions of either constant pressure (physiological intraocular pressure, 13 pairs) or "equal flow" (6 pairs) and were microdissected to expose the inner wall of Schlemm's canal. The density and diameter of intercellular and intracellular inner wall pores were measured using scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: Retroperfusion with 2.5 mM ECA increased facility by 73% (P < 0.001), whereas 0.25 mM ECA increased facility by 19% (not statistically significant). The density of intercellular pores in the inner wall of Schlemm's canal was increased by 520% in 2.5 mM ECA-retroperfused eyes (P < 0.00004), whereas intracellular pore density remained approximately constant. Large pores (size > or = 1.1 microm) were particularly enhanced in ECA retroperfused eyes. The net change in facility due to ECA was not correlated with changes in pore density or other inner wall pore statistics. CONCLUSIONS: Our data are most consistent with a model in which pores in the inner wall of Schlemm's canal indirectly influence facility. However, measured changes in facility due to changes in inner wall properties did not agree with quantitative predictions of the pore funneling theory, suggesting that changes in facility may instead be due to gel leakage from the extracellular spaces of the juxtacanalicular tissue. More definitive experiments are required to confirm this hypothesis. (+info)
Morphological variations of the peripapillary circle of Zinn-Haller by flat section. (6/822)AIMS: To evaluate the morphometric and morphological variations of the circle of Zinn-Haller (CZH) in the human eye. METHODS: 42 human enucleated eyes were used in this study. After transverse flat thick sections were cut through the optic nerve and adjacent sclera, tissue sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin or examined immediately by wet preparation under a light microscope. The average vessel diameter of the arterial circle and the average distance between the optic nerve head (ONH) and the arterial circle were determined. Various branching patterns of the CZH were also evaluated. RESULTS: The vessel diameter of the arterial circle was 123 (SD 75) microm (range 20-230 microm). The distance of the CZH from the ONH margin was 403 (352) microm (0-1050 microm). The CZH gave off branches to the optic nerve and to the peripapillary choroid (PPC) with various branching patterns especially at the entry point of paraoptic short posterior ciliary artery. CONCLUSIONS: The CZH exists within a variable distance from the ONH and its average diameter is similar to that of the central retinal vessels though it shows marked variation even in the same circle. The CZH also shows variable configurations in branching patterns. These variations may act as contributing factors that are responsible for the individual susceptibility of the anterior optic nerve and the PPC to circulatory disturbances. (+info)
Excimer laser effects on outflow facility and outflow pathway morphology. (7/822)PURPOSE: To determine the relative contributions to aqueous outflow resistance of the tissues distal to the inner wall of Schlemm's canal. METHODS: While performing constant pressure perfusion at 10 mm Hg, a 193-nm excimer laser (Questek) was used to precisely remove portions of sclera, unroofing Schlemm's canal while leaving the inner wall intact. The laser beam was masked to produce a beam 2 mm by 1 mm. The laser output was constant at a fluency of 75 mJ/cm2 and 20 Hz. The excimer laser at a frequency of 1 Hz was used as the aiming beam. Photoablation was performed on human cadaver eyes at the limbus at an angle of 0 degrees to 45 degrees from the optical axis. As the excimer photoablations progressed, Schlemm's canal was visualized by the fluorescence of the Barany's solution containing fluorescein dye. After perfusion fixation the eyes were immersion-fixed overnight. The facility of outflow before (Co) and after (Ce) the excimer ablation was measured in 7 eyes. RESULTS: The facility of outflow increased in all eyes after the excimer sinusotomy, from a mean of 0.29+/-0.02 before the sinusotomy to 0.37+/-0.03 microl/min per mm Hg after (P < 0.05). The mean ratio of outflow facility after and before ablation (Ce/Co) was 1.27+/-0.08 (range, 1.20-1.39), a reduction of outflow resistance of 21.3%. Using the formula of Ellingsen and Grant (1972), percentage of resistance to outflow eliminated = 100 [1 - alphaCo/Ce - (1 - alpha)Co], where alpha = fraction of the circumference dissected. Assuming that because of circumferential flow approximately 50% of Schlemm's canal is drained by the single opening made in the outer wall ablation studies, this results in resistance to outflow eliminated of 35%, which is consistent with the calculated eliminated resistance derived from the data of Rosenquist et al., 1989. Light and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the integrity of the inner wall Schlemm's canal underlying the area of ablation. CONCLUSIONS: The results provide direct evidence indicating that approximately one third of resistance to outflow in the human eye lies distal to the inner wall Schlemm's canal in an enucleated perfused human eye. (+info)
Glucocorticoids regulate transendothelial fluid flow resistance and formation of intercellular junctions. (8/822)The regulation of transendothelial fluid flow by glucocorticoids was studied in vitro with use of human endothelial cells cultured from Schlemm's canal (SCE) and the trabecular meshwork (TM) in conjunction with computer-linked flowmeters. After 2-7 wk of 500 nM dexamethasone (Dex) treatment, the following physiological, morphometric, and biochemical alterations were observed: a 3- to 5-fold increase in fluid flow resistance, a 2-fold increase in the representation of tight junctions, a 10- to 30-fold reduction in the mean area occupied by interendothelial "gaps" or preferential flow channels, and a 3- to 5-fold increase in the expression of the junction-associated protein ZO-1. The more resistive SCE cells expressed two isoforms of ZO-1; TM cells expressed only one. To investigate the role of ZO-1 in the aforementioned Dex effects, its expression was inhibited using antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotides, and the response was compared with that observed with the use of sense and nonsense phosphorothioate oligonucleotides. Inhibition of ZO-1 expression abolished the Dex-induced increase in resistance and the accompanying alterations in cell junctions and gaps. These results support the hypothesis that intercellular junctions are necessary for the development and maintenance of transendothelial flow resistance in cultured SCE and TM cells and are likely involved in the mechanism of increased resistance associated with glucocorticoid exposure. (+info)
Pulsatile Transscleral Drug Delivery | IOVS | ARVO Journals
Abstract: : Purpose:To study the kinetics of the pulsatile transscleral drug delivery using labeled IgG. Methods:A small biocompatible plastic (Polypropylene) chamber was attached to the bare scleral surface of anesthetized pigmented rabbits with the help of cyanoacrylate glue and loaded with 15ug of FITC-conjugated rabbit IgG. Transscleral diffusion of IgG into the ocular tissues was quantified at 15, 24, 48, 72 and 120hrs. Tissue samples were collected prior to sacrifice, and FITC-IgG concentration was determined by fluorophotometry. Choroid and retina along with other tissues were assayed. All the results were corrected for tissue autofluorescence by comparison to the fellow eye. Scleral flat mounts were examined under a fluorescent microscope and the transscleral diffusion pattern was visualized. Results:The IgG concentration in the choroid started to increase at 15hrs (3.761.7ug/ml, P=0.008) and peaked at 24hrs (14.786.96ug/ml, P=0.009). Statistically significant elevations in choroidal IgG ...
PRIME PubMed | Dipeptide monoester ganciclovir prodrugs for transscleral drug delivery: targeting the oligopeptide transporter...
Posterior Scleral Thickness in Perfusion-Fixed Normal and Early-Glaucoma Monkey Eyes | IOVS | ARVO Journals
purpose. To characterize posterior scleral thickness in the normal monkey eye and to assess the effects of acute (15- to 80-minute) and short-term chronic (3- to 7-week) intraocular pressure (IOP) elevations.. methods. Both eyes of four normal monkeys (both eyes normal) and four monkeys with early glaucoma (one eye normal and one eye with induced chronic elevation of IOP) were cannulated. In each monkey, IOP was set to 10 mm Hg in the normal eye and 30 or 45 mm Hg in the contralateral eye (normal or early glaucoma) for 15 to 80 minutes. All eight monkeys were perfusion fixed, yielding eight low IOP-normal eyes, four high IOP-normal eyes, and four high IOP-early glaucoma eyes. Posterior scleral thickness was measured histomorphometrically at 15 measurement points within each eye, and the data were grouped by region: foveal, midposterior, posterior-equatorial, and equatorial.. results. Overall, posterior scleral thickness was significantly different in the various regions and among the treatment ...
Sclera - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The sclera (from the Greek skleros, meaning hard), also known as the white or white of the eye, is the opaque (usually white, though certain animals, such as horses and lizards, can have black sclera), fibrous, protective, outer layer of the eye containing collagen and elastic fiber. In the development of the embryo, the sclera is derived from the neural crest. In children, it is thinner and shows some of the underlying pigment, appearing slightly blue. In the elderly, fatty deposits on the sclera can make it appear slightly yellow.. Human eyes are somewhat distinctive in the animal kingdom in that the sclera is very plainly visible whenever the eye is open. This is not just due to the white color of the human sclera, which many other species share, but also to the fact that the human iris is relatively small and comprises a significantly smaller portion of the exposed eye surface compared to other animals. It is theorized that this adaptation evolved because of our social nature as the ...
Systematic Analysis of Transcriptomic Profile of the Effects of Low Dose Atropine Treatment on Scleral Fibroblasts using Next...
1. MetlapallyR Wildsoet CF. Scleral Mechanisms Underlying Ocular Growth and Myopia. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2015;134:241-8 doi:10.1016/bs.pmbts.2015.05.005 2. Backhouse S, Gentle A. Scleral remodelling in myopia and its manipulation: a review of recent advances in scleral strengthening and myopia control. Ann Eye Sci. 2018;3:5. doi: 10.21037/aes.2018.01.04 3. Siegwart JT Jr, Norton TT. Selective regulation of MMP and TIMP mRNA levels in tree shrew sclera during minus lens compensation and recovery. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:3484-92 doi:10.1167/iovs.05-0194 4. Rada JA, Shelton S, Norton TT. The sclera and myopia. Exp Eye Res. 2006;82:185-200 doi:10.1016/j.exer.2005.08.009 5. Dolgin E. The myopia boom. Nature. 2015;519:276-8 doi:10.1038/519276a 6. Holden BA, Fricke TR, Wilson DA. et al. Global Prevalence of Myopia and High Myopia and Temporal Trends from 2000 through 2050. Ophthalmology. 2016;123:1036-42 doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2016.01.006 7. Flitcroft DI, He M, Jonas JB. et al. IMI - ...
Sclera - wikidoc
The sclera is the opaque (usually white), fibrous, protective layer of the eye containing collagen and elastic fibers. In children, it is thinner and shows some of the underlying pigment, appearing slightly blue. In the old, however, fatty deposits on the sclera can make it appear slightly yellow. The sclera forms the posterior five sixths of the connective tissue coat of the globe. The sclera maintains the shape of the globe, offering resistance to internal and external forces, and provides an attachment for the extraocular muscle insertions. The thickness of the sclera varies from 1mm at the posterior pole to 0.3 mm just behind the rectus muscle insertions. ...
Tonometric estimation of mechanical properties of a cornea and sclera - USQ ePrints
Purpose: To investigate degree of anisotropy and evaluate elastic constants of the eyeball tissues based on a shell theory.. Methods: Simulated sclera was mechanically modeled as an orthotropic spherical shell. Scleral deformations were generated by simulated stresses in the intraocular pressure (IOP). Relations between the shape deflection mode in the shell and the ratio of tangential elasticity modules were calculated. In Maklakovs method of IOP testing, the eyeball is modelled as two spherical segments with different mechanical properties. The baseline (prior to load) two-segment shell is assumed to be filled with uncompressible liquid under pressure. Youngs module of cornea is much lower than that of sclera. Hence, cornea is more compliant than rigid sclera and doesnt resist to flexural deformations. A nonlinear shell theory was used to analyze deformations of both the cornea and the sclera.. Results: Ratios of tangential elasticity modules of the orthotropic spherical shell in different ...
Lin, Mol Vis 2007; 13:243-251.
Discussion. We investigated ECA and NaF diffusion in the porcine sclera and observed that ECA diffused approximately 8 times faster than NaF, although their molecular weights were close to each other (303 versus 376). In addition, we observed that the diffusion coefficients of ECA and NaF were insensitive to cell shrinkage caused by ECA during the diffusion experiments and cell damage caused by the storage of tissues ex vivo before the experiments, presumably due to the fact that the volume fraction of cells in the sclera was only about 1%. Therefore, the hindrance of ECA and NaF diffusion in scleral tissues was mainly caused by extracellular matrix and soluble proteins in interstitial fluid.. Effect of binding on transscleral transport. We observed that NaF could bind strongly to scleral tissues. The binding was likely to be mediated through charge/charge interactions since fluorescein has three dissociation constants that correspond to three pKa values: 2.13, 4.44, and 6.36, respectively ...
Sclera | Article about sclera by The Free Dictionary
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black sclera - e621
This tag is used in images in which the sclera is black in colour. The sclera, colloquially known as the white of the eye, is the firm, protective casing that holds in the contents of the eyeball.. It is worth noting that some animals naturally have a dark or black sclera, such as primates (excluding humans), although this tends to be overlooked. A popular trait among demons and robots. ...
'Snow Witch' White Sclera Contacts ...
These white Sclera Contacts cover the sclera and the iris, leaving just the pupil on show. A piercing point of black right in the centre. Although they are very similar to our 14mm variety of white zombie lenses, because they cover the sclera as well, the eye is a more uniform bright white and no glimpse of the iris will be visible while blinking, moving the eye quickly etc (unlike 14mm contacts ...
Controlled transscleral drug delivery formulations to the eye: establishing new concepts and paradigms in ocular anti-inflammatory therapeutics and antibacterial prophylaxis. Paganelli F, Cardillo JA, Dare AR, Melo LA Jr, Lucena DR, Silva AA Jr, Oliveira AG, Pizzolitto AC, Lavinsky D, Skaf M, Souza-Filho AA, Höfling-Lima AL, Nguyen QD, Kuppermann BD, Herrero-Vanrell R, Belfort R Jr; Brazilian Ocular Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Technology Research Group.. ...
Flashcards - neurobio 915 ch 9 of Bear's book: the eye part 3 (cornea sclera retina fovea lens bipolar cell
Baby Bunny: Happy Halloween! Phantasee Mini Sclera Lens Black Titan sponsored by UNIQSO.com
For being huge sclera lens they didnt cause me any discomfort. When i put these lenses on I was really scared for them to be really uncomfortable but instead they were like any other type of circle lenses. The size is 17.00 mm which made my eyes look extremely big like a doll! The black is very vibrant and definitely pops your eyes out. I enjoyed these sclera lenses quite a lot and i recommend for you guys to try them out! Really no discomfort whatsoever! Im willing to try more lenses like this more for special looks ...
Circle Lenses Crazy Red Mini Sclera
Video How to: Insert And Remove Black Sclera Contact Lenses (Fxeyes) 3GP MP4 HD - CAPERZ
Produk Baru - Full Black Softlens Sclera 23.00 Effect. Fully Confident. Warna hitam sering diartikan kesedihan atau hal-hal buruk lainnya. Namun tidak dalam fashion, warna hitam merupakan warna yang menampakan sebuah keanggunan, percaya diri, dan misterius. Softlens Sclera ini memiliki efek diameter extreme yaitu 23.00 dengan warna Black Solid, yang tentunya akan menambah kesan anggun…
Radiation Oncology/Eye/Ocular melanoma - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Brachytherapy: episcleral plaque, 2-3 mm margin beyond base of tumor (i.e. 4-6 mm larger than maximum basal diameter). If near optic nerve, allowed notches. Dosimetry based on TG43. If tumor height 2.5-4.9 mm, prescription 5 mm from interior surface of sclera; if tumor height ,=5 mm, prescription to apex. Dose 85 Gy (dose rate 0.42-1.05 Gy). Organs at risk sclera (1mm from surface of plaque), optic nerve (center of optic disc), macula (foveola), opposite retina (22 mm from scleral surface along diameter of globe ...
Tissue response to the Fadenoperation. | British Journal of Ophthalmology
The Fadenoperation was performed on 24 rabbit eyes. In 8 eyes the globe and muscle were removed intact and in 16 eyes the muscle was dissected from the sclera to determine the site and degree of attachment. The greatest degree of adherence was found between the muscle and the sclera at the site of the suture, less attachment at the lateral and medial border of the muscle, less in the central area close to the suture site, and least in the central anterior area. The Fadenoperation creates adherence of the muscle to the sclera. Its clinical usefulness will, however, depend on clinical evaluation. ...
what cause the sclera of the eyes to turn brown? - Rare Diseases - MedHelp
What is the function of the sclera? | Reference.com
Yellow Sclera & Allergies | LIVESTRONG.COM
ColourVUE Sclera Contagion - lentile de contact colorate negre anuale - 185 purtari (2 lentile/cutie) - Lensa.ro
Inflamed sclera and Spine symptoms - Symptom Checker - check medical symptoms at RightDiagnosis
SCLERA | Dunia Keperawatan Tanpa Koma
SCLERA | Dunia Keperawatan Tanpa Koma
How to draw eye three quarter view
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light for several purposes. As a conscious sense organ, the eye allows vision. Rod and cone cells in the retina allow conscious light perception and vision including color differentiation and the perception of depth. The eye is not properly a sphere, rather it is a fused two-piece unit. The smaller frontal unit, more curved, called the cornea is linked to the larger unit called the sclera. The corneal segment is typically about 8 mm (0.3 in) in radius. The sclera constitutes the remaining five-sixths; its radius is typically about 12 mm. The cornea and sclera are connected by a ring called the limbus. The iris - the color of the eye - and its black center, the pupil, are seen instead of the cornea due to the corneas transparency. ...
June | 2016 | Thrombin Inhibitors
2001; Radovanovic et al. 2002). Furthermore, our time course of SMA activity was similar to that elicited by median nerve stimulation and PM using EEG and electrocorticography. We located the source of activity in the posterior wall of the postcentral Belinostat HDAC fissure 64-114 msec following PM, and this ECD location was 23.8 mm posterior, 19.3 mm medial,. and 9.0 mm superior to the source estimated at N20m. Using BESA analysis, Hoshiyama et al. (1997b) reported that the ECD location of PPC was 24 mm posterior, 19 mm medial, and 26 mm superior to the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical S1 hand area (Hoshiyama et al. 1997b). Areas 5 and 7 in the posterior wall of the postcentral fissure are considered to be at a higher level than S1 in the processing of somatic information (Duffy and Burchfiel 1971; Sakata et al. 1973; MacKay et al. 1978). Prevosto et al. (2011) identified direct and polysynaptic somatosensory pathways from areas 2 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and 3a to PPC, ...
Elara Scleral - Visionary Optics
The Elara Scleral™ lens is a mini-scleral lens that rests on the sclera and vaults over the cornea. The Elara Scleral™ design offers a prolate geometry and is designed to fit the regular cornea. An increased corneal zone design allows it to successfully vault small to large corneal diameters. The Elaras liquid reservoir is intended to continuously hydrate the corneal surface. The haptic section of the Elara Scleral™ lens is designed to rest evenly on most eyes without compression, but can be modified as necessary.. ...
How to brighten the whites of your eyes - Things You Didn't Know
How to brighten the whites of your eyes - How can you brighten the whites of your eyes? Hmm... depends. On why you think theyre not bright. The sclera (white part of eyeball) can be yellow, due to liver disease. The conjuntiva which covers the sclera can get infected or irritated, and appear red (conjuntivitis). Blue sclerae = bone/connective tissue disorder. Otherwise, an ophthalmologist should assess the eyes but please dont put anything in your eyes to do this on your own!
Korean Big Eye Circle Lenses: Korean Skin Care & Makeup - More in www.uniqso.com: Exact Replica of Tokyo Ghoul Eyes: Phantasee...
Tokyo Ghoul eyes are brilliantly fierce red. Phantasee Gremlin sclera lenses are so realistic that once you wear them you forget that you arent the part of the fiction. They are truly 100% opaque and strongly pigmented. No matter what are the light conditions; they will always make an impact. Phantasee Gremlin sclera lenses will always catch others in awe and bewilderment ...
blue sclera or pigmentation? - Eye Care - MedHelp
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Model shows the microscopic structure of the retina with choroid and sclera. The right side of model is a sectional enlargement which shows the microscopic sturucture of photoreceptors and the cells of the pigmented layer. The left side shows the complete structure of the retina including supplying vescular layer and parts of sclera from a ligh microscopic view ...
Full Eye Sclera<...
In vitro sustained human transscleral drug delivery of fluorescein-labeled dexamethasone and methotrexate with fibrin sealant. ...
PURPOSE To study the use of fibrin sealant as a drug delivery system for the sustained transscleral delivery of dexamethasone and methotrexate. METHODS Scleral sections excised from moist-chamber-stored human globes were mounted in a perfusion chamber. Dexamethasone-fluorescein or methotrexate-fluorescein in either fibrin sealant or balanced salt solution (BSS) was applied to the episcleral surface. BSS was perfused to the choroidal side, fluorescence was measured in perfusate fractions, and an apparent scleral permeability P(A) was calculated for each solute-vehicle combination. RESULTS P(A) for both compounds was significantly lower with fibrin sealant delivery compared to delivery in BSS (p | 0.001). However, the fibrin sealant vehicle provided a more sustained release of both drugs through 24 hr. CONCLUSIONS Incorporating dexamethasone and methotrexate into a fibrin sealant provided a more gradual drug delivery and a more uniform delivery compared to dissolving these drugs in BSS. Fibrin
Measurement of episcleral venous pressure<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Measurement of episcleral venous pressure. AU - Sit, Arthur J. AU - McLaren, Jay W.. PY - 2011/9. Y1 - 2011/9. N2 - Episcleral venous pressure (EVP) is an important determinant of intraocular pressure (IOP) and can be measured by using various techniques. It has been measured non-invasively by estimating the pressure required to compress an episcleral vein to a predetermined endpoint. However, the lack of objective endpoints makes EVP measurement in humans uncertain, and a wide range of mean EVP has been reported in the literature. We review the evidence for physiologic regulation of EVP and its role in glaucoma therapy, techniques that have been used to measure EVP and the need for objective measurements, and reported values for EVP. We also review recent progress toward developing an objective technique for EVP measurement.. AB - Episcleral venous pressure (EVP) is an important determinant of intraocular pressure (IOP) and can be measured by using various techniques. It has ...
Unscramble sclerae | Words unscrambled from letters sclerae | Scrabble Word sclerae | Words Made with the Letters sclerae
Transscleral permeability and intraocular concentrations of cisplatin from a collagen matrix. - Semantic Scholar
This study determined the in vitro permeability of cisplatin through isolated human sclera as delivered by a collagen matrix vehicle. Short-term and long-term intraocular levels of cisplatin were also measured in the rabbit eye after a subconjunctival injection. Cisplatin in either a collagen matrix vehicle or a control balanced salt solution (BSS) vehicle was applied to human sclera mounted in a specially designed in vitro perfusion chamber. The amount of cisplatin that diffused across the sclera was measured in hourly samples for 24 h using atomic absorption spectrometry. In vivo studies were also performed in Dutch Belted rabbits given subconjunctival injections of cisplatin in collagen matrix or in BSS. Eyes were enucleated at 1.5 h and 2 weeks after injection, frozen, and dissected to determine the intraocular cisplatin concentrations. Cisplatin had a peak in vitro scleral permeability constant of 8.3+/-1.2 x 10(-6) and 20.1+/-1.8 x 10(-6) cm/s, delivered in collagen matrix and in BSS, respectively
Diode laser versus contact transscleral ND:YAG cyclophotocoagulation (CPC): A short-term and mid-term follow-up study |...
Endoscopic and transscleral cyclophotocoagulation | British Journal of Ophthalmology
There is still, however, considerable local and regional variation in the use of this treatment (anecdotal impressions suggest that it is used more commonly and earlier for glaucoma treatment in the United Kingdom than in the United States), perhaps in part because of the relative paucity of high quality laboratory and clinical studies demonstrating if, why, and how it is effective. There is even less evidence concerning endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation (ECP), the more refined but less widely available cousin of TSCP.. In the April issue of the BJO, Lin et al published an important laboratory based study that adds to our understanding of the clinical effects and complications of cyclophotocoagulation (CP).2 They have attempted to quantify the evolution of vascular changes following CP; their results demonstrate that both TSCP and ECP are associated with an acute occlusive vasculopathy, but that with the endoscopic modality the chronic underperfusion is less than with the transscleral ...
Schlemm's canal - Wikipedia
While conventional wisdom has considered Schlemms canal (also known as the scleral venous sinus) as a vein, the canal shares several structural and functional features reminiscent of the lymphatic vasculature. Notably, it is never filled with blood in physiological settings as it does not receive arterial blood circulation. Three recent independent pioneering studies by Aleksanteri Aspelund and Kari Alitalo from the University of Helsinki, Dae-Young Park and Koh Gou Young from the Institute for Basic Science and KAIST, and Krishnakumar Kizhatil and Simon W. M. John from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, discovered that Schlemms canal displays several features of lymphatic endothelium, including the expression of PROX1, VEGFR3, CCL21, FOXC2, but lacked the expression of LYVE1 and PDPN, indicating that Schlemms canal is a lymphatic-like vessel. Developmental studies revealed that Schlemms canal develops via a unique mechanism involving the transdifferentiation of venous ...
Reproducibility of In-Vivo OCT Measured Three-Dimensional Human Lamina Cribrosa Microarchitecture
Purpose: To determine the reproducibility of automated segmentation of the three-dimensional (3D) lamina cribrosa (LC) microarchitecture scanned in-vivo using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: Thirty-nine eyes (8 healthy, 19 glaucoma suspects and 12 glaucoma) from 49 subjects were scanned twice using swept-source (SSâˆ) OCT in a 3.5Ã-3.5Ã-3.64 mm (400Ã-400Ã-896 pixels) volume centered on the optic nerve head, with the focus readjusted after each scan. The LC was automatically segmented and analyzed for microarchitectural parameters, including pore diameter, pore diameter standard deviation (SD), pore aspect ratio, pore area, beam thickness, beam thickness SD, and beam thickness to pore diameter ratio. Reproducibility of the parameters was assessed by computing the imprecision of the parameters between the scans. Results: The automated segmentation demonstrated excellent reproducibility. All LC microarchitecture parameters had an imprecision of less or equal to 4.2%. There was ...
DJO | Digital Journal of Ophthalmology
Usually presents with pain and redness that often awakens the patient FROM sleep. The conjunctival, episcleral, and scleral vessels are inflamed, leading to a bluish discoloration of the sclera. Scleritis is more common in women and is often unilateral. Work-up is routinely negative in the unilateral cases. B-scan ultrasonography shows diffuse thickening of the choroid, sclera, and episcleral tissues. Classically, the T-sign is present in cases of posterior scleritis. The T-sign is created by the fluid beneath Tenons capsule that creates a squaring off of the interface between the optic nerve and the sclera. Fluoroscein angiography may SHOW punctate areas of leakage. The choroidal detachment is felt to be a result of the congested sclera. This congestion increases resistance to flow in the vortex veins and through the intact sclera, leading to choroidal effusions ...
CRSToday | Severe Scleritis, Weak Zonules, and a Rock-Hard Cataract in a One-Eyed Patient
Her referring ophthalmologist came to observe her surgery, and she appreciated the moral support. Assuming the posterior sclera to be equally thin as the anterior sclera, I used topical anesthesia to avoid the risks of a retro- or peribulbar injection. I made the 2.6-mm clear corneal incision in the only place possible before encountering the first major problem. Despite lysing the posterior synechiae, inserting two iris retractors inferiorly, and maximizing the microscopes illumination and zoom, I simply could not get enough of a red reflex to see the anterior capsule (Figure 1). Capsular staining with trypan blue dye had not yet been described. The difficulty in puncturing her anterior capsule and the excessive mobility of her lens as I maneuvered the capsular flap indicated that her zonules were extremely loose. I had not expected this. After struggling along at a snails pace, I thought that I had successfully completed a capsulorhexis, but I could not be absolutely sure.. Following ...
Sclera Contact Lenses | $75 (£49) | Free zombie lenses, lens case & shipping
Eye-specific IOP-induced displacements and deformations of human lamina cribrosa.
Author(s): Sigal, Ian A; Grimm, Jonathan L; Jan, Ning-Jiun; Reid, Korey; Minckler, Don S; Brown, Donald J | Abstract: To measure high-resolution eye-specific displacements and deformations induced within the human LC microstructure by an acute increase in IOP.Six eyes from donors aged 23 to 82 were scanned using second harmonic-generated (SHG) imaging at various levels of IOP from 10 to 50 mm Hg. An image registration technique was developed, tested, and used to find the deformation mapping between maximum intensity projection images acquired at low and elevated IOP. The mappings were analyzed to determine the magnitude and distribution of the IOP-induced displacements and deformations and contralateral similarity.Images of the LC were obtained and the registration technique was successful. IOP increases produced substantial, and potentially biologically significant, levels of in-plane LC stretch and compression (reaching 10%-25% medians and 20%-30% 75th percentiles). Deformations were sometimes highly
Cooper Eye Care | Episcleritis & Scleritis - Cooper Eye Care
EPISCLERITIS The episclera is a thin tissue which is between the white of the eye and the outer layer of the eye known as the conjunctiva. Episcleritis is inflammation of this thin vascular (blood rich) tissue. The condition is characterized by increased redness and tenderness of the eye. On occasion, there is tenderness upon moving the eyes from side to side and/or up and down.. This condition is characterized by a unique, localized redness of this tissue. These inflammations occur randomly and without any known cause. Most episodes last about two weeks; however, durations of three weeks to three months occur. Episcleritis is usually self-limiting with no permanent damage to the eye. Bouts of episcleritis are shortened with increased comfort with the prescription of steroid drops.. If at any time you feel that your condition is getting worse rather than better make an appointment.. SCLERITISThe sclera is the white of the eye. Scleritis is an inflammation of this white portion of the eye. This ...
Irregular Corneas & Scleral Lenses - First Eye Care Downtown Dallas
A scleral lens rests like a bridge over the cornea, and not on it. A ring, termed a flange, sits on the white of your eye (the sclera) and gaps between your eye and the contact lens are filled with tears. Corneal scarring or an extremely irregular corneal surface may make it impossible to wear standard contact lenses comfortably and with a good fit. With their extra-large diameter, gas permeable scleral lenses offer a great alternative.. The unique shape of scleral lenses allows them to be used for many hard-to-fit ocular conditions, such as keratoconus, pellucid degeneration and where there is a great deal of corneal scarring. Your sclera tissue is not as sensitive as the cornea, and therefore scleral lenses are usually very comfortable - even when worn on a daily basis.. There are three main types of scleral lenses, with the differences being in size and where the lenses meet your eyes frontal surface. Corneo-scleral lenses have a wide diameter and rest close to the seam of your sclera and ...
Long-term outcome of initial ciliary ablation with contact diode laser transscleral cyclophotocoagulation for severe glaucoma....
Scleritis: Care Instructions
The sclera is the white of the eye. It is a fibrous covering that makes up much of the globe of the eye. The sclera protects the eyes inner parts.. Scleritis means that the sclera is inflamed. The inflammation is what makes the white of the eye look red, or sometimes purple.. Pain from scleritis is usually severe and is worse at night. The pain can spread to your face and jaw. Scleritis can make your eyes sensitive to light. It can also affect your vision. In more severe cases, it can lead to loss of vision.. Scleritis is often caused by another medical problem, such as rheumatoid arthritis. Sometimes an eye infection is the cause.. To find out if you have scleritis, your doctor checks your vision. He or she carefully examines your eyes. Your doctor also asks about other symptoms like joint pain or fevers. You may have tests and X-rays to look for medical problems that can cause scleritis. When scleritis is in the back of the eye, it can be harder to diagnose.. Treatment focuses on reducing the ...
Inflamed (Red) Eye | Patient Assessment in Pharmacy | AccessPharmacy | McGraw-Hill Medical
Location of the redness can be important so a brief review of eye anatomy is important. The term conjunctivitis means inflammation of the conjunctiva (singular) or conjunctivae (plural). The conjunctiva is usually described as having three parts, all of which are thin, transparent layers of mucous membrane. The most external and easily observable portion is that which overlies the white portion (sclera) of the eyeball itself. This is called the bulbar or ocular conjunctiva. It covers the entire sclera, but it does not cover the central anterior portion of the eyeball (the cornea). That is, it extends onto the eyeball up to, but not beyond, the limbus. The limbus is the union of the cornea and the sclera and a conjunctivitis limited to the limbus is an important clue to more serious cause of a red eye. When the bulbar conjunctiva is normal (not inflamed), it cannot be differentiated from the sclera beneath it, because it is clear. Another portion of the conjunctiva, visible if the eyelids are ...
Unique Scleral Tonometer Diaton Featured at The Global Specialty Lens Symposium (GSLS) - Tonometer Diaton
BiCOM, Inc. Unique DIATON Tonometer is an innovation in Tonometry allows to measure Accurate IOP through the upper Eyelid & Sclera, even with the Scleral Lenses still being IN the eye. There has been a renewed concern if Scleral Lenses elevate IOP, Diaton provides an IOP monitoring solution for lens fitting practitioners. more at Unique DIATON Tonometer is an innovation in Tonometry allows to measure Accurate IOP through the upper Eyelid & Sclera, even with the Scleral Lenses still being IN the eye. There has been a renewed concern if Scleral Lenses elevate IOP, Diaton provides an IOP monitoring solution for lens fitting practitioners. more at http://www.diaton.com ...
The Sclera | Uveitis.org | OIUF
Sainz de la Maza, Maite, Tauber, Joseph, Foster, C. Stephen 2nd ed. 2012 Springer-Verlag Publishers. This revised version of The Sclera, first published in 1994, contains the latest information on the diagnosis and treatment of scleral diseases, as well as new illustrations.. Click here for purchase ...
認識眼睛構造 - 哈佛眼科診所
有了眼睛成像的大致概念後，接下來就來詳細介紹肉眼觀察不到的部份，也就是眼睛裡所深藏的秘密。. 1. Sclera【鞏膜】 ：鞏膜即一般人所稱「眼白」的部份，為眼球壁最外一層，堅韌而不透明。鞏膜可保護眼球內部，並維持眼球的形狀。. 2. Trabecular meshwork【小粱網】 ：小梁網負責大部份的房水外流，受傷的小梁網組織結構導致房水引流受阻、眼壓升高，造成青光眼的發生。（房水：又譯水狀液，是充滿眼球前房和後房的透明液體，由睫狀體的無色素上皮細胞分泌。房水向眼內的一些無血管的組織提供營養，例如晶狀體和角膜內皮。房水的生成和排出的動態平衡是維持眼壓的重要方式，大部分治療青光眼的藥物通過控制房水的生成或者排出來降低眼壓。）. 3. Schlemms canal（Scleral venous sinus）【許萊姆氏管】 ...
Dafuq!? This woman got purple ink injected into her eye for her sclera tattoo and is now left partially blind ~ Ooooooo La La!
... is an in-office or operating room procedure that involves briefly freezing the outer wall of eye (the sclera - the white part of the eye) over an area of retinal pathology. A small metal probe is applied to the sclera and the cold temperature is transmitted through the sclera to the underlying retina. The cold temperature helps form a small scar that causes the retina to adhere to the sclera and can be used to treat retinal tears or leaking retinal blood vessels.. The procedure requires a small injection of numbing medicine around the outside of the eye. After treatment, the eye can be red and sore for up to one week. Cryotherapy is regarded as a very safe procedure but there are risks associated with the procedure including but not limited to new retinal tears or detachments, bleeding, or eye discomfort.. ...
Enhanced Sclera Recognition on Color Image - IJERT
Difference between scleritis and episcleritis. | Difference Between
Latent tuberculosis-related scleritis: a case report | BMC Research Notes | Full Text
Scleritis is a severe inflammatory condition characterized by edema and cell infiltration of the sclera . According to the classification of Watson and Hayreh, scleritis is divided into anterior and posterior types based upon the anatomic distribution of disease . Anterior scleritis, the most common type , is further subdivided into diffuse, nodular, necrotizing with inflammation, and necrotizing without inflammation (scleromalacia perforans) . These forms of anterior scleritis correspond roughly to different degrees of severity .. In eyes with scleritis, the inflammatory process may extend to adjacent structures, causing several complications that may lead to loss of vision . Anterior scleritis can be associated with anterior uveitis, cataracts, glaucoma and peripheral keratopathy [1, 2, 4, 6]. Clinical types of peripheral keratopathy associated with scleritis include peripheral corneal thinning (intact epithelium and no inflammatory cells in the stroma), stromal keratitis ...
Simulated Surgery: Trabeculectomy: Suturing a Scleral Flap | Cybersight
The SOS Advanced Trabeculectomy eye is being used to demonstrate how to place releasable scleral flap sutures using 10/0 nylon sutures and how to tension these sutures to minimize drainage on the first post-operative day to avoid hypotony. Simultaneous live and simulated surgical footage demonstrates how realistic this simulation is. In addition to Cybersight, you can find videos featuring teaching techniques for all types of ocular surgery, using any form of simulation, in the Simulation Gallery.. ...
Ophthalmology/Anatomy of the Eye - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Three layers, or tunics, form the wall of the eyeball. The outermost is the sclera which gives the eye most of its white colour. It consists of dense connective tissue filled with the protein collagen to both protect the inner components of the eye and maintain its shape. On the inner side of the sclera is the choroid, which contains blood vessels that supply the retinal cells with necessary oxygen and remove the waste products of respiration. Within the eye, only the sclera and ciliary muscles contain blood vessels. The choroid gives the inner eye a dark colour, which prevents disruptive reflections within the eye. The inner most layer of the eye is the retina, containing the photosensitive rod and cone cells, and neurons.. To maximise vision and light absorption, the retina is a relatively smooth (but curved) layer. It does have two points at which it is different; the fovea and optic disc. The fovea is a dip in the retina directly opposite the lens, which is densely packed with cone cells. It ...
RESULTS: Cranial venous outflow obstruction and ONS hydrops were the most valid signs indicating IH with a sensitivity of 94% and 92% and a specificity of 100% and 89%, respectively. Sensitivities and specificities were 56% and 97% for reduced pituitary height, 64% and 78% for flattening of the posterior sclera, 31% and 97% for widening of the superior ophthalmic veins, 33% and 100% for optic disc protrusion, 14% and 100% for optic nerve edema, and 6% and 100% for elongation of the optic nerve. At least 2 MR imaging findings could be demonstrated in each patient but in none of the controls. The number of positive MR imaging findings correlated with CSF pressure (r = 0.62, P = .01). ...
anatomyEXPERT - Eyeball - Structure Detail
The eyeball is almost spherical, but not perfectly so, mainly because its anterior, clear, or corneal segment has a greater curvature than the rest of the eye. Considering it as a globe, it has an anterior pole and a posterior pole; the former corresponding to the center of the front of the cornea, the latter to the center of the posterior curvature. An imaginary straight line joining, the two poles is called the axis of the eyeball. The equator of the eye is that part of its surface which lies midway between the two poles. The optic nerve joins the globe three or four mm to the nasal side of the posterior pole. The shape of the eye depends on, and is preserved by, the outermost tunic, formed conjointly by the cornea and sclera. All around the cornea there remains a little adherent conjunctiva; elsewhere, the sclera is directly exposed, except for some loose connective tissue which adheres to it, especially around the optic nerve entrance. In front of the equator we see the tendinous insertions ...
Episcleritis And Scleritis Problem For 3 Months / Age Of 30, Male, Reason Unknown : I Have Scleritis Story & Experience
Episcleritis And Scleritis Problem For 3 Months / Age Of 30, Male, Reason Unknown : A true, personal story from the experience, I Have Scleritis. I am 30 years old , male, no medication history in the past. I work as IT professional in US for 4 years. I relocate from TN to NC because of new job in Feb 2012. -Two weeks after reaching the new pla...
Use of appropriate eye wear while using laptops or computers, as also while travelling can reduce the stress on eyes. In short, if the cause is something avoidable, then you must try that, in order to prevent bloodshot eyes in the morning. So, the treatment for bloodshot eyes in the morning is based on the cause. This is basically due to the enlargement or inflammation of the minute blood vessels in the sclera, which in turn induces increased blood flow. When this happens, the blood tends to leak into the space between the conjunctiva and the sclera. Apart from these major causes, hangover,. .... ...
Прекрасное зрение без очков Д. Бейтс
To obtain an image from the side of the sclera, a plane mirror was used in addition to the concave one and other apparatus previously mentioned. It was about three inches in diameter, was supported on a stand at about the height of the eye, and was held vertical to the surface of the table, with one edge resting against the left temple of the subject and the opposite edge tipped about thirty degrees from the plane of the temple toward the nose. The concave mirror was so placed that the horizontal bar which supported it made an angle of about eighty, degrees with the line from the eye to the right. When the two mirrors were properly adjusted, the image of the filament was reflected from the plane mirror into the concave mirror, where it was seen by the subject an inch or more above the centre. The concave mirror was so adjusted that when it was moved nearer to, or farther away from the eye, the angle of fixation did not change. The condenser was slightly, perhaps half an inch, farther from the ...
Black 22mm sclera
sclera - Tag Search - IEEE Spectrum
Xenopus Anatomy Ontology: Summary for sclera
The Establishing Shot: The Establishing Shot: David Adjaye's Sclera a tulipwood pavilion, Southbank, London
In many ways, the EyePrintPRO™ is similar to a scleral lens. It is made of the same FDA approved oxygen permeable materials and the fit vaults the cornea while landing on the sclera. There is a long history of the comfort, health and visual benefits of scleral lenses. The difference, however, is in the design process. While scleral lenses are fit through a system of trial and error with prefabricated lenses, The EyePrintPRO™ is made from an impression of the ocular surface, just like a prosthetic eye. Instead of using a series of standardized curvatures as with scleral lenses, the EyePrintPRO™ is generated to exactly match the unique irregularities of the individual eye. Because of the precise nature of the back surface fit, high quality and individualized optics can be placed on the front surface of the device, creating exactly what you need.. ...
A definition of scleritis - HealthyLifeInfo.com Wellness and Health Information
Source: Adapted from the National Institutes of Health. What does the term "scleritis" mean? The term "scleritis" refers to inflammation of the sclera, causing pain, redness and possible loss of vision. can be a complication of rheumatoid arthritis. To find out more about this term, please search the news section of this website for related articles and information.. ...
Patente US20030014036 - Reservoir device for intraocular drug delivery - Google Patentes
A delivery device that allows for the sustained release of an agent, particularly useful for the sustained release of a therapeutic agent to limited access regions, such as the posterior chamber of the eye and inner ear. The delivery device is minimally invasive, refillable and may be easily fixed to the treatment area. The delivery device includes a hollow body with an inlet port at its proximal end for insertion of the agent, a reservoir for holding the agent and a delivery mechanism for the sustained delivery of the agent from the reservoir to the patient.
Prostaglandin F receptor
... es are not to be confused with "sclera" lenses, which are soft lenses and do not contain a fluid reservoir. "Sclera ... They are unique in their design in that they fit onto and are supported by the sclera, the white portion of the eye. The cause ... "The History and Culture of Scleral Lenses". Sclera XL. Retrieved 23 July 2015. Fassbender, Melissa. "Restoring sight with laser ... also known as a scleral contact lens and ocular surface prostheses is a large contact lens that rests on the sclera and creates ...
In hyperemia, there is a visible increase in the blood flow to the sclera (hyperaemia), which accounts for the redness of the ... Scleritis is a serious inflammatory disease that affects the white outer coating of the eye, known as the sclera. The disease ... Maite Sainz de la Maza (Feb 15, 2012). The sclera (2nd ed.). New York: Springer. p. 102. ISBN 978-1441965011. Rosenbaum JT. The ... Watson P. Diseases of the sclera and episclera. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology. 15th ed. Philadelphia, Pa ...
Virgin and Child with Canon van der Paele
Classification of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
Paul Anton Cibis
London Design Festival
Typically, there is no uveitis, or thickening of the sclera. The diagnosis of episcleritis is based upon the history and ... Watson P. Diseases of the sclera and episclera. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology. 15th ed. Philadelphia, Pa ... Sometimes, small nodules are present within the episclera, which move slightly over the sclera with gentle pressure. Discharge ... A blue color to the sclera suggests scleritis, rather than episcleritis. After anesthetizing the eye with medication, the ...
Anterior Tenon's fascia is separated from the sclera. Blunt dissection in the four quadrants between the rectus muscles ... such as donor sclera or polyester gauze which improves implant motility, but does not allow for direct mechanical coupling ... such as sclera, polyethylene terephthalate, or vicryl mesh (which has the disadvantage of creating a rough implant tissue ... sclera, dermis), and autogenous tissue (fascia lata, temporalis fascia, posterior auricular muscle, rectus abdominis sheath). ...
... but the corneal membrane extends into the sclera outside the lens, and the sclera is deeper than the lens. The most usual type ... The interlensar sclera is not deeper than the lenses. This type of eye is called abatochroal. A second type of eye, called ... They have up to 70 small lenses per eye, not touching but separated from each other by the so-called interlensar sclera. Each ... of trilobite eye, called holochroal, has usually thousands of small hexagonal lenses without an interlensar sclera, and a ...
The episclera is the outermost layer of the sclera. It is composed of loose, fibrous, elastic tissue and attaches to Tenon's ... A vascular plexus is found between the bulbar conjunctiva and the sclera consisting of two layers of vessels, the superficial ... Heath, G. "The episclera, sclera and conjunctiva: An overview of relevant ocular anatomy." Archived 2013-05-13 at the Wayback ...
... degeneration of sclera in pathological myopia. It occurs more commonly in the regions of sclera which are perforated by vortex ... As the name implies, it is the bulge of weak sclera lined by ciliary body, which occurs about 2-3 mm away from the limbus. Its ... It occurs due to weakening of outer layer of eye (cornea or sclera) by an inflammatory or degenerative condition. It may be of ... involving the cornea and the nearby sclera. It is an ectasia of pseudocornea ( the scar formed from organised exudates and ...
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b
Scleral reinforcement surgery
... and donor's or cadaver's sclera. Human sclera is thought to offer the best support, as well as Lyodura, which is biologically ... Sclera from cadaver's or animal tendons run the risk of being rejected. While there have been many modifications, Thompson's ... Both ends of the material strip are crossed over the medial rectus muscle and sutured to the sclera on the medial side of the ... Donor sclera material is also difficult to acquire and store, and artificial materials are still being tested. This procedure ...
Second-harmonic imaging microscopy
Globe (human eye)
Cooperative eye hypothesis
This is due to a lack of pigment in the sclera. Other primates have pigmented sclera that are brown or dark in colour. There is ... Other hypotheses include the proposal that white sclera are a sign of good health, useful in mate selection, or that eye ... Unlike other primates, human beings have eyes with a distinct colour contrast between the white sclera, the coloured iris, and ... also a higher contrast between human skin, sclera, and irises. Human eyes are also larger in proportion to body size, and are ...
Dial H for Hero
Coloration of the sclera. Eye color outside of the iris may also be symptomatic of disease. Yellowing of the sclera (the " ... Kingsnorth, Andrew; Majid, Aljafri (2006). The Sclera. Cambridge University Press. p. 244. ISBN 978-1-139-44931-1. .. ... Sainz de la Maza, Maite; Tauber, Joseph; Foster, Charles Stephen (2012). The Sclera. Springer. pp. 282-286. ISBN 978-1-441- ... any sudden changes in the color of the sclera should be addressed by a medical professional. ...
Sclera: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
The sclera is the white outer coating of the eye. It is tough, fibrous tissue that extends from the cornea (the clear front ... The sclera gives the eyeball its white color. The cornea and sclera are made of the same type of collagen fibers. In the cornea ... Sclera. www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/748617/all/sclera. Accessed September 6, 2019. ... The sclera is the white outer coating of the eye. It is tough, fibrous tissue that extends from the cornea (the clear front ...
Sclera - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sclera. The sclera (from the Greek skleros, meaning hard), also known as the white or white of the eye, is the opaque ( ... The collagen of the sclera is continuous with the cornea. From outer to innermost, the four layers of the sclera are:. * ... The cornea, unlike the sclera, has 5 layers. The middle, thickest layer is also called the stroma. The sclera, like the cornea ... The sclera forms the posterior five-sixths of the connective tissue coat of the globe. It is continuous with the dura mater and ...
Sclera - Wikipedia
The word sclera (/ˈsklɛərə/ or /ˈsklɪərə/; both are common), plural sclerae (/ˈsklɛəri/ or /ˈsklɪəri/) or scleras, is from the ... In humans, the whole sclera is white, contrasting with the coloured iris, but in other mammals the visible part of the sclera ... The eyes of all non-human primates are dark with small, barely visible sclera. The collagen of the sclera is continuous with ... From outer to innermost, the four layers of the sclera are: episclera stroma lamina fusca endothelium The sclera is opaque due ...
Lamina cribrosa sclerae - Wikipedia
The nerve fibers forming the optic nerve exit the eye posteriorly through a hole in the sclera that is occupied by a mesh-like ... Being structurally weaker than the much thicker and denser sclera, the lamina cribrosa is more sensitive to changes in the ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lamina_cribrosa_sclerae&oldid=835140440" ...
Trachypollia sclera - Wikipedia
Sclera - Trip Database
Helping you find trustworthy answers on Sclera , Latest evidence made easy ... Find all the evidence you need on Sclera via the Trip Database. ... to the sclera, the device was flow tested. No flow was observed ... The natural lens of the eye is removed through a small incision at the limbus (the area where the cornea meets the sclera) and ... The patient had (...) to the sclera in patients with suturing contraindications.. Full Text available with Trip Pro. 2017 ...
Patologia della sclera, Patologia della sclera NAS, Malattie della sclera. Dutch. sclera-aandoening NAO, aandoening; sclera, ... Sclera, Disorder of sclera, unspecified, SCLERA DIS, SCLERAL DIS, disorder of sclera, disorder of sclera (diagnosis), Scleral ... sclera disease, sclera diseases, sclera disorders, disease sclera, diseases sclera, scleral diseases, disorders scleral, ... sclera-aandoening, Aandoeningen van sclera, Scleraziekte, Scleraziekten, Ziekte, sclera-, Ziekten, sclera-. ...
blue sclera or pigmentation? - Eye Care - MedHelp
you wrote is would be generelized does it mean that it would have to cover all sclera for it to be actual blue sclera? thank ... you wrote that if it would be a blue sclera there would be a diffuse and generalized blueness to her sclera but she already got ... 2 ophtalmologist tol me that it can be a thinning of the sclera or blue sclera.An optician told me it is pigmentation.... but ... blue sclera or pigmentation? julita85 hello few moths ago I noticed a grey irregular patches on my (then)5,5 year old ...
Yellow Sclera & Allergies | LIVESTRONG.COM
... called the sclera, could turn yellow if you have a condition known as jaundice. The skin on the rest of... ... The tissue that makes up the white of your eye, called the sclera, could turn yellow if you have a condition known as jaundice ... If you notice changes in the color of your sclera, contact your doctor. She will examine your eyes and perform tests to help ... In relation to the sclera, an allergic reaction may cause redness on the white of your eye. Additional eye symptoms may include ...
sclera | CG Channel
Red Sclera Contacts by Novelty Mfg
... and purchase your Red Sclera contact lenses online. ... At Contacts America we guarantee your Red Sclera contacts to be ... Red Sclera Reviews. Be the first to write an online review for Red Sclera Contact Lenses. ... Red Sclera are Custom Novelty (Halloween, Special Effect, FX, Theatrical) Contact Lenses. Red Sclera contact lenses, formerly ... At Contacts America we guarantee your Red Sclera contacts by Novelty Mfg to be exactly as your eye doctor prescribed! Take ...
What is the function of the sclera? | Reference.com
The sclera provides structure, protection ad strength to the eye, according to the Manhattan Vision Associates. It is the white ... The sclera consists of the episclera, a loose connective tissue below the conjunctiva, the sclera proper, the dense white ... In older people, the sclera often appears yellow.. Healthline states that the sclera forms the eyeballs supporting wall. It is ... The sclera, also called "the white of the eye," is the tough, opaque tissue that serves as the protective outer coat of the eye ...
sclera - Tag Search - IEEE Spectrum
The Sclera | SpringerLink
The sclera forms a tough fibrous outer coating for the eye. It is abnormally formed in severe congenital abnormalities of the ... Evidence that abnormal sclera is responsible for the uveal effusion syndrome. Retina. 1986;6:57-60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... The cornea and sclera. In: Wolffs Anatomy of the eye and orbit. 8th ed. London: Chapman and Hall; 1997. p. 233-78.Google ... The sclera forms a tough fibrous outer coating for the eye. It is abnormally formed in severe congenital abnormalities of the ...
Red Dragon Sclera Lens by TrinaryOuroboros on DeviantArt
Pars corneoscleralis reticuli trabecularis sclerae definition | Drugs.com
Eye, Sclera - Metaplasia, Osseous - Nonneoplastic Lesion Atlas
Eye, Sclera - Metaplasia, Osseous in a male F344/N rat from a chronic study. There are two foci of focal osseous metaplasia ( ... Eye, Sclera - Metaplasia, Osseous in a male F344/N rat from a chronic study (higher magnification of Figure 1). This higher ... Osseous metaplasia of the sclera is an incidental aging change that occurs frequently in Fischer 344/N rats, less often in ... These innocuous structures do not incite pathologic changes in the sclera or adjacent tissues. ...
Sclera - wikidoc
de:Sclerait:Sclera lt:Odena nl:Sclerano:Sklerask:Očné bielkosv:senhinnan ... The sclera forms the posterior five sixths of the connective tissue coat of the globe. The sclera maintains the shape of the ... The sclera is the opaque (usually white), fibrous, protective layer of the eye containing collagen and elastic fibers. In ... Conjunctiva • Sclera • Schlemms canal • Trabecular meshwork • Limbus Cornea (Epithelium, Bowmans, Stroma, Descemets, ...
Eyeball Jewelry (UPDATE): The 'JewelEye' Piercing Will Pimp your Sclera
Comparison of Riboflavin/Ultraviolet-A Cross-Linking in Porcine, Rabbit, and Human Sclera
The outcome of the riboflavin/UVA CXL of human sclera was similar to porcine sclera but not rabbit sclera. ... MPa in untreated porcine, rabbit and human sclera, respectively. The stress was MPa, MPa, and MPa in untreated porcine, rabbit ... In rabbit sclera, both the stress and Youngs modulus were significantly increased by CXL (. ). In porcine sclera, only the ... In porcine sclera, only the ultimate stress was significantly increased by CXL (. ). In human sclera, CXL did not significantly ...
Red Sclera Contacts, Mini (Novelty & Halloween) | Reviews, Order Replacements | Lens.com
Buy Red Sclera contact lenses (prescription) online. Lens has a best price guarantee, with rebates on costume & cosplay lenses ... Mini Red Sclera contact lenses are made from 62 percent polymacon, a flexible polymer material that adapts to the shape of your ... To add a truly creepy accessory to your next costume, choose Mini Red Sclera contact lenses to take your look to the next level ... Freak out your friends with a surreal and spine-chilling look Mini Red Sclera contact lenses. The lenses feature a unique out- ...
Whites of their eyes: Study finds infants respond to social cues from sclera | EurekAlert! Science News
whites-their-eyes-study-finds-infants-respond-social-cues-sclera More in Social & Behavior. * Happiness exercises can boost ... Humans are the only primates with large, highly visible sclera - the white part of the eye. The eye plays a significant role in ... The infants brain responses displayed a different pattern to sclera depicting fearful expressions (wide-eyed) to non-fearful ... Whites of their eyes: Study finds infants respond to social cues from sclera. University of Virginia ...
Sclera and apisclera | British Journal of Ophthalmology
Sclera and Episclera | British Journal of Ophthalmology
The Sclera | Uveitis.org | OIUF
Sclera - Wikipedia
La sclera (dû latinu: sclera e lu grecu: skleros, chi signìfica duru)., canusciuta macari comu lu jancu di locchiu, e na ... ma nni làutri mammìfiri la parti visìbbili dâ sclera avi lu stissu culuri comu la pupidda. ... cajula opaca, alliamata, chi furma lu stratu di fora di locchiu umanu. Nni lumani, tutta la sclera e janca, ô cuntrariu ê ... Estrattu di "https://scn.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sclera&oldid=721788" ...
Black & White Mini Sclera Contact Lenses - maskworld.com
Xenopus Anatomy Ontology: Summary for sclera
Structural Considerations of the Sclera | Springer for Research & Development
The sclera, the dense connective tissue that encloses about five-sixths of the eye, is remarkable for its strength and for the ... Foster C.S., de la Maza M.S. (1994) Structural Considerations of the Sclera. In: The Sclera. Springer, New York, NY. * DOI ... The sclera, the dense connective tissue that encloses about five-sixths of the eye, is remarkable for its strength and for the ... Spencer WH: Sclera. In Spencer WH (Ed): Ophthalmic Pathology, 3rd ed. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1985, pp 389-422.Google ...
Blue ScleraHuman scleraCornea and scleraEyeballIrisCollagen fibrilsScleralConjunctivaRetinaPortion of the scleraEpiscleraMini Sclera ContactsBlack sclera contactsFibrousMyopiaRabbit scleraVisible sclera17mmEye'sYellowishOcularConnective tissueColourPupilOsteogenesis2017ContactsJaundiceBlood vesselsDiameterMeSHWhiteTissuePlainly visible2020LimbusThickestEyesContact LensSearchScleritisPictogramsVasculatureInflammationOpticLens casePosterior poleVivoHistology
- blue sclera or pigmentation? (medhelp.org)
- 2 ophtalmologist tol me that it can be a thinning of the sclera or blue sclera.An optician told me it is pigmentation. (medhelp.org)
- they all said it is nothing to be worried about!how can I not be worried when she may have blue sclera!but she is tall,very lively,never broke a bone! (medhelp.org)
- I don't know it this is how the thinning looks like or it is a real blue sclera! (medhelp.org)
- If she had true 'blue' sclera, such as seen in Osteogeneis Imperfecta, there would be a diffuse and generalized blueness to her sclera. (medhelp.org)
- I am sorry have one more question about the hearing because I read that with blue sclera children will lose their hearing?when that happens?will it always happen? (medhelp.org)
- thank you for your answer you wrote that if it would be a blue sclera there would be a diffuse and generalized blueness to her sclera but she already got some hints of blue under and above the iris on her sclera! (medhelp.org)
- you wrote is would be 'generelized' does it mean that it would have to cover all sclera for it to be actual blue sclera? (medhelp.org)
- Gavini S, Turpin S, Skorin L. Blue Sclera and Tendon Rupture. (jaoa.org)
- Mutations in the IFTM5 transmembrane protein, the gene that causes defective bone mineralization, cause OI type V. 2 Ocular signs of OI type I usually include blue sclera due to an alteration in the collagen matrix and possible corneal thinning. (jaoa.org)
- Causes of blue sclera in infants include what? (healthtap.com)
- Other associations include: ehler's danlos syndrome pseudoxanthoma elasticum marfan's syndrome a blue sclera may also be acquired through long-term use of corticosteroids . (healthtap.com)
- What causes the blue sclera in osteogenesis imperfecta oi? (healthtap.com)
- The thinness of the layers of the eye allow the hue of the blood vessels below to be seen and therefore the blue sclera . (healthtap.com)
- What causes the blue sclera in people with osteogenesis imperfecta? (healthtap.com)
- The below video snippet is a case of blue sclera. (fishmanvision.com)
- Blue sclera isn't really blue but can be from either thinning of the sclera which causes a bluish hue on examination or pigmentation deposits that can also appear to give a bluish hue to the sclera. (fishmanvision.com)
- Blue sclera can be a sign of systemic disease such as collagen synthesis disease (Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta and, occasionally, Marfan's syndrom). (fishmanvision.com)
- However, blue sclera can also be from pigmentation deposits associated with systemic diseases including Alkaptonuria, Primary adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease) , or by autoimmune destruction of the adrenal glands. (fishmanvision.com)
- Systemic medicines such as minocycline can also cause blue sclera as is the answer in this case . (fishmanvision.com)
- This is not just due to the white color of the human sclera, which many other species share, but also to the fact that the human iris is relatively small and comprises a significantly smaller portion of the exposed eye surface compared to other animals. (archive.org)
- Sellheyer K, Spitznas M. Development of the human sclera: a morphological study. (springer.com)
- To compare the biomechanical properties of porcine, rabbit, and human sclera before and after riboflavin/ultraviolet-A (UVA) collagen cross-linking (CXL). (hindawi.com)
- Values of stress, and Young's modulus showed that human sclera was 4 times stiffer than porcine sclera and 3 times stiffer than rabbit sclera. (hindawi.com)
- Human sclera has higher biomechanical stiffness than porcine and rabbit sclera. (hindawi.com)
- With the same irradiation dose, riboflavin/UVA CXL increases the biomechanical stiffness of rabbit sclera but not porcine or human sclera. (hindawi.com)
- Sellheyer K, Spitznas M: Development of the human sclera. (springer.com)
- Sphingomyelins and cholesterol esters in human sclera. (springer.com)
- Vannas S, Teir H: Observations on structure and age changes in the human sclera. (springer.com)
Cornea and sclera7
- The cornea and sclera are made of the same type of collagen fibers. (medlineplus.gov)
- His exam was significant for a full-thickness corneal laceration, necessitating open globe repair of his right eye, which was remarkably difficult given the poor tissue constitution of the cornea and sclera . (tripdatabase.com)
- Both PQLC1 and KRT12 were found to be significantly expressed in fetal and adult cornea and sclera tissues in both human and mouse.We identified five CpG methylation sites that demonstrate a statistically significant association with increased risk of developing early-onset myopia. (tripdatabase.com)
- The cornea and sclera. (springer.com)
- Eichholtz W, Müller D. Electron microscopy findings on the cornea and sclera in osteogenesis imperfecta. (springer.com)
- A patient with a history of a ruptured left globe with repair presented for removal of sutures from the cornea and sclera. (findacode.com)
- Collagen, as the most abundant protein in the human body, determines the unique physiological and optical properties of the connective tissues including cornea and sclera. (mpg.de)
- The sclera gives the eyeball its white color. (medlineplus.gov)
- Osteogenesis imperfecta amongst its other problems, produces a thinning of the white outer coat of the eyeball, the sclera. (healthtap.com)
- The sclera, colloquially known as the white of the eye, is the firm, protective casing that holds in the contents of the eyeball. (e621.net)
- A Sclera tattoo is a tattoo on the white area of the eyeball. (bme.com)
- The sclera is the protective covering of the eyeball. (cancer.ca)
- It covers the eyeball The sclera is covered by the conjunctiva, a clear mucus membrane that helps lubricate the eye. (lentiamo.co.uk)
- In humans, the whole sclera is white, contrasting with the coloured iris, but in other mammals the visible part of the sclera matches the colour of the iris, so the white part does not normally show. (wikipedia.org)
- The human eye is relatively rare for having an iris that is small enough for its position to be plainly visible against the sclera. (wikipedia.org)
- think(from the pictures)that the grey patches started showing up on the beggining of last year!before her eyes were white and pretty,now they are mostly grey with veins(must check that with doctor) but month ago I noticed that under and above the iris the sclera is getting blue! (medhelp.org)
- The cornea, sclera, pupil, iris and conjunctiva glands are some of the parts of the human eye. (reference.com)
- Like the iris, the sclera can also suffer from inflammation. (study.com)
- In order to establish the sclera as a viable biometric trait and to evaluate its potential for automated biometric systems, several works have been presented in the literature, using the sclera vasculature as a standalone biometric trait and in combination with the iris. (visionscience.com)
- Sclera colour, along with iris colour varies. (yahoo.com)
- Sclera Lenses have a large 22mm Lens that covers the iris and the whites of the eye, for some uses they might feel slightly uncomfortable. (foureyez.com)
- Green 22mm sclera contact lenses which entirely cover the sclera and iris. (scleracontactlensesusa.com)
- These all white mesh 22mm sclera contact lenses which entirely cover the sclera, iris, and pupil. (twinklens.com)
- In humans the whole sclera is white, contrasting with the coloured iris. (lentiamo.co.uk)
- These white Sclera Contacts cover the sclera and the iris, leaving just the pupil on show. (scleracontactlenses.co.uk)
- Although they are very similar to our 14mm variety of white zombie lenses, because they cover the sclera as well, the eye is a more uniform bright white and no glimpse of the iris will be visible while blinking, moving the eye quickly etc (unlike 14mm contacts). (scleracontactlenses.co.uk)
- To estimate two collagen-specific material properties (crimp angle and elastic modulus of collagen fibrils) of the remodeling tree shrew sclera during monocular -5 diopter (D) lens wear and recovery. (nih.gov)
- Collagen fibrils are crimped in the unloaded sclera and uncrimp as the tissue stiffens under load. (nih.gov)
- In this study, the organization of collagen fibrils within the sclera of the eye was investigated using the 7 keV hard X-ray microscope of the Pohang light source and compared to images from electron and atomic force microscopy. (lancs.ac.uk)
- Ben E. Urban, Biqin Dong, Xian Zhang, Huili Yang, and Hao F. Zhang, "Patterned-illumination second harmonic generation microscopy of collagen fibrils in rat scleras," Opt. (osapublishing.org)
- We further demonstrated three-dimensional PI-SHG microscopy in imaging ex vivo collagen fibrils in rat scleras. (osapublishing.org)
- The sclera is perforated by many nerves and vessels passing through the posterior scleral foramen, the hole that is formed by the optic nerve . (archive.org)
- In many vertebrates , the sclera is reinforced with plates of cartilage or bone , together forming a circular structure called the scleral ring . (archive.org)
- Sometimes, very small gray-blue spots can appear on the sclera, a harmless condition called scleral melanocytosis . (archive.org)
- This revised version of The Sclera, first published in 1994, contains the latest information on the diagnosis and treatment of scleral diseases, as well as new illustrations. (uveitis.org)
- Birefringence and tensile elastic moduli of sclera in humans and lower mammals are positively correlated, but the correlations differ for various scleral regions. (arvojournals.org)
- In contrast, scleral fibrils possess inhomogeneous, tubelike structures with thin hard shells, maintaining the high stiffness and elasticity of the sclera. (mpg.de)
- Along with the vessels of the conjunctiva (which is a thin layer covering the sclera), those in the episclera render the inflamed eye bright red. (archive.org)
- The sclera consists of the episclera, a loose connective tissue below the conjunctiva, the sclera proper, the dense white tissue providing the sclera its white color, and the lumina fusca, the innermost part composed of elastic fibers. (reference.com)
- This is a seepage of a small amount of blood from a thin walled vessel, releasing blood in the space under the conjunctiva and over the white sclera. (healthtap.com)
- The conjunctiva is a mucous membrane that covers the exposed front portion of the sclera and lines the inside of the eyelids. (funkidslive.com)
- Conjunctiva and sclera are not always discriminated in anterior eye optical coherence tomography (OCT) images, although they have distinctive tissue properties. (spie.org)
- We developped a new algorithm which discriminates conjunctiva and sclera based on the local statistics of intensity and phase retardation OCT images. (spie.org)
- In 4 of 4 cases, conjunctiva and sclera were discriminated. (spie.org)
- She presented with a metallic foreign body that partially entered her left eye through the nasal sclera via pars plana, 3 mm posterior to the limbus, but did not reach the retina. (tripdatabase.com)
- Lesions of the retina, choroid, and sclera were created in the proptosed eye of the rabbit with the use of focused ultrasound at 9.8 MHz. (arvojournals.org)
- Lesson 5 Assignment - Eye Structure Retina Sclera Vitreous. (coursehero.com)
- The choroid is a thin layer of tissue that lies between the sclera and retina. (cancer.ca)
- In such cases, diagnostic B-scan ultrasound can accurately image intraocular structures and give valuable information on the status of the lens, vitreous, retina, choroid, and sclera. (medscape.com)
Portion of the sclera1
Mini Sclera Contacts2
Black sclera contacts1
- The sclera (from the Greek skleros , meaning hard [ 1 ] ), also known as the white or white of the eye , is the opaque (usually white, though certain animals, such as horses and lizards, can have black sclera), fibrous, protective, outer layer of the eye containing collagen and elastic fiber . (archive.org)
- The sclera, also known as the white of the eye, is the opaque, fibrous, protective, outer layer of the eye containing mainly collagen and some elastic fiber. (wikipedia.org)
- A thin fibrous membrane that covers the outer surface of the anteriors sclera and contains blood vessels which supply the sclera. (fpnotebook.com)
- The sclera forms a tough fibrous outer coating for the eye. (springer.com)
- The sclera is the opaque (usually white), fibrous, protective layer of the eye containing collagen and elastic fibers . (wikidoc.org)
- To increase our understanding of the mechanisms that remodel the sclera during the development of lens-induced myopia, when the sclera responds to putative "go" signals of retinal origin, and during recovery from lens-induced myopia, when the sclera responds to retinally-derived "stop" signals. (molvis.org)
- Research advances in sclera-remodeling relevant gene polymorphisms related to myopia]. (semanticscholar.org)
- And sclera-remodeling plays an important role in the development of myopia. (semanticscholar.org)
- The recent research advances in association with both sclera-remodeling relevant gene polymorphisms and myopia are reviewed in this article. (semanticscholar.org)
- ColourVue Crazy 17mm Mini Sclera Contact Lenses are made with the purpose of providing you with a variety of specially designed contact lenses to choose from, giving you the freedom to create as many crazy looks as you please. (youknowit.com)
- Black, Black, Black and a bit more black, these Crazy 17mm Mini Sclera Black Titan ColourVue Contact Lenses will black out your eyes and give you a sinister look. (youknowit.com)
- There are six small muscles attached to the sclera that control the eye's movements. (reference.com)
- The procedure involves inserting a 3.5 mm (0.13 inch) wide piece of specially developed jewelry (the range includes a glittering half-moon or heart) into the eye's sclera. (trendhunter.com)
- Toxins and impurities built up in your body and eyes can cause your eye's sclera to have a dull or yellowish appearance, instead of a bright white color that is an indication of good eye health and also of overall health. (eyeswhite.com)
- entacapone: 6000 mg) in a suicide attempt, presenting as altered mentality, xanthoderma, and yellowish sclera without hyperbilirubinemia. (srce.hr)
- Tiny grey spot at the end of blood vessel in eye and discolored patch with a tinge of yellowish brown on my sclera. (healthtap.com)
- Fully Covering your sclera with a diameter of 22mm, the Blind Yellowish Sclera Lenses are so suitable if you want a stunning look or to play a character who has yellow eyes. (twinklens.com)
- The sclera is not a static container of the eye but rather a dynamic tissue that responds to changes in ocular size and refraction [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
- https://sites.google.com/view/ssbc2020/home ******************************************************** We invite research groups working on ocular biometrics, segmentation problems or other related vision tasks to take part in the 2020 Sclera Segmentation Benchmarking Competition (SSBC 2020). (visionscience.com)
- Sclera biometrics have gained significant popularity among emerging ocular traits in the last few years. (visionscience.com)
- The sclera develops from the mesoderm simultaneously with the cornea, and forms the outer structure of the eye, contributing to the preservation of the ocular shape and serving as a functional barrier. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- 18 , 19 There are many ocular inflammatory diseases that involve the sclera, including infections and inflammatory conditions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The sclera forms the posterior five-sixths of the connective tissue coat of the globe . (archive.org)
- The sclera, the dense connective tissue that encloses about five-sixths of the eye, is remarkable for its strength and for the firmness with which it maintains the shape of the globe. (springer.com)
- This classic finding in osteogenesis imperfecta is due to thin connective tissue in the sclera. (healthtap.com)
- If your sclera colour has changed recently then you need to see a doctor. (yahoo.com)
- This tag is used in images in which the sclera is pink in colour. (e621.net)
- This tag is used in images in which the sclera is black in colour. (e621.net)
- All our cosplay sclera lenses are colour blockers, so they completely cover your natural eye colour, leaving only the colours seen below. (anivolution.com)
- The sclera is thin and translucent in osteogenesis imperfecta, and there may be glycosaminoglycan deposition in the mucopolysaccharidoses. (springer.com)
- Blue sclerae are most importantly associated with types i and ii osteogenesis imperfecta , the latter of which is fatal and thus not seen in adult practice. (healthtap.com)
- Common Variable Osteogenesis Imperfecta with Normal Sclerae, also known as osteogenesis imperfecta type iv , is related to osteogenesis imperfecta, type iv and osteogenesis imperfecta . (malacards.org)
- An important gene associated with Common Variable Osteogenesis Imperfecta with Normal Sclerae is COL1A2 (Collagen Type I Alpha 2 Chain). (malacards.org)
- At Contacts America we guarantee your Red Sclera contacts by Novelty Mfg to be exactly as your eye doctor prescribed! (contactsamerica.com)
- Then look no further as our Thanos Sclera Full Eye Contacts are the perfect addition to your Mad Titan costume or any other comic book inspired costumes! (foureyez.com)
- We love Scary Contacts and you can't get scarier than our Sclera Full Eye Contacts, which extremely alter the shape and look of your eyes. (foureyez.com)
- You should not wear Sclera Contacts for more than four (4) hours at a time. (foureyez.com)
- Create a truly striking effect with these MesmerEyez Black & White Sclera Contacts which are designed to cover the complete eye. (colouryoureyes.com)
- Sclera XL offers the largest selection of affordable sclera contacts online. (rumble.com)
- Please note that sclera contacts are not medical devices. (scleracontactlensesusa.com)
- The tissue that makes up the white of your eye, called the sclera, could turn yellow if you have a condition known as jaundice. (livestrong.com)
- Allergic reactions to food, pollen or dander will not contribute to a sclera yellowing or jaundice, but allergies may cause sclera-related symptoms. (livestrong.com)
- Is it okay to have permanent visible blood vessels in the sclera of the eye? (healthtap.com)
- All was going well until blood vessels broken in sclera in same eye yesterday. (healthtap.com)
- A novel device for noninvasively observing peripheral blood vessels and their blood flow using high-speed photography of the surface of the sclera was developed in our laboratory. (actapress.com)
- Utilising phase-only correlation to detect the displacement of blood vessels, we eliminated the effects of fixational eye movements to stabilise the sclera images. (actapress.com)
- The nerve fibers forming the optic nerve exit the eye posteriorly through a hole in the sclera that is occupied by a mesh-like structure called the lamina cribrosa . (wikipedia.org)
- Sclera" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (viictr.org)
- The sclera is the white outer coating of the eye. (medlineplus.gov)
- General disorders of the sclera or white of the eye. (fpnotebook.com)
- In relation to the sclera, an allergic reaction may cause redness on the white of your eye. (livestrong.com)
- The sclera, also called "the white of the eye," is the tough, opaque tissue that serves as the protective outer coat of the eye, the St. Luke's Cataract and Laser Institute explains. (reference.com)
- Collagen cross-linking (CXL) is another method to strengthen the sclera and is divided into 2 types: chemical cross-linking (using glucose, ribose, glyceraldehyde, glutaraldehyde, aliphatic beta-nitro alcohol, etc.), and physical cross-linking (using rose bengal/white light, riboflavin/ultraviolet A light, riboflavin/blue light, etc.) [ 6 - 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
- The sclera is the white hard covering of the eye. (healthtap.com)
- Is it where the white part of the eye (sclera) usually is? (healthtap.com)
- A pinguecula , which is a deposit/build up on the white part of the eye (sclera) due to uv light and dryness of the eyes. (healthtap.com)
- Does anyone know how to make the sclera(white part of your eyes) whiter? (yahoo.com)
- Can sleep affect how white your sclera is? (yahoo.com)
- We commonly get patients who come in asking if the white part of their eye, the sclera, has a growth or is turning a gray color. (shoreeye.com)
- The sclera - the white part of the eye - is thicker and stronger than the cornea and thus protects the eye from becoming damaged. (zeiss.com)
- To investigate these issues, to document recent developments and to attract (and raise) the interest of researchers in this emerging biometric trait, we are organzing SSBC 2020 - a competition (and group benchmarking effort) held in conjunction with IJCB 2020 focusing on the problem of sclera segmentation. (visionscience.com)
- SSBC 2020 is the next in the series of sclera segmentation challenges and aims to benchmark sclera segmentation models in both cross sensor settings as well as across different acquisition conditions. (visionscience.com)
- Studies have shown that biomechanical parameters of the sclera are weaker in myopic human eyes than in age-matched nonmyopic eyes [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
- The lenses feature a unique out-of-this world design that creates the illusion of jet black eyes, covering the entire irises and most of the sclera. (lens.com)
- Mini Red Sclera contact lenses are made from 62 percent polymacon, a flexible polymer material that adapts to the shape of your eyes. (lens.com)
- The examination revealed a blue-gray appearance of the sclera in both eyes (image A). Results of a corneal pachymetry measurement revealed decreased corneal thickness. (jaoa.org)
- For the last four months, every 2-3 weeks, the sclera of one of my eyes turns blood shot red (a broken blood capillary). (healthtap.com)
- Alkaloid built a sclera corrector, http://www.modthesims2.com/showthread.php?t=252432 , to fix eyes that tend to go black or pink when they cut far over to the side. (modthesims.info)
- The 'Low impact' version is my attempt to build a sclera corrector that makes as few changes to the look of the underlying eyes as possible, while still correcting their appearance when cut far over to the side. (modthesims.info)
- All of our Sclera Contact Lenses feature a transparent centre ensuring that you can see how scared your friends are when they first encounter those Spooky Eyes! (spookyeyes.com)
- Compare Prices of Anime Scarecrow Sclera Contact Lens at major online stores. (contactlensesprice.com)
- Create a truly striking effect with these MesmerEyez Black Full Eye Sclera coloured contact lens, which are designed to cover the complete eye. (colouryoureyes.com)
- ColourVue Sclera Shadowcat 22mm contact lens provides a stunning visual effect. (lensvillage.com)
- Contact lens case designed for storing and displaying sclera contact lenses. (optykrozmus.com)
- Pictograms - Sclera.be , , On our website, we offer you a wide selection of coloring pages, pictures, photographs and handicrafts. (edupics.com)
- Inflammation of the sclera is relatively rare. (springer.com)
- At the optic disc the outer two-thirds of the sclera continues with the dura mater (outer coat of the brain) via the dural sheath of the optic nerve. (archive.org)
- The optic nerve also connects to the sclera at the back of the eye. (reference.com)
- Cornea implants consist of a clear optic part and a surrounding ring known as the skirt, which needs to integrate with the sclera of the eye. (gla.ac.uk)