Detection and counting of scintillations produced in a fluorescent material by ionizing radiation.
The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.
Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.
A rare metal element with a blue-gray appearance and atomic symbol Ge, atomic number 32, and atomic weight 72.63.
Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
Individual components of atoms, usually subatomic; subnuclear particles are usually detected only when the atomic nucleus decays and then only transiently, as most of them are unstable, often yielding pure energy without substance, i.e., radiation.
Electronic instruments that produce photographs or cathode-ray tube images of the gamma-ray emissions from organs containing radionuclide tracers.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to the field of radiology. The applications center mostly around x-ray or radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes but the technological applications of any radiation or radiologic procedure is within the scope of radiologic technology.
Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Thin strands of transparent material, usually glass, that are used for transmitting light waves over long distances.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.
A heavy, bluish white metal, atomic number 81, atomic weight [204.382; 204.385], symbol Tl.
Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen (specifically, hydrogen-3) that contains one proton and two neutrons in its nucleus, making it radioactive with a half-life of about 12.3 years, and is used in various applications including nuclear research, illumination, and dating techniques due to its low energy beta decay.
Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Unstable isotopes of mercury that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Hg atoms with atomic weights 185-195, 197, 203, 205, and 206 are radioactive mercury isotopes.
The study of the characteristics, behavior, and internal structures of the atomic nucleus and its interactions with other nuclei. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Measurement of radioactivity in the entire human body.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An iron chelating agent with properties like EDETIC ACID. DTPA has also been used as a chelator for other metals, such as plutonium.
Tantalum. A rare metallic element, atomic number 73, atomic weight 180.948, symbol Ta. It is a noncorrosive and malleable metal that has been used for plates or disks to replace cranial defects, for wire sutures, and for making prosthetic devices. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A computer in a medical context is an electronic device that processes, stores, and retrieves data, often used in medical settings for tasks such as maintaining patient records, managing diagnostic images, and supporting clinical decision-making through software applications and tools.
The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of iridium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ir atoms with atomic weights 182-190, 192, and 194-198 are radioactive iridium isotopes.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
Devices which accelerate electrically charged atomic or subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons or ions, to high velocities so they have high kinetic energy.
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
An iodine-containing compound used in pyelography as a radiopaque medium. If labeled with radioiodine, it can be used for studies of renal function.
Graphic tracing over a time period of radioactivity measured externally over the kidneys following intravenous injection of a radionuclide which is taken up and excreted by the kidneys.
Lutetium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Lu, atomic number 71, and atomic weight 175.
Normal human serum albumin mildly iodinated with radioactive iodine (131-I) which has a half-life of 8 days, and emits beta and gamma rays. It is used as a diagnostic aid in blood volume determination. (from Merck Index, 11th ed)
A technetium imaging agent used in renal scintigraphy, computed tomography, lung ventilation imaging, gastrointestinal scintigraphy, and many other procedures which employ radionuclide imaging agents.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Radiotherapy using high-energy (megavolt or higher) ionizing radiation. Types of radiation include gamma rays, produced by a radioisotope within a teletherapy unit; x-rays, electrons, protons, alpha particles (helium ions) and heavy charged ions, produced by particle acceleration; and neutrons and pi-mesons (pions), produced as secondary particles following bombardment of a target with a primary particle.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.
Stable iron atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iron, but differ in atomic weight. Fe-54, 57, and 58 are stable iron isotopes.
'Benzene derivatives' are organic compounds that contain a benzene ring as the core structure, with various functional groups attached to it, and can have diverse chemical properties and uses, including as solvents, intermediates in chemical synthesis, and pharmaceuticals.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
A metallic element, atomic number 49, atomic weight 114.82, symbol In. It is named from its blue line in the spectrum. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Role of antibody and complement in opsonization of group B streptococci. (1/334)

A requirement for the classic complement pathway in opsonization of group B streptococci was observed by using both a chemiluminescence and a radiolabeled bacterial uptake technique. The classic pathway increased levels of opsonization for types Ia and II stock and wild strains and for some type III wild strains. In contrast, other type III wild strains and the type III stock strain had accelerated kinetics of uptake in the presence of an intact classic pathway, but the level of opsonization was unchanged from that with antibody alone. We could not demonstrate a significant role for the alternative pathway in opsonizing stock or wild strains of group B streptococci. Futhermore, electrophoretic and complement consumption analysis by hemolytic titration failed to reveal alternative pathway activation by the majority of strains of this group. Therapy aimed at supplying opsonins for these organisms will require the presence of type-specific antibody.  (+info)

Calcium fluxes in single muscle fibres measured with a glass scintillator probe. (2/334)

1. An intracellular glass scintillator (Caldwell & Lea, 1973) has been used to obtain a continuous record of the influx of 45Ca into single muscle fibres of the barnacle, Balanus nubilus. 2. In the presence of intracellular EGTA (final concentration greater than 3 mM/kg), the scintillator detected an initial fast phase to the influx (half-time = 18.3 min, compartment size = 4.1% fibre volume) followed by a slow, linear phase which gave a value for the Ca influx of 1.2 p-mole . cm-2 . sec-1. The efflux of 45Ca was also measured with the scintillator by transferring a 45Ca-loaded fibre into 45Ca-free saline. Two exponential phases of efflux were detected with half-times of 16.2 and 500 min. 3. The characterisitics of the fast phase of the influx and efflux are similar to those of the influx of the impermeant sucrose and inulin, suggesting that the fast phase represents exchange with the extracellular 'cleft space'. This phase was insensitive to external La3+ (2 mM). 4. The slow phase is considered to represent the flux of Ca across the surface membrane. It was inhibited by external La3+ (2 mM) and stimulated by replacing external Na+ with Li+. 5. When EGTA-injected fibres were depolarized using an axial, intracellular electrode the Ca influx, measured from the slow phase, was increased. At higher concentrations of intracellular EGTA (6--22 mM/kg), the extra Ca influx due to a rectangular, depolarizing current pulse was proportional to the number of Ca spikes it produced. A single Ca spike gave an extra Ca influx of 19--48 p-mole . cm-2. External D600 (5 x 10(-4)M) inhibited both Ca spike and the extra Ca influx. 6. At lower intracellular EGTA concentrations (3.6--11 mM/kg), a 50 mV depolarization of 250 msec duration gave a mean extra Ca influx of 80 p-mole . cm-2. The upper value was 145 p-mole . cm-2 and this would increase the total internal Ca by 4.1 micrometer/kg. It is calculated that if all this extra Ca was bound to the myofibrillar sites for tension, it would only produce 6.2% of the force expected for a similar depolarization in a fibre with no intracellular EGTA.  (+info)

Optimization of a new scintillation gas detector used to localize electrons emitted by 99mTc. (3/334)

We have developed a scintillation gas detector to localize electrons emitted by 99mTc. This type of detector allows direct quantification of images and so provides a clear advantage over autoradiographic film. We have optimized the device to give an image spatial resolution that closely approximates that of typical autoradiographic film. To improve this resolution, it was necessary to select only low-energy electrons (2 and 15 keV) and to devise novel detection and localization techniques for the ionizing particles. METHODS: A parallel-plate proportional avalanche chamber is subject to a uniform electrical field and amplifies the number of released electrons through collisions of ionizing particles in the gas mixture. Light emitted by the gas scintillator during the avalanche process is collected by a highly intensified charge coupled device camera. The centroid of each resulting light distribution is calculated, resulting in a quantitative mapping of the sample's activity. Insertion of the sample within the gas volume improves the efficiency and so provides a method that is both very sensitive and linear. RESULTS: We have shown that in a parallel-plate structure, the application of a high electrical field to the surface of the sample and the selection of appropriate light spots, according to their morphology, can overcome localization errors due to the particles' trajectories. We have obtained a resolution of the order of 30 microm, using electrons from 99mTc. CONCLUSION: This detection technique allows considerable improvement in image resolution. This "electron camera" is a serious rival to existing autoradiographic techniques, because it provides certain other advantages, including direct quantification, linearity, high dynamic range and low noise levels. Thus, new perspectives are made available in quantitative double tracer autoradiography, because electrons can be selected for imaging as a function of their energy.  (+info)

Growth and differentiation of cultured fetal hepatocytes isolated various developmental stages. (4/334)

We examined the relationship between cell proliferation and differentiation of cultured rat fetal and newborn hepatocytes isolated from various developmental stages. The albumin production rate increased along with cell growth under in vitro culture and became maximal two days after the growth cessation. AFP was secreted by both fetal and newborn hepatocytes with growth ability. Furthermore, the responses to HGF addition in fetal hepatocyte cultures were observed in terms of growth stimulation and down-regulated of the Met receptor. We also studied the changes in RB and liver enriched transcription factors (C/EBPs) for investigating the mechanism underlying proliferation and differentiation of fetal hepatocytes. Western blot analysis of hepatocytes taken from various gestation stages of rat liver showed that the expression of RB and C/EBP beta increased as gestation stage proceeded. When RB antisense S-oligonucleotide was added to the culture medium, proliferation and AFP expression increased, while C/EBP alpha and albumin expressions decreased. These results indicated that the tumor suppressor gene product RB had a profound role not only in cell proliferation but also hepatocyte differentiation.  (+info)

Highly Th2-skewed cytokine profile of beta-lactam-specific T cells from nonatopic subjects with adverse drug reactions. (5/334)

A positive lymphocyte transformation test to beta-lactams (beta-L) was found in 12 of 29 subjects with adverse drug reaction (ADR) to beta-L, irrespective of either the type of clinical manifestation or the presence of specific serum IgE. Short-term T cell lines specific for penicillin G, amoxicillin, and ampicillin could be generated only from subjects with ADR (eight with positive and one with negative lymphocyte transformation test), while streptokinase and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus group 1 (Der p 1)-specific T cells were obtained from all these subjects, from 7 atopic Der p-sensitive donors without history of ADR and 17 healthy nonatopic donors. Streptokinase-specific T cells from all subjects showed intracellular expression of IFN-gamma with poor or no IL-4, whereas Der p 1-specific T cells exhibited IFN-gamma but low or no IL-4 expression in nonatopics, and remarkable IL-4 expression in atopic donors. By contrast, all penicillin G-, ampicillin-, and amoxicillin-specific short-term T cell lines showed high intracellular expression of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, but poor or no expression of IFN-gamma, thus exhibiting a clear-cut Th2 profile. Accordingly, most penicillin G-specific T cell clones derived from two subjects with ADR released high concentrations of IL-4 alone or IL-4 and IFN-gamma. These data suggest that cytokines produced by Th2 cells play an important role in all beta-L-induced ADR, even when late clinical manifestations occur and an IgE-mediated mechanism is apparently indemonstrable.  (+info)

Human immune responses to the highly repetitive Plasmodium falciparum antigen Pf332. (6/334)

The B and T cell responses to EB200, a repetitive part of the Plasmodium falciparum antigen Pf332, were examined in malaria-exposed Senegalese adults. Most donors had high levels of antibodies to recombinant EB200 and 17 overlapping peptides spanning EB200. Taking proliferation and/or cytokine (interferon-gamma and interleukin-4) production as a measure of T cell activation, eight of the EB200-derived peptides induced responses in > 40% of the donors tested. There was no general association between the different types of T cell responses measured, emphasizing the importance of including multiple parameters when analyzing T cell responses and suggesting that EB200 induces functionally distinct T cell responses. The most efficient peptide for induction of proliferative responses was one previously shown to induce T cell responses in five different H-2 congenic mouse strains primed with EB200, suggesting that this is a universal T cell epitope. The presence of multiple B and T cell epitopes in EB200, widely recognized by humans, is important since EB200 has been shown to elicit protective antibody responses in monkeys and may be considered for inclusion in malaria subunit vaccines.  (+info)

Determination of different amino sugar 2'-epimerase activities by coupling to N-acetylneuraminate synthesis. (7/334)

A new procedure for quantitating the amount of N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc) or ManNAc-6-phosphate produced by 2'-epimerase activities involved in sialic acid metabolism has been developed. The ManNAc generated by the action of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) and UDP-GlcNAc 2'-epimerases is condensed with pyruvate through the action of N-acetylneuraminate lyase and the sialic acid released is measured by the thiobarbituric acid assay. For the analysis of prokaryotic GlcNAc-6-phosphate 2'-epimerase, ManNAc-6-phosphate can also be evaluated by this coupled assay after dephosphorylation of the sugar phosphate. This system provides a sensitive, rapid, reproducible, specific and simple procedure (feasible with commercial reagents) for measuring amino sugar 2'-epimerases from eukaryotic and prokaryotic sources. The technique reported here permitted us to detect UDP-GlcNAc 2'-epimerase and GlcNAc 2'-epimerase in mammalian cell extracts and GlcNAc-6-phosphate 2'-epimerase in bacterial extracts.  (+info)

T-cell mediated autoimmunity to the insulinoma-associated protein 2 islet tyrosine phosphatase in type 1 diabetes mellitus. (8/334)

The target molecules of the T-cell response in type 1 diabetes, despite their pathogenic importance, remain largely uncharacterized, especially in humans. Interestingly, molecules such as insulin and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) have been shown to be a target not only of autoantibodies, but also of autoreactive T-lymphocytes both in man and in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse. In the present study we aimed to determine the existence of a specific T-cell response towards the insulinoma-associated protein 2 (IA-2) islet tyrosine phosphatase, a recently identified autoantigen which is the target of autoantibodies strongly associated with diabetes development. Human recombinant IA-2 produced in Escherichia coli, was tested for its reactivity with peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from 16 newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients and from 25 normal controls, 15 of whom were HLA-DR-matched. A T-cell proliferation assay was performed in triplicate employing freshly isolated cells in the absence or in the presence of the antigen to be tested (at two different concentrations: 2 microg/ml and 10 microg/ml). A specific T-cell proliferation (defined as a stimulation index (S.I.) >/=3) was observed against IA-2 used at a concentration of 10 microg/ml (but not of 2 microg/ml) in 8/16 diabetic patients, in 1/15 HLA-DR-matched control subjects (P<0.01 by Fisher exact test) and in 0/10 of the remaining normal individuals. A statistically significant difference (P<0.003 by Mann-Whitney U test) was also observed in S.I. values between patients (3.1+/-1.4) and HLA-DR-matched controls (1.7+/-0.54) employing IA-2 at a concentration of 10 microg/ml. However, when IA-2 was used at a concentration of 2 microg/ml, the difference in S. I. between patients (1.65+/-0.8) and controls (1.0+/-0.3) did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, these data show the presence of a specific, dose-dependent T-lymphocyte response against the IA-2 islet tyrosine phosphatase at the onset of type 1 diabetes. Consequently, this molecule appears to be a target not only at the B-lymphocyte but also at the T-lymphocyte level, reinforcing the potential pathogenic role of this autoantigen in the islet destructive process.  (+info)

Scintillation counting is a method used in medical physics and nuclear medicine to detect and quantify radioactivity. It relies on the principle that certain materials, known as scintillators, emit light flashes (scintillations) when they absorb ionizing radiation. This light can then be detected and measured to determine the amount of radiation present.

In a scintillation counting system, the sample containing radioisotopes is placed in close proximity to the scintillator. When radiation is emitted from the sample, it interacts with the scintillator material, causing it to emit light. This light is then detected by a photomultiplier tube (PMT), which converts the light into an electrical signal that can be processed and counted by electronic circuits.

The number of counts recorded over a specific period of time is proportional to the amount of radiation emitted by the sample, allowing for the quantification of radioactivity. Scintillation counting is widely used in various applications such as measuring radioactive decay rates, monitoring environmental radiation levels, and analyzing radioisotopes in biological samples.

Radionuclide imaging, also known as nuclear medicine, is a medical imaging technique that uses small amounts of radioactive material, called radionuclides or radiopharmaceuticals, to diagnose and treat various diseases and conditions. The radionuclides are introduced into the body through injection, inhalation, or ingestion and accumulate in specific organs or tissues. A special camera then detects the gamma rays emitted by these radionuclides and converts them into images that provide information about the structure and function of the organ or tissue being studied.

Radionuclide imaging can be used to evaluate a wide range of medical conditions, including heart disease, cancer, neurological disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, and bone diseases. The technique is non-invasive and generally safe, with minimal exposure to radiation. However, it should only be performed by qualified healthcare professionals in accordance with established guidelines and regulations.

"Plastics" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in a broader context, plastics can refer to a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic materials that are used in various medical applications due to their durability, flexibility, and ability to be molded into different shapes. Some examples include:

1. Medical devices such as catheters, implants, and surgical instruments.
2. Packaging for medical supplies and pharmaceuticals.
3. Protective barriers like gloves and gowns used in medical settings.
4. Intraocular lenses and other ophthalmic applications.

It's important to note that the term "plastics" is not a medical term per se, but rather a general category of materials with diverse uses across different industries, including healthcare.

Technetium is not a medical term itself, but it is a chemical element with the symbol Tc and atomic number 43. However, in the field of nuclear medicine, which is a branch of medicine that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose or treat diseases, Technetium-99m (a radioisotope of technetium) is commonly used for various diagnostic procedures.

Technetium-99m is a metastable nuclear isomer of technetium-99, and it emits gamma rays that can be detected outside the body to create images of internal organs or tissues. It has a short half-life of about 6 hours, which makes it ideal for diagnostic imaging since it decays quickly and reduces the patient's exposure to radiation.

Technetium-99m is used in a variety of medical procedures, such as bone scans, lung scans, heart scans, liver-spleen scans, brain scans, and kidney scans, among others. It can be attached to different pharmaceuticals or molecules that target specific organs or tissues, allowing healthcare professionals to assess their function or identify any abnormalities.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Germanium" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol Ge and atomic number 32. Germanium is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its neighbor silicon.

It's primarily used in the electronics industry for semiconductors and fiber optic systems due to its properties as a semiconductor. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those!

Radioactive waste is defined in the medical context as any material that contains radioactive nuclides in sufficient concentrations or for such durations that it is considered a threat to human health and the environment. It includes materials ranging from used hospital supplies, equipment, and substances contaminated with radionuclides, to liquids and gases released during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel.

Radioactive waste can be classified into two main categories:

1. Exempt waste: Waste that does not require long-term management as a radioactive waste due to its low activity and short half-life.
2. Radioactive waste: Waste that requires long-term management as a radioactive waste due to its higher activity or longer half-life, which can pose a threat to human health and the environment for many years.

Radioactive waste management is a critical aspect of nuclear medicine and radiation safety, with regulations in place to ensure proper handling, storage, transportation, and disposal of such materials.

Radiometry is the measurement of electromagnetic radiation, including visible light. It quantifies the amount and characteristics of radiant energy in terms of power or intensity, wavelength, direction, and polarization. In medical physics, radiometry is often used to measure therapeutic and diagnostic radiation beams used in various imaging techniques and cancer treatments such as X-rays, gamma rays, and ultraviolet or infrared light. Radiometric measurements are essential for ensuring the safe and effective use of these medical technologies.

Elementary particles are the fundamental building blocks that make up all matter and energy in the universe. They are called "elementary" because they cannot be broken down into smaller, simpler components. According to our current understanding of particle physics, there are two main types of elementary particles: fermions and bosons.

Fermions include quarks and leptons, which make up matter. There are six types of each, known as flavors: up and down quarks, charm and strange quarks, top and bottom quarks, and electron, muon, and tau leptons (also called "electron-type," "muon-type," and "tau-type" leptons). Each fermion also has an associated antiparticle.

Bosons are the force carriers that mediate the fundamental forces of nature: gravity, electromagnetism, the strong nuclear force, and the weak nuclear force. These include the photon (which carries the electromagnetic force), the gluon (which carries the strong nuclear force), and the W and Z bosons (which carry the weak nuclear force). The Higgs boson is also a type of boson, associated with the Higgs field that gives other particles their mass.

It's important to note that our understanding of elementary particles and their properties is still evolving, as new experiments and theories continue to shape our knowledge of the universe's smallest constituents.

A gamma camera, also known as a scintillation camera, is a device used in nuclear medicine to image gamma-emitting radionuclides in the body. It detects gamma radiation emitted by radioisotopes that have been introduced into the body, usually through injection or ingestion. The camera consists of a large flat crystal (often sodium iodide) that scintillates when struck by gamma rays, producing light flashes that are detected by an array of photomultiplier tubes.

The resulting signals are then processed by a computer to generate images that reflect the distribution and concentration of the radionuclide in the body. Gamma cameras are used in a variety of medical imaging procedures, including bone scans, lung scans, heart scans (such as myocardial perfusion imaging), and brain scans. They can help diagnose conditions such as cancer, heart disease, and neurological disorders.

Radiologic technology is a medical term that refers to the use of imaging technologies to diagnose and treat diseases. It involves the application of various forms of radiation, such as X-rays, magnetic fields, sound waves, and radioactive substances, to create detailed images of the internal structures of the body.

Radiologic technologists are healthcare professionals who operate the imaging equipment and work closely with radiologists, who are medical doctors specializing in interpreting medical images. Radiologic technology includes various imaging modalities such as:

1. X-ray radiography: produces images of internal structures by passing X-rays through the body onto a detector.
2. Computed tomography (CT): uses X-rays to create detailed cross-sectional images of the body.
3. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce detailed images of internal structures without using radiation.
4. Ultrasound: uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of internal structures, such as fetuses during pregnancy or organs like the heart and liver.
5. Nuclear medicine: uses small amounts of radioactive substances to diagnose and treat diseases by creating detailed images of the body's internal structures and functions.

Radiologic technology plays a crucial role in modern medicine, enabling healthcare providers to make accurate diagnoses, plan treatments, and monitor patient progress.

Radioisotopes, also known as radioactive isotopes or radionuclides, are variants of chemical elements that have unstable nuclei and emit radiation in the form of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, or conversion electrons. These isotopes are formed when an element's nucleus undergoes natural or artificial radioactive decay.

Radioisotopes can be produced through various processes, including nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and particle bombardment in a cyclotron or other types of particle accelerators. They have a wide range of applications in medicine, industry, agriculture, research, and energy production. In the medical field, radioisotopes are used for diagnostic imaging, radiation therapy, and in the labeling of molecules for research purposes.

It is important to note that handling and using radioisotopes requires proper training, safety measures, and regulatory compliance due to their ionizing radiation properties, which can pose potential health risks if not handled correctly.

Medical Definition of Optical Fibers:

Optical fibers are thin, transparent strands of glass or plastic fiber that are designed to transmit light along their length. In the medical field, optical fibers are used in various applications such as illumination, imaging, and data transmission. For instance, they are used in flexible endoscopes to provide illumination and visualization inside the body during diagnostic or surgical procedures. They are also used in optical communication systems for transmitting information in the form of light signals within medical devices or between medical facilities. The use of optical fibers allows for minimally invasive procedures, improved image quality, and increased data transmission rates.

Carbon radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of carbon, which is an naturally occurring chemical element with the atomic number 6. The most common and stable isotope of carbon is carbon-12 (^12C), but there are also several radioactive isotopes, including carbon-11 (^11C), carbon-14 (^14C), and carbon-13 (^13C). These radioisotopes have different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei, which makes them unstable and causes them to emit radiation.

Carbon-11 has a half-life of about 20 minutes and is used in medical imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It is produced by bombarding nitrogen-14 with protons in a cyclotron.

Carbon-14, also known as radiocarbon, has a half-life of about 5730 years and is used in archaeology and geology to date organic materials. It is produced naturally in the atmosphere by cosmic rays.

Carbon-13 is stable and has a natural abundance of about 1.1% in carbon. It is not radioactive, but it can be used as a tracer in medical research and in the study of metabolic processes.

Xenon radioisotopes are unstable isotopes of the element xenon that emit radiation as they decay into more stable forms. These isotopes can be produced through various nuclear reactions and have a wide range of applications, including medical imaging and cancer treatment. Examples of commonly used xenon radioisotopes include xenon-127, xenon-131m, xenon-133, and xenon-135.

It's important to note that the use of radioisotopes in medical settings must be carefully regulated and monitored to ensure safety and minimize potential risks to patients and healthcare workers.

Thallium is a chemical element with the symbol Tl and atomic number 81. It is a soft, malleable, silver-like metal that is highly toxic. In the context of medicine, thallium may be used as a component in medical imaging tests, such as thallium stress tests, which are used to evaluate blood flow to the heart and detect coronary artery disease. Thallium-201 is a radioactive isotope of thallium that is used as a radiopharmaceutical in these tests. When administered to a patient, it is taken up by heart muscle tissue in proportion to its blood flow, allowing doctors to identify areas of the heart that may not be receiving enough oxygen-rich blood. However, due to concerns about its potential toxicity and the availability of safer alternatives, thallium stress tests are less commonly used today than they were in the past.

Tritium is not a medical term, but it is a term used in the field of nuclear physics and chemistry. Tritium (symbol: T or 3H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen with two neutrons and one proton in its nucleus. It is also known as heavy hydrogen or superheavy hydrogen.

Tritium has a half-life of about 12.3 years, which means that it decays by emitting a low-energy beta particle (an electron) to become helium-3. Due to its radioactive nature and relatively short half-life, tritium is used in various applications, including nuclear weapons, fusion reactors, luminous paints, and medical research.

In the context of medicine, tritium may be used as a radioactive tracer in some scientific studies or medical research, but it is not a term commonly used to describe a medical condition or treatment.

A photon is not a term that has a specific medical definition, as it is a fundamental concept in physics. Photons are elementary particles that carry electromagnetic energy, such as light. They have no mass or electric charge and exhibit both particle-like and wave-like properties. In the context of medicine, photons are often discussed in relation to various medical imaging techniques (e.g., X-ray imaging, CT scans, and PET scans) and therapeutic interventions like laser therapy and radiation therapy, where photons are used to diagnose or treat medical conditions.

Mercury radioisotopes refer to specific variants of the element mercury that have unstable nuclei and emit radiation as they decay towards a more stable state. These isotopes are often produced in nuclear reactors or particle accelerators for various medical, industrial, and research applications. In the medical field, mercury-203 (^203Hg) and mercury-207 (^207Hg) are used as gamma emitters in diagnostic procedures and therapeutic treatments. However, due to environmental and health concerns associated with mercury, its use in medical applications has significantly decreased over time.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "nuclear physics" is not a term that has a medical definition. Nuclear physics is a branch of physics that deals with the properties and behavior of atomic nuclei, including their composition, structure, and reactions. It is studied in order to better understand the nature of matter and energy, and it has important applications in fields such as nuclear power, nuclear medicine, and nuclear weapons. However, it is not a term that is used in the context of medical diagnosis or treatment. If you have any questions about a medical term or concept, I would be happy to try to help!

Whole-body counting is a non-invasive nuclear medicine technique used for the detection and measurement of radioactivity in the human body. It involves the use of sensitive radiation detectors that can measure the gamma rays emitted by radionuclides present within the body tissues.

The individual lies on a table or sits in a chair with their entire body inside a large detector, which is typically a scintillation camera or a NaI(Tl) crystal. The detector measures the number and energy of gamma rays emitted from the body, allowing for the identification and quantification of specific radionuclides present within the body.

Whole-body counting has several clinical applications, including monitoring patients who have received therapeutic radioisotopes, evaluating the effectiveness of radiation therapy, detecting and measuring internal contamination due to accidental exposure or intentional intake, and assessing the distribution and retention of radionuclides in research studies.

It is important to note that whole-body counting does not provide anatomical information like other imaging techniques (e.g., CT, MRI), but rather offers functional data on the presence and quantity of radioactivity within the body.

Autoradiography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize and localize the distribution of radioactively labeled compounds within tissues or organisms. In this process, the subject is first exposed to a radioactive tracer that binds to specific molecules or structures of interest. The tissue is then placed in close contact with a radiation-sensitive film or detector, such as X-ray film or an imaging plate.

As the radioactive atoms decay, they emit particles (such as beta particles) that interact with the film or detector, causing chemical changes and leaving behind a visible image of the distribution of the labeled compound. The resulting autoradiogram provides information about the location, quantity, and sometimes even the identity of the molecules or structures that have taken up the radioactive tracer.

Autoradiography has been widely used in various fields of biology and medical research, including pharmacology, neuroscience, genetics, and cell biology, to study processes such as protein-DNA interactions, gene expression, drug metabolism, and neuronal connectivity. However, due to the use of radioactive materials and potential hazards associated with them, this technique has been gradually replaced by non-radioactive alternatives like fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or immunofluorescence techniques.

Iodine radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of the element iodine, which decays and emits radiation in the form of gamma rays. Some commonly used iodine radioisotopes include I-123, I-125, I-131. These radioisotopes have various medical applications such as in diagnostic imaging, therapy for thyroid disorders, and cancer treatment.

For example, I-131 is commonly used to treat hyperthyroidism and differentiated thyroid cancer due to its ability to destroy thyroid tissue. On the other hand, I-123 is often used in nuclear medicine scans of the thyroid gland because it emits gamma rays that can be detected by a gamma camera, allowing for detailed images of the gland's structure and function.

It is important to note that handling and administering radioisotopes require specialized training and safety precautions due to their radiation-emitting properties.

Gamma spectrometry is a type of spectrometry used to identify and measure the energy and intensity of gamma rays emitted by radioactive materials. It utilizes a device called a gamma spectrometer, which typically consists of a scintillation detector or semiconductor detector, coupled with electronic circuitry that records and analyzes the energy of each detected gamma ray.

Gamma rays are a form of ionizing radiation, characterized by their high energy and short wavelength. When they interact with matter, such as the detector in a gamma spectrometer, they can cause the ejection of electrons from atoms or molecules, leading to the creation of charged particles that can be detected and measured.

In gamma spectrometry, the energy of each detected gamma ray is used to identify the radioactive isotope that emitted it, based on the characteristic energy levels associated with different isotopes. The intensity of the gamma rays can also be measured, providing information about the quantity or activity of the radioactive material present.

Gamma spectrometry has a wide range of applications in fields such as nuclear medicine, radiation protection, environmental monitoring, and nuclear non-proliferation.

Pentetic Acid, also known as DTPA (Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid), is not a medication itself but a chelating agent used in the preparation of pharmaceutical products. A chelating agent is a compound that can form multiple bonds with metal ions, allowing them to be excreted from the body.

Pentetic Acid is used in medical treatments to remove or decrease the levels of certain toxic metals, such as lead, plutonium, americium, and curium, from the body. It can be given intravenously or orally, depending on the specific situation and the formulation of the medication.

It is important to note that the use of Pentetic Acid should be under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can also bind to essential metals like zinc, calcium, and iron, which can lead to deficiencies if not properly managed.

Tantalum is not a medical term, but a chemical element with the symbol Ta and atomic number 73. It is a rare, hard, blue-gray, lustrous transition metal that is highly corrosion-resistant. In the field of medicine, tantalum is often used in the production of medical implants such as surgical pins, screws, plates, and stents due to its biocompatibility and resistance to corrosion. For example, tantalum mesh is used in hernia repair and tantalum rods are used in spinal fusion surgery.

A computer is a programmable electronic device that can store, retrieve, and process data. It is composed of several components including:

1. Hardware: The physical components of a computer such as the central processing unit (CPU), memory (RAM), storage devices (hard drive or solid-state drive), and input/output devices (monitor, keyboard, and mouse).
2. Software: The programs and instructions that are used to perform specific tasks on a computer. This includes operating systems, applications, and utilities.
3. Input: Devices or methods used to enter data into a computer, such as a keyboard, mouse, scanner, or digital camera.
4. Processing: The function of the CPU in executing instructions and performing calculations on data.
5. Output: The results of processing, which can be displayed on a monitor, printed on paper, or saved to a storage device.

Computers come in various forms and sizes, including desktop computers, laptops, tablets, and smartphones. They are used in a wide range of applications, from personal use for communication, entertainment, and productivity, to professional use in fields such as medicine, engineering, finance, and education.

Radiation monitoring is the systematic and continuous measurement, assessment, and tracking of ionizing radiation levels in the environment or within the body to ensure safety and to take appropriate actions when limits are exceeded. It involves the use of specialized instruments and techniques to detect and quantify different types of radiation, such as alpha, beta, gamma, neutron, and x-rays. The data collected from radiation monitoring is used to evaluate radiation exposure, contamination levels, and potential health risks for individuals or communities. This process is crucial in various fields, including nuclear energy production, medical imaging and treatment, radiation therapy, and environmental protection.

In the context of medical research, "methods" refers to the specific procedures or techniques used in conducting a study or experiment. This includes details on how data was collected, what measurements were taken, and what statistical analyses were performed. The methods section of a medical paper allows other researchers to replicate the study if they choose to do so. It is considered one of the key components of a well-written research article, as it provides transparency and helps establish the validity of the findings.

The Radioisotope Dilution Technique is a method used in nuclear medicine to measure the volume and flow rate of a particular fluid in the body. It involves introducing a known amount of a radioactive isotope, or radioisotope, into the fluid, such as blood. The isotope mixes with the fluid, and samples are then taken from the fluid at various time points.

By measuring the concentration of the radioisotope in each sample, it is possible to calculate the total volume of the fluid based on the amount of the isotope introduced and the dilution factor. The flow rate can also be calculated by measuring the concentration of the isotope over time and using the formula:

Flow rate = Volume/Time

This technique is commonly used in medical research and clinical settings to measure cardiac output, cerebral blood flow, and renal function, among other applications. It is a safe and reliable method that has been widely used for many years. However, it does require the use of radioactive materials and specialized equipment, so it should only be performed by trained medical professionals in appropriate facilities.

Cobalt radioisotopes are radioactive forms of the element cobalt, which are used in various medical applications. The most commonly used cobalt radioisotope is Cobalt-60 (Co-60), which has a half-life of 5.27 years.

Co-60 emits gamma rays and beta particles, making it useful for radiation therapy to treat cancer, as well as for sterilizing medical equipment and food irradiation. In radiation therapy, Co-60 is used in teletherapy machines to deliver a focused beam of radiation to tumors, helping to destroy cancer cells while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissue.

It's important to note that handling and disposal of cobalt radioisotopes require strict safety measures due to their radioactive nature, as they can pose risks to human health and the environment if not managed properly.

Iridium radioisotopes are unstable isotopes or variants of the element iridium that emit radiation as they decay into more stable forms. These isotopes can be used in various medical applications, such as brachytherapy, a type of cancer treatment where a small amount of radioactive material is placed inside the body near the tumor site to deliver targeted radiation therapy.

Iridium-192 is one commonly used iridium radioisotope for this purpose. It has a half-life of 74.2 days and emits gamma rays, making it useful for treating various types of cancer, including breast, gynecological, prostate, and head and neck cancers.

It's important to note that handling and using radioisotopes requires specialized training and equipment due to the potential radiation hazards associated with them.

Radiation dosage, in the context of medical physics, refers to the amount of radiation energy that is absorbed by a material or tissue, usually measured in units of Gray (Gy), where 1 Gy equals an absorption of 1 Joule of radiation energy per kilogram of matter. In the clinical setting, radiation dosage is used to plan and assess the amount of radiation delivered to a patient during treatments such as radiotherapy. It's important to note that the biological impact of radiation also depends on other factors, including the type and energy level of the radiation, as well as the sensitivity of the irradiated tissues or organs.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Particle Accelerators" are not a medical term. Particle accelerators are large pieces of scientific equipment that use electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to high speeds and contain them in well-defined beams. They are used for a variety of purposes, including research in particle physics, nuclear physics, and synchrotron light sources in a wide range of disciplines, such as condensed matter physics, chemistry, biology, and materials science. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

In the field of medical imaging, "phantoms" refer to physical objects that are specially designed and used for calibration, quality control, and evaluation of imaging systems. These phantoms contain materials with known properties, such as attenuation coefficients or spatial resolution, which allow for standardized measurement and comparison of imaging parameters across different machines and settings.

Imaging phantoms can take various forms depending on the modality of imaging. For example, in computed tomography (CT), a common type of phantom is the "water-equivalent phantom," which contains materials with similar X-ray attenuation properties as water. This allows for consistent measurement of CT dose and image quality. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), phantoms may contain materials with specific relaxation times or magnetic susceptibilities, enabling assessment of signal-to-noise ratio, spatial resolution, and other imaging parameters.

By using these standardized objects, healthcare professionals can ensure the accuracy, consistency, and reliability of medical images, ultimately contributing to improved patient care and safety.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the "Monte Carlo method" is actually a term from the field of mathematics and computer science, not medicine. It refers to a statistical technique that allows for the modeling of complex systems by running multiple simulations with random inputs. This method is widely used in various fields such as physics, engineering, and finance, but it is not a medical concept or term.

Iodohippuric acid is not typically defined in medical textbooks, but it is a radiocontrast agent used in imaging studies. Here's the definition from a chemistry perspective:

Iodohippuric acid, also known as iodine-131 hippuran or Hippuran, is an organic compound with the formula C6H5IO2 + . It is a derivative of hippuric acid, where one hydrogen atom has been replaced by radioactive iodine-131.

In medical imaging, it is used as a radiocontrast agent for renal function studies, such as renography, to assess the functioning and anatomy of the kidneys. The compound is excreted primarily by the kidneys, so its clearance rate can be used to estimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is a measure of kidney function.

Therefore, while not a medical definition per se, iodohippuric acid is an essential compound in nuclear medicine for evaluating renal function.

Radioisotope renography is a type of nuclear medicine test used to evaluate the function and anatomy of the kidneys. It involves the intravenous administration of a small amount of radioactive material, called a radiopharmaceutical or radioisotope, which is taken up by the kidneys and emits gamma rays that can be detected by a special camera.

The most commonly used radiopharmaceutical for renography is technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (Tc-99m MAG3). The patient is positioned under the gamma camera, and images are taken at various intervals after the injection of the radioisotope.

The test provides information about the blood flow to the kidneys, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which measures how well the kidneys filter waste products from the blood, and the drainage of urine from the kidneys into the bladder. Renography can help diagnose conditions such as renal artery stenosis, hydronephrosis, and kidney obstruction.

It is important to note that while radioisotope renography involves exposure to a small amount of radiation, the benefits of the test in terms of diagnostic accuracy and patient management often outweigh the risks associated with the radiation exposure.

Lutetium is a chemical element with the symbol Lu and atomic number 71. It is a rare earth metal that belongs to the lanthanide series. In its pure form, lutetium is a silvery-white metal that is solid at room temperature.

Medically, lutetium is used in the form of radioactive isotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. For example, lutetium-177 (^177Lu) is a radiopharmaceutical agent that can be used to treat certain types of cancer, such as neuroendocrine tumors. The radioactivity of ^177Lu can be harnessed to destroy cancer cells while minimizing damage to healthy tissue.

It's important to note that the use of lutetium in medical treatments should only be performed under the supervision of trained medical professionals, and with appropriate safety measures in place to protect patients and healthcare workers from radiation exposure.

Radio-iodinated serum albumin refers to human serum albumin that has been chemically bonded with radioactive iodine isotopes, typically I-125 or I-131. This results in a radiolabeled protein that can be used in medical imaging and research to track the distribution and movement of the protein in the body.

In human physiology, serum albumin is the most abundant protein in plasma, synthesized by the liver, and it plays a crucial role in maintaining oncotic pressure and transporting various molecules in the bloodstream. Radio-iodination of serum albumin allows for non-invasive monitoring of its behavior in vivo, which can be useful in evaluating conditions such as protein losing enteropathies, nephrotic syndrome, or liver dysfunction.

It is essential to handle and dispose of radio-iodinated serum albumin with proper radiation safety protocols due to its radioactive nature.

Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate is a radioactive pharmaceutical preparation used as a radiopharmaceutical agent in medical imaging. It is a salt of technetium-99m, a metastable nuclear isomer of technetium-99, which emits gamma rays and has a half-life of 6 hours.

Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate is used in various diagnostic procedures, including renal imaging, brain scans, lung perfusion studies, and bone scans. It is distributed throughout the body after intravenous injection and is excreted primarily by the kidneys, making it useful for evaluating renal function and detecting abnormalities in the urinary tract.

The compound itself is a colorless, sterile, pyrogen-free solution that is typically supplied in a lead shielded container to protect against radiation exposure. It should be used promptly after preparation and handled with care to minimize radiation exposure to healthcare workers and patients.

Tissue distribution, in the context of pharmacology and toxicology, refers to the way that a drug or xenobiotic (a chemical substance found within an organism that is not naturally produced by or expected to be present within that organism) is distributed throughout the body's tissues after administration. It describes how much of the drug or xenobiotic can be found in various tissues and organs, and is influenced by factors such as blood flow, lipid solubility, protein binding, and the permeability of cell membranes. Understanding tissue distribution is important for predicting the potential effects of a drug or toxin on different parts of the body, and for designing drugs with improved safety and efficacy profiles.

High-energy radiotherapy, also known as external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), is a type of cancer treatment that uses high-energy radiation beams to destroy cancer cells and shrink tumors. The radiation beams are produced by a machine called a linear accelerator (LINAC) and are directed at the tumor site from outside the body. High-energy radiotherapy can be used to treat many different types of cancer, either alone or in combination with other treatments such as surgery or chemotherapy.

The high-energy radiation beams used in this type of radiotherapy are able to penetrate deep into the body and target large areas, making it an effective treatment for cancers that have spread or are too large to be removed surgically. The dose and duration of treatment will depend on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as the patient's overall health.

High-energy radiotherapy works by damaging the DNA of cancer cells, which prevents them from dividing and growing. This ultimately leads to the death of the cancer cells. While radiation therapy can also damage normal cells, they are generally better able to repair themselves compared to cancer cells. Therefore, the goal of high-energy radiotherapy is to deliver a high enough dose to destroy the cancer cells while minimizing harm to surrounding healthy tissue.

It's important to note that high-energy radiotherapy requires careful planning and delivery to ensure that the radiation beams are focused on the tumor site and avoid healthy tissues as much as possible. This is typically done using imaging techniques such as CT, MRI, or PET scans to create a treatment plan that maps out the exact location and shape of the tumor. The patient will then undergo a series of treatments, usually scheduled daily over several weeks.

Isotope labeling is a scientific technique used in the field of medicine, particularly in molecular biology, chemistry, and pharmacology. It involves replacing one or more atoms in a molecule with a radioactive or stable isotope of the same element. This modified molecule can then be traced and analyzed to study its structure, function, metabolism, or interaction with other molecules within biological systems.

Radioisotope labeling uses unstable radioactive isotopes that emit radiation, allowing for detection and quantification of the labeled molecule using various imaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). This approach is particularly useful in tracking the distribution and metabolism of drugs, hormones, or other biomolecules in living organisms.

Stable isotope labeling, on the other hand, employs non-radioactive isotopes that do not emit radiation. These isotopes have different atomic masses compared to their natural counterparts and can be detected using mass spectrometry. Stable isotope labeling is often used in metabolic studies, protein turnover analysis, or for identifying the origin of specific molecules within complex biological samples.

In summary, isotope labeling is a versatile tool in medical research that enables researchers to investigate various aspects of molecular behavior and interactions within biological systems.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Electronics" is not a medical term, but rather a branch of physics and engineering that deals with the design, construction, and operation of electronic devices and systems. It involves the study and application of electrical properties of materials, components, and systems, and how they can be used to process, transmit, and store information and energy.

However, electronics have numerous applications in the medical field, such as in diagnostic equipment, monitoring devices, surgical tools, and prosthetics. In these contexts, "electronics" refers to the specific electronic components or systems that are used for medical purposes.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

Tomography is a medical imaging technique used to produce cross-sectional images or slices of specific areas of the body. This technique uses various forms of radiation (X-rays, gamma rays) or sound waves (ultrasound) to create detailed images of the internal structures, such as organs, bones, and tissues. Common types of tomography include Computerized Tomography (CT), Positron Emission Tomography (PET), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The primary advantage of tomography is its ability to provide clear and detailed images of internal structures, allowing healthcare professionals to accurately diagnose and monitor a wide range of medical conditions.

I must clarify that "Iron Isotopes" is not a medical term, but rather a scientific concept from the field of physics and chemistry. However, I can certainly provide a general explanation of isotopes and then focus on iron isotopes specifically.

An isotope is a variant of a chemical element that has the same number of protons (and thus the same atomic number) but a different number of neutrons within its nucleus. This results in variations of the atomic mass of isotopes of the same element. Some isotopes are stable, while others are unstable and will decay over time into other elements or isotopes, a process called radioactive decay.

Iron (Fe) has four naturally occurring stable isotopes: Fe-54, Fe-56, Fe-57, and Fe-58. These iron isotopes have different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei, resulting in slightly different atomic masses. The most abundant iron isotope is Fe-56, which contains 26 protons and 30 neutrons in its nucleus.

In the context of human health, iron is an essential nutrient that plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as oxygen transport and energy production. However, the concept of iron isotopes does not have a direct medical relevance, but it can be useful in scientific research related to fields like geochemistry, environmental science, or nuclear physics.

Benzene derivatives are chemical compounds that are derived from benzene, which is a simple aromatic hydrocarbon with the molecular formula C6H6. Benzene has a planar, hexagonal ring structure, and its derivatives are formed by replacing one or more of the hydrogen atoms in the benzene molecule with other functional groups.

Benzene derivatives have a wide range of applications in various industries, including pharmaceuticals, dyes, plastics, and explosives. Some common examples of benzene derivatives include toluene, xylene, phenol, aniline, and nitrobenzene. These compounds can have different physical and chemical properties depending on the nature and position of the substituents attached to the benzene ring.

It is important to note that some benzene derivatives are known to be toxic or carcinogenic, and their production, use, and disposal must be carefully regulated to ensure safety and protect public health.

"Evaluation studies" is a broad term that refers to the systematic assessment or examination of a program, project, policy, intervention, or product. The goal of an evaluation study is to determine its merits, worth, and value by measuring its effects, efficiency, and impact. There are different types of evaluation studies, including formative evaluations (conducted during the development or implementation of a program to provide feedback for improvement), summative evaluations (conducted at the end of a program to determine its overall effectiveness), process evaluations (focusing on how a program is implemented and delivered), outcome evaluations (assessing the short-term and intermediate effects of a program), and impact evaluations (measuring the long-term and broad consequences of a program).

In medical contexts, evaluation studies are often used to assess the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of new treatments, interventions, or technologies. These studies can help healthcare providers make informed decisions about patient care, guide policymakers in developing evidence-based policies, and promote accountability and transparency in healthcare systems. Examples of evaluation studies in medicine include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compare the outcomes of a new treatment to those of a standard or placebo treatment, observational studies that examine the real-world effectiveness and safety of interventions, and economic evaluations that assess the costs and benefits of different healthcare options.

Indium is not a medical term, but it is a chemical element with the symbol In and atomic number 49. It is a soft, silvery-white, post-transition metal that is rarely found in its pure form in nature. It is primarily used in the production of electronics, such as flat panel displays, and in nuclear medicine as a radiation source for medical imaging.

In nuclear medicine, indium-111 is used in the labeling of white blood cells to diagnose and locate abscesses, inflammation, and infection. The indium-111 labeled white blood cells are injected into the patient's body, and then a gamma camera is used to track their movement and identify areas of infection or inflammation.

Therefore, while indium itself is not a medical term, it does have important medical applications in diagnostic imaging.

... is the measurement of radioactive activity of a sample material which uses the technique of ... High-energy beta emitters, such as phosphorus-32 and yttrium-90 can also be counted in a scintillation counter without the ... Liquid Scintillation Counting, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Radiation Safety Program Principles and Applications of Liquid ... Accelerator mass spectrometry Counting efficiency Möbius, Siegurd; Möbius, Tiana Lalao (2012). Handbook of liquid scintillation ...
The resultant scintillation energies can be discriminated so that alpha and beta counts can be measured separately with the ... Liquid scintillation counters are an efficient and practical means of quantifying beta radiation. Scintillation counters are ... photopeaks added Gamma spectroscopy Geiger counter Liquid scintillation counting Lucas cell Pandemonium effect Photon counting ... see liquid scintillation counting) that fluoresces when struck by ionizing radiation. Cesium iodide (CsI) in crystalline form ...
Birks, John B. (1964). The theory and practice of scintillation counting. Pergamon Press, Ltd. Knoll, Glenn F. (2000). ... See scintillator and scintillation counter for practical applications. Scintillation is an example of luminescence, whereby ... The scintillation process can be summarized in three main stages: (A) conversion, (B) transport and energy transfer to the ... This is probably one of the most critical phases of scintillation, since it's generally in this stage where most loss of ...
"Twin" scintillation fast neutron detector. Rev. Sci. Instr. 27(10) (June 25): 858-859 Miller, C.E., and L.D. Marinelli. 1956. ... where N is the number of counts of background in the region of interest; E is the counting efficiency; and T is the counting ... Depending on the counting geometry of the system, count times can be from 1 minute to about 30 minutes. The sensitivity of a ... A well designed counting system can detect levels of most gamma emitters (>200 keV) at levels far below that which would cause ...
Horrocks, Donald L. (1974). Applications of liquid scintillation counting. New York: Academic Press. ISBN 0123562406. (Articles ... One possible use is in scintillation counters where it is dissolved in toluene and glows when subject to beta rays. ...
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Birks, J.B. (1964). The Theory and Practice of Scintillation Counting. London: Pergamon. "A Tribute to Professor John B Birks ... A more complete theory of scintillation saturation, that gives Birks' law when only unimolecular de-excitation is included, can ... Birks, J.B. (1951). "Scintillations from Organic Crystals: Specific Fluorescence and Relative Response to Different Radiations ... S is the scintillation efficiency, dE/dx is the specific energy loss of the particle per path length, k is the probability of ...
Geiger counter Counting efficiency Lucas, Henry (1957). "Improved Low‐Level Alpha‐Scintillation Counter for Radon". Review of ... A photomultiplier tube at the top of the chamber counts the photons and sends the count to a data logger. A Lucas cell can be ... A Lucas cell is a type of scintillation counter. It is used to acquire a gas sample, filter out the radioactive particulates ... through a special filter and then count the radioactive decay. The inside of the gas chamber is coated with ZnS(Ag) - a ...
"Scintillation Cocktails & Consumables - For every liquid scintillation counting application" (PDF). PerkinElmer. Archived from ... In liquid scintillation counting, a small aliquot, filter or swab is added to scintillation fluid and the plate or vial is ... A gamma counter is similar in format to scintillation counting but it detects gamma emissions directly and does not require a ... 2014). "Study on quench effects in liquid scintillation counting during tritium measurements". Journal of Radioanalytical and ...
... varies for different isotopes, sample compositions and scintillation counters. Poor counting efficiency can ... Large area scintillation counters used for surface radioactive contamination measurements use plate or planar radioactive ... In the measurement of ionising radiation the counting efficiency is the ratio between the number of particles or photons ... Several factors affect the counting efficiency: The distance from the source of radiation The absorption or scattering of ...
6, 1729-1737 (1967). D. FRIED, "Scintillation of a Ground-to-Space Laser Illuminator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 980-983 (1967). D. ... 57, 181-185 (1967). D. Fried and J. Seidman, "Heterodyne and Photon-Counting Receivers for Optical Communications," Appl. Opt. ... 58, 961-969 (1968). D. Fried and R. Schmeltzer, "The Effect of Atmospheric Scintillation on an Optical Data Channel?Laser Radar ... 57, 175-180 (1967). D. FRIED, "Aperture Averaging of Scintillation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 169-172 (1967). D. FRIED and J. CLOUD ...
The amount of remaining labeled polyphosphate is then measured by liquid scintillation counting. PPX was discovered by the lab ...
Low levels may be reported in counts per minute using a scintillation counter. In the case of low-level contamination by ... Scintillation detectors are generally preferred for hand-held monitoring instruments and are designed with a large detection ... Detection and measurement of surface contamination of personnel and plant are normally by Geiger counter, scintillation counter ... Proportional counters and dual phosphor scintillation counters can discriminate between alpha and beta contamination, but the ...
"A new value for the half-life of 10Be by Heavy-Ion Elastic Recoil Detection and liquid scintillation counting". Nuclear ... "Determination of the 10Be half-life by multicollector ICP-MS and liquid scintillation counting". Nuclear Instruments and ...
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The isotope emits very soft beta radiation, and can be detected by scintillation counting. 11C, carbon-11 is usually produced ... in being easily measured by scintillation counting or other radiochemical methods, and in being localizable to particular ...
"Coincidence Experiments for Noise Reduction in Scintillation Counting by Hartmut Kallman and Carl A. Accardo". Archived from ... credited Kallmann and Broser with pioneering modern day scintillation counting by combining a scintillating material with a ... He is known for his work on the scintillation counter for the detection of gamma rays. Kallmann was born in Berlin in a Jewish ... Patent for Scintillator Solution Enhancers The Basic Process Occurring in Liquid Scintillation, as presented by Kallmann and ...
Regener, Erich (1909). "On Counting the Alpha Particles by Scintillation and on the Size of the Electrical Elementary Quantum ... He is also known for predicting a 2.8 K cosmic background radiation, for the invention of the scintillation counter which ...
This complicates its detection and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) is required for measuring it in environmental samples. ...
Because the emitted electrons have relatively low energy, the detection efficiency by scintillation counting is rather low. ... in low concentration and its presence detected by sensitive radiation detectors such as Geiger counters and scintillation ...
... and observed an increase in the number of scintillations on the screen. Counting the scintillations, they observed that metals ... They counted the number of scintillations per minute that each foil produced on the screen. They divided the number of ... A microscope (M) was used to count the scintillations on the screen and measure their spread. Geiger pumped all the air out of ... Geiger worked in a darkened lab for hours on end, counting these tiny scintillations using a microscope. Rutherford lacked the ...
In conjunction with Hans Geiger, he developed zinc sulfide scintillation screens and ionisation chambers to count alpha ... By dividing the total charge they produced by the number counted, Rutherford decided that the charge on the alpha particle was ...
... techniques to study the synthesis of metal-binding proteins using radioisotopes and differential liquid scintillation counting ...
Chen established China's first radiocarbon dating laboratory using liquid scintillation counting at Peking University. He was ...
Liquid scintillation counting is the preferred method although more recently, accelerator mass spectrometry has become the ... The G-M counting efficiency is estimated to be 3%. The half-distance layer in water is 0.05 mm. Radiocarbon dating is a ... In the Borexino Counting Test Facility, a 14 C/12 C ratio of 1.94×10−18 was determined; probable reactions responsible for ... which can be detected by low-level counting of the patient's breath. Carbon-to-nitrogen ratio Diamond battery Isotopes of ...
An alternative method is to use liquid scintillation counting (LSC), where the sample is directly mixed with a scintillation ... The alpha spectra obtained by liquid scintillation counting are broaden because of the two main intrinsic limitations of the ... When the individual light emission events are counted, the LSC instrument records the amount of light energy per radioactive ... The liquid scintillation spectra are subject to Gaussian broadening, rather than to the distortion caused by the absorption of ...
2004). "Rehabilitation of the Laboratoire De Carbone 14-Dakar (Senegal) with a Super Low-Level Liquid Scintillation Counting ...
Liquid scintillation, counting and compositions, U.S. Patent Number: 3,928,227 6. Sutula, C. L., Wilson, J. E., Cleaning porous ...
Liquid scintillation counting is the measurement of radioactive activity of a sample material which uses the technique of ... High-energy beta emitters, such as phosphorus-32 and yttrium-90 can also be counted in a scintillation counter without the ... Liquid Scintillation Counting, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Radiation Safety Program Principles and Applications of Liquid ... Accelerator mass spectrometry Counting efficiency Möbius, Siegurd; Möbius, Tiana Lalao (2012). Handbook of liquid scintillation ...
MIL-Water Safety Test Liquid Scintillation Counting System. Quantitatively measures Carbon-14 & other radioactive materials. ... Scintillation Counting System.. Digital. Bench Top. Quantitatively measures Carbon-14 and most other radioactive materials. ... The SSS-22LRX Manual Liquid Scintillation Counting System accurately quantitatively measures Carbon•14 Tritium and most other ... Counting Assembly. - Pulse rejection: excellent repeatability with energies outside adjustable energy analyzer window setting ...
... in a item; memory plan can ... Download Techniques Of Sample Preraration For Liquid Scintillation Counting Isoelectric Focusing. 4 Carole Zucker, The Cinema ...
This document specifies a method by liquid scintillation counting for the determination of tritium activity concentration in ...
The detection limit depends on the sample volume, the instrument used, the sample counting time, the background count rate, the ... a method for the measurement of 14C activity concentration in all types of water samples by liquid scintillation counting (LSC ... The method described in this document, using currently available liquid scintillation counters and suitable technical ...
Liquid scintillation counting method. Status : Withdrawn This standard has been revised by ISO 13162:2021 ... of 14C activity concentration in samples of environmental water or of 14C-containing water using liquid scintillation counting. ... The method is applicable to the analysis of any organic molecule soluble in water that is well mixed with the scintillation ... Some beta energy is lost without any excitation of the scintillation cocktail and the results are underestimated. The method is ...
Absolute liquid scintillation counting of35S and45Ca using a modified integral counting method」の研究トピックを掘り下げます。これらがまとまってユニークな ... Absolute liquid scintillation counting of35S and45Ca using a modified integral counting method. / Homma, Y.; Murase, Y.; Handa ... Homma Y, Murase Y, Handa K. Absolute liquid scintillation counting of35S and45Ca using a modified integral counting method. ... Homma, Y, Murase, Y & Handa, K 1994, Absolute liquid scintillation counting of35S and45Ca using
This document specifies a method for the measurement of 99Tc in all types of waters by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). ... Part 1: Test method using liquid scintillation counting. недоступно на русском языке. Текущий статус : Опубликовано ... These values can be achieved with a counting time of 30 min for a sample volume varying between 14 ml to 40 ml. The method ...
The air luminescence count for the rapid determination of 222Rn in a liquid scintillation spectrometer. In: Chemistry Letters. ... The air luminescence count for the rapid determination of 222Rn in a liquid scintillation spectrometer. / Morita-Murase, Yuko; ... A liquid scintillation spectrometer has been applied to the determination of the counting efficiency for the air luminescence ... Morita-Murase Y, Murakami I, Homma Y. The air luminescence count for the rapid determination of 222Rn in a liquid scintillation ...
Test method using liquid scintillation counting. Status : Published (To be revised) This standard will be replaced by ISO/WD ... The choice of the test method using liquid scintillation counting involves the consideration of the potential presence of other ... ISO 19361:2017 applies to liquid scintillation counters and requires the preparation of a scintillation source obtained by ... 2017describes the conditions for measuring the activity of beta emitter radionuclides by liquid scintillation counting[14][15]. ...
COUNTING TECHNIQUES; SCINTILLATION COUNTING; TRITIUM; ACTIVATION ANALYSIS; EQUIPMENT; DATA; ENHANCED RECOVERY ...
Test methods using liquid scintillation counting or proportional counting ... Test methods using liquid scintillation counting or proportional counting. Status : Withdrawn This standard has been revised by ... or liquid scintillation counter (LSC). The selection of the test method depends on the origin of the contamination, the ...
Liquid scintillation counting method (English Version): DB37/T 3457-2018, DB37 3457-2018, DB37T 3457-2018, DB37/T3457-2018, ... DB37/T 3457-2018 Ambient air―Determination of tritiated water vapor―Liquid scintillation counting method (English Version). ... DB37/T 3457-2018 Ambient air―Determination of tritiated water vapor―Liquid scintillation counting method (English Version). ... Word Count:. 8500 words Price(USD):. 255.0 remind me the price change Email: OK. ...
A validation study comparing accelerator MS and liquid scintillation counting for analysis of [sup]14C-labelled drugs in plasma ... A comparison has been made between accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) analysis and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) of ... A validation study comparing accelerator MS and liquid scintillation counting for analysis of [sup]14C-labelled drugs in plasma ...
Determination of Levels of Radioactivity of Uranium and Radium in Environmental Samples by Liquid Scintillation Counting and ...
The Application of Avalanche Photodiodes for the Measurement of Actinides by Alpha Liquid Scintillation Counting By ...
Lindfors B. Calculation of the relative counting rate of a well-type sodium iodide scintillation crystal in isotopic neutron ... Lindfors, B. (1973). Calculation of the relative counting rate of a well-type sodium iodide scintillation crystal in isotopic ... Lindfors, B. / Calculation of the relative counting rate of a well-type sodium iodide scintillation crystal in isotopic neutron ... Lindfors, B 1973, Calculation of the relative counting rate of a well-type sodium iodide scintillation crystal in isotopic ...
Liquid Scintillation Counting. 11:00 AM. Demo/Lab: Sealed Source Leak Testing, Shipping and Receiving RAM Packages. ...
Liquid Scintillation Counting Course:. The Nuclear Engineering Department of North Carolina State University and the Division ... of Continuing Education announce a three-day course entitled The Practice of Liquid Scintillation Counting. . The course will ... Through lectures and laboratories, participants will learn to understand and to properly use liquid scintillation counters. For ...
Low-Level Counting by Liquid Scintillation -- II. Applications of Emulsions in Tritium Counting.. 1969. ...
... liquid scintillation vial with attached foamed PE lined PP cap lips on vial transparent high-density polyethylene bottle, ... Background counts are consistent and low; ultraviolet transmission is high. *Available with cap attached, caps packed ... Glass Liquid Scintillation Vials with separately packs caps. *20 mL size. *Made from Wheaton 180 low potassium borosilicate ...
Cells were harvested and counted with a scintillation counter as T cells. The purity of fractionated cells was monitored by an ... The incorporated radioactivity was counted with a β-scintillation counter. The proliferative response was expressed as the mean ... The percentage of dead or dying cells of B cells from PPARγ+/+ (c) or PPARγ+/- (d) in the culture were counted by PI staining. ... The counting of dead cells revealed that B cells from PPARγ+/- mice are less susceptible to cell death, since the proportion of ...
Liquid scintillation counting of the methanol flow-through counts radioactivity from reacted product exclusively. Enzyme ... and Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), WST-8 was from Dojindo Molecular Technologies, MD, USA. shRNA targeting mouse ST6GAL1 ( ... Levels of specific serum N-glycans identify breast cancer patients with higher circulating tumor cell counts. Ann Oncol. 2011; ...
... liquid scintillation vial with seperate unlined PE cap transparent high-density polyethylene bottle, capacity (20 mL), screw ... Lightweight, and virtually unbreakable PET vials offer low permeability to solvents and minimal background counts. ... Liquid Scintillation Vials with separately packs caps. *For optimal performance in the laboratory, PET plastic vials provide ...
Cells were harvested and counted on a scintillation counter.. Jurkat cells (a human T-cell line) and LG-2 cells (a human B- ... Cells were harvested and counted on a scintillation counter. As a control, a dilution series of IL-2 was incubated with SeI ... The score is derived from an automated algorithm, and represents a weighted count of the amount of attention Altmetric picked ...
Total radioactivity was determined from a 1-ml aliquot by liquid scintillation counting, while another 1-ml aliquot was passed ... The radioactivity of the supernatant was then measured by liquid scintillation counting. The specific activity of glucose in ... The sample was neutralized with an equal volume of 4 N NaOH and radioactivity was determined by liquid scintillation counting. ... was eluted with 3 ml of distilled water and the radioactivity of the eluate was measured by liquid scintillation counting. The ...
  • ISO 19361:2017describes the conditions for measuring the activity of beta emitter radionuclides by liquid scintillation counting[14][15]. (iso.org)
  • Rapid detection and quantification of gross alpha/beta-emitting radionuclides by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) is vital in guiding response to a nuclear or radiological incidents. (cdc.gov)
  • The method described in this document, using currently available liquid scintillation counters and suitable technical conditions, has a detection limit as low as 1 Bq∙l −1 , which is lower than the WHO criteria for safe consumption of drinking water (100 Bq·l -1 ). (iso.org)
  • ISO 19361:2017 applies to liquid scintillation counters and requires the preparation of a scintillation source obtained by mixing the test sample and a scintillation cocktail. (iso.org)
  • Liquid scintillation counters use signal pulse shape to discriminate alpha and beta events in samples but require precise optimization to minimize the spillover, or misclassification, of those events. (cdc.gov)
  • Crystalline cesium iodide and cesium fluoride are used in scintillation counters, which convert energy from ionizing radiation into pulses of visible light for radiation detection and spectroscopy. (cdc.gov)
  • Metabolite patterns were determined by radio-high-performance liquid chromatography with off-line microplate solid scintillation counting and characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Counting efficiencies under ideal conditions range from about 30% for tritium (a low-energy beta emitter) to nearly 100% for phosphorus-32, a high-energy beta emitter. (wikipedia.org)
  • This document specifies a method by liquid scintillation counting for the determination of tritium activity concentration in samples of marine waters, surface waters, ground waters, rain waters, drinking waters or of tritiated water ([ 3 H]H 2 O) in effluents. (iso.org)
  • Applications of Emulsions in Tritium Counting. (epa.gov)
  • A comparison has been made between accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) analysis and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) of plasma, urine and faecal samples containing 14C-labelled drugs. (kingston.ac.uk)
  • We use decay measurements (liquid scintillation counting) as well as mass spectrometric methods (accelerator mass spectrometry, AMS). (lu.se)
  • The Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) technique actually counts single atoms! (lu.se)
  • The radioactive samples and cocktail are placed in small transparent or translucent (often glass or plastic) vials that are loaded into an instrument known as a liquid scintillation counter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some chemical compounds (notably chlorine compounds) and highly colored samples can interfere with the counting process. (wikipedia.org)
  • This document specifies a method for the measurement of 14 C activity concentration in all types of water samples by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) either directly on the test sample or following a chemical separation. (iso.org)
  • ISO 13162:2011 specifies the conditions for the determination of 14 C activity concentration in samples of environmental water or of 14 C-containing water using liquid scintillation counting. (iso.org)
  • The disintegration rates of 35 S and 45 Ca samples were determined by the modified integral counting method, which extrapolates the integral count rate to the zero detection threshold of a liquid scintillation spectrometer. (elsevierpure.com)
  • abstract = "The disintegration rates of35S and45Ca samples were determined by the modified integral counting method, which extrapolates the integral count rate to the zero detection threshold of a liquid scintillation spectrometer. (elsevierpure.com)
  • For solid samples, the activity of the prepared scintillation source shall be compatible with the measuring instrument. (iso.org)
  • Samples were analyzed by liquid scintillation counting. (cdc.gov)
  • Cherenkov counting benefits from the use of plastic vials which scatter the emitted light, increasing the potential for light to reach the photomultiplier tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lightweight, and virtually unbreakable PET vials offer low permeability to solvents and minimal background counts. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • High-energy beta emitters, such as phosphorus-32 and yttrium-90 can also be counted in a scintillation counter without the cocktail, instead using an aqueous solution containing no scintillators. (wikipedia.org)
  • The method is applicable to the analysis of any organic molecule soluble in water that is well mixed with the scintillation cocktail. (iso.org)
  • It does not apply to micelles or "large" particles (lipids, fulvic acid, humic acid, etc.) that are inadequately mixed with the scintillation cocktail and the water. (iso.org)
  • Some beta energy is lost without any excitation of the scintillation cocktail and the results are underestimated. (iso.org)
  • The filter was rinsed with Tris-HCI buffer 0 and the radioactivity trapped onto the filter was counted by liquid scintillation. (erowid.org)
  • A liquid scintillation spectrometer has been applied to the determination of the counting efficiency for the air luminescence produced by standardized 222 Rn and its daughters. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Morita-Murase, Y, Murakami, I & Homma, Y 2001, ' The air luminescence count for the rapid determination of 222 Rn in a liquid scintillation spectrometer ', Chemistry Letters , no. 3, pp. 238-239. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The coincidence circuit assures that genuine light pulses, which reach both photomultiplier tubes, are counted, while spurious pulses (due to line noise, for example), which would only affect one of the tubes, are ignored. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid scintillation counting is the measurement of radioactive activity of a sample material which uses the technique of mixing the active material with a liquid scintillator (e.g. zinc sulfide), and counting the resultant photon emissions. (wikipedia.org)
  • This document specifies a method for the measurement of 99 Tc in all types of waters by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). (iso.org)
  • The detection limit depends on the sample volume, the instrument used, the sample counting time, the background count rate, the detection efficiency and the chemical recovery. (iso.org)
  • Alpha/beta counting: Low-level counting system with a sample changer for detection of alpha and beta radiation. (virginia.gov)
  • Homma, Y, Murase, Y & Handa, K 1994, ' Absolute liquid scintillation counting of 35 S and 45 Ca using a modified integral counting method ', Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry Letters , vol. 187, no. 5, pp. 367-374. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Based on the counting efficiency, known amounts of 222 Rn can be prepared in 3.5 h. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The choice of the test method using liquid scintillation counting involves the consideration of the potential presence of other beta emitter radionuclides in the test sample. (iso.org)
  • The method uses a short count time, small sample volume, and a large volume detector and well size. (cdc.gov)
  • Different chemical separation methods are presented to produce strontium and yttrium sources, the activity of which is determined using a proportional counter (PC) or liquid scintillation counter (LSC). (iso.org)
  • Evaluate mass balance using liquid scintillation counting. (livecareer.com)
  • This technique, known as Cherenkov counting, relies on Cherenkov radiation being detected directly by the photomultiplier tubes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These values can be achieved with a counting time of 30 min for a sample volume varying between 14 ml to 40 ml. (iso.org)
  • In this case, a specific sample treatment by separation or extraction is implemented to isolate the radionuclide of interest in order to avoid any interference with other beta-, alpha- and gamma-emitting radionuclides during the counting phase. (iso.org)
  • Liquid Scintillation Counting System (LSC) for low-level beta counting. (virginia.gov)
  • The brown cardboard box with liquid scintillation solution classed as chemical waste must be specially labelled, see below. (lu.se)
  • The purpose is to allow more efficient counting due to the intimate contact of the activity with the scintillator. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cookies allow us to count visits and traffic sources so that we can measure and improve the performance of our website. (lu.se)
  • Metal halide perovskites are most famous for their rapid development in solar cells, but they are also promising materials for X-ray scintillation detectors. (lu.se)