Detection and counting of scintillations produced in a fluorescent material by ionizing radiation.
The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.
Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.
A rare metal element with a blue-gray appearance and atomic symbol Ge, atomic number 32, and atomic weight 72.63.
Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
Individual components of atoms, usually subatomic; subnuclear particles are usually detected only when the atomic nucleus decays and then only transiently, as most of them are unstable, often yielding pure energy without substance, i.e., radiation.
Electronic instruments that produce photographs or cathode-ray tube images of the gamma-ray emissions from organs containing radionuclide tracers.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to the field of radiology. The applications center mostly around x-ray or radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes but the technological applications of any radiation or radiologic procedure is within the scope of radiologic technology.
Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Thin strands of transparent material, usually glass, that are used for transmitting light waves over long distances.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.
A heavy, bluish white metal, atomic number 81, atomic weight [204.382; 204.385], symbol Tl.
Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Unstable isotopes of mercury that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Hg atoms with atomic weights 185-195, 197, 203, 205, and 206 are radioactive mercury isotopes.
The study of the characteristics, behavior, and internal structures of the atomic nucleus and its interactions with other nuclei. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Measurement of radioactivity in the entire human body.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An iron chelating agent with properties like EDETIC ACID. DTPA has also been used as a chelator for other metals, such as plutonium.
Tantalum. A rare metallic element, atomic number 73, atomic weight 180.948, symbol Ta. It is a noncorrosive and malleable metal that has been used for plates or disks to replace cranial defects, for wire sutures, and for making prosthetic devices. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of iridium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ir atoms with atomic weights 182-190, 192, and 194-198 are radioactive iridium isotopes.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
Devices which accelerate electrically charged atomic or subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons or ions, to high velocities so they have high kinetic energy.
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
An iodine-containing compound used in pyelography as a radiopaque medium. If labeled with radioiodine, it can be used for studies of renal function.
Graphic tracing over a time period of radioactivity measured externally over the kidneys following intravenous injection of a radionuclide which is taken up and excreted by the kidneys.
Lutetium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Lu, atomic number 71, and atomic weight 175.
Normal human serum albumin mildly iodinated with radioactive iodine (131-I) which has a half-life of 8 days, and emits beta and gamma rays. It is used as a diagnostic aid in blood volume determination. (from Merck Index, 11th ed)
A technetium imaging agent used in renal scintigraphy, computed tomography, lung ventilation imaging, gastrointestinal scintigraphy, and many other procedures which employ radionuclide imaging agents.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Radiotherapy using high-energy (megavolt or higher) ionizing radiation. Types of radiation include gamma rays, produced by a radioisotope within a teletherapy unit; x-rays, electrons, protons, alpha particles (helium ions) and heavy charged ions, produced by particle acceleration; and neutrons and pi-mesons (pions), produced as secondary particles following bombardment of a target with a primary particle.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.
Stable iron atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iron, but differ in atomic weight. Fe-54, 57, and 58 are stable iron isotopes.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
A metallic element, atomic number 49, atomic weight 114.82, symbol In. It is named from its blue line in the spectrum. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A naturally radioactive element with atomic symbol Rn, atomic number 86, and atomic weight 222. It is a member of the noble gas family found in soil, and is released during the decay of radium.
Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.
Pollutants, present in air, which exhibit radioactivity.

Role of antibody and complement in opsonization of group B streptococci. (1/334)

A requirement for the classic complement pathway in opsonization of group B streptococci was observed by using both a chemiluminescence and a radiolabeled bacterial uptake technique. The classic pathway increased levels of opsonization for types Ia and II stock and wild strains and for some type III wild strains. In contrast, other type III wild strains and the type III stock strain had accelerated kinetics of uptake in the presence of an intact classic pathway, but the level of opsonization was unchanged from that with antibody alone. We could not demonstrate a significant role for the alternative pathway in opsonizing stock or wild strains of group B streptococci. Futhermore, electrophoretic and complement consumption analysis by hemolytic titration failed to reveal alternative pathway activation by the majority of strains of this group. Therapy aimed at supplying opsonins for these organisms will require the presence of type-specific antibody.  (+info)

Calcium fluxes in single muscle fibres measured with a glass scintillator probe. (2/334)

1. An intracellular glass scintillator (Caldwell & Lea, 1973) has been used to obtain a continuous record of the influx of 45Ca into single muscle fibres of the barnacle, Balanus nubilus. 2. In the presence of intracellular EGTA (final concentration greater than 3 mM/kg), the scintillator detected an initial fast phase to the influx (half-time = 18.3 min, compartment size = 4.1% fibre volume) followed by a slow, linear phase which gave a value for the Ca influx of 1.2 p-mole . cm-2 . sec-1. The efflux of 45Ca was also measured with the scintillator by transferring a 45Ca-loaded fibre into 45Ca-free saline. Two exponential phases of efflux were detected with half-times of 16.2 and 500 min. 3. The characterisitics of the fast phase of the influx and efflux are similar to those of the influx of the impermeant sucrose and inulin, suggesting that the fast phase represents exchange with the extracellular 'cleft space'. This phase was insensitive to external La3+ (2 mM). 4. The slow phase is considered to represent the flux of Ca across the surface membrane. It was inhibited by external La3+ (2 mM) and stimulated by replacing external Na+ with Li+. 5. When EGTA-injected fibres were depolarized using an axial, intracellular electrode the Ca influx, measured from the slow phase, was increased. At higher concentrations of intracellular EGTA (6--22 mM/kg), the extra Ca influx due to a rectangular, depolarizing current pulse was proportional to the number of Ca spikes it produced. A single Ca spike gave an extra Ca influx of 19--48 p-mole . cm-2. External D600 (5 x 10(-4)M) inhibited both Ca spike and the extra Ca influx. 6. At lower intracellular EGTA concentrations (3.6--11 mM/kg), a 50 mV depolarization of 250 msec duration gave a mean extra Ca influx of 80 p-mole . cm-2. The upper value was 145 p-mole . cm-2 and this would increase the total internal Ca by 4.1 micrometer/kg. It is calculated that if all this extra Ca was bound to the myofibrillar sites for tension, it would only produce 6.2% of the force expected for a similar depolarization in a fibre with no intracellular EGTA.  (+info)

Optimization of a new scintillation gas detector used to localize electrons emitted by 99mTc. (3/334)

We have developed a scintillation gas detector to localize electrons emitted by 99mTc. This type of detector allows direct quantification of images and so provides a clear advantage over autoradiographic film. We have optimized the device to give an image spatial resolution that closely approximates that of typical autoradiographic film. To improve this resolution, it was necessary to select only low-energy electrons (2 and 15 keV) and to devise novel detection and localization techniques for the ionizing particles. METHODS: A parallel-plate proportional avalanche chamber is subject to a uniform electrical field and amplifies the number of released electrons through collisions of ionizing particles in the gas mixture. Light emitted by the gas scintillator during the avalanche process is collected by a highly intensified charge coupled device camera. The centroid of each resulting light distribution is calculated, resulting in a quantitative mapping of the sample's activity. Insertion of the sample within the gas volume improves the efficiency and so provides a method that is both very sensitive and linear. RESULTS: We have shown that in a parallel-plate structure, the application of a high electrical field to the surface of the sample and the selection of appropriate light spots, according to their morphology, can overcome localization errors due to the particles' trajectories. We have obtained a resolution of the order of 30 microm, using electrons from 99mTc. CONCLUSION: This detection technique allows considerable improvement in image resolution. This "electron camera" is a serious rival to existing autoradiographic techniques, because it provides certain other advantages, including direct quantification, linearity, high dynamic range and low noise levels. Thus, new perspectives are made available in quantitative double tracer autoradiography, because electrons can be selected for imaging as a function of their energy.  (+info)

Growth and differentiation of cultured fetal hepatocytes isolated various developmental stages. (4/334)

We examined the relationship between cell proliferation and differentiation of cultured rat fetal and newborn hepatocytes isolated from various developmental stages. The albumin production rate increased along with cell growth under in vitro culture and became maximal two days after the growth cessation. AFP was secreted by both fetal and newborn hepatocytes with growth ability. Furthermore, the responses to HGF addition in fetal hepatocyte cultures were observed in terms of growth stimulation and down-regulated of the Met receptor. We also studied the changes in RB and liver enriched transcription factors (C/EBPs) for investigating the mechanism underlying proliferation and differentiation of fetal hepatocytes. Western blot analysis of hepatocytes taken from various gestation stages of rat liver showed that the expression of RB and C/EBP beta increased as gestation stage proceeded. When RB antisense S-oligonucleotide was added to the culture medium, proliferation and AFP expression increased, while C/EBP alpha and albumin expressions decreased. These results indicated that the tumor suppressor gene product RB had a profound role not only in cell proliferation but also hepatocyte differentiation.  (+info)

Highly Th2-skewed cytokine profile of beta-lactam-specific T cells from nonatopic subjects with adverse drug reactions. (5/334)

A positive lymphocyte transformation test to beta-lactams (beta-L) was found in 12 of 29 subjects with adverse drug reaction (ADR) to beta-L, irrespective of either the type of clinical manifestation or the presence of specific serum IgE. Short-term T cell lines specific for penicillin G, amoxicillin, and ampicillin could be generated only from subjects with ADR (eight with positive and one with negative lymphocyte transformation test), while streptokinase and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus group 1 (Der p 1)-specific T cells were obtained from all these subjects, from 7 atopic Der p-sensitive donors without history of ADR and 17 healthy nonatopic donors. Streptokinase-specific T cells from all subjects showed intracellular expression of IFN-gamma with poor or no IL-4, whereas Der p 1-specific T cells exhibited IFN-gamma but low or no IL-4 expression in nonatopics, and remarkable IL-4 expression in atopic donors. By contrast, all penicillin G-, ampicillin-, and amoxicillin-specific short-term T cell lines showed high intracellular expression of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, but poor or no expression of IFN-gamma, thus exhibiting a clear-cut Th2 profile. Accordingly, most penicillin G-specific T cell clones derived from two subjects with ADR released high concentrations of IL-4 alone or IL-4 and IFN-gamma. These data suggest that cytokines produced by Th2 cells play an important role in all beta-L-induced ADR, even when late clinical manifestations occur and an IgE-mediated mechanism is apparently indemonstrable.  (+info)

Human immune responses to the highly repetitive Plasmodium falciparum antigen Pf332. (6/334)

The B and T cell responses to EB200, a repetitive part of the Plasmodium falciparum antigen Pf332, were examined in malaria-exposed Senegalese adults. Most donors had high levels of antibodies to recombinant EB200 and 17 overlapping peptides spanning EB200. Taking proliferation and/or cytokine (interferon-gamma and interleukin-4) production as a measure of T cell activation, eight of the EB200-derived peptides induced responses in > 40% of the donors tested. There was no general association between the different types of T cell responses measured, emphasizing the importance of including multiple parameters when analyzing T cell responses and suggesting that EB200 induces functionally distinct T cell responses. The most efficient peptide for induction of proliferative responses was one previously shown to induce T cell responses in five different H-2 congenic mouse strains primed with EB200, suggesting that this is a universal T cell epitope. The presence of multiple B and T cell epitopes in EB200, widely recognized by humans, is important since EB200 has been shown to elicit protective antibody responses in monkeys and may be considered for inclusion in malaria subunit vaccines.  (+info)

Determination of different amino sugar 2'-epimerase activities by coupling to N-acetylneuraminate synthesis. (7/334)

A new procedure for quantitating the amount of N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc) or ManNAc-6-phosphate produced by 2'-epimerase activities involved in sialic acid metabolism has been developed. The ManNAc generated by the action of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) and UDP-GlcNAc 2'-epimerases is condensed with pyruvate through the action of N-acetylneuraminate lyase and the sialic acid released is measured by the thiobarbituric acid assay. For the analysis of prokaryotic GlcNAc-6-phosphate 2'-epimerase, ManNAc-6-phosphate can also be evaluated by this coupled assay after dephosphorylation of the sugar phosphate. This system provides a sensitive, rapid, reproducible, specific and simple procedure (feasible with commercial reagents) for measuring amino sugar 2'-epimerases from eukaryotic and prokaryotic sources. The technique reported here permitted us to detect UDP-GlcNAc 2'-epimerase and GlcNAc 2'-epimerase in mammalian cell extracts and GlcNAc-6-phosphate 2'-epimerase in bacterial extracts.  (+info)

T-cell mediated autoimmunity to the insulinoma-associated protein 2 islet tyrosine phosphatase in type 1 diabetes mellitus. (8/334)

The target molecules of the T-cell response in type 1 diabetes, despite their pathogenic importance, remain largely uncharacterized, especially in humans. Interestingly, molecules such as insulin and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) have been shown to be a target not only of autoantibodies, but also of autoreactive T-lymphocytes both in man and in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse. In the present study we aimed to determine the existence of a specific T-cell response towards the insulinoma-associated protein 2 (IA-2) islet tyrosine phosphatase, a recently identified autoantigen which is the target of autoantibodies strongly associated with diabetes development. Human recombinant IA-2 produced in Escherichia coli, was tested for its reactivity with peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from 16 newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients and from 25 normal controls, 15 of whom were HLA-DR-matched. A T-cell proliferation assay was performed in triplicate employing freshly isolated cells in the absence or in the presence of the antigen to be tested (at two different concentrations: 2 microg/ml and 10 microg/ml). A specific T-cell proliferation (defined as a stimulation index (S.I.) >/=3) was observed against IA-2 used at a concentration of 10 microg/ml (but not of 2 microg/ml) in 8/16 diabetic patients, in 1/15 HLA-DR-matched control subjects (P<0.01 by Fisher exact test) and in 0/10 of the remaining normal individuals. A statistically significant difference (P<0.003 by Mann-Whitney U test) was also observed in S.I. values between patients (3.1+/-1.4) and HLA-DR-matched controls (1.7+/-0.54) employing IA-2 at a concentration of 10 microg/ml. However, when IA-2 was used at a concentration of 2 microg/ml, the difference in S. I. between patients (1.65+/-0.8) and controls (1.0+/-0.3) did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, these data show the presence of a specific, dose-dependent T-lymphocyte response against the IA-2 islet tyrosine phosphatase at the onset of type 1 diabetes. Consequently, this molecule appears to be a target not only at the B-lymphocyte but also at the T-lymphocyte level, reinforcing the potential pathogenic role of this autoantigen in the islet destructive process.  (+info)

We have developed a quantitative scintillation proximity assay (SPA) that reproduces the Raf/MEK/ERK signal transduction pathway. The components of this assay include human cRaf1, MEK1, and ERK2 and a biotinylated peptide substrate for ERK2. cRaf1 was expressed as a his-tagged protein in insect cell …
Development of plastic scintillation detector (PSD) systems for dosimetry has been evolving for two decades now. The subject area has been a topic of a keen research interest that has generated lot of publications lately. PSD systems are being introduced in the market place. Numerous PSD systems for External Beam Radiation Therapy and Brachytherapy have been proposed, most times differentiating from the original systems by slight changes in one or more components, such as the photodetector. However, few major technological and engineering innovations have enabled this new technology to be embraced by the community which helped launching these systems for commercialization (Standard Imaging, Radiadyne, etc.). Scintillation materials (plastic, scintillating fibers and liquid) have many properties that make them ideal for dosimetry including water equivalence and energy independence for MV photons, linearity with dose, dose rate independence, high spatial resolution and nanosecond fast response time.
The Tri-Carb 4910TR liquid scintillation counter provides the popular standard features needed for research applications and the versatility to expand for environmental analysis with the optional ultralow-level and alpha/beta discrimination features.. The Tri-Carb 4910TR liquid scintillation counter provides high performance and flexibility for multi-application and multi-user laboratories detecting radioactivity in life science research, environmental monitoring and/or health physics assays. Optional Packages are available for High Sensitivity Counting of low activity samples and Alpha Beta Separation for unknown or mixed samples.. Exclusive Standard Features. ...
SPA Scintillation beads are microspheres containing scintillant which emit light in the blue region of the visible spectrum. As a result, these beads are ideally suited to use with photomultiplier tube (PMT) counters such as the MicroBeta2 or TopCount.. Two types of core SPA Scintillation bead are available - yttrium silicate (YSi) and Polyvinyltoluene (PVT). PVT beads are plastic, larger in size, and stay in suspension longer than the crystalline YSi beads.. Scintillation proximity assay (SPA) is a homogeneous and versatile technology for the rapid and sensitive assay of a wide range of biological processes, including applications using enzyme and receptor targets, radioimmunoassays, and molecular interactions. When 3H, 14C, 33P, and 125I radioisotopes decay, they release β-particles (or Auger electrons, in the case of 125I). The distance these particles travel through an aqueous solution is dependent on the energy of the particle. If a radioactive molecule is held in close enough proximity to ...
SPA Scintillation beads are microspheres containing scintillant which emit light in the blue region of the visible spectrum. As a result, these beads are ideally suited to use with photomultiplier tube (PMT) counters such as the MicroBeta2 or TopCount.. Two types of core SPA Scintillation bead are available - yttrium silicate (YSi) and Polyvinyltoluene (PVT). PVT beads are plastic, larger in size, and stay in suspension longer than the crystalline YSi beads.. Scintillation proximity assay (SPA) is a homogeneous and versatile technology for the rapid and sensitive assay of a wide range of biological processes, including applications using enzyme and receptor targets, radioimmunoassays, and molecular interactions. When 3H, 14C, 33P, and 125I radioisotopes decay, they release β-particles (or Auger electrons, in the case of 125I). The distance these particles travel through an aqueous solution is dependent on the energy of the particle. If a radioactive molecule is held in close enough proximity to ...
SPA Scintillation beads are microspheres containing scintillant which emit light in the blue region of the visible spectrum. As a result, these beads are ideally suited to use with photomultiplier tube (PMT) counters such as the MicroBeta2 or TopCount.. Two types of core SPA Scintillation bead are available - yttrium silicate (YSi) and Polyvinyltoluene (PVT). PVT beads are plastic, larger in size, and stay in suspension longer than the crystalline YSi beads.. Scintillation proximity assay (SPA) is a homogeneous and versatile technology for the rapid and sensitive assay of a wide range of biological processes, including applications using enzyme and receptor targets, radioimmunoassays, and molecular interactions. When 3H, 14C, 33P, and 125I radioisotopes decay, they release β-particles (or Auger electrons, in the case of 125I). The distance these particles travel through an aqueous solution is dependent on the energy of the particle. If a radioactive molecule is held in close enough proximity to ...
SPA Scintillation beads are microspheres containing scintillant which emit light in the blue region of the visible spectrum. As a result, these beads are ideally suited to use with photomultiplier tube (PMT) counters such as the MicroBeta2 or TopCount.. Two types of core SPA Scintillation bead are available - yttrium silicate (YSi) and Polyvinyltoluene (PVT). PVT beads are plastic, larger in size, and stay in suspension longer than the crystalline YSi beads.. Scintillation proximity assay (SPA) is a homogeneous and versatile technology for the rapid and sensitive assay of a wide range of biological processes, including applications using enzyme and receptor targets, radioimmunoassays, and molecular interactions. When 3H, 14C, 33P, and 125I radioisotopes decay, they release β-particles (or Auger electrons, in the case of 125I). The distance these particles travel through an aqueous solution is dependent on the energy of the particle. If a radioactive molecule is held in close enough proximity to ...
SPA Imaging beads are microspheres containing scintillant which emit light in the red region of the visible spectrum. As a result, these beads are ideally suited to use with a CCD imager, such as PerkinElmerlj Viewlux™ CCD Imager.. Two types of core SPA Imaging bead are available - yttrium oxide (YOx) and Polystyrene (PS). A number of biological coatings also exist for each core bead type to enable receptor binding, enzyme, molecular interaction and radioimmunoassays to be investigated.. Scintillation proximity assay (SPA) is a homogeneous and versatile technology for the rapid and sensitive assay of a wide range of biological processes, including applications using enzyme and receptor targets, radioimmunoassays, and molecular interactions. When 3H, 14C, 33P, and 125I radioisotopes decay, they release β-particles (or Auger electrons, in the case of 125I). The distance these particles travel through an aqueous solution is dependent on the energy of the particle. If a radioactive molecule is ...
SPA Imaging beads are microspheres containing scintillant which emit light in the red region of the visible spectrum. As a result, these beads are ideally suited to use with a CCD imager, such as PerkinElmerlj Viewlux™ CCD Imager.. Two types of core SPA Imaging bead are available - yttrium oxide (YOx) and Polystyrene (PS). A number of biological coatings also exist for each core bead type to enable receptor binding, enzyme, molecular interaction and radioimmunoassays to be investigated.. Scintillation proximity assay (SPA) is a homogeneous and versatile technology for the rapid and sensitive assay of a wide range of biological processes, including applications using enzyme and receptor targets, radioimmunoassays, and molecular interactions. When 3H, 14C, 33P, and 125I radioisotopes decay, they release β-particles (or Auger electrons, in the case of 125I). The distance these particles travel through an aqueous solution is dependent on the energy of the particle. If a radioactive molecule is ...
Kinase inhibition. Flt-4 tyrosine kinase was obtained from ProQinase GmbH (Freiburg, Germany) and c-Kit tyrosine kinase from Upstate Biotechnology, Inc. (Lake Placid, NY). Each additional kinase used was generated as a cell lysate, following infection of insect cells with recombinant baculoviruses containing kinase domains. All enzyme assays were run at, or just below, the respective Km for ATP (0.2-30 μmol/L). The inhibitory activity of AZD2171 was determined against a range of recombinant tyrosine kinases [KDR, Flt-1, Flt-4, c-Kit, PDGFR-α, PDGFR-β, CSF-1R, Flt-3, FGFR1, Src, Abl, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), ErbB2, Aur-A, and Aur-B] using ELISA methodology described previously ( 28). Selectivity versus CDK2 and CDK4 serine/threonine kinases was examined using scintillation proximity assays with a retinoblastoma substrate and [γ-33P]ATP ( 29). Activity versus the dual specificity kinase MAPK kinase (MEK), was determined with a MAPK substrate, [γ-33P]ATP, and paper ...
Levocabastine is an antiallergic drug acting as a histamine H1-receptor antagonist. In allergic conjunctivitis (AC), it may also antagonize up-regulation of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expressed on epithelial conjunctival cells. However, little is known about its effects on eosinophils, important effector cells in AC. The adhesion molecule integrin alpha(4)beta(1) is expressed in eosinophils; it interacts with the vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and fibronectin (FN) in vascular endothelial cells and contributes to eosinophil activation and infiltration in AC. This study provides evidence that in a scintillation proximity assay levocabastine (IC(50) 406 microM), but not the first-generation antihistamine chlorpheniramine, displaced (125)I-FN binding to human integrin alpha(4)beta(1) and, in flow cytometry analysis, levocabastine antagonized the binding of a primary antibody to integrin alpha(4) expressed on the Jurkat cell surface. Levocabastine, but not ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A new gadolinium-loaded liquid scintillator for reactor neutrino detection. AU - Ding, Yayun. AU - Zhang, Zhiyong. AU - Liu, Jinchang. AU - Wang, Zhimin. AU - Zhou, Pengju. AU - Zhao, Yuliang. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by Natural Science Foundation of China, National Basic Research Project of China, and Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The authors thank Prof. Richard Hahn and Minfang Yeh, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Prof. Igor Nemchenok, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, for their valuable suggestions. All the people from Institute of High Energy Physics who gave help and supports for our experiments are gratefully acknowledged. Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2008/1/1. Y1 - 2008/1/1. N2 - A high flash point, low toxicity gadolinium-loaded liquid scintillator (Gd-LS) has been developed for the detection of reactor neutrino. Carboxylic acid 3,5,5-trimethylhexanoic ...
div class=citation vocab=http://schema.org/,,i class=fa fa-external-link-square fa-fw,,/i, Data from ,span resource=http://link.libraries.ou.edu/portal/A-scintillation-counter-for-measurement-of-I131/gO1eaNur4-s/ typeof=Book http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/Item,,span property=name http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/label,,a href=http://link.libraries.ou.edu/portal/A-scintillation-counter-for-measurement-of-I131/gO1eaNur4-s/,A scintillation counter for measurement of I131 uptake in the thyroid gland, by William J. MacIntyre, (electronic resource),/a,,/span, - ,span property=potentialAction typeOf=OrganizeAction,,span property=agent typeof=LibrarySystem http://library.link/vocab/LibrarySystem resource=http://link.libraries.ou.edu/,,span property=name http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/label,,a property=url href=http://link.libraries.ou.edu/,University of Oklahoma Libraries,/a,,/span,,/span,,/span,,/span,,/div ...
The second type of radiation detector we will discuss is called the scintillation detector. Scintillations are minute flashes of light which are produced by certain materials when they absorb radiation. These materials are variously called fluorescent materials, fluors, scintillators or phosphors.. If we had a radioactive source and a scintillator in the lab we could darken the room, move the scintillator close to the source and see the scintillations. These small flashes of light might be green or blue or some other colour depending on the scintillator. We could also count the number of flashes produced to gain an estimate of the radioactivity of the source, that is the more flashes of light seen the more radiation present.. The scintillation detector was possibly the first radiation detector discovered. You might have heard the story of the discovery of X-rays by Wilhelm Roentgen in 1895. He was working one evening in his laboratory in Wurzburg, Germany with a device which fired a beam of ...
0039] Hence, devices useful for dosimetry of a broad range of complex radiotherapy modalities, such as intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for proton therapy, using liquid scintillator detectors are provided herein. The systems presented herein may be useful for patient-specific quality assurance (QA), providing fast, accurate, and high-resolution dosimetry. These systems may provide real-time dosimetric information in both 2D planes and 3D volumes for radiation beams of either photons or protons. The radiation beam is interacting with the LS material to produce visible light. This light may be acquired in realtime with one or more high-sensitivity/high-speed CCD cameras. (As used herein, processing in near realtime or realtime generally refer to processing data without intentional delay, given the limitations of the system and the time required to accurately measure the data.) Processing these images in near realtime allow the characterization of the radiation beams. (As used ...
A digital neutron-γ imaging technique for mixed radiation field is described. The imaging system is based upon an organic liquid scintillator detector, a narrow tungsten collimator, fast digitiser and adjustable equatorial mount. Radioactive sources have been attached to a vertical plane and the digitiser has been used to digitise neutron and γ events. The digitised events have been discriminated using pulse gradient analysis and images have been generated of the count distribution in the source plane.. ...
It was the purpose of this experiment to examine the difference in the density determinations and, since the Geiger tube threshold is much lower, to calibrate the liquid scintillator so that it is capable to determining the absolute particle density with greater accuracy.
We have studied the calibration of PMTs in scintillation detectors, inducing single electron response on the PMT from primary scintillation produced by x-ray interaction. The results agree with those obtained by the commonly used single electron response (SER) method, which uses LED light pulses to induce the PMT SER. The use of the primary scintillation for PMT calibration will be convenient in situations where the PMT is already in situ, when it becomes difficult or even impossible to apply the SER method, e.g. in commercial sealed scintillator/PMT devices. Furthermore, we have experimentally investigated the possibility of fitting the high-charge tail of the PMT SER pulse-height distribution to an exponential function, inferring the PMT gain from the inverse of the exponent. The results of the exponential fit method agree with those obtained by the SER method for pulse-height distributions resulting from an average number of around 1.0 photoelectrons reaching the first dynode per ...
FlashPlate® is a white polystyrene microplate, designed for high-volume, homogeneous radiometric assays, based upon the principle of scintillation proximity. The interior of each well is permanently coated with a thin layer of polystyrene-based scintillant which provides a platform for non-separation assays using a variety of isotopes (e.g.,3H, 125I, 14C and 33P) without the addition of liquid scintillation cocktail. FlashPlate is available in both 96-well and 384-well formats.. ...
A radiation detector, in particular a gamma camera, is constructed and operated in such a fashion that only a predetermined number of light sensors (such as PMTs) adjoining each other in a cluster are used to generate a signal with amplitude and event position information. The camera may also use an array of individual scintillation elements (crystals) in place of a single crystal, with certain advantages obtained thereby. According to another aspect of the invention, there is a reflector sheet that defines an array of apertures through which scintillation light can pass from the scintillation crystal to a plurality of light sensors optically coupled to an optical window in an array corresponding to the array of apertures in the reflector.
Definition of scintillation camera in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is scintillation camera? Meaning of scintillation camera as a legal term. What does scintillation camera mean in law?
Tritium is usually measured by using a liquid scintillation counter. However, liquid scintillator used for measurement will become radioactive waste fluid. To solve this issue, we have developed a method of measuring tritium samples with plasma-treated plastic scintillator (PS)sheets (Plasma method). The radioactive sample is held between 2 PS sheets and the whole is enclosed in a a low-potassium glass vial. With the Plasma method of 2-min plasma treatment, we have obtained measurement efficiency of 48 ± 2 % for 2 min measurement of tritium except for tritiated water. The plasma treatment makes the PS surface rough and hydrophilic which contributes to improve the contact between tritium and PS. On the other hand, it needed almost 6 hours to obtain constant measurement efficiency. The reason was that the dry-up handling in the vial needed longer time to vaporize H{sub 2}O molecules than in the air. We tried putting silica gel beads into vials to remove H{sub 2}O molecules from PS sheet surface ...
Instruments. The HTS facility houses state-of-the-art liquid handlers and multi-mode plate readers that can be integrated into screening systems for automated HTS applications. The suite of plate readers contains instruments with varying sensitivities for all common modalities including absorbance, fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence, fluorescence polarization and luminescence. Additionally, we offer label-free, alpha screen, scintillation proximity and high-content screening technologies. Liquid handling capabilities allow for volume transfers ranging from 2.5 nanoliters to liters, in various combinations of fixed and random plate arrays. Readers and liquid handlers are available for walk-up use, as well as automated screening. Furthermore, the facility staffs a full-time engineer to ensure the instrumentation meets or exceeds industry specifications for operation. Data Analysis and Storage. The informatics and statistical capabilities of the HTS facility include data storage, archival and ...
Scintillation fluids based on toluene or xylene will no longer be available except by special order. Principal investigators who are authorized to use radioactive materials or are applying for such use may petition the Executive Committee for a scintillation fluid exception. Petitions must be submitted in writing and clearly state why the use of a scintillation counting fluid with a flash point , 140o F is required for their scintillation counting needs ...
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Radioactivity Analysis. Blood and plasma samples (0.1 ml), urine samples (0.2 g), and cage rinses (0.5 g) were added to Ultima Gold XR scintillation cocktail. Feces were homogenized in water, and samples (0.2 g) were combusted using a Packard model 307 Sample Oxidizer (PerkinElmer Life and Analytical Sciences). Cage wipes were extracted in water using gentle shaking, and samples (0.5 g) were added to the scintillation fluid. The pooled mouse carcasses (3/sample) were cut into pieces and digested using 1 N NaOH, and samples (0.5 g) were weighed and decolorized using 30% H2O2. Ultima Gold XR scintillation cocktail was added, and the samples were counted after sitting overnight at room temperature. Each rat brain was homogenized using a probe-type homogenizer at a 1:1 ratio (w/w) with a solution of 36 μM tranylcypromine, an MAO inhibitor, before samples were combusted. All samplers were analyzed by LSC using Packard model 2900TR liquid scintillation counters.. Bioanalytical Analysis for Bicifadine ...
Dimitriadis, Alexis, Silvestre Patallob, I, Billas, I, Duane, S, Nisbet, Andrew and Clark, CH (2017) Characterisation of a plastic scintillation detector to be used in a multicentre stereotactic radiosurgery dosimetry audit ...
International Scholarly Research Notices is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine. The journals Editorial Board as well as its Table of Contents are divided into 108 subject areas that are covered within the journals scope.
Liquid scintillation counting (LS Counting) is a laboratory-based technique that uses a Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) to count the radioactive emissions from a liquid sample. It is often used in the biological sciences to measure the uptake of radioactive isotopes into biological materials. The different forms of an element are called isotopes.. For instance, the nucleus of the element phosphorus has 15 protons but it may contain differing numbers of neutrons. If it has 13 neutrons it is called 28P (15 + 13 = 28) and if it has 19 neutrons it is called 34P. In fact phosphorus exists as 7 different isotopes:. 28P, 29P, 30P, 31P,32P, 33P, 34P. 31P is the most abundant form and is stable whereas the other isotopes may be unstable and emit radioactivity. In the case of 32P, a beta particle is emitted.. LSC is a method of counting radioactive emissions from a limited range of radionuclides. The common isotopes used include:. ...
Typically, a PET-scanner consists of a detector ring with 60 cm diameter and 20 cm length inside which the patient is positioned. For brain studies the patient bed is positioned in such a way that the entire brain is within the field of view. To investigate the entire patient the bed is moved step-by-step. The detector consists of scintillation detectors with scintillation crystals coupled to photomultipliers. The radiation, which is emitted from the patient after the injection of a weak radioactively labelled substance (radiotracer), causes light pulses within the scintillation crystals. This light is converted to electrical signals by the photomultiplier. A detector is linked to opposing detectors by a coincidence logic: if the radiation hits two opposing detectors within a time interval of, e.g. 6 ns, it is assumed that the radiation comes from a radiotracer molecule located on the line connecting the two detectors. During the PET study, which can last from a few minutes up to two or three ...
Scintillography is mainly used in scintillation cameras in experimental physics. For example, huge neutrino detection underground tanks filled with tetrachloroethylene are surrounded by arrays of photo detectors in order to capture the extremely rare event of a collision between the fluids atoms and a neutrino. Another extensive use of scintillography is in medical imaging techniques which use gamma ray detectors called gamma cameras. Detectors coated with materials which scintillate when subjected to gamma rays are scanned with optical photon detectors and scintillation counters. The subjects are injected with special radionuclides which irradiate in the gamma range inside the region of interest, such as the heart or the brain. A special type of gamma camera is the SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography). Another medical scintillography technique, the Positron-emission tomography (PET), which uses the scintillations provoked by electron-positron annihilation phenomena. ...
BioAssay record AID 629721 submitted by ChEMBL: Displacement of [3H]-8-OH-DPAT from 5-HT1A receptor in rat hippocampus by liquid scintillation counting.
The indoor 222Rn radionuclide was directly absorbed in typical 20 ml glass scintillation vials by passing −3 dm3of ambient air through 16 ml of water-immiscible non-volataile scintillation cocktail...
Functional interfaces play a vital role in biosensing, which requires proper allocation, orientation, conformation, activities and stability to achieve high affinity and stability of the biomolecules. However, the characterization [...]
A method was devised to measure gray and white matter cerebral blood flow simultaneously in multiple regions of the brain using 133Xenon and a multiple-crystal scintillation camera. Following magnification cerebral arteriography, 133Xe was injected into the internal carotid artery and the washout of tracer was monitored with a scintillation camera which consists of 294 individually collimated NaI (TI) crystals. These data, obtained from each crystal overlying the brain, were processed by a weighted least-squares nonlinear regression technique. The blood flow rates of the rapid and slow compartments were calculated by the Kety-Schmidt formula along with 95% confidence limits for each measurement.. In four patients, local increases or decreases in regional cerebral flow were correlated with areas of pathology. In one patient with a cerebral arteriovenous malformation, regions of local shunting of tracer were identified. Application of a three-compartment analysis to these curves permitted ...
Select the radioisotope Calcium Ca-45 Carbon C-14 Chrome Cr-51 Cobalt Co-57 Hydrogen H-3 Iodine I-125 Iodine I-131 Phosphorus P-32 Phosphorus P-33 Sodium Na-22 Sulfur S-35 ALI = Annual Limit of Intake EQ = Exemption Quantity For more information on other radioisotopes go to the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) website. Ca-45 - Properties and Precautions Radiotoxicity Low to medium Half life 163 days Emission Moderate Energy Beta (0.257 MeV) Range in air 52 cm Critical organs/tissue Bone Precautions Gloves, Lab coat, Aerosol control, Contamination control Shielding 3 mm, plexiglas (lucite shield) Monitor beta-probe, wipes counted by liquid scintillation counter ALI 30 (ingestion) and 9 (inhalation) EQ 1 MBq TOP OF PAGE C-14 - Properties and Precautions Radiotoxicity Low to medium Half life 5730 years Emission Moderate Energy Beta (0.156 MeV) Range in air 24 cm Critical organs/tissue Fatty tissue Precautions Gloves, lab coat, aerosol control, contamination
환경시료중의 삼중수소준위를 조사하기 위하여, 국내 12개 지역에서 채취한 생물시료(쌀, 채소, 솔잎)중의 삼중수소를 분석하였다. 생물시료중의 삼중수소는 동결건조법과 건조시료의 연소법에 의해 조직자유수 삼중수소 (TFWT: Tissue-Free Water Tritium)와 조직결합수 삼중수소 (TBT: Tissue-bound tritium)로 분류 추출하였으며, 액 체 섬광계수기(Liquid Scintillation Counter)를 이용하여 각 시료중의 삼중수소를 측정하였다. TFWT 농도는 쌀의 경우 |TEX|$0.96{\sim}3.96Bq/l$|/TEX|, 배추는 |TEX|$0.83{\sim}3.40 Bq/l$|/TEX|, 솔잎의 경우는 |TEX|$1.02{\sim}3.01 Bq/l$|/TEX| 범위의 값을 나타내었으며, TBT/TFWT의 평균 농도비는 쌀의 경우 0.94,배추는 1.71, 솔잎은 1.39의 결과를 나타내었다. TBT/TFWT 농도비가 1보다 높은 이유는 TBT가 TFWT보다 식물체 내에서의 체류기 간이 길기 때문인 것으로 추측되며, TBT/TFWT의 농도비는
Receptor Binding Assay. Competitive binding assays were carried out to determine the binding affinities of opioid compounds for μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors. Membrane protein (100 μg/tube) prepared from CHO-μ, -δ, or -κ cells was incubated in 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.4) containing 2 nM [3H]diprenorphine and different concentrations of compounds in a total volume of 0.5 ml for 30 min at 37°C. Nonspecific binding was determined with 50 μM naloxone. The binding was terminated by inserting the assay tubes into ice-cold water, and membrane-bound [3H]diprenorphine was rapidly separated by filtration through GF/C filters. The filters were washed with 5 ml of ice-cold Tris-HCl buffer three times, and filter-bound radioactivity was counted by a liquid scintillation counter.. [35S]GTPγS Binding Assay. [35S]GTPγS binding assay was used as a functional measure of the agonist efficacy and potency of these compounds for the μ-opioid receptor. Membrane protein (100 μg/tube) prepared from ...
BioAssay record AID 646449 submitted by ChEMBL: Displacement of [3H]-LSD from human full length cloned 5HT6 receptor expressed in human HEK293 cells by liquid scintillation counter.
Suitable for liquid scintillation counting, gamma counting and chromatography applications. Choose from a variety of vial, cap and liner materials. Scintillation vial materials include glass, HDPE and PP. Vials are available with caps attached or caps packaged separately.. ...
Beamlines on synchrotrons worldwide need a lot of specific components in order to carry out specialised and state of the art experiments. Scintillators are essential components which make X-rays visible so they can be detected with CCD or CMOS cameras.. The sub-micrometre resolution and high image contrast demanded by todays experiments require scintillator films with thicknesses in the range 1-20 μm as well as providing high optical quality and uniformity. Thin scintillators minimise degradations due to focusing defects, diffraction and spherical aberrations, therefore boosting the image contrast and spatial resolution. But the sophisticated techniques required to grow such crystals and their high specificity means that very thin single crystal film scintillators are not commercially available.. In April 2010, the ESRF established a unique liquid phase epitaxy facility for single crystal film scintillators. Liquid phase epitaxy is a technique whereby scintillating crystal layers are grown on ...
Marketech offers custom fabricated components and semi-finished stock from tungsten, refractory metals, ceramics, sapphire, heat sinks, crystals
Cardiac output was measured by the injection method, using I131-labeled human serum albumin as indicator, and measuring concentration-time curves through the intact skin with a collimated scintillation counter. Although, in principle, any number of blood vessels could be used as the measuring site, it was found that because of recirculation, ... read more suitable curves were obtained only if the counter was directed toward the head or the heart. Cardiac output values calculated from these curves were compared with values found with the classical sampling method. Head, heart, and arterial sampling curves were measured simultaneously with one injection of radioactive indicator. The measurements show that a head curve could be used in measuring cardiac output by the injection method, but it is not very successful because of the rather high standard deviation of the result (25 per cent). A heart curve, however, can successfully replace an arterial sampling curve. The accuracy of heart and arterial ...
Looking for online definition of Scintillation meter in the Medical Dictionary? Scintillation meter explanation free. What is Scintillation meter? Meaning of Scintillation meter medical term. What does Scintillation meter mean?
A method for producing a plastic scintillator is disclosed. A plurality of nano-sized particles and one or more dopants can be combined with a plastic material for the formation of a plastic scintillator thereof. The nano-sized particles, the dopant and the plastic material can be combined within the dry inert atmosphere of an extruder to produce a reaction that results in the formation of a plastic scintillator thereof and the deposition of energy within the plastic scintillator, such that the plastic scintillator produces light signifying the detection of a radiative element. The nano-sized particles can be treated with an inert gas prior to processing the nano-sized particles, the dopant and the plastic material utilizing the extruder. The plastic scintillator can be a neutron-sensitive scintillator, x-ray sensitive scintillator and/or a scintillator for the detection of minimum ionizing particles ...
BGO Arrays, Bismuth germanate Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) is one of the most widely used heavy oxide scintillator materials. BGO has a high atomic number (83) of the heavy component Bismuth element and a high density of the material (7.13 g/cm3). The luminescence spe
Fluid reservoirs on either side of the tissue were filled with bicarbonate buffered mock cerebrospinal fluid; oxygen (95%) and carbon dioxide (5%) were bubbled vigorously through the mock cerebrospinal fluid to maintain normal pH level and to provide mixing. After allowing 30 min for equilibration to 37 [degree sign]C, the study drug was added to the epidural side of the meninges. For this experiment, unlabelled morphine sulfate (0.1-mg base) and x [micro sign]Ci14C-labeled morphine sulfate (specific activity = 82 x 103[micro sign]Ci/mg; New England Nuclear, Boston, MA) were added to the donor reservoir at t = 0. Thereafter at 5-min intervals, 100-[micro sign]l samples were removed from donor and recipient reservoirs and placed in liquid scintillation vials for subsequent determination of morphine concentration. Decays/min were counted in a Packard TriCarb 2000 liquid scintillation counter (Packard Instruments, Downers Grove, IL; uncertainty of measurement 4% for 2,500 total counts). At the end ...
Adams, T. A. (1979) The characteristics of a national digital topographic database. Masters thesis, Durham University.. Adams, Timothy A. (1979) Characteristics of a national topographic digital database. Masters thesis, Durham University.. Addinall, P. (1979) The understanding of nature in the Old Testament: an investigation of some scholarly views. Masters thesis, Durham University.. Al-Dargazelli, Shetha Selman (1979) The development of gas scintillation counters for high count rate x-ray detection. Doctoral thesis, Durham University.. Al-Din, Nadia Yussef Gamal (1979) Selection for university education in egypt:: practice, philosophy and perspective. Doctoral thesis, Durham University.. Al-Imam, Fatima Muhammad Nejib (1979) Abdallah ibn Umar Ibn Al-Khattab. Masters thesis, Durham University.. Alexander, K. I. (1979) Studies in plant competition. Masters thesis, Durham University.. Andrew, J. (1979) The administration of Durham County: a comparative assessment 1830 to 1895. Masters thesis, ...
Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (LCPUFA) are physiologically important precursors for eicosanoids, leukotrienes, and prostanoids. Desaturation of essential fatty acids (EFAs) by []6-desaturase is considered the rate-limiting step in conversion of EFAs to LCPUFA. This study was designed to study the conversion of EFAs by []6-desaturase in dog liver microsomes. Microsomes were prepared using fresh liver from healthy dogs. Microsomes were incubated with ¹⁴C labeled 18 carbon EFA substrates. Following incubation, lipids were extracted, saponified and phenacylated. The resulting fatty acid phenacyl esters (FAPES) were separated by HPLC. Radioactivity was measured with a liquid scintillation counter, converted to enzymatic activity, and expressed as pmol/min/mg protein. Using 18:3n-3 as substrate, the apparent []6-desaturase maximal velocity was 50.9 pmol/min/mg protein and using 18:2n-6 substrate, the maximal velocity was 5.4 pmol/min/mg protein. Apparent K[] values were 20.8 []M for ...
Early buyers will receive 10% customization on reports.. By scintillation material, the inorganic scintillators market is categorized into Sodium Iodide (NaI), Cesium Iodide (CsI), Lutetium Oxyorthosilicate (LSO) and Lutetium-yttrium Oxyorthosilicate (LYSO), Bismuth Germanate Oxide (BGO), Others [Barium Fluoride (BaF2), Lead Tungstate (PbWO4), Cadmium Tungstate (CdWO4), Cerium Bromide (CeBr3), Lanthanum Bromide (LaBr3), and Gadolinium Orthosilicate (GSO)]. The sodium iodide (NaI) segment is expected to command the largest share of the global inorganic scintillators market, by scintillation material in 2016. This is attributed to factors such as rising application horizon of sodium iodide, rise in homeland security expenditure to combat terrorism worldwide, and increasing number of nuclear power plants. However, the lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) & lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) segment is expected to grow at the highest CAGR during the forecast period. This is mainly due to its ...
The equipment used in gamma spectroscopy includes an energy-sensitive radiation detector, electronics to process detector signals produced by the detector, such as a pulse sorter (i.e., multichannel analyzer), and associated amplifiers and data readout devices to generate, display, and store the spectrum. Other components, such as rate meters and peak position stabilizers, may also be included.. The most common detectors include sodium iodide (NaI) scintillation counters and high-purity germanium detectors.. Gamma spectroscopy detectors are passive materials that wait for a gamma interaction to occur in the detector volume. The most important interaction mechanisms are the photoelectric effect, the Compton effect, and pair production. The photoelectric effect is preferred, as it absorbs all of the energy of the incident gamma ray. Full energy absorption is also possible when a series of these interaction mechanisms take place within the detector volume. When a gamma ray undergoes a Compton ...
In this thesis, we measured the activity of Alpha, Beta particles and Gamma Radiation in soil in the middle of Gaza Strip in general form by using five types of detectors. These detectors are:SolidStateNuclear Track Detectors (CR-39), Geiger Counter, Gamma Spectrometer, Scintillation counter and Portable Electra Plus. The middle region of Gaza Strip divided into four areas, in our survey, included Dier El Balah (D), Mughazi (M), Buriej (B) and Nusairat (N). From each area we have obtained ten of samples, each sample taken at the depth of one meter from the earth surface, the subsurface sample weight equal one kilogram. We removed the stones and roots from the samples, after that, the sample was placed in plastic bags, each sample was divided into two parts, each part was placed in a cup and CR-39 fixed on the lower surface of the cover of cup. The distance between the surface of the soil and CR-39 is very small, we put all of the samples in the saving place. The exposure time for the detectors ...
Our lab is equipped with a Rigaku Ultima IV x-ray diffractometer with a copper x-ray source and a scintillation counter detector. The Ultima IV, with Rigakus patented Cross Beam Optics (CBO), is a flexible, multi-purpose XRD. It incorporates fully automatic alignment and allows for fast, easy switching between focusing and parallel beam geometries without the need to reconfigure the system. Other features of the Ultima IV at Memorial University are the automatic 10-position sample changer with spinner and the high temperature (1500oC) attachment.. ...
Research laboratories specializing in lipid, protein, growth, and food microbiology abattoir and contain the following equipment: Gas chromatograph, scintillation counter, centrifuges, microfuges, gel electrophoresis apparatus for protein, DU-20 spectrophotometer, sterile hood and incubator, water baths, pH meters, freeze dryers, vacuum pumps, refrigerators, mixer homogenizers, slab dryer, fluorescence spectrophotometer, calorimeter, balances, and tissumizers.. The Department of Animal Science maintains a 1700 square feet reproductive biology laboratory with three small (300 square feet) adjacent laboratories equipped for cell culture, histology, and sample extraction and preparation. The cell culture room is equipped with a laminar-flow hood and a CO2 incubator (Flow Labs #1500). In addition, equipment necessary for modern molecular biology procedures has been provided.. ...
Intermediate For dyes, in manufacture of anthraquinone, in production of plastics & fibers, diluent for wood preservatives, scintillation counter crystals, organic semiconductor research, occurs in coal tar, smoked food (Merck 1989). Associated with tobacco: reported either as a natural component of tobacco, pyrolysis product (in tobacco smoke), or additive for one or more types of tobacco products.. ...
Compound. Enantiomerically pure ABT-888 was synthesized by Abbott Cancer Research and Process Chemistry. The synthesis and cell-based evaluation will be published elsewhere (27).. In vitro PARP and SIRT assays. PARP assays were conducted in a buffer containing 50 mmol/L Tris (pH 8.0), 1 mmol/L DTT, 1.5 μmol/L [3H]NAD+ (1.6 μCi/mmol), 200 nmol/L biotinylated histone H1, 200 nmol/L slDNA, and 1 nmol/L PARP-1 or 4 nmol/L PARP-2 enzyme. Reactions were terminated with 1.5 mmol/L benzamide, transferred to streptavidin Flash plates (Perkin-Elmer), and counted using a TopCount microplate scintillation counter.. Nicotinamide [2,5′,8-3H]adenine dinucleotide and streptavidin SPA beads were purchased from Amersham Biosciences. Recombinant human PARP purified from Escherichia coli and 6-Biotin-17-NAD+ were purchased from Trevigen. NAD+, histone, aminobenzamide, 3-aminobenzamide, and calf thymus DNA (dcDNA) were from Sigma. Stem loop oligonucleotide (slDNA) ...
Article Laser gas detector systems for greenhouse gas emissions monitoring. Two types of portable laser based gas detector for measuring emissions of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from oil and gas operations are describe...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neutrino phenomenology of very low-energy seesaw scenarios. AU - De Gouvêa, André. AU - Jenkins, James. AU - Vasudevan, Nirmala. PY - 2007/1/29. Y1 - 2007/1/29. N2 - The standard model augmented by the presence of gauge-singlet right-handed neutrinos proves to be an ideal scenario for accommodating nonzero neutrino masses. Among the new parameters of this new standard model are right-handed neutrino Majorana masses M. Theoretical prejudice points to M much larger than the electroweak symmetry breaking scale, but it has recently been emphasized that all M values are technically natural and should be explored. Indeed, M around 1-10eV can accommodate an elegant oscillation solution to the liquid scintillator neutrino detector (LSND) anomaly, while other M values lead to several observable consequences. We consider the phenomenology of low-energy (M 1keV) seesaw scenarios. By exploring such a framework with three right-handed neutrinos, we can consistently fit all oscillation ...
The low energy gas scintillation proportional counter (LE-GSPC) is an imaging x-ray spectrometer. It is one of the narrow field instruments on board the SAX satellite and covers the lower energy range from 0.1 to 10 keV. The low energy response of the detector is achieved by using a driftless gas cell and a thin multilayer polyimide foil as entrance window. The overall design of the imaging GSPC for space application is described. Using unit level and system level calibration data, acquired at a synchrotron and a long beam x-ray source, the capabilities both in terms of energy and position resolution are discussed. The overall efficiency of the instrument which includes the mirrors effective area, the entrance windows transparencies, the detectors efficiency and electronics deadtime are reviewed. Background rejection issues and the experiments consequent sensitivity to the measurement of cosmic x- ray source spectra are addressed ...
S. OKeeffe, D. McCarthy, P. Woulfe, J. Cronin, and E. Lewis, Optical Fibre Based Scintillation Probe for Radiotherapy Dosimetry, in Imaging and Applied Optics Technical Papers, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper AM3A.3 ...
Guanazole and aphidicolin were chosen as candidates in the search for a selective, non-genotoxic inhibitor of DNA replication which could be used instead of hydroxyurea to measure DNA repair synthesis in rat hepatocyte primary cultures by liquid scintillation counting. The genotoxicity of these 3 chemicals was studied using the Salmonella/liver homogenate assay and the autoradiographic UDS test in hepatocytes. Hydroxyurea was positive in both of these assays. Guanazole and aphidicolin did not induce DNA repair in hepatocytes. Aphidicolin was not mutagenic for Salmonella typhimurium, whereas guanazole increased the revertant numbers of strain TA102 slightly. The incorporation of [3H]thymidine was measured by liquid scintillation to determine DNA repair induced by 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF), aflatoxin B1, benzo[a]pyrene, cyclophosphamide, H2O2, 6-hydroxydopamine, N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), methylnitrosourea (MNU), 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide and UV irradiation in the presence of ...
This proposal is to develop a novel slide based proximity assay platform to quantify protein phosphorylation on tissues. The novelty of this assay platform is derived from the use of the quantum dot with two emission peaks for fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET): one emission as internal standard and the other as FRET donor. Change of ratio of the two emission intensity during the FRET c .... ...
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The study will assess the diagnostic efficacy (sensitivity and specificity) of Flurpiridaz F18 Injection MPI against SPECT MPI in patients screened for CAD as determined by ICA. Six hundred and eighty evaluable patients will be enrolled and will undergo SPECT MPI and Flurpiridaz F18 PET MPI. Patients will be considered for enrollment if they are scheduled to undergo or have undergone prior ICA without intervention (being either positive or negative for CAD ...
From August 2014 until August 2015, IORT was considered in 124 patients; 82 patients actually underwent IORT and were enrolled in the phase 2 study. Among the 42 patients who did not undergo IORT, the reasons of IORT cancellation were either preoperative decisions in multidisciplinary conference, including presence of a huge primary mass or multicentric tumor nodules (n = 4); neoadjuvant chemotherapy (n = 3); definitive axillary, supraclavicular, or internal mammary lymph node metastasis (n = 3); and tumor close to the skin (n = 9); and intraoperative decisions including persistent positive resection margins (n = 9), conversion to total mastectomy (n = 8), and shape of tumor cavity unsuitable for IORT (n = 6). Among the 82 patients treated with IORT, 55 patients who underwent a minimum follow-up period of 1 month after WBI were included in the analysis. Follow-up after IORT ranged from 12.7 weeks to 50.3 weeks with a median follow-up of 25.9 weeks. The median patient age was 52 years (range, 32 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of Nitrogen and Oxygen contamination in liquid Argon. AU - Acciarri, R.. AU - Antonello, M.. AU - Baibussinov, B.. AU - Baldo-Ceolin, M.. AU - Benetti, P.. AU - Calaprice, F.. AU - Calligarich, E.. AU - Cambiaghi, M.. AU - Canci, N.. AU - Carbonara, F.. AU - Cavanna, F.. AU - Centro, S.. AU - Cocco, A. G.. AU - Di Pompeo, F.. AU - Fiorillo, G.. AU - Galbiati, C.. AU - Gallo, V.. AU - Grandi, L.. AU - Meng, G.. AU - Modena, I.. AU - Montanari, C.. AU - Palamara, O.. AU - Pandola, L.. AU - Pietropaolo, F.. AU - Raselli, G. L.. AU - Roncadelli, M.. AU - Rossella, M.. AU - Rubbia, C.. AU - Segreto, E.. AU - Szelc, A. M.. AU - Tortorici, F.. AU - Ventura, S.. AU - Vignoli, C.. PY - 2009/12/15. Y1 - 2009/12/15. N2 - Two dedicated and distinct tests of Nitrogen and Oxygen contamination effects in liquid Argon (LAr) have been performed within the WArP R&D program. Purpose of the tests is to detect the reduction of the LAr scintillation light emission as a function of the ...
This is a website created for the deposition of scientific-related administrative data of the Department of Environmental Science of the University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus.. Web Developement and database design by Eda C. Meléndez-Colom, Luquillo LTER Information Manager. Contact her for questions about this website. ...
The next probe from NASA from the New Frontiers program can return the first samples of matter from the comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko or try to find traces of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Activation cross sections of deuteron induced reactions on silver in the 33-50 MeV energy range. AU - Ditrói, F.. AU - Tárkányi, F.. AU - Takács, S.. AU - Hermanne, A.. AU - Ignatyuk, A. V.. PY - 2017/2/1. Y1 - 2017/2/1. N2 - Excitation functions were measured for the natAg(d,x)105,104Cd, 110 m,108m,106m,105g,104gAg and 101Pd, 105,101mRh reactions over the energy range 33-50 MeV by using the stacked foil activation technique and subsequent high-resolution gamma-spectrometry. We present the first experimental cross section data above 40 MeV for all of these reactions and the first experimental cross section data for natAg(d,x)108m,104gAg and 105,103Rh. The experimental data are compared with results of the model calculations performed with the ALICE-D, EMPIRE-D theoretical nuclear reaction model codes and with the TALYS code results as available in the TENDL-2014 and -2015 on-line libraries.. AB - Excitation functions were measured for the natAg(d,x)105,104Cd, 110 ...
This is a high resolution, analytical Scanning Electron Microscope that can reach 2.5nm resolution at an accelerating voltage of 30kV. The electron source is a LaB6 gun. It has a brighter source than the tungsten hairpin gun. Bright, high quality images can be obtained at all kV ranges from 1-30kV. It has a wide magnification range to observe a variety of samples from 10cm in diameter to nano-structures at very high magnification. This instrument is an ideal analytical system as it has an Oxford 50mm2 X-Max SDD x-ray detector attached that enables simultaneous imaging and elemental analysis at high count rates with 125eV energy resolution. It has also has an integrated Oxford/HKL EBSD detector for crystallographic analysis with nanoscale resolution.. Book this instrument. Find training for this instrument. ...
OUTCOME: The overall incidence of AEs (ie, AEs occurring from the time the informed consent is signed until the 2-week telephone follow-up [14-17 days post-flurpiridaz F 18 injection administration]) and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) (ie, AEs occurring at the time of flurpiridaz F 18 rest dose administration until the 14-17 day telephone follow-up) and the proportion of patients who discontinue because of an AE or TEAE are the primary safety outcome measures ...
0049] The ring buffer 15d receives an input of the reading signal 15r and outputs the event data 15k to a subsequent data processing stage 15i according to the reading signal 15r. The event data 15k in this situation is event data 15k of which the amount that is read is regulated according to the reading signal 15r. In other words, during the high count rate period, the ring buffer 15d outputs only the pieces of event data 15k stored in the buffer areas 1 to i, according to the reading signal 15r. On the contrary, during the normal period, the ring buffer 15d outputs the pieces of event data 15k stored in all of the buffer areas 1 to n, according to the reading signal 15r. As explained here, the event data 15k output from the ring buffer 15d is the event data 15k of which the amount that is read is regulated according to the reading signal 15r. The timing with which the ring buffer 15d outputs the event data 15k corresponds to, for example, the time at which the event data 15k has been stored ...
Improved Scintillators for Time-of-Flight Positron Emission Tomography Project Summary/Abstract We propose to significantly improve the diagnostic imaging capab...
Objectives: The frequency of chromosomal aberrations (CA) and micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes was compared in two groups of persons occupationally exposed to tritium either through the use of luminous paints or in the weapons industry, with the aim of finding a correlation between the CA and MN assays, the extent of radiation hazard, and the duration of occupational exposure to chemical forms of tritium and the ability of the latter to induce hazards in human lymphocytes. Methods: CA analysis and the cytochalasin B micronucleus test were performed. Urinary tritium in both groups was measured using a liquid scintillation method. For purposes of comparison, 2 control groups (40 persons) were examined; 24 exposed individuals were matched to their controls according to age, sex, and smoking habits. Results: Values recorded for the frequency of CA in the group of workers handling tritium in luminous dial painting were 0.015 +/- 0.014 dicentrics/cell, 0.023 +/- 0.017 total u...nstable ...
Objectives: The frequency of chromosomal aberrations (CA) and micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes was compared in two groups of persons occupationally exposed to tritium either through the use of luminous paints or in the weapons industry, with the aim of finding a correlation between the CA and MN assays, the extent of radiation hazard, and the duration of occupational exposure to chemical forms of tritium and the ability of the latter to induce hazards in human lymphocytes. Methods: CA analysis and the cytochalasin B micronucleus test were performed. Urinary tritium in both groups was measured using a liquid scintillation method. For purposes of comparison, 2 control groups (40 persons) were examined; 24 exposed individuals were matched to their controls according to age, sex, and smoking habits. Results: Values recorded for the frequency of CA in the group of workers handling tritium in luminous dial painting were 0.015 +/- 0.014 dicentrics/cell, 0.023 +/- 0.017 total u...nstable ...
BCNU (carmustine), 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and Vidarabin-monophosphate (ARA-A5P) were compared in their activities against 30 cell lines of primary (n = 21) and metastatic (n = 9) brain tumors, which were characterized in tissue culture by cytochemical, immunological and cytogenetic criteria. In vivo achievable concentration-time products were correlated with in vitro pharmacokinetic data. A micro assay was employed to screen for drug toxicity in individual tumor cell lines; cells were exposed to the drugs at exposure doses relevant to in vivo pharmacokinetics. After 5-8 population doubling times of untreated controls, RNA-synthesis, as a parameter of cell metabolism and proliferation, was determined by incorporation of (5, 6-3H)-uridine into cellular RNA (liquid scintillation counting protocol). A tumor stem cell assay was performed under similar conditions. The cytotoxic effect of each drug on individual cell lines was expressed in terms of a sensitivity index SI (SI = 1 indicating complete ...
To assess the validity of myocardial imaging with potassium-43 (43K) early after the onset of ischemia, the left anterior descending artery was occluded with a baloon tip catheter in 32 intact anesthetized dogs. 99mTechnetium ventriculograms localized the left ventricle. 43K was administered intravenously and serial images were obtained in four views using an Anger camera with a pinhole collimator. The heart was arrested after 60 minutes and removed for imaging and tissue counts to ascertain extracardiac and geometric factors. In normals (group 1) left ventricular images were relatively homogeneous, except for the thin walled apex, both in vivo and in the isolated heart. Equilibration with 43K prior to ischemia (group 2) gave similar images to group 1, associated with a small reduction in tissue count after one hour of ischemia. Group 3 was infused with 43K after initiation of ischemia. Despite a reduction of 43K counts in the ischemic area to less than one-fourth of the nonischemic site (P less ...
The flagship monthly journal of SPIE, |i|Optical Engineering|/i| (OE) publishes peer-reviewed papers reporting on research and development in all areas of optics, photonics, and imaging science and engineering.
Scintillator crystal detectors form the basis for many radiation detection devices. Therefore, a search for high light yield single crystal scintillators with improved energy resolution, large volume, and the potential for low cost, is an ongoing process that has increased in recent years due to a large demand in the area of nuclear isotope identification. Alkaline earth halides, elpasolites and rare earth halides are very interesting because many compositions from these crystal families provide efficient Ce3+/ Eu2+ luminescence, good proportionality and good energy resolution. They also have small band-gap leading to higher light yields. Ce3+and Eu2+ are efficient, and the emission wavelengths in the 350-500 nm region matches well with PMTs and a new generation of Siphotodiodes. In this presentation, we will the present progress made in the crystal growth of these compositions, and scintillator properties of large diameter SrI2:Eu2+ single transparent crystals. The crystals were grown ...
QuiremSpheres® microspheres, which are based on holmium-166, provide unique imaging capabilities that allow for optimum in vivo dosimetry on a voxel level. This makes it possible to perform post-treatment quantitative verification of the achieved dose distribution, i.e. determining dose-to-tumor and dose-to-tissue. With QuiremSpheres® you treat what you see and see what you treat. Read more ...
QuiremSpheres® microspheres, which are based on holmium-166, provide unique imaging capabilities that allow for optimum in vivo dosimetry on a voxel level. This makes it possible to perform post-treatment quantitative verification of the achieved dose distribution, i.e. determining dose-to-tumor and dose-to-tissue. With QuiremSpheres® you treat what you see and see what you treat. Read more ...
China Security Dome CCTV CCD Camera / Explosion-Proof PTZ CCD Camera (SHJ-525CZ-36B), Find details about China Cctv Camera, Ccd Camera from Security Dome CCTV CCD Camera / Explosion-Proof PTZ CCD Camera (SHJ-525CZ-36B) - Changzhou Shengshijia Electronic Co., Ltd.
Marti, L, Ikeda, M, Kato, Y et al. (65 more authors) (2020) Evaluation of gadoliniums action on water Cherenkov detector systems with EGADS. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 959. 163549. ISSN 0168-9002 ...
First investigations in our laboratory were carried out using etched nano capillaries in a PET foil. These nano-capillaries had diameters of the order of 100nm at a length of several microns. A beam of highly-charged-ions was used to irradiate the foil, which could be tilted against the beam axis. The transmitted ions were recorded with a position sensitive detector system, allowing a time resolved determination of the deflection. Latest experiments were using a single, macroscopic glass tube, with a diameter of about 170 microns and a total length of more than 10 mm, showing also guiding up to several degrees, as illustrated in the figure. One can see the 2D image of the direct beam collimated by a 500 micron aperture at the capillary position (red) in comparison to the ions transmitted through the capillary (blue) at 4 different tilt angles. The experiments have been carried out with our ECR ion source, using 4.5keV Ar9+ projectiles. ...
Medical Detection Dogs dogs are able to sniff out some of the most aggressive forms of cancer thanks to their training. This training, however, takes time, hence the researchers desire to create a faster process using devices and AI. Results from the study showed that these trained dogs correctly identified positive prostate cancer samples 71 percent of the time, and correctly ignored negative samples - including people with other prostate diseases.. The robotic nose mimics this sniffing ability to detect such diseases thanks to an electronic device - which could one day come in the form of an app. Dr. Andreas Mershin, co-author of the study and from MIT, said Imagine a day when smartphones can send an alert for potentially being at risk for highly aggressive prostate cancer, years before a doctor notices a rise in PSA levels.. Mershin and the team have been working on their device over the past few years, which currently comes in the form of a miniaturized detector system that ...
The MultiRAE Pro wireless portable monitor can be used for radiation and advanced chemical detection. IScientific Pte Ltd has offers MultiRAE Pro gas detector system to detect Oxygen, LEL, CO, NO2, SO2, PH3, NH3, ClO2, Chlorine, CO2, EtO2, HCN, NO, Formaldehyde, H2S, VOCs etc.. ...
When employing specular reflective material in a scintillator crystal array, light trapping in the crystal due to repetitive internal reflection is mitigated by roughening at least one side (16) of each of a plurality of pre-formed polished scintillator crystals. A specular reflector material (30) is applied (deposited, wrapped around, etc.) to the roughened crystals, which are arranged in an array. Each crystal array is coupled to a silicon photodetector (32) to form a detector array, which can be mounted in a detector for a functional scanner or the like.
Flat panel devices for x-ray imaging that can be directly coupled to a commercial CCD for real-time radiography. Suitable for a wide range of fields from industrial x-ray inspection to medical x-ray exams.
The S12497 is a Si photodiode suitable for non-destructive inspection of baggage and the like and general industrial measurement. As it is a back-illuminated photodiode, photosensitive area does not have wires, and therefore a scintillator can be mounted directly on the photodiode.Features- Spectral response range : 400 to 1100 nm- Photosensitive area: 9.5 × 9.5 mm- Easy scintillator mounting
The filter vial consists of two parts:a filter vial shell and a plunger which includes a filter on one end and a vial cap on the other end. Site Index-Quzhou Lab Technology Co.,Ltd. scintillation vial rack Sample Vial with PP Cap Autosampler Vials Screw Aijiren Autosampler Vials 4ml Vial Chromatography GC Chromatography Vials Free Samples Crimp Vial 2ml Autosampler …
Quenching and Adsorption in Liquid scintillation counting, in 1962, and Dispensing solutions for liquid scintillation counting ... Quenching and Adsorption in Liquid scintillation counting, August 1962. The detection of tritium labelled compounds in Vapour ... Dispensing solutions for liquid scintillation counting. Published in NASA's scientific and technical Aerospace reports, Volume ...
Birks, J.B. (1964). The Theory and Practice of Scintillation Counting. London: Pergamon. Birks, J.B. (1964). The Theory and ... Practice of Scintillation Counting. London: Pergamon. Sauli, F. (1993). Instrumentation in High Energy Physics (2nd ed.). World ...
Birks, J.B. (1964). The Theory and Practice of Scintillation Counting. London: Pergamon. "A Tribute to Professor John B Birks ... A more complete theory of scintillation saturation, that gives Birks' law when only unimolecular de-excitation is included, can ... Birks, J.B. (1951). "Scintillations from Organic Crystals: Specific Fluorescence and Relative Response to Different Radiations ... S is the scintillation efficiency, dE/dx is the specific energy loss of the particle per path length, k is the probability of ...
Liquid scintillation counting is the preferred method. The G-M counting efficiency is estimated to be 3%. The half-distance ... In the Borexino Counting Test Facility, a 14C/12C ratio of 1.94×10−18 was determined; probable reactions responsible for varied ... which can be detected by low-level counting of the patient's breath. The 14C urea breath test has been largely replaced by the ...
Geiger counter Counting efficiency Lucas, Henry (1957). "Improved Low‐Level Alpha‐Scintillation Counter for Radon". Review of ... A photomultiplier tube at the top of the chamber counts the photons and sends the count to a data logger. A Lucas cell can be ... A Lucas cell is a type of scintillation counter. It is used to acquire a gas sample, filter out the radioactive particulates ... through a special filter and then count the radioactive decay. The inside of the gas chamber is coated with ZnS(Ag) - a ...
doi:10.1007/s10967-014-3191-1. "Scintillation Cocktails & Consumables - For every liquid scintillation counting application" ( ... In liquid scintillation counting, a small aliquot, filter or swab is added to scintillation fluid and the plate or vial is ... A gamma counter is similar in format to scintillation counting but it detects gamma emissions directly and does not require a ... 2014). "Study on quench effects in liquid scintillation counting during tritium measurements". Journal of Radioanalytical and ...
The amount of remaining labeled polyphosphate is then measured by liquid scintillation counting. PPX was discovered by the lab ...
"A new value for the half-life of 10Be by Heavy-Ion Elastic Recoil Detection and liquid scintillation counting". Nuclear ... "Determination of the 10Be half-life by multicollector ICP-MS and liquid scintillation counting". Nuclear Instruments and ...
Bray G.A. (1960). "A simple efficient liquid scintillator for counting aqueous solutions in a liquid scintillation counter". ...
The isotope emits very soft beta radiation, and can be detected by scintillation counting. 11C, carbon-11 is usually produced ... in being easily measured by scintillation counting or other radiochemical methods, and in being localizable to particular ...
Mechanism of Liquid Scintillation Counting, National Diagnostics, retrieved 24 Sept 2007 v t e. ...
6, 1729-1737 (1967). D. FRIED, "Scintillation of a Ground-to-Space Laser Illuminator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 980-983 (1967). D. ... 57, 181-185 (1967). D. Fried and J. Seidman, "Heterodyne and Photon-Counting Receivers for Optical Communications," Appl. Opt. ... 58, 961-969 (1968). D. Fried and R. Schmeltzer, "The Effect of Atmospheric Scintillation on an Optical Data Channel?Laser Radar ... 57, 175-180 (1967). D. FRIED, "Aperture Averaging of Scintillation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 169-172 (1967). D. FRIED and J. CLOUD ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Regener, Erich (1909). "On Counting the Alpha Particles by Scintillation and on the ... He is also known for predicting a 2.8 K cosmic background radiation, for the invention of the scintillation counter which ...
Low levels may be reported in counts per minute using a scintillation counter. In the case of low-level contamination by ... Scintillation detectors are generally preferred for hand-held monitoring instruments and are designed with a large detection ... Detection and measurement of surface contamination of personnel and plant is normally by Geiger counter, scintillation counter ... Proportional counters and dual phosphor scintillation counters can discriminate between alpha and beta contamination, but the ...
The Theory and Practice of Scintillation Counting. International Series of Monographs in Electronics and Instrumentation 27. ...
This complicates its detection and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) is required for measuring it in environmental samples. ...
Because the emitted electrons have relatively low energy, the detection efficiency by scintillation counting is rather low. ... in low concentration and its presence detected by sensitive radiation detectors such as Geiger counters and scintillation ...
In conjunction with Hans Geiger, he developed zinc sulfide scintillation screens and ionisation chambers to count alphas. By ... dividing the total charge they produced by the number counted, Rutherford decided that the charge on the alpha was two. In late ...
Photon counting (as it is called) reveals that light, not only being a wave, consists of discrete particles (i.e., photons). ... Lucas cell Scintillation counter Silicon photomultiplier Total absorption spectroscopy Decibels are power ratios. Power is ... The drawback, however, is that not every photon incident on the primary surface is counted either because of less-than-perfect ... Photon-counting applications generally demand photomultipliers designed to minimise dark current. Nonetheless, the ability to ...
Chen established China's first radiocarbon dating laboratory using liquid scintillation counting at Peking University. He was ...
Radiation-based Gauge: Radiation is passed from a source, through the fluid of interest, and into a scintillation detector, or ... As the fluid density increases, the detected radiation "counts" will decrease. The source is typically the radioactive isotope ...
Liquid scintillation, counting and compositions, U.S. Patent Number: 3,928,227 6. Sutula, C. L., Wilson, J. E., Cleaning porous ...
... of tritium's radiation makes it difficult to detect tritium-labeled compounds except by using liquid scintillation counting. ...
It was invented in 1951 by Hal Anger, who is also well known for inventing the scintillation camera. Anger filed U.S. patent # ... Samples in test tubes are inserted into the well, one sample at a time, and counted for a predetermined time. Results are ... Scintillation counter Gamma camera Gottschalk, Alexander (1996). The early years with Hal Anger. Seminars in Nuclear Medicine ...
Liquid scintillation counting. *Mass spectrometry. *Mössbauer spectroscopy. *Pandemonium effect. *Total absorption spectroscopy ... Scintillation detectors[edit]. Scintillation detectors use crystals that emit light when gamma rays interact with the atoms in ... Laboratory equipment for determination of γ-radiation spectrum with a scintillation counter. The output from the scintillation ... the background rate in the spectrum is increased by one count. This count will appear in a channel below the channel that ...
To help compensate, better imaging systems limit scintillation counting to a portion of the heart contraction cycle, called ... The system accumulates events, or counts, of gamma photons that are absorbed by the crystal in the camera. Usually a large flat ... A gamma camera (γ-camera), also called a scintillation camera or Anger camera, is a device used to image gamma radiation ... The computer reconstructs and displays a two dimensional image of the relative spatial count density on a monitor. This ...
Counting techniques of α,β,γ or neutron can be used as approaches for the analysis of nuclear forensic materials that emit ... They can be measured by a variety of detectors, including liquid scintillation counters, gas ionization detectors, and ion- ... β counting is used infrequently because most short lived β-emitters also give off characteristic γ-rays and produce very broad ... Neutron counting are found more rarely in analytical labs due in part to shielding concerns should such neutron emitters be ...
R is the response matrix of the detector (meaning the probability that a decay that feeds a certain level gives a count in ... This effect can be introduced in the simulation by means of a hyperbolic scintillation efficiency. The simulation of the light ... During the measurements Lucrecia is kept measuring at a total counting rate not larger than 10 kHz to avoid second and higher ... Pandemonium effect Scintillation counter Rubio, B.; Gelletly, W. (2007). "Total absorption spectroscopy" (PDF). Romanian ...
In June 2013, CoRoT's exoplanet count was 32 with several still to be confirmed. The satellite unexpectedly stopped ... where the absence of atmospheric scintillation allows improved accuracy. This mission was designed to be able to detect planets ...
The experiment employed eleven scintillation detectors arranged within a circle 460 metres in diameter on the grounds of the ... measurements at heights up to 13.6 kilometres using a pair of Geiger counters in an anti-coincidence circuit to avoid counting ... water-Cherenkov or scintillation detectors. The observation of a secondary shower of particles in multiple detectors at the ...
d) Positive-displacement flowmeters, which accumulate a fixed volume of fluid and then count the number of times the volume is ... Counting the revolutions totalizes volume, and the rate is proportional to flow. ...
Liquid scintillation counting. Geiger counter. Dosimeter. Ionizing radiation. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index. ...
scintillation detectors. *airborne particulate radioactivity monitoring. The links should be followed for a fuller description ...
C activity is liquid scintillation counting, which was invented in 1950, but which had to wait until the early 1960s, when ... If 1% of the benzene in a modern reference sample accidentally evaporates, scintillation counting will give a radiocarbon age ... Measurement of radiocarbon was originally done by beta-counting devices, which counted the amount of beta radiation emitted by ... AMS counts the atoms of 14. C and 12. C in a given sample, determining the 14. C/12. C ratio directly. The sample, often in the ...
Liquid scintillation counting is the preferred method.[7] The G-M counting efficiency is estimated to be 3%. The half-distance ... In the Borexino Counting Test Facility, a 14C/12C ratio of 1.94×10−18 was determined;[44] probable reactions responsible for ... which can be detected by low-level counting of the patient's breath.[48] The 14C urea breath test has been largely replaced by ...
The cost of small fiber-count pole-mounted cables has greatly decreased due to the high demand for fiber to the home (FTTH) ... Optical fibers doped with a wavelength shifter collect scintillation light in physics experiments. ... Fiber crew installing a 432-count fiber cable underneath the streets of Midtown Manhattan, New York City ...
... and observed an increase in the number of scintillations on the screen. Counting the scintillations, they observed that metals ... They counted the number of scintillations per minute that each foil produced on the screen. They divided the number of ... A microscope (M) was used to count the scintillations on the screen and measure their spread. Geiger pumped all the air out of ... Geiger worked in a darkened lab for hours on end, counting these tiny scintillations using a microscope.[5] Rutherford lacked ...
The ability to be capable of counting the exact number of photons that are detected is extremely important for QKD. The device ... VLPC stands for visible-light photon counter and refers to a new high quantum efficiency multi-photon counting detector, which ...
The particle counting algorithm used in the device converted raw data into information by counting the photon pulses per unit ... Destriau, G. (1936). "Recherches sur les scintillations des sulfures de zinc aux rayons". Journal de Chimie Physique. 33: 587- ...
... of tritium's radiation makes it difficult to detect tritium-labeled compounds except by using liquid scintillation counting. ...
... iodide (CsI), bromide (CsBr) and caesium fluoride (CsF) crystals are employed for scintillators in scintillation ... the International System of Units used two specific wave counts from an emission spectrum of caesium-133 to co-define the ... crystals for scintillation counters, and in magnetohydrodynamic power generators.[11] Caesium also was, and still is, used as a ...
1992). "Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment observations of Co-57 in SN 1987A". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. ... estimates of a total neutrino count of 1058 with a total energy of 1046 joules.[14] ...
... the patient is enclosed in a surrounding ring of detectors assigned with 500-1000 scintillation detectors[12] (fourth- ... which is in turn amplified and converted into count data. ...
... is the last element in the lanthanide series, and it is traditionally counted among the rare earths. Lutetium is ... "Evaluation of cerium doped lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillation crystals for PET". IEEE Transactions on Nuclear ...
It was named after the discoverer, the Irish gemologist Count Edward Charles Richard Taaffe. ... scintillation), and deliver it to the eye (brilliance). In its rough crystalline form, a diamond will do none of these things; ...
Scintillation refers to the small flashes of light that are seen when the diamond, light source or the viewer is moved. A ... The modern round brilliant has 57 facets (polished faces), counting 33 on the crown (the top half), and 24 on the pavilion (the ... There are three light properties which are described in relation to light performance: brilliance, fire, and scintillation. ... In fact there are 14 names counted to be given to a diamond in traditional Hinduism. ...
After such a recoil the nucleus will emit energy as, e.g., scintillation light or phonons, which is then detected by sensitive ... Since dark energy does not count as matter, this is 26.8/(4.9 + 26.8)=0.845 ... Noble liquid detectors detect scintillation produced by a particle collision in liquid xenon or argon. Cryogenic detector ...
First generation RPMs often rely on PVT scintillators for gamma counting. They provide limited information on energy of ... "Fission signal detection using helium-4 gas fast neutron scintillation detectors". Appl. Phys. Lett. 105 (1): 014102. Bibcode: ...
Thus by counting the electrons arriving at the anode or the ions at the cathode we derive the same figure in current ... This form of detection is referred as scintillation-GDD. The principles outlined above are best described by considering plane ...
... and scintillation counters. Charge-coupled devices can also sometimes be used. Photon counting eliminates gain noise, where the ... Photon counting is a technique in which individual photons are counted using a single-photon detector (SPD). In contrast to a ... Photon-counting computed tomography is another key area of interest, which is rapidly evolving and is at the verge of being ... The counting efficiency is determined by the quantum efficiency and any electronic losses that are present in the system. Many ...
2005). "CaMoO4 scintillation crystal for the search of 100Mo double beta decay". IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science. ... 2001). "A fast programmable trigger for isolated cluster counting in the BELLE experiment". Nuclear Instruments and Methods in ...
... or by scintillation counting. End-point RT-PCR is commonly achieved using three different methods: relative, competitive and ...
Gurevich, A. V.; Ptitsyn, M. O. (2015). "Comment on "Decrease of Atmospheric Neutron Counts Observed during Thunderstorms"". ... obtained with unshielded scintillation neutron detectors show a decrease in the neutron flux during thunderstorms. Recent ... "Decrease of Atmospheric Neutron Counts Observed during Thunderstorms". Physical Review Letters. Americal Physical Society. 114 ...
Liquid scintillation counting is the measurement of radioactive activity of a sample material which uses the technique of ... High-energy beta emitters, such as phosphorus-32 and yitrium-90 can also be counted in a scintillation counter without the ... Accelerator mass spectrometry Counting efficiency Möbius, Siegurd; Möbius, Tiana Lalao (2012). Handbook of liquid scintillation ... ISBN 978-3-923704-78-1. Liquid Scintillation Counting, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Radiation Safety Program Principles ...
3 dm3of ambient air through 16 ml of water-immiscible non-volataile scintillation cocktail... ... The indoor 222Rn radionuclide was directly absorbed in typical 20 ml glass scintillation vials by passing − ... Chah B, Žikovský L, Champagne P (1992) Determination of radon in indoor air in Québec by liquid scintillation counting in ortho ... Ultima-Gold F scintillation cocktail was purchased from PerkinElmer Inc. For radon sampling, 16 ml of the scintillation ...
Counting,Performance,on,the,TopCountTM,Microplate,Scintillation,and,Luminescence,Counter,biological,advanced biology technology ... Abstract ...The TopCount Microplate Scintillation and Luminescence Counter has bee... Introduction ...Cerenkov radiation occurs ... Counting FlashPlates on the Wallac MicroBeta. 4. Direct Counting of Millipore MultiScreen Filtration Plates.. 5. Counting Non- ... These advantages make Cerenkov counting an attractive alternative to liquid scintillation counting of 32P in microplate based ...
Assaying Discrete Samples by Liquid Scintillation Counting. Liquid scintillation counting of discrete samples is conceptually ... Preparing Tissue Samples for Scintillation Counting. Samples of animal or plant tissue are rarely thin or small enough to allow ... Waste Disposal Issues in Scintillation Counting. An aspect of LSC which must be considered in experimental design, is waste ... Counting Samples from TLC Plates by LSC. In a typical TLC experiment, the radioactivity is detected at two points: after TLC it ...
Inhibition of GRK7-mediated bovine tubulin phosphorylation by scintillation counting. ...
NECA from Sprague-Dawley rat adenosine A2A receptor by scintillation counting. ...
A method and apparatus for automatically counting the activity induced in a test sample containing a radioactive isotope while ... Method in liquid scintillation counting for discriminating between different kinds of detected scintillation events ... Method in liquid scintillation counting for discriminating between different kinds of detected scintillation events ... The principal problem faced in scintillation counting is the determination of counting efficiency of each individual sample ( ...
... the counting of nuclear emanations) has undergone continuous development since attempts were first made in the early 1950s to ... Arnold, JR 1954 Scintillation counting of natural radiocarbon: 1. The counting method. Science 119: 155-157.CrossRefGoogle ... Noakes, JE, Kim, SM and Stipp, JJ 1965 Chemical and counting advances in liquid scintillation counting. In Chatters, RM and ... Haas, H 1979 Specific problems with liquid scintillation counting of small benzene volumes and background count rate ...
... human PP from human NPY4 receptor expressed in CHOK1 cells by scintillation counting. ...
Sample preparation and counting of radioisotopes by liquid scintillation counting and their application to soil, soil/plant and ... 1974 Sample preparation and counting of radioisotopes by liquid scintillation counting and their application to soil, soil/ ...
... tests gathered over the past two decades by the laboratory for low level radioactivity measurements for liquid scintillation ... Liquid scintillation counting Measurement uncertainty Proficiency test Tritium Radio-carbon Validation Verification ... Method validation and verification in liquid scintillation counting using the long-term uncertainty method (LTUM) on two ... gathered over the past two decades by the laboratory for low level radioactivity measurements for liquid scintillation counting ...
Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting have been used to study the biodegradation of a novel ... Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting have been used to study the biodegradation of a novel ... fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting to determine the mechanism and kinetics of surfactant ... fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting to determine the mechanism and kinetics of surfactant ...
Universal use of alpha/beta mode in liquid scintillation counting analysis for both alpha/beta and single nuclide determination ... Urine strontium-90 (Sr-90) manual and automated pre-analytical separation followed by liquid scintillation counting ... Urine gross alpha/beta bioassay method development using liquid scintillation counting techniques. ... Urine gross alpha/beta bioassay method development using liquid scintillation counting techniques ...
Scintillation counting was used to quantify the amount of light signal generated by the luciferase pathway. For all six ... Scintillation Counts. Four experimental constructs: +86/−29 (G+86A), +54/−61 (G+54T), +87/−28 (A+87 C), and +94/−21 (19-bp ... kern-\nulldelimiterspace} {{\text{cd}}0}}\), where cd0 is the count of the competitor on day 0, cdx is the count of the ... Normalization of spectral counts was not applied based on these criteria: An equal amount of sample from each replicate was ...
Scintillation Well Counting.. Samples were counted in a Packard Cobra II gamma counter (Packard). The energy window was set at ... Scintillation well-counting assay revealed a ,11-fold increase in 99mTc HYNIC-annexin V uptake in PVG allografts as compared ... Animals were then imaged and killed 1 hr after injection of radiopharmaceutical after tumor removal for scintillation counting ... Animals were killed 1 hr after administration of radiopharmaceutical followed by organ removal for scintillation counting of ...
Difference between revisions of "KJM5911 Lab Exercise 5 - Liquid Scintillation Counting". From mn/safe/nukwik ... Understand the theory behind Liquid Scintillation detection. *Understand how the detection equipment in Liquid Scintillation ... Retrieved from "https://wiki.uio.no/mn/safe/nukwik/index.php?title=KJM5911_Lab_Exercise_5_-_Liquid_Scintillation_Counting&oldid ... Understand the theory behind Liquid Scintillation detection. *Understand ...) ...
Components of Variance in Liquid Scintillation Counting As part of the standardization of the 239Pu solution that was ...
Components of Variance in Liquid Scintillation Counting. As part of the standardization of the 239 Pu solution that was ...
Counting Atoms by Scintillations. How the Individual Atom is Made Visible. By E. Marsden ...
Scintillation Well Counting. Figure 1 summarizes gamma well counts in the muscles of the thigh (A and B) and entire hindlimb (C ... On postmortem gamma counting, there was greater accumulation of 111In-labeled VEGF121 in ischemic than in control tissue (P, ... Postmortem gamma counting demonstrated significantly greater uptake of 111In-labled VEGF121 by ischemic muscle than by ... Regions of interest were drawn over each hindlimb and the adjacent background, and background-subtracted count activity was ...
Due to the high cost of disposal of liquid scintillation vials containing non-biodegradable scintillation counting fluid (i.e ... Petitions must be submitted in writing and clearly state why the use of a scintillation counting fluid with a flash point , 140 ... To: All Research using Scintillation Counting Fluid. From: Joe M. Graves, Radiation Safety Officer ... Therefore, BioChem will no longer stock scintillation fluid with a flash point , 140° F. This means that scintillation fluids ...
Scintillation Counting.. Radiolabeled [14C]PS-341 (10 μCi/kg) was administered as an i.v. bolus to male mice bearing PC-3 ... whereupon blood and tissue samples were removed and levels of radioactivity determined using scintillation counting (Beckman). ... determined using scintillation counting in homogenized samples; bars, SE. ...
Scintillation Counting.. Radiolabeled [14C]PS-341 (10 μCi/kg) was administered as an i.v. bolus to male mice bearing PC-3 ... whereupon blood and tissue samples were removed and levels of radioactivity determined using scintillation counting (Beckman). ... determined using scintillation counting in homogenized samples; bars, SE. ...
... liquid scintillation cocktail and counted on a Beckman Coulter LS6500 liquid scintillation counter to obtain the [2,3-3H] ... Sample preparation and scintillation counting. The protocol used for the analysis of protein synthesis followed that of Treberg ...
Sample preparation procedures for liquid scintillation counting. G. W. A. Newton and B. W. Fox ...
All samples were counted as disintegrations per minute of tritium using a Beckman LS6500 scintillation counter (Beckman Coulter ... Thin Layer Chromatography and Scintillation Counting.. Total radioactivity was determined by diluting 15 µl of plasma, bile, or ... and InstaGel Plus scintillation cocktails were purchased from PerkinElmer (Waltham, MA). n-Butanol and glacial acetic acid were ... urine with 5 ml UltimaGold scintillation cocktail. Liver or kidney (50 mg) was disintegrated in 500 µl Solvable for 4 hours at ...
Scintillation counting. Scintillation counting is one of the most sensitive and effective methods for detecting radiation. It ...
Scintillation counting compositions. US4144306 *. Feb 13, 1978. Mar 13, 1979. Eastman Kodak Company. Element for analysis of ... 4,166, 093, the scintillation layer described in U.S. Pat. 4,127,499, the scavenging layer described in Japanese Patent ...
Scintillation counting compositions. US4240992 *. Apr 3, 1978. Dec 23, 1980. Westinghouse Electric Corp.. Technique for ... These scintillations can be detected directly with a photomultiplier tube (PMT) coupled with an amplifier and pulse-counting ... Alpha scintillation pigments 205 produce the luminescence λ1 Beta scintillation pigments 206 produce the luminescence λ2. Gamma ... or gamma-induced scintillations from pigment particles with a PMT coupled to an amplifier and pulse-counting electronics, a ...
Determination of Radioactivity by Liquid Scintillation Counting. Scintillation cocktail was added directly to plasma and urine ... liquid scintillation counting. MAPK. mitogen-activated protein kinase. MS. mass spectrometry. MS/MS. tandem mass spectrometry. ... Microplate Scintillation Counting.. Sample fractions (20 μl) were collected throughout the chromatographic run (every 7 seconds ... counts per minute (cpm)] was determined using a microplate scintillation counter (TopCount NXT; PerkinElmer) with an ...
  • The radioactive samples and cocktail are placed in small transparent or translucent (often glass or plastic) vials that are loaded into an instrument known as a liquid scintillation counter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cherenkov counting benefits from the use of plastic vials which scatter the emitted light, increasing the potential for light to reach the photomultiplier tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • The indoor 222 Rn radionuclide was directly absorbed in typical 20 ml glass scintillation vials by passing −3 dm 3 of ambient air through 16 ml of water-immiscible non-volataile scintillation cocktail Ultima-Gold F for 10 min. (springer.com)
  • Calf, GE and Polach, HA 1974 Teflon vials for liquid scintillation counting of carbon-14 samples. (springer.com)
  • 1. There are two classes of waste scintillation fluid whether in vials or packaged as bulk liquid. (clemson.edu)
  • Waste liquid scintillation fluid may be packaged in individual counting vials or in bulk containers. (clemson.edu)
  • Leave the waste scintillation fluid in their vials, tightly capped, and place them in a separate, standardized, labeled waste can. (clemson.edu)
  • 3) The re-use of scintillation vials is discouraged due to the possibility of contamination of the user. (clemson.edu)
  • 4) Liquid scintillation vials containing organic solvents may not be emptied into the sewer. (clemson.edu)
  • The Tri-Carb 2910TR liquid scintillation counter is an advanced Spectra-based computer-controlled benchtop liquid scintillation analyzer for detecting small amounts of alpha, beta and gamma radioactivity for research and environmental mo. (selectscience.net)
  • Counting efficiencies under ideal conditions range from about 30% for tritium (a low-energy beta emitter) to nearly 100% for phosphorus-32, a high-energy beta emitter. (wikipedia.org)
  • For tritium detection, liquid scintillation counters have been classically employed, in which the energy of a tritium decay is transferred to a scintillant molecule in solution which in turn gives off photons whose intensity and spectrum can be measured by a photomultiplier array. (wikipedia.org)
  • Direct counting (as in A.1) will be performed for a set period of time to determine if tritium content is low enough to require prior enrichment. (miami.edu)
  • In this report, the Cerenkov counting performance of the TopCount is documented for linearity, volume effects, efficiency, background and well-to-well crosstalk, as well as the applicability of this technique for liquid and filter/membrane counting. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Counting efficiency, crosstalk, and background data were acquired for counting in white 96- and 24-well OptiPlates. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Samples of animal or plant tissue are rarely thin or small enough to allow for full counting efficiency. (nationaldiagnostics.com)
  • The principal problem faced in scintillation counting is the determination of counting efficiency of each individual sample (usually having soft B activity) being measured. (google.com)
  • In contrast to other methods of radioactivity measurement in which a single efficiency factor may be determined by counting a known standard and then applied to all seemingly identical samples to correct for effects of geometry, lack of detector sensitivity, etc., in liquid scintillation counting detection efiiciency varies as a result of conditions within the sample itself and counting a standard sample to determine such efficiency is of no value. (google.com)
  • For this purpose, liquid scintillation counting (LSC) is an excellent method because alphas are counted with nearly 100% counting efficiency with low backgrounds, even with severe quenching. (environmental-expert.com)
  • In the present study, we compared the efficacy of three commercially available scintillation liquids, Optiphase HiSafe 3, Ultima-Gold AB (biodegradable) and Insta-Gel-XF (non-biodegradable), in terms of [14C]-glucose and [³H]-thymidine counting efficiency. (unifesp.br)
  • We also analyzed the effect of the relative amount of water (1.6 to 50%), radioisotope concentration (0.1 to 100 nCi/ml), pH (2 to 10) and color of the solutions (samples containing 0.1 to 1.0 mg/ml of Trypan blue) on the counting efficiency in the presence of these scintillation liquids. (unifesp.br)
  • There were few significant differences in the efficiency of 14C and ³H counting obtained with biodegradable or non-biodegradable scintillation liquids. (unifesp.br)
  • However, there was an 83 and 94% reduction in the efficiency of 14C and ³H counting, respectively, in samples colored with 1 mg/ml Trypan blue, but not with 0.1 mg/ml, independent of the scintillation liquid used. (unifesp.br)
  • Considering the low cost of biodegradable scintillation cocktails and their efficacy, these results show that traditional hazardous scintillation fluids may be replaced with the new safe biodegradable fluids without impairment of ³H and 14C counting efficiency. (unifesp.br)
  • The efficiency of this process is 4-50%, depending on the scintillation cocktail used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Factors Affecting Counting Efficiency. (routledge.com)
  • Key features of scintillator counters include high resolution, automated multi-detection and high counting efficiency. (selectscience.net)
  • Audric, BN and Long, JVP 1954 Use of dissolved acetylene in liquid scintillation counters for the measurement of carbon-14 for low specific activity. (springer.com)
  • Broda, R and Radoszewski, T 1982 Scintillation detector with anticoincidence shield for determination of radioactive concentration of standard solutions. (springer.com)
  • 3. A scintillation detector as set forth in claim 2 , wherein each light sensor views more than one scintillator segment. (google.es)
  • 4. A scintillation detector as set forth in claim 2 , wherein each light sensor views three mutually contiguous scintillator segments. (google.es)
  • 5. A scintillation detector as set forth in claim 2 , wherein each scintillator segment is viewed by a respective group of three mutually contiguous light sensors dedicated to the respective scintillator segment. (google.es)
  • 6. A scintillation detector as set forth in claim 2 , wherein each segment is formed by a respective discrete scintillation crystal. (google.es)
  • 7. A scintillation detector as set forth in claim 6 , wherein a reflective bonding material is interposed between contiguous sides of the scintillator segments to join the discrete segments to one another. (google.es)
  • 8. A scintillation detector as set forth in claim 6 , wherein each segment has tapered sides for positioning in a nonplanar arrangement. (google.es)
  • 9. A scintillation detector as set forth in claim 8 , wherein the discrete scintillation crystals are mounted on a flexible substrate. (google.es)
  • 10. A scintillation detector as set forth in claim 2 , wherein a scintillation crystal has formed in a surface thereof a plurality of slits separating adjacent portions of the crystal, each portion forming a respective one of the scintillation segments. (google.es)
  • 11. A scintillation detector as set forth in claim 2 , wherein a reflector is interposed between contiguous sides of the scintillator segments. (google.es)
  • This would be by means of either a scintillation detector or a semiconductor detector placed in close proximity to the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any radiation detector is a relative instrument, that is to say the measurement value can only be converted to an amount of material present by comparing the response signal (usually counts per minute, or per second) to the signal obtained from a standard whose quantity (activity) is well known. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the core of a scintillation counter is a sensor and detector, where the sensor is typically a scintillator crystal. (selectscience.net)
  • MicroBeta® TriLux is a multi-detector instrument designed for liquid scintillation or luminescence detection of samples in microtitration plates, tubes or on filters. (selectscience.net)
  • Despite the handicap of encapsulation, the excellent characteristics of scintillation crystals have made this type of detector useful in geophysical surveys for uranium and oil, clinical measurements of radio isotopes, radiation monitoring of personnel for exposure, as well as the many applications in nuclear'physics and research. (google.com)
  • A method and apparatus for automatically counting the activity induced in a test sample containing a radioactive isotope while compensating for the amount of quenching in said test sample by adjusting the photomultiplier excitation or the gain of the amplifier in the detection system. (google.com)
  • Created page with ' Image:UnderConstruction_pict22.gif Image:UnderConstruction_pict17.gif === Learning Goals === *Understand the theory behind Liquid Scintillation detection. (uio.no)
  • Understand the theory behind Liquid Scintillation detection. (uio.no)
  • Understand how the detection equipment in Liquid Scintillation works. (uio.no)
  • The sensitivity of a counter does depend on counting time so the longer the count, for the same system, the better the detection limit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Concentrating on techniques for the detection and measurement of radioactivity, this book offers a guide to selecting the type of counter, type of source sample, duration for which the counting must be made, and the radiation emitted by the isotope for its efficient detection. (routledge.com)
  • Detection of Nuclear Radiation by Scintillation Counter. (routledge.com)
  • Though the scintillation counter has become a familiar instrument for the detection of many types of ionizing radiation in a wide variety of applications, more sophisticated utilization of scintillation phosphors has demanded an increasing attention to improvements in the physical requirements of the scintillation phosphors with respect to the way they are mounted in the instruments. (google.com)
  • Results from proficiency tests gathered over the past two decades by the laboratory for low level radioactivity measurements for liquid scintillation counting of 3 H (184 results) and 14 C (74 results) are used to verify the validated measurement methods used by the laboratory, in particular the estimated uncertainty budget of the method and its reproducibility and stability. (springer.com)
  • Nuclear counting and separations analysis is available over a wide range of sample types, from low-radioactivity environmental samples to samples with high radioactivity requiring containment. (anl.gov)
  • In health physics, whole-body counting refers to the measurement of radioactivity within the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • It introduces a novel concept to explain not only the decay processes but also the selection of counting procedures for detecting and measuring radioactivity. (routledge.com)
  • following successive washes, intracellular radioactivity was measured by scintillation counting. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers must submit compelling justification for why a non-biodegradable scintillation fluid is required for their usage, and after receiving written approval, a special order can be placed through BioChem or Chemistry Stores. (uiowa.edu)
  • Please direct any questions regarding this policy or written requests for special orders of non-biodegradable scintillation fluids to Joe Graves , phone: 335-8517. (uiowa.edu)
  • The use of biodegradable scintillation cocktails minimizes both human and environmental exposure to hazardous solvents. (unifesp.br)
  • In addition, some biodegradable scintillation liquids can be 40% less expensive than the traditional hazardous cocktails. (unifesp.br)
  • Only aqueous based solutions, such as biodegradable scintillation fluids, may be discharged into the sanitary sewer system. (clemson.edu)
  • Some chemical compounds (notably chlorine compounds) and highly colored samples can interfere with the counting process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Where appropriate, samples were also Cerenkov counted on the Packard Tri-Carb 2500TR LSC for comparison to TopCount. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Liquid scintillation counting of discrete samples is conceptually straightforward. (nationaldiagnostics.com)
  • The present invention relates to liquid scintillation spec trometry and more particularly to automatic liquid scintillation analysis of samples containing one of more radioactive elements (generally [3 emitters). (google.com)
  • In the case of a radiological or nuclear incident, valuable information could be obtained in a timely manner by using Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) technique through fast screening of urine samples from potentially contaminated persons. (cdc.gov)
  • For most samples containing minimal amounts of water (0-15%), CytoScint™ ES will result in increased count recovery and maximum sample solubilization. (mpbio.com)
  • Primary Applications: Aqueous samples from 0 to 15% count as monophasic solutions. (mpbio.com)
  • High-energy beta emitters, such as phosphorus-32 and yitrium-90 can also be counted in a scintillation counter without the cocktail, instead using an aqueous solution containing no scintillators. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new feature allows the use of TopCount for measuring a high energy beta emitter such as 32 P by Cerenkov counting, a well-known measurement technique that has the main advantage of not requiring the addition of scintillation cocktail. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The main advantage to Cerenkov counting is the fact that scintillation cocktail is not required for measurement. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A gelling agent, N-lauroyl-L-glutamic-α,γ-dibutylamide, was applied for liquid scintillation counting of inorganic 32 P and 35 S. The gel with toluene cocktail is transparent and rigid for a long time. (elsevier.com)
  • Liquid scintillation counting is the measurement of radioactive activity of a sample material which uses the technique of mixing the active material with a liquid scintillator (e.g. zinc sulfide), and counting the resultant photon emissions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The TopCount Microplate Scintillation and Luminescence Counter has been widely used in biopharmaceutical assays involving both radionuclide and luminescence measurement. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Low-level gas proportional counting of water sample. (miami.edu)
  • The very advantages of the scintillation crystals, namely, high sensitivity to gamma rays, wide range of physical size, response proportional to the incident radiation, rapid response time, and a fast decay time, tend to be attenuated by the requirements of encapsulating the crystals for use under ordinary operating conditions. (google.com)
  • 140° F. This means that scintillation fluids based on toluene or xylene will no longer be available except by special order. (uiowa.edu)
  • 218 Po and 214 Po, was determined with the BetaScout low-background liquid scintillation counter. (springer.com)
  • Cerenkov Counting Performance on the TopCountTM Microplate Scintillation and Luminescence Counter ( Abstract The Top. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The TopCount Microplate Scintillation and Luminescence Counter has bee. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Ediss, C 1980 A multichannel analyser interface for a Beckman 9000 liquid scintillation counter. (springer.com)
  • Coulter counter an automated instrument for performing blood counts , based on the principle that cells are poor electrical conductors compared with saline solution. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • scintillation counter a device for detecting ionization events, permitting determination of the concentration of radioisotopes in the body or other substance. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Remove 1 ml sample of liquid and count on Liquid Scintillation Counter. (sfu.ca)
  • Berthold, F 1980 A new approach to automatic photomultiplier stabilisation for photon and scintillation counters. (springer.com)
  • Scintillation also includes liquid scintillation, radiometers and particle counters. (selectscience.net)
  • The coincidence circuit assures that genuine light pulses, which reach both photomultiplier tubes, are counted, while spurious pulses (due to line noise, for example), which would only affect one of the tubes, are ignored. (wikipedia.org)
  • This technique, known as Cherenkov counting, relies on Cherenkov radiation being detected directly by the photomultiplier tubes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 56] References Cited 8 UNITED STATES PATENTS ENCAPSULATED SCINTILLATION PHOSPHOR BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The use of scintillation phosphors, and particularly crystals, in which flashes of light are produced by the passage of charged particles through certain organic or inorganic crystalline materials, which flashes are then detected and amplified by a device such as a photomultiplier tube, is well known. (google.com)
  • 1. Regulated organic based waste scintillation fluids will be handled and disposed of as "mixed waste" (waste that is considered both hazardous and radioactive). (clemson.edu)
  • Radionuclides were counted in a programmed scintillation spectrometer. (cdc.gov)
  • The advantages of whole-body counting are that it measures body contents directly, does not rely on indirect bio-assay methods (such as urinalysis) as it can measure insoluble radionuclides in the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The BOMAB phantom consists of 10 high-density polyethylene containers and is used to calibrate in vivo counting systems that are designed to measure the radionuclides that emit high energy photons (200 keV (wikipedia.org)
  • abstract = "A gelling agent, N-lauroyl-L-glutamic-α,γ-dibutylamide, was applied for liquid scintillation counting of inorganic32P and35S. (elsevier.com)
  • The Cerenkov counting mode was used on the TopCount with a factory set region of interest especially suited for highest sensitivity. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Among several procedures described in the literature for direct indoor Rn measurements, liquid scintillation plays a very important role. (springer.com)
  • [3] [4] The measurements are typically expressed in counts per minute (CPM) or disintegrations per minute (DPM). (wikipedia.org)
  • The camera may also use an array of individual scintillation elements (crystals) in place of a single crystal, with certain advantages obtained thereby. (google.es)
  • High ionic concentrations will be most efficiently counted in this region. (mpbio.com)
  • If you have any questions concerning the disposal of scintillation fluid or mixed waste, please call the Radiation Safety Officer before initiating the use of these compounds. (clemson.edu)
  • Liquid scintillation methods are becoming widely used, particularly for measuring soft B emitting isotopes in the biological, chemical and medical research fields. (google.com)
  • Scintillation counting is one of the most sensitive and effective methods for detecting radiation. (hamamatsu.com)
  • The fine capillary structure of glass fiber filters can absorb large quantities of water, enabling spot tests and liquid scintillation counting methods. (fishersci.com)
  • On the other hand, disadvantages of whole-body counting are that except in special circumstances it can only be used for gamma emitters due to self-shielding of the human body, and it can misinterpret external contamination as an internal contamination. (wikipedia.org)
  • A well designed counting system can detect levels of most gamma emitters (>200 keV) at levels far below that which would cause adverse health effects in people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gelation with N-lauroyl-L-glutamic-α,γ-dibutylamide for liquid scintillation counting of low specific activities of 35 S and 32 P . Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry Letters , 165 (4), 203-207. (elsevier.com)
  • New coverage is presented on ROC curves, micropattern gas detectors, new sensors for scintillation light, and the excess noise factor. (ecampus.com)
  • These advantages make Cerenkov counting an attractive alternative to liquid scintillation counting of 32 P in microplate based assays. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Cerenkov counting performance in the TopCount is documented for a variety of sample matrices and assays. (bio-medicine.org)
  • All wells were counted for five minutes each using a predefined window for Cerenkov counting (channels 6-60). (bio-medicine.org)
  • The sample is measured directly in its own medium with little or no preparation for counting. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Preparation of Sources for Counting. (routledge.com)
  • Principal investigators who are authorized to use radioactive materials or are applying for such use may petition the Executive Committee for a scintillation fluid exception. (uiowa.edu)
  • Liquid scintillation (LS) radiometry (the counting of nuclear emanations) has undergone continuous development since attempts were first made in the early 1950s to detect natural 14 C by this method. (springer.com)
  • The counting method. (springer.com)
  • Counting Counting performance in 0.4 and 1.5 mL microcentrifuge tubes containing varying amounts of water was assessed. (bio-medicine.org)
  • We have developed a quantitative scintillation proximity assay (SPA) that reproduces the Raf/MEK/ERK signal transduction pathway. (nih.gov)
  • According to another aspect of the invention, there is a reflector sheet that defines an array of apertures through which scintillation light can pass from the scintillation crystal to a plurality of light sensors optically coupled to an optical window in an array corresponding to the array of apertures in the reflector. (google.es)
  • 1 β energies in excess of 1 MeV are more desirable since the counting efficiencies are higher and closer to those observed by liquid scintillation counting. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Integrated approach to surfactant environmental safety assessment: fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting to determine the mechanism and kinetics of surfactant biodegradation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting have been used to study the biodegradation of a novel cationic surfactant in live sludge. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Whole body counting may be unable to distinguish between radioisotopes that have similar gamma energies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enrichment and low-level counting of ultra-low activity water sample. (miami.edu)
  • If sample does not require enrichment, the counting will continue until the criterion under A1 is met and the total cost is the same as above in A.1, i.e. $175.00. (miami.edu)
  • Depending on the counting geometry of the system, count times can be from 1 minute to about 30 minutes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose is to allow more efficient counting due to the intimate contact of the activity with the scintillator. (wikipedia.org)
  • Larry C. Andrews , Ronald L. Phillips , Richard J. Sasiela, Ronald R. Parenti , "Strehl ratio and scintillation theory for uplink Gaussian-beam waves: beam wander effects," Optical Engineering 45(7), 076001 (1 July 2006). (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Analysis of radioactive strontium-90 in food by Čerenkov liquid scintillation counting. (nih.gov)
  • Analysis by onboard Liquid Scintillation Counting. (bodc.ac.uk)