Scintillation Counting: Detection and counting of scintillations produced in a fluorescent material by ionizing radiation.Radionuclide Imaging: The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.Plastics: Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Technetium: The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.Germanium: A rare metal element with a blue-gray appearance and atomic symbol Ge, atomic number 32, and atomic weight 72.63.Radioactive Waste: Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.Elementary Particles: Individual components of atoms, usually subatomic; subnuclear particles are usually detected only when the atomic nucleus decays and then only transiently, as most of them are unstable, often yielding pure energy without substance, i.e., radiation.Gamma Cameras: Electronic instruments that produce photographs or cathode-ray tube images of the gamma-ray emissions from organs containing radionuclide tracers.Technology, Radiologic: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to the field of radiology. The applications center mostly around x-ray or radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes but the technological applications of any radiation or radiologic procedure is within the scope of radiologic technology.Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Optical Fibers: Thin strands of transparent material, usually glass, that are used for transmitting light waves over long distances.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Xenon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.Thallium: A heavy, bluish white metal, atomic number 81, atomic weight [204.382; 204.385], symbol Tl.TritiumPhotons: Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Mercury Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of mercury that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Hg atoms with atomic weights 185-195, 197, 203, 205, and 206 are radioactive mercury isotopes.Nuclear Physics: The study of the characteristics, behavior, and internal structures of the atomic nucleus and its interactions with other nuclei. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Whole-Body Counting: Measurement of radioactivity in the entire human body.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Spectrometry, Gamma: Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pentetic Acid: An iron chelating agent with properties like EDETIC ACID. DTPA has also been used as a chelator for other metals, such as plutonium.Tantalum: Tantalum. A rare metallic element, atomic number 73, atomic weight 180.948, symbol Ta. It is a noncorrosive and malleable metal that has been used for plates or disks to replace cranial defects, for wire sutures, and for making prosthetic devices. (Dorland, 28th ed)ComputersRadiation Monitoring: The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Radioisotope Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cobalt Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.Iridium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iridium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ir atoms with atomic weights 182-190, 192, and 194-198 are radioactive iridium isotopes.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Particle Accelerators: Devices which accelerate electrically charged atomic or subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons or ions, to high velocities so they have high kinetic energy.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Monte Carlo Method: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Iodohippuric Acid: An iodine-containing compound used in pyelography as a radiopaque medium. If labeled with radioiodine, it can be used for studies of renal function.Radioisotope Renography: Graphic tracing over a time period of radioactivity measured externally over the kidneys following intravenous injection of a radionuclide which is taken up and excreted by the kidneys.Lutetium: Lutetium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Lu, atomic number 71, and atomic weight 175.Serum Albumin, Radio-Iodinated: Normal human serum albumin mildly iodinated with radioactive iodine (131-I) which has a half-life of 8 days, and emits beta and gamma rays. It is used as a diagnostic aid in blood volume determination. (from Merck Index, 11th ed)Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate: A technetium imaging agent used in renal scintigraphy, computed tomography, lung ventilation imaging, gastrointestinal scintigraphy, and many other procedures which employ radionuclide imaging agents.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Radiotherapy, High-Energy: Radiotherapy using high-energy (megavolt or higher) ionizing radiation. Types of radiation include gamma rays, produced by a radioisotope within a teletherapy unit; x-rays, electrons, protons, alpha particles (helium ions) and heavy charged ions, produced by particle acceleration; and neutrons and pi-mesons (pions), produced as secondary particles following bombardment of a target with a primary particle.Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Electronics: The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Tomography: Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.Iron Isotopes: Stable iron atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iron, but differ in atomic weight. Fe-54, 57, and 58 are stable iron isotopes.Benzene DerivativesEvaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Indium: A metallic element, atomic number 49, atomic weight 114.82, symbol In. It is named from its blue line in the spectrum. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Radon: A naturally radioactive element with atomic symbol Rn, atomic number 86, and atomic weight 222. It is a member of the noble gas family found in soil, and is released during the decay of radium.Ionic Liquids: Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.Air Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in air, which exhibit radioactivity.Air Pollution, Radioactive

Role of antibody and complement in opsonization of group B streptococci. (1/334)

A requirement for the classic complement pathway in opsonization of group B streptococci was observed by using both a chemiluminescence and a radiolabeled bacterial uptake technique. The classic pathway increased levels of opsonization for types Ia and II stock and wild strains and for some type III wild strains. In contrast, other type III wild strains and the type III stock strain had accelerated kinetics of uptake in the presence of an intact classic pathway, but the level of opsonization was unchanged from that with antibody alone. We could not demonstrate a significant role for the alternative pathway in opsonizing stock or wild strains of group B streptococci. Futhermore, electrophoretic and complement consumption analysis by hemolytic titration failed to reveal alternative pathway activation by the majority of strains of this group. Therapy aimed at supplying opsonins for these organisms will require the presence of type-specific antibody.  (+info)

Calcium fluxes in single muscle fibres measured with a glass scintillator probe. (2/334)

1. An intracellular glass scintillator (Caldwell & Lea, 1973) has been used to obtain a continuous record of the influx of 45Ca into single muscle fibres of the barnacle, Balanus nubilus. 2. In the presence of intracellular EGTA (final concentration greater than 3 mM/kg), the scintillator detected an initial fast phase to the influx (half-time = 18.3 min, compartment size = 4.1% fibre volume) followed by a slow, linear phase which gave a value for the Ca influx of 1.2 p-mole . cm-2 . sec-1. The efflux of 45Ca was also measured with the scintillator by transferring a 45Ca-loaded fibre into 45Ca-free saline. Two exponential phases of efflux were detected with half-times of 16.2 and 500 min. 3. The characterisitics of the fast phase of the influx and efflux are similar to those of the influx of the impermeant sucrose and inulin, suggesting that the fast phase represents exchange with the extracellular 'cleft space'. This phase was insensitive to external La3+ (2 mM). 4. The slow phase is considered to represent the flux of Ca across the surface membrane. It was inhibited by external La3+ (2 mM) and stimulated by replacing external Na+ with Li+. 5. When EGTA-injected fibres were depolarized using an axial, intracellular electrode the Ca influx, measured from the slow phase, was increased. At higher concentrations of intracellular EGTA (6--22 mM/kg), the extra Ca influx due to a rectangular, depolarizing current pulse was proportional to the number of Ca spikes it produced. A single Ca spike gave an extra Ca influx of 19--48 p-mole . cm-2. External D600 (5 x 10(-4)M) inhibited both Ca spike and the extra Ca influx. 6. At lower intracellular EGTA concentrations (3.6--11 mM/kg), a 50 mV depolarization of 250 msec duration gave a mean extra Ca influx of 80 p-mole . cm-2. The upper value was 145 p-mole . cm-2 and this would increase the total internal Ca by 4.1 micrometer/kg. It is calculated that if all this extra Ca was bound to the myofibrillar sites for tension, it would only produce 6.2% of the force expected for a similar depolarization in a fibre with no intracellular EGTA.  (+info)

Optimization of a new scintillation gas detector used to localize electrons emitted by 99mTc. (3/334)

We have developed a scintillation gas detector to localize electrons emitted by 99mTc. This type of detector allows direct quantification of images and so provides a clear advantage over autoradiographic film. We have optimized the device to give an image spatial resolution that closely approximates that of typical autoradiographic film. To improve this resolution, it was necessary to select only low-energy electrons (2 and 15 keV) and to devise novel detection and localization techniques for the ionizing particles. METHODS: A parallel-plate proportional avalanche chamber is subject to a uniform electrical field and amplifies the number of released electrons through collisions of ionizing particles in the gas mixture. Light emitted by the gas scintillator during the avalanche process is collected by a highly intensified charge coupled device camera. The centroid of each resulting light distribution is calculated, resulting in a quantitative mapping of the sample's activity. Insertion of the sample within the gas volume improves the efficiency and so provides a method that is both very sensitive and linear. RESULTS: We have shown that in a parallel-plate structure, the application of a high electrical field to the surface of the sample and the selection of appropriate light spots, according to their morphology, can overcome localization errors due to the particles' trajectories. We have obtained a resolution of the order of 30 microm, using electrons from 99mTc. CONCLUSION: This detection technique allows considerable improvement in image resolution. This "electron camera" is a serious rival to existing autoradiographic techniques, because it provides certain other advantages, including direct quantification, linearity, high dynamic range and low noise levels. Thus, new perspectives are made available in quantitative double tracer autoradiography, because electrons can be selected for imaging as a function of their energy.  (+info)

Growth and differentiation of cultured fetal hepatocytes isolated various developmental stages. (4/334)

We examined the relationship between cell proliferation and differentiation of cultured rat fetal and newborn hepatocytes isolated from various developmental stages. The albumin production rate increased along with cell growth under in vitro culture and became maximal two days after the growth cessation. AFP was secreted by both fetal and newborn hepatocytes with growth ability. Furthermore, the responses to HGF addition in fetal hepatocyte cultures were observed in terms of growth stimulation and down-regulated of the Met receptor. We also studied the changes in RB and liver enriched transcription factors (C/EBPs) for investigating the mechanism underlying proliferation and differentiation of fetal hepatocytes. Western blot analysis of hepatocytes taken from various gestation stages of rat liver showed that the expression of RB and C/EBP beta increased as gestation stage proceeded. When RB antisense S-oligonucleotide was added to the culture medium, proliferation and AFP expression increased, while C/EBP alpha and albumin expressions decreased. These results indicated that the tumor suppressor gene product RB had a profound role not only in cell proliferation but also hepatocyte differentiation.  (+info)

Highly Th2-skewed cytokine profile of beta-lactam-specific T cells from nonatopic subjects with adverse drug reactions. (5/334)

A positive lymphocyte transformation test to beta-lactams (beta-L) was found in 12 of 29 subjects with adverse drug reaction (ADR) to beta-L, irrespective of either the type of clinical manifestation or the presence of specific serum IgE. Short-term T cell lines specific for penicillin G, amoxicillin, and ampicillin could be generated only from subjects with ADR (eight with positive and one with negative lymphocyte transformation test), while streptokinase and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus group 1 (Der p 1)-specific T cells were obtained from all these subjects, from 7 atopic Der p-sensitive donors without history of ADR and 17 healthy nonatopic donors. Streptokinase-specific T cells from all subjects showed intracellular expression of IFN-gamma with poor or no IL-4, whereas Der p 1-specific T cells exhibited IFN-gamma but low or no IL-4 expression in nonatopics, and remarkable IL-4 expression in atopic donors. By contrast, all penicillin G-, ampicillin-, and amoxicillin-specific short-term T cell lines showed high intracellular expression of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, but poor or no expression of IFN-gamma, thus exhibiting a clear-cut Th2 profile. Accordingly, most penicillin G-specific T cell clones derived from two subjects with ADR released high concentrations of IL-4 alone or IL-4 and IFN-gamma. These data suggest that cytokines produced by Th2 cells play an important role in all beta-L-induced ADR, even when late clinical manifestations occur and an IgE-mediated mechanism is apparently indemonstrable.  (+info)

Human immune responses to the highly repetitive Plasmodium falciparum antigen Pf332. (6/334)

The B and T cell responses to EB200, a repetitive part of the Plasmodium falciparum antigen Pf332, were examined in malaria-exposed Senegalese adults. Most donors had high levels of antibodies to recombinant EB200 and 17 overlapping peptides spanning EB200. Taking proliferation and/or cytokine (interferon-gamma and interleukin-4) production as a measure of T cell activation, eight of the EB200-derived peptides induced responses in > 40% of the donors tested. There was no general association between the different types of T cell responses measured, emphasizing the importance of including multiple parameters when analyzing T cell responses and suggesting that EB200 induces functionally distinct T cell responses. The most efficient peptide for induction of proliferative responses was one previously shown to induce T cell responses in five different H-2 congenic mouse strains primed with EB200, suggesting that this is a universal T cell epitope. The presence of multiple B and T cell epitopes in EB200, widely recognized by humans, is important since EB200 has been shown to elicit protective antibody responses in monkeys and may be considered for inclusion in malaria subunit vaccines.  (+info)

Determination of different amino sugar 2'-epimerase activities by coupling to N-acetylneuraminate synthesis. (7/334)

A new procedure for quantitating the amount of N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc) or ManNAc-6-phosphate produced by 2'-epimerase activities involved in sialic acid metabolism has been developed. The ManNAc generated by the action of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) and UDP-GlcNAc 2'-epimerases is condensed with pyruvate through the action of N-acetylneuraminate lyase and the sialic acid released is measured by the thiobarbituric acid assay. For the analysis of prokaryotic GlcNAc-6-phosphate 2'-epimerase, ManNAc-6-phosphate can also be evaluated by this coupled assay after dephosphorylation of the sugar phosphate. This system provides a sensitive, rapid, reproducible, specific and simple procedure (feasible with commercial reagents) for measuring amino sugar 2'-epimerases from eukaryotic and prokaryotic sources. The technique reported here permitted us to detect UDP-GlcNAc 2'-epimerase and GlcNAc 2'-epimerase in mammalian cell extracts and GlcNAc-6-phosphate 2'-epimerase in bacterial extracts.  (+info)

T-cell mediated autoimmunity to the insulinoma-associated protein 2 islet tyrosine phosphatase in type 1 diabetes mellitus. (8/334)

The target molecules of the T-cell response in type 1 diabetes, despite their pathogenic importance, remain largely uncharacterized, especially in humans. Interestingly, molecules such as insulin and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) have been shown to be a target not only of autoantibodies, but also of autoreactive T-lymphocytes both in man and in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse. In the present study we aimed to determine the existence of a specific T-cell response towards the insulinoma-associated protein 2 (IA-2) islet tyrosine phosphatase, a recently identified autoantigen which is the target of autoantibodies strongly associated with diabetes development. Human recombinant IA-2 produced in Escherichia coli, was tested for its reactivity with peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from 16 newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients and from 25 normal controls, 15 of whom were HLA-DR-matched. A T-cell proliferation assay was performed in triplicate employing freshly isolated cells in the absence or in the presence of the antigen to be tested (at two different concentrations: 2 microg/ml and 10 microg/ml). A specific T-cell proliferation (defined as a stimulation index (S.I.) >/=3) was observed against IA-2 used at a concentration of 10 microg/ml (but not of 2 microg/ml) in 8/16 diabetic patients, in 1/15 HLA-DR-matched control subjects (P<0.01 by Fisher exact test) and in 0/10 of the remaining normal individuals. A statistically significant difference (P<0.003 by Mann-Whitney U test) was also observed in S.I. values between patients (3.1+/-1.4) and HLA-DR-matched controls (1.7+/-0.54) employing IA-2 at a concentration of 10 microg/ml. However, when IA-2 was used at a concentration of 2 microg/ml, the difference in S. I. between patients (1.65+/-0.8) and controls (1.0+/-0.3) did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, these data show the presence of a specific, dose-dependent T-lymphocyte response against the IA-2 islet tyrosine phosphatase at the onset of type 1 diabetes. Consequently, this molecule appears to be a target not only at the B-lymphocyte but also at the T-lymphocyte level, reinforcing the potential pathogenic role of this autoantigen in the islet destructive process.  (+info)

  • High ionic concentrations will be most efficiently counted in this region. (
  • This equipment enabled a record to be obtained on which an image of the gland was visible and which the researchers concluded was better than a total activity count for clinical studies of thyroid disease. (
  • 1. Regulated organic based waste scintillation fluids will be handled and disposed of as "mixed waste" (waste that is considered both hazardous and radioactive). (
  • Various types of probes utilize at least one scintillation crystal in lightcommunication with a photo-multiplier tube so as to quantify in some way, the flashes of light which result from fluorescent radiation emitted by atoms of the crystal as they return to their normal energy state after having been ionized or excited by a charged particle which enters the crystal lattice. (
  • An account of the present state of the art in scintillation counting may be found in several publications, for instance in Liquid scintillation counting (l957l963) by E. Rapkin, in pages 6987 of the International Journal of Applied Radiation and Isotopes' 1964). (
  • If sample does not require enrichment, the counting will continue until the criterion under A1 is met and the total cost is the same as above in A.1, i.e. $175.00. (
  • Larry C. Andrews , Ronald L. Phillips , Richard J. Sasiela, Ronald R. Parenti , "Strehl ratio and scintillation theory for uplink Gaussian-beam waves: beam wander effects," Optical Engineering 45(7), 076001 (1 July 2006). (