The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
The sciences dealing with processes observable in nature.
Disciplines concerned with the study of human and animal behavior.
Study of the principles and practices of library administration and services.
The field of knowledge, theory, and technology dealing with the collection of facts and figures, and the processes and methods involved in their manipulation, storage, dissemination, publication, and retrieval. It includes the fields of COMMUNICATION; PUBLISHING; LIBRARY SCIENCE; and informatics.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
A United States organization of distinguished scientists and engineers established for the purpose of investigating and reporting upon any subject of art or science as requested by any department of government. The National Research Council organized by NAS serves as the principal operating agency to stimulate and support research.
The study of the precise nature of different mental tasks and the operations of the brain that enable them to be performed, engaging branches of psychology, computer science, philosophy, and linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.
A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)
The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.
Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.
Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.
A course of study offered by an educational institution.
The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.
Services offered to the library user. They include reference and circulation.
Specialists in the management of a library or the services rendered by a library, bringing professional skills to administration, organization of material and personnel, interpretation of bibliothecal rules, the development and maintenance of the library's collection, and the provision of information services.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.
Financial support of research activities.
Those individuals engaged in research.
The educational process of instructing.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports basic and applied research to reduce the burden of human illness and dysfunction from environmental causes by, defining how environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, and age interact to affect an individual's health. It was established in 1969.
Collection and analysis of data pertaining to operations of a particular library, library system, or group of independent libraries, with recommendations for improvement and/or ordered plans for further development.
Organizations composed of members with common interests and whose professions may be similar.
Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.
An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.
The practical application of physical, mechanical, and mathematical principles. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A psychologic theory, developed by John Broadus Watson, concerned with studying and measuring behaviors that are observable.
Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)
The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.
Programs of study which span the traditional boundaries of academic scholarship.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.
Development of a library collection, including the determination and coordination of selection policy, assessment of needs of users and potential users, collection use studies, collection evaluation, identification of collection needs, selection of materials, planning for resource sharing, collection maintenance and weeding, and budgeting.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
Use for general articles concerning medical education.
The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.
Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.
The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
The use of automatic machines or processing devices in libraries. The automation may be applied to library administrative activities, office procedures, and delivery of library services to users.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
The circulation or wide dispersal of information.
Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.
An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.
Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.
The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.
Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.
Planning, organizing, staffing, direction, and control of libraries.
Intentional falsification of scientific data by presentation of fraudulent or incomplete or uncorroborated findings as scientific fact.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.
The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)
Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.
A social science dealing with group relationships, patterns of collective behavior, and social organization.
Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.
Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.
The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.
A branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.
A computerized biomedical bibliographic storage and retrieval system operated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLARS stands for Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, which was first introduced in 1964 and evolved into an online system in 1971 called MEDLINE (MEDLARS Online). As other online databases were developed, MEDLARS became the name of the entire NLM information system while MEDLINE became the name of the premier database. MEDLARS was used to produce the former printed Cumulated Index Medicus, and the printed monthly Index Medicus, until that publication ceased in December 2004.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
Information centers primarily serving the needs of hospital medical staff and sometimes also providing patient education and other services.
The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES, as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease in animals.
The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.
A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
The specialty related to the performance of techniques in clinical pathology such as those in hematology, microbiology, and other general clinical laboratory applications.
Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.
Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)
Acquisition, organization, and preparation of library materials for use, including selection, weeding, cataloging, classification, and preservation.
The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Collections of systematically acquired and organized information resources, and usually providing assistance to users. (ERIC Thesaurus, accessed 2/1/2008)
The upward or downward mobility in an occupation or the change from one occupation to another.
Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.
Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.
The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.
Selection of a type of occupation or profession.
The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.
Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.
Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
Senior professionals who provide guidance, direction and support to those persons desirous of improvement in academic positions, administrative positions or other career development situations.
The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.
The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.
Requirements for the selection of students for admission to academic institutions.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.
A course or method of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
The broad dissemination of new ideas, procedures, techniques, materials, and devices and the degree to which these are accepted and used.
The ability to generate new ideas or images.
The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.
Schools which offer training in the area of health.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
The use of animals as investigational subjects.
The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.
Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program in the health occupations.
An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.
Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.
The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).
Preparatory education meeting the requirements for admission to medical school.
The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.
Use for articles concerning dental education in general.
Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.
The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.
Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.
The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of data through the application of computers.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.
Educational programs designed to inform individuals of recent advances in their particular field of interest. They do not lead to any formal advanced standing.
The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Research carried out by nurses, generally in clinical settings, in the areas of clinical practice, evaluation, nursing education, nursing administration, and methodology.
Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.
Principles, models, and laws that apply to complex interrelationships and interdependencies of sets of linked components which form a functioning whole, a system. Any system may be composed of components which are systems in their own right (sub-systems), such as several organs within an individual organism.
The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.
A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.
The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.
The attempt to improve the PHENOTYPES of future generations of the human population by fostering the reproduction of those with favorable phenotypes and GENOTYPES and hampering or preventing BREEDING by those with "undesirable" phenotypes and genotypes. The concept is largely discredited. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.
The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
The ability to recognize when information is needed and to locate, evaluate, and use the needed information effectively.
The planning of the furnishings and decorations of an architectural interior.
Formal education and training in preparation for the practice of a profession.
A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Books designed by the arrangement and treatment of their subject matter to be consulted for definite terms of information rather than to be read consecutively. Reference books include DICTIONARIES; ENCYCLOPEDIAS; ATLASES; etc. (From the ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Passing off as one's own the work of another without credit.
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.
Test designed to identify students suitable for admission into a graduate or undergraduate curriculum.
Discussion of lists of works, documents or other publications, usually with some relationship between them, e.g., by a given author, on a given subject, or published in a given place, and differing from a catalog in that its contents are restricted to holdings of a single collection, library, or group of libraries. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.
Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The kind of action or activity proper to the judiciary, particularly its responsibility for decision making.
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.
The study of animals - their morphology, growth, distribution, classification, and behavior.
The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.
Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.
Groups set up to advise governmental bodies, societies, or other institutions on policy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports basic biomedical research that is not targeted to specific diseases and funds studies on genes, proteins, and cells, as well as on fundamental processes like communication within and between cells and metabolism. It was established in 1962.
Systematic efforts to assist individuals in selecting an occupation or suitable employment on the basis of aptitude, education, etc.
An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.
The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.
The application of knowledge to the food industry.
A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.
Application of principles and practices of engineering science to biomedical research and health care.
Clusters of topics that fall within the domain of BIOETHICS, the field of study concerned with value questions that arise in biomedicine and health care delivery.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.
The study and practice of medicine by direct examination of the patient.

Innovation and public accountability in clinical research. (1/635)

For more than 20 years, clinical researchers have expressed alarm about the decline of their field, but they have failed to achieve a consensus on policies to revitalize and sustain it. Although they have traced the plight of clinical research to profound changes in science, medicine, and public expectations, their conservative vision and preference for short-term measures inhibit effective policy formulation. These trends are the outcome of historical developments, and they seem to mandate a new approach to public policy. A potential source for more viable and socially accountable policies lies in practitioners' notion that clinical research bridges basic and applied science (by translating scientific innovations into practical measures). Exploiting that idea, however, would require a major reorientation of the field toward health services research and the institutions that are struggling to support it.  (+info)

Tolerance in a rigorous science. (2/635)

Scientists often evaluate other people's theories by the same standards they apply to their own work; it is as though scientists may believe that these criteria are independent of their own personal priorities and standards. As a result of this probably implicit belief, they sometimes may make less useful judgments than they otherwise might if they were able and willing to evaluate a specific theory at least partly in terms of the standards appropriate to that theory. Journal editors can play an especially constructive role in managing this diversity of standards and opinion.  (+info)

The transition to agricultural sustainability. (3/635)

The transition to sustainable growth in agricultural production during the 21st century will take place within the context of a transition to a stable population and a possible transition to a stable level of material consumption. If the world fails to successfully navigate a transition to sustainable growth in agricultural production, the failure will be due more to a failure in the area of institutional innovation than to resource and environmental constraints.  (+info)

Challenge of Goodness II: new humanitarian technology, developed in croatia and bosnia and Herzegovina in 1991-1995, and applied and evaluated in Kosovo 1999. (4/635)

This paper presents improvements of the humanitarian proposals of the Challenge of Goodness project published earlier (1). In 1999 Kosovo crisis, these proposals were checked in practice. The priority was again on the practical intervention - helping people directly - to prevent, stop, and ease suffering. Kosovo experience also prompted us to modify the concept of the Challenge of Goodness. It should include research and education (1. redefinition of health, 2. confronting genocide, 3. university studies and education, and 4. collecting experience); evaluation (1. Red Cross forum, 2. organization and technology assessment, 3. Open Hand - Experience of Good People); activities in different stages of war or conflict in: 1. prevention (right to a home, Hate Watch, early warning), 2. duration (refugee camps, prisoners-of-war camps, global hospital, minorities), 3. end of conflict (planned, organized, and evaluated protection), 4. post conflict (remaini ng and abandoned populations, prisoners of war and missing persons, civilian participation, return, and renewal). Effectiveness of humanitarian intervention may be performed by politicians, soldiers, humanitarian workers, and volunteers, but the responsibility lies on science. Science must objectively collect data, develop hypotheses, check them in practice, allow education, and be the force of good, upon which everybody can rely. Never since the World War II has anybody in Europe suffered in war and conflict so much as peoples in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Kosovo. We should search for the meaning of their suffering, and develop new knowledge and technology of peace.  (+info)

Closer to a compromise on the direction of environmental research. (5/635)

The Committee for the National Institute for the Environment (CNIE) was created in 1990 "to improve the scientific basis for making decisions on environmental issues," possibly through the establishment of a separate institute devoted to the environmental sciences. But while the goals proposed for the National Institute for the Environment were universally applauded, Congress was averse to adding a new agency to the federal bureaucracy. Recently, a compromise plan has been proposed that could expand the science base without having to create a new agency. On 29 July 1999, the National Science Board approved an interim report recommending an expanded program of environmental research and research planning, education, and scientific assessment with a funding target of an additional $1 billion over five years. The report stresses the importance of environmental research in formulating environmental protection programs and contains 12 recommendations intended to enhance and complement existing research activities in environmental sciences and engineering. If the National Science Foundation implements the recommendations in the report and if Congress appropriates funds for that purpose, the need for additional funding for new science activities identified by the CNIE should be satisfied.  (+info)

The scientist's world. (6/635)

This paper describes the features of the world of science, and it compares that world briefly with that of politics and the law. It also discusses some "postmodern" trends in philosophy and sociology that have been undermining confidence in the objectivity of science and thus have contributed indirectly to public mistrust. The paper includes broader implications of interactions of government and science.  (+info)

The myth of objectivity: is medicine moving towards a social constructivist medical paradigm? (7/635)

Biomedicine is improperly imbued with a nomothetic methodology, which views 'disease' in a similar way to other 'natural' phenomena. This arises from a 300-year history of a positivist domination of science, meaning that objectivist research (e.g. randomized controlled trials or biochemical research) attracts more funding and is more readily published than 'softer' qualitative research. A brief review of objectivism and subjectivism is followed by a definition of an emerging medical paradigm. Current 'inappropriate' medical practices become understandable in this broader context, and examples are given. A constructivist paradigm can continue to incorporate 'objective' clinical findings and interventions, as well as the recent evidence for the doctor-patient relationship as a major contributor to patient outcomes.  (+info)

Organizational interventions: facing the limits of the natural science paradigm. (8/635)

This paper reviews current challenges in the conceptualization, design, and evaluation of organizational interventions to improve occupational health. It argues that attempts to confirm cause-and-effect relationships and allow prediction (maximize internal validity) are often made at the expense of generalizability (external validity). The current, dominant experimental paradigm in the occupational health research establishment, with its emphasis on identifying causal connections, focuses attention on outcome at the expense of process. Interventions should be examined in terms of (i) conceptualization, design and implementation (macroprocesses) and (ii) the theoretical mediating mechanisms involved (microprocesses). These processes are likely to be more generalizable than outcomes. Their examination may require the use of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. It is suggested that such an approach holds unexplored promise for the healthier design, management, and organization of future work.  (+info)

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

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NASA and Mad Science Partner to Promote Science Education This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the ... The Mad Science Group - Taking Off! The Method in Mad Science Archived 2010-06-12 at the Wayback Machine Business Development ... Mad Science Productions, incorporated in 1997, was a division of the Mad Science Group that specialized in the development, ... The Mad Science Group is an enrichment services company that specializes in delivering educational and entertaining science ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Surface science. "Ram Rao Materials and Surface Science", a video from the Vega Science ... Surface science is closely related to interface and colloid science. Interfacial chemistry and physics are common subjects for ... Science. 278 (5345): 1931-4. Bibcode:1997Sci...278.1931W. doi:10.1126/science.278.5345.1931. PMID 9395392. Waldmann, T.; et al ... Surface science is the study of physical and chemical phenomena that occur at the interface of two phases, including solid- ...
This journal's name was changed to "Antarctic Science" in 1989. This journal is indexed by the following services: Science ... Antarctic Science is a bimonthly peer reviewed scientific journal published by Cambridge University Press, focusing on all ... Earth Sciences Zoological Record BIOSIS Previews Library Catalog. "British Antarctic Survey Bulletin".Harvard University - ... Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences), Laurie Padman (Earth & Space Research), Alan Rodger (University of Aberystwyth), and ...
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Some science parks include: NOVI Science Park, Aalborg, Denmark National Science and Technology Park (NSTP), Islamabad, ... Sweden Turku Science Park, Turku, Finland Hong Kong Science Park, Pak Shek Kok, Hong Kong Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu, Taiwan ... North Carolina Amsterdam Science Park, Amsterdam, Netherlands Utrecht Science Park, Utrecht, Netherlands WISTA Science and ... United States Johanneberg Science Park, Gothenburg, Sweden Lindholmen Science Park, Gothenburg, Sweden Sahlgrenska Science Park ...
... palynology and zooarchaeology also form sub-disciplines of archaeological science. Archaeological science has particular value ... Archaeological science, also known as archaeometry, consists of the application of scientific techniques to the analysis of ... Archaeological science can be divided into the following areas: physical and chemical dating methods which provide ... However, Smith rejects both concepts of archaeological science because neither emphasize falsification or a search for ...
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... (CS) (similar to community science, crowd science, crowd-sourced science, civic science, participatory ... Citizen science has a long tradition in natural science. Today, citizen science projects can also be found in various fields of ... "Citizen Science Projects - Österreich forscht". Retrieved 25 November 2022. "EU Citizen Science ... National Academies Of Sciences, Engineering; Division of Behavioral Social Sciences Education; Board On Science, Education; ...
... was a monthly American magazine published by the Hearst Corporation from 1937 through 1988. Science Digest was ... Bruce V. Lewenstein (1987). "Was There Really a Popular Science" Boom"?". Science, Technology, & Human Values. 12: 29-41. doi: ... Ashley, Michael (2007). "Super Science". Gateways to Forever: The Story of the Science-Fiction Magazines, 1970-1980. Liverpool ... Science and technology magazines published in the United States, All stub articles, Science and technology magazine stubs). ...
Science was a community in LaSalle County, Illinois, United States, located along the Illinois River just south of modern-day ... "Utica Township, Science, La Salle County, Illinois map". Getty Images. 1906. Retrieved 25 March 2014. "Township 33 N. Range 2 E ... The original settlement was named Science, located along the bottomlands of the Illinois River. Coordinates: 41°19′46″N 89°0′30 ... Utica, Science, Illinois River, Deer Park Glen". La Salle County Atlas. Ottawa Printing Company. 1921. Retrieved 25 March 2014 ...
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The technology builds on research that showed it was possible to capture the energy in humidity. The latest discovery finds its possible to do so with any material. By Dan Rosenzweig-ZiffMay 26, 2023 ...
Science Workshop will be an in-person event organized by NASA and UNAVCO to bring together the science community in solid earth ... its planned science data products and upcoming funding opportunities to work on NISAR related science. Breakout sessions, ... Thank you for your interest in the 2022 NISAR Science Community Workshop. This workshop was held in 2022, and the agenda and ... science and applications. The program will also include information on available data analysis tools, computing resources and ...
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All the latest science news, in-depth features, games and conversations as they happen from around Australia and the world. ... Science meets art. Gary Cass is on a mission to bring the worlds of science and art together. ... What science can tell us about the music of love Why do we feel such an emotional tie with music? Is there a biological basis ... Science on the frontline: What are the rules of engagement? What happens when the work of scientists puts them in conflict with ...
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A listing of Science Highlights stories related to the Office of Science. ... Each year, scientists with the Office of Science, at our national laboratories, and supported by the Office of Science at the ... About 200 of these are selected annually by their respective program areas in the Office of Science as publication highlights ...
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The Science of Mind denies the error of sensation in matter, and heals with Truth. Medical science treats disease as though ... Science versus sense. Divine Science reverses the false testimony of the material senses, and thus tears away the foundations ... Christian Science, as demonstrated by Jesus, alone reveals the natural, divine Principle of Science. p. 273 ... Be thankful that Jesus, who was the true demonstrator of Science, did these things, and left his example for us. In Science we ...
... and scientists issued a public statement2 backing science writer Simon Singh in his application to appeal against a libel ... Science in court. BMJ 2009; 338 doi: (Published 03 June 2009) Cite this as: BMJ 2009;338: ...
The Analytical Science Community supports the development of research and training with analytical sciences. ... Zoë studied Forensic Science (BSc) at Nottingham Trent University before moving on to complete an MSc in Analytical Science at ... About the Analytical Science Community. The Analytical Science Community supports the development of research and training with ... Leon Barron is a senior lecturer in forensic science at Kings College London. He received both a BSc in Analytical Science ( ...
Physical sciences/Earth sciences/Geology/Geological events/Landslides * /Physical sciences/Physics/Mechanics/Classical ... The Science of tsunamis. University of California - Santa Barbara. Journal. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. Keywords. * /Physical ... The Science of tsunamis Mechanical engineer Alban Sauret and colleagues develop a model to better understand the forces that ... Copyright © 2023 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) ...
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What have women contributed to science? Quite a lot actually. ... What have women contributed to science? Quite a lot actually.. ... Women are seldom associated with science and the biggest discoveries of our time, and theyre often driven away from careers in ... math and science.. But from this video, courtesy of BuzzFeed, its clear theyve had plenty to offer to the field. Maybe its ...
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Through UNSWs Arts degree youll hone your interests and dive into the social sciences, arts and humanities fields youre ...] Show Program leadership Hide Program Leadership ... 2011 Individual Science Literacy Project. a 216kB Microsoft Word file file details Provenance. Grinnell Science Project ... The Grinnell Science Project is committed to developing the talents of all students interested in science and mathematics, ... Prior to the Grinnell Science Project, from 1992-1994, an average of 42 science majors graduated annually who were women and ...
... recognize the best works of science fiction and fantasy published in the United States as selected by members of the Science ... The Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America (SFWA, Inc.) is pleased to announce that William Gibson has been named the ... The influence of Gibsons writing has not only been felt within the science fiction community, but has expanded to other forms ... The WIRED conversation illuminates how technology is changing every aspect of our lives-from culture to business, science to ...
  • Thank you for your interest in the 2022 NISAR Science Community Workshop. (
  • Zoë studied Forensic Science (BSc) at Nottingham Trent University before moving on to complete an MSc in Analytical Science at the University of Warwick. (
  • Forensic science" is a broad term that encompasses many disciplines of science and technology that are focused on investigating cases in the criminal justice system. (
  • Forensic pathology is a subset of forensic science, and its focus is on the autopsy to aid in determining identity and the cause and manner of death. (
  • Some disciplines in forensic science have become so commonplace as to be routinely be accepted in court. (
  • They Might Be Giants will take the stage on Saturday, April 16th at the USA Science & Engineering Festival for two incredible rockin' shows! (
  • On April 16-17, 2016, the 4th USA Science & Engineering Festival returns to the nation's capital along with some of your favorite performers and hands-on exhibits! (
  • Each year, scientists with the Office of Science, at our national laboratories, and supported by the Office of Science at the nation's colleges and universities, publish thousands of research findings in the scientific literature. (
  • For all the latest ABC Science content click here . (
  • Throughout history scientists have given themselves deadly diseases, gone on radical diets, taken unproven therapies, and sequenced their own genomes - all in the name of science. (
  • Leaked emails from 2015 reveal a bitter dispute within CSIRO, Australia's leading science body, as management tried to prevent top scientists from breaking ranks before the Paris climate summit. (
  • On Wednesday of this week, leading academics, publishers, journalists, performers, clinicians, and scientists issued a public statement 2 backing science writer Simon Singh in his application to appeal against a libel judgment in the High Court. (
  • But they knew not what would be the precise nature of the teaching and demonstration of God, divine Mind, in His more infinite meanings,--the demonstration which was to destroy sin, sickness, and death, establish the definition of omnipotence, and maintain the Science of Spirit. (
  • It is published by the Society for Science, a nonprofit 501(c)(3) membership organization dedicated to public engagement in scientific research and education (EIN 53-0196483). (
  • ATLAS-1 experiments focused on four scientific disciplines: atmospheric science, solar science, space plasma physics and astronomy. (
  • Scientific American maintains a strict policy of editorial independence in reporting developments in science to our readers. (
  • Zoë is also passionate about the communication of analytical science, having hosted the Schools' Analyst Competition at the University of Warwick, having written several science communication articles for magazines and currently being on the #RSCPoster Twitter competition Scientific Committee. (
  • Because the results and testimony regarding scientific casework has far-reaching implications in judicial proceedings, various criteria have been established regarding the admissibility of forensic sciences and related expert testimony. (
  • Disaster citizen science engages members of the public in scientific activities related to disaster preparedness, response, and recovery. (
  • It has been forgotten that science is knowledge that combines truth and the application of the laws of science, both acquired and tested by application of the scientific method, and that researchers must exclude their personal convictions from their scientific papers. (
  • Please make a tax-deductible donation if you value independent science communication, collaboration, participation, and open access. (
  • The Virtual Health Sciences Library (VHSL) is an electronic health sciences library network created by the Regional Office, in collaboration with Member States. (
  • This longstanding collaboration between WHO and Gilead Sciences exemplifies a successful public-private partnership for advancing the public health agenda and bringing the needed care to affected populations," said Dr Tereza Kasaeva, Assistant Director-General, a.i. (
  • Interacting with plants is good for kids, but even when it's too cold to get outside and into the yard or garden, you can still use some simple plant science experiments to sharpen your little ones' interest in seeds and plants. (
  • She is also passionate about improving Diversity and Inclusion in the chemical sciences, working on a range of initiatives to improve representation. (
  • Science News was founded in 1921 as an independent, nonprofit source of accurate information on the latest news of science, medicine and technology. (
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  • There are many other disciplines within the forensic sciences which are often included as part of a "crime laboratory. (
  • Its main objective is to serve as a unique language for indexing and information retrieval among the components of the Latin American and Caribbean System on Health Sciences Information , coordinated by BIREME, permitting uniform communication within approximately 740 institutions in the region. (
  • I therefore plant myself unreservedly on the teachings of Jesus, of his apostles, of the prophets, and on the testimony of the Science of Mind. (
  • The NASA ISRO Syn the tic Aperture Radar (NISAR) Science Workshop will be an in-person event organized by NASA and UNAVCO to bring toge the r the science community in solid earth, ecosystems, cryosphere, hydro-geodesy and o the r areas of science that will benefit from the NISAR mission. (
  • This 2.5 day workshop will inform the community about the upcoming mission, its planned science data products and upcoming funding opportunities to work on NISAR related science. (
  • Our mission is to provide accurate, engaging news of science to the public. (
  • Beyond its own science mission, a key goal of the ATLAS series was to provide calibration for NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), launched from the Space Shuttle in September 1991. (
  • Gary Cass is on a mission to bring the worlds of science and art together. (
  • Breakout sessions, poster sessions and plenary science talks provide a forum for building collaborations and discussing future directions for SAR data analysis, science and applications. (
  • You have a university degree in Computer Science, Data Analytics, Mathematics, Statistics, Econometrics, Operations Research or Business Management with a strong quantitative focus. (
  • The public health benefits of citizen science include community empowerment and improved disaster operations through data collection. (
  • NSF Health Sciences, LLC provides training, risk assessments and water management plan development for building owners and managers. (
  • BIREME also developed terminology in specific areas such as Public Health , Homeopathy , Science and Health , and Health Surveillance in addition to the original MeSH terms. (
  • and Science and Health (218). (
  • Two new toolkits developed through a contract with CDC can help communities and health departments learn more about disaster citizen science and how to apply it. (
  • The journal is focused on health sciences in general. (
  • Departmental news, Geneva - The World Health Organization (WHO) and Gilead Sciences have signed a new agreement for the donation of 304,700 vials of AmBisome (liposomal amphotericin B for injection), for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in countries most impacted by the disease, extending their previous agreement to 2025. (
  • During the past 9 years, AmBisome, donated by Gilead Sciences, has brought endemic countries, especially in the South-East Asia Region on the verge of eliminating visceral leishmaniasis as a public health problem- a dreaded disease, known for high potential for mortality and outbreak. (
  • Lessons from an affirmative-recruitment initiative for women in science and technology. (
  • Human creations are quite fragile and science and technology, wich have built them, can also be used for their destruction. (
  • Among the powers that may dispute the position of science, the only serious enemy is religion. (
  • In addition to her role as Honorary Secretary, Zoë is also the Editor of Analytical Matters (the quarterly member newsletter of the Analytical Division) and has previously been the chair of the Analytical Science Network (early career) and was the publicity officer for both the Analytical Methods Committee and the Community for Analytical Measurement Science for several years. (
  • Other forensic sciences analyze evidence taken by the medical examiner from decedent remains in order to aid law enforcement in other aspects of the criminal investigation. (
  • A version of this article appears in the December 17, 1988 issue of Science News. (
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  • Diane is a trustee of the Recycling Organisation for Research Opportunities (RORO) and is regularly involved in outreach with her local schools in chemistry and space sciences. (
  • Science progress includes knowledge and power that were acquired by man with the aim to control the forces of nature and extract from it all the wealth for the satisfaction of his needs. (
  • After debunking many myths around male and female brains, Gina Rippon's research interests now include gender gaps in science and why they persist, even in allegedly gender-equal societies. (
  • Mothers in academic research and those who support them say in a report that the funding system can and should remedy gender bias in the sciences. (
  • The Analytical Science Community supports the development of research and training with analytical sciences. (
  • A need for community drove Jennifer Geddes-McAlister to found a network for mothers in science. (
  • New Science for Chemicals Policy U.S. regulation of chemicals is in need of an overhaul, informed by European legislation and guided by new thinking about risk. (
  • About 200 of these are selected annually by their respective program areas in the Office of Science as publication highlights of special note. (
  • Browse the Building Science Resource Library to easily access all of FEMA's hazard-specific guidance that focuses on creating disaster-resistance communities in the convenience of one place. (
  • for a webinar to introduce participants to the growing field of disaster citizen science and toolkits that can help improve, both preparedness outcomes and community resilience. (
  • Science needs to progress from purely 'white Alpha male' approaches to leadership. (
  • This amazing alternative and tech-inspired group -- widely known for its theme song for TV's Malcolm in the Middle and The Daily Show with Jon Stewart and other works -- will have the attendees at the DC Convention Center rocking out to science all weekend long! (
  • Five young minds share their stories of how they've pushed beyond boundaries to excel in science and maths and what support helped them get there. (
  • Building Science is a central focus for FEMA. (