Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
An early growth response transcription factor that controls the formation of the MYELIN SHEATH around peripheral AXONS by SCHWANN CELLS. Mutations in EGR2 transcription factor have been associated with HEREDITARY MOTOR AND SENSORY NEUROPATHIES such as CHARCOT-MARIE-TOOTH DISEASE.
A protein that accounts for more than half of the peripheral nervous system myelin protein. The extracellular domain of this protein is believed to engage in adhesive interactions and thus hold the myelin membrane compact. It can behave as a homophilic adhesion molecule through interactions with its extracellular domains. (From J Cell Biol 1994;126(4):1089-97)
Degeneration of distal aspects of a nerve axon following injury to the cell body or proximal portion of the axon. The process is characterized by fragmentation of the axon and its MYELIN SHEATH.
A moderately firm, benign, encapsulated tumor resulting from proliferation of SCHWANN CELLS and FIBROBLASTS that includes portions of nerve fibers. The tumors usually develop along peripheral or cranial nerves and are a central feature of NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1, where they may occur intracranially or involve spinal roots. Pathologic features include fusiform enlargement of the involved nerve. Microscopic examination reveals a disorganized and loose cellular pattern with elongated nuclei intermixed with fibrous strands. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1016)
An octamer transcription factor that plays an important role in the MYELIN SHEATH development by SCHWANN CELLS.
A peptide factor originally identified by its ability to stimulate the phosphorylation the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2). It is a ligand for the erbB-3 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-3) and the erbB-4 receptor. Variant forms of NEUREGULIN-1 occur through alternative splicing of its mRNA.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
MYELIN-specific proteins that play a structural or regulatory role in the genesis and maintenance of the lamellar MYELIN SHEATH structure.
The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.
Regularly spaced gaps in the myelin sheaths of peripheral axons. Ranvier's nodes allow saltatory conduction, that is, jumping of impulses from node to node, which is faster and more energetically favorable than continuous conduction.
A neoplasm that arises from SCHWANN CELLS of the cranial, peripheral, and autonomic nerves. Clinically, these tumors may present as a cranial neuropathy, abdominal or soft tissue mass, intracranial lesion, or with spinal cord compression. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, highly vascular, and composed of a homogenous pattern of biphasic fusiform-shaped cells that may have a palisaded appearance. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp964-5)
A family of peptides originally found as factors that stimulate the phosphorylation of the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTORS, ERBB-2). Multiple variant forms of NEUREGULINS occur due to alternative splicing of their mRNAs. The NEUREGULINS include products from the three known genes (NGR1; NGR2 and NGR3).
Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363)
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
A factor identified in the brain that influences the growth and differentiation of NEURONS and NEUROGLIA. Glia maturation factor beta is the 17-kDa polypeptide product of the GMFB gene and is the principal component of GLIA MATURATION FACTOR.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.
A protein found most abundantly in the nervous system. Defects or deficiencies in this protein are associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1, Watson syndrome, and LEOPARD syndrome. Mutations in the gene (GENE, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1) affect two known functions: regulation of ras-GTPase and tumor suppression.
A hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy transmitted most often as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by progressive distal wasting and loss of reflexes in the muscles of the legs (and occasionally involving the arms). Onset is usually in the second to fourth decade of life. This condition has been divided into two subtypes, hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) types I and II. HMSN I is associated with abnormal nerve conduction velocities and nerve hypertrophy, features not seen in HMSN II. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)
Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.
A family of highly acidic calcium-binding proteins found in large concentration in the brain and believed to be glial in origin. They are also found in other organs in the body. They have in common the EF-hand motif (EF HAND MOTIFS) found on a number of calcium binding proteins. The name of this family derives from the property of being soluble in a 100% saturated ammonium sulfate solution.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
An abundant cytosolic protein that plays a critical role in the structure of multilamellar myelin. Myelin basic protein binds to the cytosolic sides of myelin cell membranes and causes a tight adhesion between opposing cell membranes.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Mice which carry mutant genes for neurologic defects or abnormalities.
Tumor suppressor genes located on the long arm of human chromosome 17 in the region 17q11.2. Mutation of these genes is thought to cause NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1, Watson syndrome, and LEOPARD syndrome.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
The outermost cytoplasmic layer of the SCHWANN CELLS covering NERVE FIBERS.
Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of this subfamily have been implicated in regulating the differentiation of OLIGODENDROCYTES during neural crest formation and in CHONDROGENESIS.
A low affinity receptor that binds NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; and neurotrophin 4.
A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.
An autosomal dominant inherited disorder (with a high frequency of spontaneous mutations) that features developmental changes in the nervous system, muscles, bones, and skin, most notably in tissue derived from the embryonic NEURAL CREST. Multiple hyperpigmented skin lesions and subcutaneous tumors are the hallmark of this disease. Peripheral and central nervous system neoplasms occur frequently, especially OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA and NEUROFIBROSARCOMA. NF1 is caused by mutations which inactivate the NF1 gene (GENES, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1) on chromosome 17q. The incidence of learning disabilities is also elevated in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1014-18) There is overlap of clinical features with NOONAN SYNDROME in a syndrome called neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome. Both the PTPN11 and NF1 gene products are involved in the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway of Ras (RAS PROTEINS).
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.
A membrane protein homologous to the ERM (Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin) family of cytoskeleton-associated proteins which regulate physical properties of membranes. Alterations in neurofibromin 2 are the cause of NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.
Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Neoplasms which arise from nerve sheaths formed by SCHWANN CELLS in the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM or by OLIGODENDROCYTES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, NEUROFIBROMA, and NEURILEMMOMA are relatively common tumors in this category.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that causes LEPROSY in man. Its organisms are generally arranged in clumps, rounded masses, or in groups of bacilli side by side.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)
A nervous tissue specific protein which is highly expressed in NEURONS during development and NERVE REGENERATION. It has been implicated in neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiation, SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, and NEUROTRANSMITTER release. (From Neurotoxicology 1994;15(1):41-7) It is also a substrate of PROTEIN KINASE C.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
A myelin protein found in the periaxonal membrane of both the central and peripheral nervous systems myelin sheaths. It binds to cells surface receptors found on AXONS and may regulate cellular interactions between MYELIN and AXONS.
GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS with a sulfate group esterified to one of the sugar groups.
A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NEUREGULINS. It has extensive homology to and can heterodimerize with the EGF RECEPTOR and the ERBB-2 RECEPTOR. Overexpression of the erbB-3 receptor is associated with TUMORIGENESIS.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.

Confocal calcium imaging reveals an ionotropic P2 nucleotide receptor in the paranodal membrane of rat Schwann cells. (1/1583)

1. The paranodal Schwann cell region is of major importance for the function of a myelinated axon. In the present study we searched for a possible ionotropic effect of extracellular ATP in this Schwann cell compartment. 2. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from cultured rat Schwann cells revealed that ATP and 2'-3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-adenosine 5'-triphosphate (BzATP) induced a non-specific cation current. The effect of ATP was much enhanced in a Ca2+- and Mg2+-free solution. ADP, UTP and alpha,beta-methylene adenosine 5'-triphosphate (alpha,beta-meATP) had no effect. 3. Confocal Ca2+ imaging of myelinating Schwann cells in isolated rat spinal roots showed a BzATP-induced rise in the free intracellular Ca2+ concentration in the paranodal Schwann cell cytoplasm whereas alpha,beta-meATP and 2-(methylthio)-adenosine 5'-triphosphate were without effect. In contrast to the known metabotropic effect of UTP on these Schwann cell regions, the BzATP-induced Ca2+ signal was not transient, was unaffected by depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores and dependent on the presence of extracellular Ca2+. 4. These results suggest that an ionotropic ATP receptor with electrophysiological and pharmacological characteristics of the P2X7 subtype of nucleotide receptors is functionally active in myelinating Schwann cells of peripheral nerves. Such a receptor might contribute to Schwann cell reactions in nerve injury or neuropathy.  (+info)

Transport of Trembler-J mutant peripheral myelin protein 22 is blocked in the intermediate compartment and affects the transport of the wild-type protein by direct interaction. (2/1583)

Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) is an integral membrane protein that is essential for the normal formation and maintenance of peripheral myelin. Duplications, deletions, or mutations in the PMP22 gene account for a set of dominantly inherited peripheral neuropathies. The heterozygous Trembler-J (TrJ) genotype in mice is similar genetically to a Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A pedigree in humans, whereas the homozygous TrJ condition leads to the most severe form of PMP22-associated neuropathies. To characterize the consequences of the TrJ mutation, we labeled wild-type (wt-) and TrJ-PMP22 in the third loop of the protein with different epitope tags and expressed them separately or together in COS7 cells and primary Schwann cells. Here we show that the transport of the mutant TrJ-PMP22 is interrupted in the intermediate compartment, preventing its insertion into the plasma membrane and affecting the morphology of the endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, TrJ-PMP22 forms a heterodimer with the wt-PMP22. This interaction causes a fraction of the wt-PMP22 to be retained with TrJ-PMP22 in the intermediate compartment of COS7 and Schwann cells. The relative stability of a wt-mutant PMP22 heterodimer as compared with the wt-wt PMP22 homodimer may determine whether a particular mutation is semidominant or dominant. The neuropathy itself appears to result both from decreased trafficking of wt-PMP22 to the plasma membrane and from a toxic gain of function via the accumulation of wt- and TrJ-PMP22 in the intermediate compartment.  (+info)

A role for insulin-like growth factor-I in the regulation of Schwann cell survival. (3/1583)

During postnatal development in the peripheral nerve, differentiating Schwann cells are susceptible to apoptotic death. Schwann cell apoptosis is regulated by axons and serves as one mechanism through which axon and Schwann cell numbers are correctly matched. This regulation is mediated in part by the provision of limiting axon-derived trophic molecules, although neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) is the only trophic factor shown to date to support Schwann cell survival. In this report, we identify insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) as an additional trophin that can promote Schwann cell survival in vitro. We find that IGF-I, like NRG-1, can prevent the apoptotic death of postnatal rat Schwann cells cultured under conditions of serum withdrawal. Moreover, we show that differentiating Schwann cells in the rat sciatic nerve express both the IGF-I receptor (IGF-I R) and IGF-I throughout postnatal development. These results indicate that IGF-I is likely to control Schwann cell viability in the developing peripheral nerve and, together with other findings, raise the interesting possibility that such survival regulation may switch during postnatal development from an axon-dependent mechanism to an autocrine and/or paracrine one.  (+info)

A glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-secreting clone of the Schwann cell line SCTM41 enhances survival and fiber outgrowth from embryonic nigral neurons grafted to the striatum and to the lesioned substantia nigra. (4/1583)

We have developed a novel Schwann cell line, SCTM41, derived from postnatal sciatic nerve cultures and have stably transfected a clone with a rat glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) construct. Coculture with this GDNF-secreting clone enhances in vitro survival and fiber growth of embryonic dopaminergic neurons. In the rat unilateral 6-OHDA lesion model of Parkinson's disease, we have therefore made cografts of these cells with embryonic day 14 ventral mesencephalic grafts and assayed for effects on dopaminergic cell survival and process outgrowth. We show that cografts of GDNF-secreting Schwann cell lines improve the survival of intrastriatal embryonic dopaminergic neuronal grafts and improve neurite outgrowth into the host neuropil but have no additional effect on amphetamine-induced rotation. We next looked to see whether bridge grafts of GDNF-secreting SCTM41 cells would promote the growth of axons to their striatal targets from dopaminergic neurons implanted orthotopically into the 6-OHDA-lesioned substantia nigra. We show that such bridge grafts increase the survival of implanted embryonic dopaminergic neurons and promote the growth of axons through the grafts to the striatum.  (+info)

Krox-20 controls SCIP expression, cell cycle exit and susceptibility to apoptosis in developing myelinating Schwann cells. (5/1583)

The transcription factors Krox-20 and SCIP each play important roles in the differentiation of Schwann cells. However, the genes encoding these two proteins exhibit distinct time courses of expression and yield distinct cellular phenotypes upon mutation. SCIP is expressed prior to the initial appearance of Krox-20, and is transient in both the myelinating and non-myelinating Schwann cell lineages; while in contrast, Krox-20 appears approximately 24 hours after SCIP and then only within the myelinating lineage, where its expression is stably maintained into adulthood. Similarly, differentiation of SCIP-/- Schwann cells appears to transiently stall at the promyelinating stage that precedes myelination, whereas Krox-20(-/-) cells are, by morphological criteria, arrested at this stage. These observations led us to examine SCIP regulation and Schwann cell phenotype in Krox-20 mouse mutants. We find that in Krox-20(-/-) Schwann cells, SCIP expression is converted from transient to sustained. We further observe that both Schwann cell proliferation and apoptosis, which are normal features of SCIP+ cells, are also markedly increased late in postnatal development in Krox-20 mutants relative to wild type, and that the levels of cell division and apoptosis are balanced to yield a stable number of Schwann cells within peripheral nerves. These data demonstrate that the loss of Krox-20 in myelinating Schwann cells arrests differentiation at the promyelinating stage, as assessed by SCIP expression, mitotic activity and susceptibility to apoptosis.  (+info)

Characterization of the transmembrane molecular architecture of the dystroglycan complex in schwann cells. (6/1583)

We have demonstrated previously 1) that the dystroglycan complex, but not the sarcoglycan complex, is expressed in peripheral nerve, and 2) that alpha-dystroglycan is an extracellular laminin-2-binding protein anchored to beta-dystroglycan in the Schwann cell membrane. In the present study, we investigated the transmembrane molecular architecture of the dystroglycan complex in Schwann cells. The cytoplasmic domain of beta-dystroglycan was co-localized with Dp116, the Schwann cell-specific isoform of dystrophin, in the abaxonal Schwann cell cytoplasm adjacent to the outer membrane. beta-dystroglycan bound to Dp116 mainly via the 15 C-terminal amino acids of its cytoplasmic domain, but these amino acids were not solely responsible for the interaction of these two proteins. Interestingly, the beta-dystroglycan-precipitating antibody precipitated only a small fraction of alpha-dystroglycan and did not precipitate laminin and Dp116 from the peripheral nerve extracts. Our results indicate 1) that Dp116 is a component of the submembranous cytoskeletal system that anchors the dystroglycan complex in Schwann cells, and 2) that the dystroglycan complex in Schwann cells is fragile compared with that in striated muscle cells. We propose that this fragility may be attributable to the absence of the sarcoglycan complex in Schwann cells.  (+info)

Neural cell surface differentiation antigen gp130(RB13-6) induces fibroblasts and glioma cells to express astroglial proteins and invasive properties. (7/1583)

Transient expression of the differentiation and tumor cell surface antigen gp130(RB13-6) characterizes a subset of rat glial progenitor cells susceptible to ethylnitrosourea-induced neurooncogenesis. gp130(RB13-6) is as a member of an emerging protein family of ecto-phosphodiesterases/nucleotide pyrophosphatases that includes PC-1 and the tumor cell motility factor autotaxin. We have investigated the potential role of gp130(RB13-6) in glial differentiation by transfection of three cell lines of different origin that do not express endogenous gp130(RB13-6) (NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblasts; C6 and BT7Ca rat glioma cells) with the cDNA encoding gp130(RB13-6). The effect of gp130(RB13-6) expression was analyzed in terms of overall cell morphology, the expression of glial cell-specific marker proteins, and invasiveness. Transfectant sublines, consisting of 100% gp130(RB13-6)-positive cells, exhibited an altered, bipolar morphology. Fascicular aggregates of fibroblastoid cells subsequently developed into mesh-like patterns. Contrary to the parental NIH-3T3 and BT7Ca cells, the transfectant cells invaded into collagen type I. As shown by immunofluorescence staining of the transfectant sublines as well as of primary cultures composed of gp130(RB13-6)-positive and -negative cells, expression of gp130(RB13-6) induced coexpression of proteins typical for glial cells and their precursors, i.e., glial fibrillary acidic protein, the low affinity nerve growth factor receptor, and the neural proteins Thy-1, Ran-2, and S-100. In accordance with its expression in the immature rat nervous system, gp130(RB13-6) may thus have a significant role in the glial differentiation program and its subversion in neurooncogenesis.  (+info)

Schwann cell hyperplasia and tumors in transgenic mice expressing a naturally occurring mutant NF2 protein. (8/1583)

Specific mutations in some tumor suppressor genes such as p53 can act in a dominant fashion. We tested whether this mechanism may also apply for the neurofibromatosis type-2 gene (NF2) which, when mutated, leads to schwannoma development. Transgenic mice were generated that express, in Schwann cells, mutant NF2 proteins prototypic of natural mutants observed in humans. Mice expressing a NF2 protein with an interstitial deletion in the amino-terminal domain showed high prevalence of Schwann cell-derived tumors and Schwann cell hyperplasia, whereas those expressing a carboxy-terminally truncated protein were normal. Our results indicate that a subset of mutant NF2 alleles observed in patients may encode products with dominant properties when overexpressed in specific cell lineages.  (+info)

The generation of mature Schwann cells from the neural crest occurs by a transition through two intermediate cell types, namely the Schwann cell precursor and the immature Schwann cell. Immature Schwann cells mature into the myelinating and non-myelinaling Schwann cells present in the adult nerve. These cell types are well characterised and can be readily distinguished from one another by their distinct antigenic profile, survival responses, and morphological changes. In this study I investigated the effects of BMP in the Schwann cell lineage in vitro. I found that BMP2/4 acts to maintain the immature Schwann cell type by promoting its differentiation from the Schwann cell precursor and inhibiting the upregulation of myelin proteins. I also found that survival responses to BMP2/4 differ between embryonic and postnatal Schwann cell. I examined the role of STAT3 in Schwann cells both in vitro and in vivo using mice with a conditional mutation of STAT3 specifically in Schwann cells. I found that ...
Successful peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery require the reestablishment of the neuron-Schwann cell relationship in the regenerating rat sciatic nerve, neurons differentially regulate Schwann cell genes. The message for the low-affinity NGF receptor, p75NGFR, is induced in Schwann cells distal to the injury and is repressed as regenerating axons make contact with these cells. The inverse is true for mRNA of the myelin gene P0; expression decreases distal to injury and increases as new axons contact Schwann cells and a program of myelination is initiated. Using an in vitro co-culture paradigm in which primary neurons and adult Schwann cells are separated by a microporous membrane, we show that axon contact is not an absolute requirement for neuronal regulation of Schwann cell genes. In this system neurons but not other cell types, repress the expression of Schwann cell p75NGFR while inducing the expression of the POU domain transcription factor, suppressed cAMP inducible POU, ...
We have investigated the potential regulatory role of TGF-beta in the interactions of neurons and Schwann cells using an in vitro myelinating system. Purified populations of neurons and Schwann cells, grown alone or in coculture, secrete readily detectable levels of the three mammalian isoforms of TGF-beta; in each case, virtually all of the TGF-beta activity detected is latent. Expression of TGF-beta 1, a major isoform produced by Schwann cells, is specifically and significantly downregulated as a result of axon/Schwann cell interactions. Treatment of Schwann cells or Schwann cell/neuron cocultures with TGF-beta 1, in turn, has dramatic effects on proliferation and differentiation. In the case of purified Schwann cells, treatment with TGF-beta 1 increases their proliferation, and it promotes a pre- or nonmyelinating Schwann cell phenotype characterized by increased NCAM expression, decreased NGF receptor expression, inhibition of the forskolin-mediated induction of the myelin protein P0, and ...
Schwann cells are the myelinating glial cells of the peripheral nervous system and exert important regenerative functions revealing them as central repair components of many peripheral nerve pathologies. Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) are widely used to treat autoimmune and inflammatory diseases including immune-mediated neuropathies. Nevertheless, promotion of peripheral nerve regeneration is currently an unmet therapeutical goal. We therefore examined whether immunoglobulins affect glial cell homeostasis, differentiation, and Schwann cell dependent nerve regenerative processes. The responses of different primary Schwann cell culture models to IVIG were investigated: immature or differentiation competent Schwann cells, myelinating neuron/glial cocultures, and dorsal root ganglion explants. Immature or differentiating Schwann cells were used to study cellular proliferation, morphology, and gene/protein expression. Myelination rates were determined using myelinating neuron/glia cocultures, whereas
Schwann cells are excellent candidates for transplantation into humans with SCI. Large numbers of ahSC can be derived for autologous implantation after a minor surgery for peripheral nerve harvesting, and purification and expansion of the cells in culture. Autologous cells offer important safety advantages that include no need for immune suppression, minimal risk of disease transfer, and a low risk of tumorigenicity.. Since 1990, scientists at the Miami Project to Cure Paralysis have generated extensive preclinical data suggesting Schwann cell transplantations are successful in rodents with SCI. The most recent work has focused on contusive injury models that are relevant to human injury. They have also been largely responsible for developing an efficient method for procuring large, essentially pure populations of human Schwann cells from adult peripheral nerve.. The rationale for implantation of ahSC in people with acute SCI is based on the evidence that Schwann cells are neuroprotective and ...
Schwann cell-axon contacts in developing and regenerating peripheral nerve in situ contain high levels of the recognition molecules L1 and N-CAM, while the molecules are not detectable at the ab-axonal cell surface of Schwann cells. To investigate whether Schwann cells, axons, or both contribute to the localization of the molecules at Schwann cell-axon contacts, a heterologous cell culture system consisting of Schwann cells from mice and neurons from chicken was investigated by immunoelectron microscopy using species-specific L1 and N-CAM antibodies. We showed that Schwann cells expressed both molecules only at sites of contact between Schwann cells and neurites and other Schwann cells. Schwann cells not in contact with other cells expressed both molecules on their entire cell surface. In contrast, neurites expressed G4, an L1-related molecule in chicken, on their entire cell surface independently of whether they were in contact with other cells or not. Thus, cultured Schwann cells localize L1 and N-CAM
Recently it has been demonstrated that the growth-associated protein GAP-43 is not confined to neurons but is also expressed by certain central nervous system glial cells in tissue culture and in vivo. This study has extended these observations to the major class of glial cells in the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells. Using immunohistochemical techniques, we show that GAP-43 immunoreactivity is present in Schwann cell precursors and in mature non-myelin-forming Schwann cells both in vitro and in vivo. This immunoreactivity is shown by Western blotting to be a membrane-associated protein that comigrates with purified central nervous system GAP-43. Furthermore, metabolic labeling experiments demonstrate definitively that Schwann cells in culture can synthesize GAP-43. Mature myelin-forming Schwann cells do not express GAP-43 but when Schwann cells are removed from axonal contact in vivo by nerve transection GAP-43 expression is upregulated in nearly all Schwann cells of the distal stump by ...
Migrating Schwann cells in developing or regenerating peripheral nerves are known to express dramatically increased levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) and the low-affinity NGF receptor (LNGFR). Schwann cells do not express detectable pp140trk, the NGF-activated receptor tyrosine kinase which is essential for neuronal responses to NGF. The temporal correlation observed in Schwann cells between migration and the enhanced expression of NGF and LNGFR suggests that NGF and LNGFR may promote Schwann cell migration. To test this possibility, we examined the effects of NGF on Schwann cell migration on cryostat sections of biologically relevant NGF-poor and NGF-rich substrates--normal or denervated peripheral (sciatic) nerve, untreated or pretreated with NGF. Results show that Schwann cells migrate more rapidly on denervated than on normal sciatic nerve. Antibodies to NGF or to LNGFR strongly, but incompletely, inhibit enhanced migration on denervated nerves. Pretreatment of denervated nerve sections ...
Schwann cells are an important cell source for regenerative therapy for neural disorders. We investigated the role of the transcription factor sex determining region Y (SRY)-box 10 (SOX10) in the proliferation and myelination of Schwann cells. SOX10 is predominantly expressed in rat sciatic nerve-derived Schwann cells and is induced shortly after birth. Among transcription factors known to be important for the differentiation of Schwann cells, SOX10 potently transactivates the S100B promoter. In cultures of Schwann cells, overexpressing SOX10 dramatically induces S100B expression, while knocking down SOX10 with shRNA suppresses S100B expression. Here, we identify three core response elements of SOX10 in the S100B promoter and intron 1 with a putative SOX motif. Knockdown of either SOX10 or S100B enhances the proliferation of Schwann cells. In addition, using dissociated cultures of dorsal root ganglia, we demonstrate that suppressing S100B with shRNA impairs myelination of Schwann cells. These results
Neuronal Differentiation in Schwann Cell Lineage Underlies Postnatal Neurogenesis in the Enteric Nervous SystemNeuronal Differentiation in Schwann Cell Lineage Underlies Postnatal Neurogenesis in the Enteric Nervous SystemAA10620404 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Development of a functional Schwann cell phenotype from autologous porcine bone marrow mononuclear cells for nerve repair. AU - Rutten, Michael J.. AU - Janes, Michael Ann. AU - Chang, Ivy R.. AU - Gregory, Cynthia R.. AU - Gregory, Kenton W.. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - Adult bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) are a potential resource for making Schwann cells to repair damaged peripheral nerves. However, many methods of producing Schwann-like cells can be laborious with the cells lacking a functional phenotype. The objective of this study was to develop a simple and rapid method using autologous BM-MNCs to produce a phenotypic and functional Schwann-like cell. Adult porcine bone marrow was collected and enriched for BM-MNCs using a SEPAX device, then cells cultured in Neurobasal media, 4mM L-glutamine and 20% serum. After 6-8 days, the cultures expressed Schwann cell markers, S-100, O4, GFAP, were FluoroMyelin positive, but had low p75(NGF) expression. Addition of neuregulin ...
Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a genetic syndrome that predisposes individuals to multiple benign tumors of the central and peripheral nervous systems, including vestibular schwannomas. Currently, there are no FDA approved drug therapies for NF2. Loss of function of merlin encoded by the NF2 tumor suppressor gene leads to activation of multiple mitogenic signaling cascades, including platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and SRC in Schwann cells. The goal of this study was to determine whether ponatinib, an FDA-approved ABL/SRC inhibitor, reduced proliferation and/or survival of merlin-deficient human Schwann cells (HSC). Merlin-deficient HSC had higher levels of phosphorylated PDGFRα/β, and SRC than merlin-expressing HSC. A similar phosphorylation pattern was observed in phospho-protein arrays of human vestibular schwannoma samples compared to normal HSC. Ponatinib reduced merlin-deficient HSC viability in a dose-dependent manner by decreasing phosphorylation of PDGFRα/β, AKT, ...
Schwann cells can form Remak bundles ensheathing multiple, small unmyelinated axons or can form thick or thin myelin sheaths around axons. Generally, the size of the axons correlates with their ensheathment or myelination: the thicker the axon, the thicker the myelin. Taveggia et al. now show that neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) type III serves as a signal to the Schwann cells, with low concentrations of NRG-1 type III in the neuron leading to ensheathment and high concentrations leading to thick myelination. In cultures of rat Schwann cells with dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from wild-type or NRG1 type III -/- mice, the Schwann cells robustly myelinated the wild-type neurites but failed to myelinate the NRG-1 type III-deficient neurites. Forced expression of NRG-1 type III in the deficient DRG cells allowed the Schwann cells to myelinate the neurites, and in some cases the myelin was as much as twice as thick as that surrounding the wild-type neurites. Analysis of the abundance of NRG-1 type III in ...
Growth factors execute essential biological functions and affect various physiological and pathological processes, including peripheral nerve repair and regeneration. Our previous sequencing data showed that the mRNA coding for betacellulin (Btc), an epidermal growth factor protein family member, was up-regulated in rat sciatic nerve segment after nerve injury, implying the potential involvement of Btc during peripheral nerve regeneration. Expression of Btc was examined in Schwann cells by immunostaining. The function of Btc in regulating Schwann cells was investigated by transfecting cultured cells with siRNA segment against Btc or treating cells with Btc recombinant protein. The influence of Schwann cell-secreted Btc on neurons was determined using a co-culture assay. The in vivo effects of Btc on Schwann cell migration and axon elongation after rat sciatic nerve injury were further evaluated. Immunostaining images and ELISA outcomes indicated that Btc was present in and secreted by Schwann cells.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Schwann Cell Surface Proteins and Glycoproteins. AU - Pleasure, David E. AU - Hardy, Mattie. AU - Kreider, Barbara. AU - Stern, Janet. AU - Doan, Hung. AU - Shuman, Sandra. AU - Brown, Spencer. PY - 1982/1/1. Y1 - 1982/1/1. N2 - Abstract: To identify surface sialoglycoproteins of rat Schwann cells and to compare molecular weights of these sialoglycoproteins with those present in rat peripheral nervous system myelin, we prepared Schwann cells from sciatic nerves of 1-3‐day‐old rats and cultured them in monolayer. Surface sialoglycoproteins of the cultured cells were tritium‐labeled by the periodateborohydride procedure and compared with sialoglycoproteins of adult rat peripheral nervous system myelin by fluorography following polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate. Three radioactive bands with apparent molecular weights of 114,000-132,000, 105,000-115,000, and 44,000-56,000 were observed in both the Schwann cell and myelin preparations. Bands of ...
The studies performed in this thesis investigate the roles of Schwann cells (SCs) in the development of the peripheral nervous system and in an inherited peripheral neuropathy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. Schwann cells are an integral aspect of the peripheral nervous system and play a large variety of roles to support, maintain, and modulate this system. The experiments performed in this thesis investigated how SCs regulate the development of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) and maintain early derived NMJs into adulthood. Differentiation of SCs results in two main subtypes, myelinating or nonmyelinating. The axonal-derived myelinating Schwann cells are essential for the protection, support, and function of motor axons. Axonal-derived nonmyelinating SCs encompass sensory or autonomic nerve bundles and provide structural support to these peripheral nerve subtypes. Nonmyelinating SCs are also found at the motor terminus and are thus known as terminal SCs (TSCs). TSCs are in close proximity ...
Cajal bands are cytoplasmic channels flanked by appositions where the abaxonal surface of Schwann cell myelin apposes and adheres to the overlying plasma membrane. These appositions contain a dystroglycan complex that includes periaxin and dystrophin-related protein 2 (Drp2). Loss of periaxin disrupts appositions and Cajal bands in Schwann cells and causes a severe demyelinating neuropathy in mouse and human. Here, we investigated the role of mouse Drp2 in apposition assembly and Cajal band function and compared it with periaxin. We show that periaxin and Drp2 are not only both required to form appositions, but they must also interact. Periaxin-Drp2 interaction is also required for Drp2 phosphorylation, but phosphorylation is not required for the assembly of appositions. Drp2 loss causes corresponding increases in Dystrophin family members, utrophin and dystrophin Dp116, although dystroglycan remains unchanged. We also show that all dystroglycan complexes in Schwann cells use the uncleaved form of β
Preparation of sciatic nerve sections and teased fibers. Teased fibers and frozen sections from sciatic and optic nerves were prepared as described previously (Rios et al., 2000). Briefly, sciatic nerves were removed from Sprague Dawley rats (Taconic Farms, Germantown, NY), fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde, and teased in ice-cold Dulbeccos PBS using fine needles. For frozen sections, sciatic nerves were dissected out, fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde, cryoprotected in 30% sucrose, frozen in OCT (VWR Scientific Products New York, NY), and cut in 10 μm thick cryostat sections. Tissue slides were stored at -80°C until used.. Tissue culture methods. Primary rat Schwann cells, dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, and myelinating Schwann cell-DRG coculture were established as described previously (Einheber et al., 1995). Schwann cell cultures were kept in serum-containing media (D media) consisting of DMEM (BioWhittaker, Walkersville, MD), 10% FBS (Hyclone Laboratories, Logan, UT), and 2 mm l-glutamine ...
BACKGROUND. Schwann cell transplantation improves post-traumatic nerve regeneration in both peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS) but sufficient numbers of immunocompatible cells are required for clinical application. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are a readily accessible cell source that can be expanded and differentiated to specialized cells for regenerative medicine. OBJECTIVES. We attempted to establish a protocol to induce the stable differentiation of human BMSC along a Schwann cell lineage. METHODS. Neurosphere medium was used to induce human BMSCs into neurospheres. Then, these neurospheres were induced to differentiate along the Schwann cell lineage using glia growth factors, and this was followed by co-culture with dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. RESULTS. A lot of spheres of floating cells appeared after human BMSCs were cultured in neurosphere differentiation medium. These BMSCs-induced neuropheres showed nestin- and GFAP-immunoreactive staining. ...
Bogdan Beirowskia, Keit Men Wong, Elisabetta Babetto, and Jeffrey Milbrandt: 2017 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) 114:21, pp. E4261-E4270
Mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) action within non-neuronal cells is implicated in damage to spinal motor neurons in a genetic form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Central nervous system glial cells such as astrocytes and microglia drive progression in transgenic mutant SOD1 mice, however, the role of myelinating glia remains unclear. Specifically, peripheral myelinating glial cells are likely candidates for mediating degeneration of distal synapses and axons of motor neurons in ALS. Here, we examine the potential contribution of peripheral axon ensheathing Schwann cells to ALS by constructing transgenic mice expressing dismutase active mutant SOD1(G93A) driven by the myelin protein zero (P0) promoter. In this model, mutant SOD1 accumulation in Schwann cells was comparable to levels in mice ubiquitously expressing a SOD1(G93A) transgene that become paralysed. Growth, locomotion and survival of these P0-SOD1(G93A) mice were indistinguishable from normal animals. There was no evidence for
Although resting Schwann cells in rodents may express low levels of LRP-1, expression of LRP-1 by Schwann cells is substantially increased in PNS injury (Campana et al., 2006; Gaultier et al., 2008). This is coincident with upregulation of Schwann cell MMP-9 expression (La Fleur et al., 1996; Shubayev and Myers, 2002). At the same time, Schwann cells undergo significant changes in phenotype (Jessen and Mirsky, 2005), de-differentiating and gaining an increased capacity for migration, which is essential for the response to injury and regeneration (Anton et al., 1994; Torigoe et al., 1996; Chen and Zochodne, 2002). Primary cultures of Schwann cells are thought to most accurately model the physiology of Schwann cells in severely injured and/or denervated peripheral nerves (Jessen et al., 1990). Exposure of cultured Schwann cells to tumor necrosis factor-α substantially increases LRP-1 expression in vitro (Campana et al., 2006). Thus, understanding the function of Schwann cell LRP-1 is an important ...
Sodium, potassium, and chloride concentrations were determined in the sheath cells and axoplasm of the nerve fiber of the squid Sepioteuthis sepioidea. The sheaths were obtained by slitting the nerve fiber, the extracellular electrolytes were washed out in isotonic sucrose solution, and the concentrations in the cells were determined after different soaking times in the sucrose solution. Values for the Schwann cell were calculated by extrapolation to zero time from the plots of the logarithms of the concentrations in the cells as a function of soaking time in sucrose solution. The Schwann cells made up 84 per cent of the sheaths total cellular volume. The Schwann cell concentrations in millimols per liter, are: 312 (404-241) for sodium, 220 (308-157) for potassium, and 167 (208-138) for chloride. The concentrations in the axoplasm (mean ± SE), in millimols per liter are: 52 ± 10 for sodium, 335 ± 25 for potassium, and 135 ± 14 for chloride. The possibility that some fraction of the Schwann ...
In contrast to the central nervous system (CNS) nerve fibers do regenerate in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) although in a clinically unsatisfying manner. A major problem is excessive sprouting of regenerating axons which results in aberrant reinnervation of target tissue and impaired functional recovery. In the CNS, the reticulon protein Nogo-A has been identified as a prominent oligodendrocyte expressed inhibitor of long-distance growth of regenerating axons. We show here that the related isoform Nogo-B is abundantly expressed in Schwann cells in the PNS. Other than Nogo-A in oligodendrocytes, Nogo-B does not localize to the myelin sheath but is detected in the ER and the plasma membrane of Schwann cells. Adult sensory neurons that are cultured on nogo-a/b deficient Schwann cells form significantly fewer axonal branches versus those on wildtype Schwann cells, while their maximal axonal extension is unaffected. We demonstrate that this effect of Nogo-B on neuronal morphology is restricted to
Purified Schwann cells were cultured from neonatal rat sciatic nerve using a modification of the method of Brockes (Brockes, J.P. et al, Brain Res. 165(1979) 105-118). Schwann cells and contaminating fibroblasts were unambiguously identified using fluorescent antibodies to 23 cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase and the thy 1.1 antigen respectively. The Schwann cells were quiescent unless challenged with mitogens, They proliferated rapidly in response to the soluable mitogen, cholera toxin, or to membrane fractions from rat CNS or PNS, prepared by the method of DeVries (DeVries, G.H., J Neurochem, 40 (1983) 1709-1717). Mitogenic activity was present in both axolemmal and myelin enriched fractions and promoted a 10-15 fold increase in the rate of 3H-thymidine uptake. The axolemmal mitogen was sensitive to heat (800C for 10 minutes), trypsin digestion (0.05% x 30 mins) or to treatment with endoglycosidase D, suggesting that it could be a glycoprotein. Fifty percent of the axolemmal mitogenic activity
Researchers evaluate the safety of transplanting autologous Schwann cells into the injury epicenter of subjects with spinal cord injuries.
During peripheral nerve myelination, Schwann cells sort larger axons, ensheath them, and eventually wrap their membrane to form the myelin sheath. These processes involve extensive changes in cell shape, but the exact mechanisms involved are still unknown. Neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) integrates various extracellular signals to control actin dynamics and cytoskeletal reorganization through activation of the Arp2/3 complex. By generating mice lacking N-WASP in myelinating Schwann cells, we show that N-WASP is crucial for myelination. In N-WASP-deficient nerves, Schwann cells sort and ensheath axons, but most of them fail to myelinate and arrest at the promyelinating stage. Yet, a limited number of Schwann cells form unusually short internodes, containing thin myelin sheaths, with the occasional appearance of myelin misfoldings. These data suggest that regulation of actin filament nucleation in Schwann cells by N-WASP is crucial for membrane wrapping, longitudinal extension, ...
Demyelination of CNS axons occurs in a number of pathological conditions, including multiple sclerosis and contusion-type spinal cord injury. The demyelination can be repaired by remyelination in both humans and rodents, and even within the CNS remyelination can be achieved by endogenous and/or exogenous Schwann cells, the myelinating cells of the PNS. Remyelinated axons can often conduct impulses securely, but the organization of ion channels at long-term remyelinated nodes is not known. In the present study, the expression of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) and potassium (Kv) channels along central axons remyelinated by endogenous Schwann cells has been studied in lesions induced more than 1 year previously by the intraspinal injection of ethidium bromide (EB). The expression of the channels at long-term nodes formed by Schwann cell remyelination has been compared with that present in nascent nodes formed in the adult at 18 and 23 days post-EB injection. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - SREBP-1c expression in Schwann cells is affected by diabetes and nutritional status. AU - de Preux, A.S.. AU - Goosen, K.. AU - Zhang, W.. AU - Sima, A.A.. AU - Shimano, H.. AU - Ouwens, D.M.. AU - Diamant, M.. AU - Hillebrands, J.L.. AU - Rozing, J.. AU - Lemke, G.. AU - Beckmann, J.S.. AU - Smit, A.B.. AU - Verheijen, M.H.G.. AU - Chrast, R.. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. N2 - Our previous work demonstrated that the sterol response element binding proteins (SREBP)-1 and SREBP-2, which are the key regulators of storage lipid and cholesterol metabolism respectively, are highly expressed in Schwann cells of adult peripheral nerves. In order to evaluate the role of Schwann cell SREBPs in myelination and functioning of peripheral nerves we have determined their expression during development, after fasting and refeeding, and in a rodent model of diabetes. Our results show that SREBP-1c and SREBP-2, unlike SREBP-1a, are the major forms of SREBPs present in peripheral nerves. The expression ...
Neural Crest - Schwann Cell Development,Schwann cell]],noinclude>[[Category:Template]][[Category:Term Link]][[Category:Neural Crest]][[Category:Schwann cell]][[Category:Glia]][[Category:Cell Type]],/noinclude ...
See Saporta and Shy (doi:10.1093/awx048) for a scientific commentary on this article.Effective bidirectional signalling between axons and Schwann cells is essential for both the development and maintenance of peripheral nerve function. We have established conditions by which human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived sensory neurons can be cultured with rat Schwann cells, and have produced for the first time long-term and stable myelinating co-cultures with human neurons. These cultures contain the specialized domains formed by axonal interaction with myelinating Schwann cells, such as clustered voltage-gated sodium channels at the node of Ranvier and Shaker-type potassium channel (Kv1.2) at the juxtaparanode. Expression of type III neuregulin-1 (TIIINRG1) in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived sensory neurons strongly enhances myelination, while conversely pharmacological blockade of the NRG1-ErbB pathway prevents myelination, providing direct evidence for the ability of this pathway to promote the
In Schwann cells (SCs), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) not only induces differentiation into a myelinating SC-related phenotype, but also synergistically enhances the mitogenic action of growth factors such as neuregulin. impairment of SC differentiation and myelin formation but not Krox-20 expression, which indicates an independent mechanism of Krox-20 regulation in response to cAMP. In conclusion, our data supports the idea that the outcome of cAMP signaling in SCs depends on the particular set of effectors activated. Whereas the mitogenic action of cAMP relies exclusively on PKA activity, the differentiating action of cAMP requires a PKA-independent (non-canonical) cAMP-specific pathway that is partially transduced by EPAC. Introduction The ubiquitous second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is usually a key regulator of metabolic activity, survival, proliferation and differentiation in a wide variety of cell types. In particular, isolated cultured Schwann cells (SCs), ...
Previous work demonstrated that Schwann cells (SCs) must interact with nerve cells (NCs) in order to generate their basal lamina (BL) in culture (M. B. Bunge, A. K. Williams, and P. M. Wood, 1982, Dev. Biol. 92, 449-460). The present study was undertaken to determine if this interaction requires pro …
Robust RIP immunoreactivity was present in Remak bundles in mixed nerves and in sympathetic ganglia and grey rami. Following peripheral nerve injury, RIP immunoreactivity was redistributed diffusely throughout de-differentiating Schwann cell cytoplasm. In uninjured rats, low levels of RIP immunoreactivity were detectable in satellite cells surrounding dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and in terminal Schwann cells at neuromuscular junctions. PMID: ...
Myelin surrounding a nerve axon, coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM). The concentric round rings are the sheets of a Schwann cells myelin membrane (brown rings) tightly wound around the axon (centre). Schwann cells wrap themselves around nerve axons of the peripheral nervous system, creating a myelin sheath (myelination). Myelination helps to both electrically insulate the nerve from surrounding tissue and propagate (speed up) electrical impulses along the axon. Not much of the actual Schwann cell can be seen as the myelin profile takes up most of the image. Magnification: x25,000 when printed 10 centimetres wide. - Stock Image P350/0119
It is well established that neurons regulate the properties of both central and peripheral glial cells. Some of these neuro-glial interactions are modulated by the pattern of neuronal electrical activity. In the present work, we asked whether blocking the electrical activity of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in vitro by a chronic treatment with tetrodotoxin (TTX) would modulate the expression of the T-type Ca2+ channel by mouse Schwann cells. When recorded in their culture medium, about one-half of the DRG neurons spontaneously fired action potentials (APs). Treatment for 4 days with 1 μM TTX abolished both spontaneous and evoked APs in DRG neurons and in parallel significantly reduced the percentage of Schwann cells expressing Ca2+ channel currents. On the fraction of Schwann cells still expressing Ca2+ channel currents, these currents had electrophysiological parameters (mean amplitude, mean inactivation time constant, steady-state inactivation curve) similar to those of control cultures. ...
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1. Raso VV, Barbieri CH, Mazzer N, Fasan VS. Can therapeutic ultrasound influence the regeneration of peripheral nerves?. J Neurosci Methods. 2005;142:185-92 2. Mourad PD LD, Curra FP, Mohr BC, Andru KC, Avellino AM. et al. Ultrasound accelerates functional recovery after peripheral nerve damage. Neurosurgery. 2001;48:1136-40 3. Klein R. Cell sorting during regenerative tissue formation. Cell. 2010;143:32-4 4. Cattin AL, Burden JJ, Van Emmenis L, Mackenzie FE, Hoving JJ, Garcia Calavia N. et al. Macrophage-Induced Blood Vessels Guide Schwann Cell-Mediated Regeneration of Peripheral Nerves. Cell. 2015;162:1127-39 5. Monk KR, Feltri ML, Taveggia C. New insights on Schwann cell development. Glia. 2015;63:1376-93 6. Romano CL RD, Logoluso N. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound for the treatment of bone delayed union or nonunion: a review. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2009;35:529-36 7. Ikeda K TT, Suzuki N, Shimada K, Otsuka K, Ito K. Effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on the differentiation of C2C12 ...
These dormant HSCs are thought to exist in a microenvironment termed the bone marrow niche. However, the location of the niche and the mechanism by which hibernation is maintained were almost completely unknown.. Professor Hiromitsu Nakauchi and his research group at the Institute of Medical Science have demonstrated for the first time that the bone marrow niche includes nonmyelinating Schwann cells, a type of glial nerve cell, and have described the mechanism by which hibernation is maintained. Until now it was thought that the nervous and hematopoietic systems were independent.. The research group determined that glial cells suppress HSC division by activating the protein TGF-β, and that HSCs in the bone marrow niche are affected by TGF-β through contact with glial cells.. In recent years, it has been pointed out that even leukemia stem cells exist in a state of hibernation in the bone marrow niche. This research result is important not only for understanding the mechanism of hematopoiesis ...
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) depend in the bone fragments marrow (BM) niche for their maintenance, proliferation, and differentiation. HSCs reside in a specific microenvironment in Rabbit Polyclonal to DNL3 the BM known as the specific niche market (Schofield, 1978). Along with cell-intrinsic applications, the cell can be motivated by the specific niche market destiny of HSCs, which in switch govern the homeostasis of the hematopoietic program (Nakamura-Ishizu et al., 2014a). The HSC specific niche market can be constructed of nonhematopoietic cells, including premature osteoblasts (OBLs; Suda and Arai, 2007), endothelial cells (ECs; Butler et al., 2010; Ding et al., 2012), perivascular cells (Sugiyama et al., 2006; Ding et al., 2012), mesenchymal control cells (MSCs; Mndez-Ferrer et al., 2010), sympathetic anxious cells (Katayama et al., 2006), adipocytes (Naveiras et al., 2009), and nonmyelinating Schwann cells (Yamazaki et al., 2011). non-etheless, older hematopoietic cells such as ...
In the peripheral nervous system, myelin sheaths result in the Schwann cell plasma membranes forming multiple layers. The total area of the sheaths often grows to more than 100 times larger than that of the plasma membranes of premyelinating Schwann cells. Thus, myelination processes undergo continuous and dynamic morphological changes, which involve not only cytoskeletal rearrangements but also various types of transport (3-5). These two cellular events are generally linked to cell morphological changes and, in turn, tissue morphogenesis in many types of cells and tissues where Arf proteins contribute, at least in part, to their morphogenesis (6-9). The question of whether the prototypic Arf family protein Arf1 actually regulates formation of multiple myelin sheaths remains unanswered. Here, we show that Arf1 GEF, BIG1, and the effector Arf1 are required for the initiation of myelination in the peripheral nervous system. The conclusions are obtained from the data using generated BIG1 and Arf1 ...
Neurotropin® (NTP), a non-protein extract of inflamed rabbit skin inoculated with vaccinia virus, is clinically used for the treatment of neuropathic pain in Japan and China, although its effect on peripheral nerve regeneration remains to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of NTP on Schwann cells (SCs) in vitro and in vivo, which play an important role in peripheral nerve regeneration. In SCs, NTP upregulated protein kinase B (AKT) activity and Krox20 and downregulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 activity under both growth and differentiation conditions, enhanced the expression of myelin basic protein and protein zero under the differentiation condition. In a co-culture of dorsal root ganglion neurons and SCs, NTP accelerated myelination of SCs. To further investigate the influence of NTP on SCs in vivo, lysophosphatidylcholine was injected into the rat sciatic nerve, leading to the focal demyelination. After demyelination, NTP was administered
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been shown to provide neuroprotection after transplantation into the injured nervous system. The present thesis investigates whether adult human and rat MSC differentiated along a Schwann cell lineage could increase their expression of neurotrophic factors and promote regeneration after transplantation into the injured peripheral nerve and spinal cord.. Human and rat mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC and rMSC) expressed characteristic stem cell surface markers, mRNA transcripts for different neurotrophic factors and demonstrated multi-lineage differentiation potential. Following treatment with a cocktail of growth factors, the hMSC and rMSC expressed typical Schwann cells markers at both the transcriptional and translational level and significantly increased production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).. Age and time in culture are of relevance for clinical settings and growth-promoting ...
Svaren, senior author of a report published Aug. 30 in The Journal of Neuroscience, studied how Schwann cells, which hug axons in the peripheral nervous system, transform themselves to play a much more active and intelligent role after injury.. Schwann cells create the insulating myelin sheath that speeds transmission of nerve impulses. In the repair mode, Schwann cells form a fix-up crew that adds house cleaning and stimulation of nerve regrowth to the usual insulating job.. Svaren and his graduate student, Joseph Ma, compared the activation of genes in Schwann cells in mice with intact or cut axons. We saw a set of latent genes becoming active, but only after injury, says Svaren, and these started a program that places the Schwann cells in a repair mode where they perform several jobs that the axon needs to regrow.. In the repair mode, but not in the normal one, Schwann cells start cleaning house, helping to dissolve myelin, which is essential for proper functioning but ironically deters ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glia maturation factor promotes proliferation and morphologic expression of rat Schwann cells. AU - Bosch, E. Peter. AU - Assouline, Jose G.. AU - Miller, Joyce F.. AU - Lim, Ramon. PY - 1984/6/25. Y1 - 1984/6/25. N2 - Glia maturation factor (GMF) is an acidic protein with a molecular weight of about 20,000 daltons, found in the adult brain of many species. Previously GMF was observed to stimulate the proliferation and subsequent maturation of rat astroblasts in culture. We investigated the effects of GMF on Schwann cells. Schwann cells were dissociated from rat sciatic nerve and purified by means of antimitotic agents and by selective immunoadsorption of contaminating fibroblasts. Cultured Schwann cells after 3 passages assumed a flat polygonal shape. Exposure of the cells to GMF converted the cells to the elongated, spindle morphology typical of Schwann cells. GMF also stimulated a 7-fold increase in DNA synthesis when compared with control cultures grown in F10 medium ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of in vitro peripheral myelin formation by monoclonal anti-galactocerebroside.. AU - Ranscht, B.. AU - Wood, P. M.. AU - Bunge, R. P.. PY - 1987/9. Y1 - 1987/9. N2 - This work investigates the role of galactocerebroside (GalC) in peripheral myelin formation. A monoclonal antibody against GalC was introduced into a myelinating culture system consisting of rat sensory neurons and Schwann cells, without other cell types. At levels that saturated Schwann cell surface GalC, anti-GalC IgG prevented by more than 99% the appearance of myelin sheaths. Ensheathment and basal lamina deposition were unaffected and many Schwann cells were in the 1:1 relationship that typically develops between Schwann cells and axons prior to myelination. Thus, the anti-GalC antibody did not interfere with the formation of the mesaxon but prevented its elongation. When experimentally restrained from myelination, Schwann cells did not accumulate the myelin proteins PO and basic protein; only low ...
The cellular properties and migratory behavior of the ectopic Foxd3-expressing cells demonstrates that Foxd3 activates a number of aspects of the neural crest migration program. Foxd3 promotes expression of Cad-7 and HNK-1, both markers of migrating neural crest cells, as well as the delamination of cells at multiple dorsoventral levels from the neural tube (Fig. 3). The migration of these cells appears to coincide with the late phase of neural crest migration, and the Foxd3 cells predominantly populate sites in the periphery that are occupied by Schwann cell precursors. Moreover, some Foxd3 cells express the early Schwann cell marker P0 (Fig. 4) and the migratory routes taken by these Foxd3-expressing cells appears to reflect a bias by these late migrating neural crest cells for the Schwann cell lineage.. Interestingly, the delamination and migration induced by Foxd3 is independent of RhoB, as RhoB expression was not upregulated after misexpression of Foxd3 (Fig. 6). Previous explant studies ...
Glial growth factors (GGFs) were purified from bovine pituitaries using an in vitro rat Schwann cell mitogenesis assay. In addition to an approximately 34-kDa species termed GGF-I, similar in molecular mass to a previously identified molecule (Lemke, G. E., and Brockes, J. P. (1984) J. Neuroscience 4, 75-83), two species named GGF-II and GGF-III were characterized with apparent molecular masses of approximately 59 and approximately 45 kDa, respectively. Highly purified preparations of all species share a similar dose-dependent stimulation of Schwann cell DNA synthesis at nanomolar concentrations. Forskolin synergizes with all three GGFs, shifting their dose dependence 3-8-fold into the sub-nanomolar range. The GGFs, which contain N-linked carbohydrate groups not essential for their in vitro mitogenic effects, are three distinct members of a novel family of glial cell mitogens.
Recent evidence shows that neurotransmitters (e.g. GABA, Ach, adenosine, glutamate) are active on Schwann cells, which form myelin sheaths in the peripheral nervous system under different pathophysiologic conditions. Glutamate, the most important exc
Single slice through a single tilt tomogram of the Node of Ranvier from mouse sciatic nerve prepared by high pressure freezing and freeze substitution...
Patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy and gene targeting in mice revealed an essential role for the SH3TC2 gene in peripheral nerve myelination. SH3TC2 expression is restricted to Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system, and the gene product, SH3TC2, localizes to the perinuclear recycling compartment. Here, we show that SH3TC2 interacts with the small guanosine triphosphatase Rab11, which is known to regulate the recycling of internalized membranes and receptors back to the cell surface. Results of protein binding studies and transferrin receptor trafficking are in line with a role of SH3TC2 as a Rab11 effector molecule. Consistent with a function of Rab11 in Schwann cell myelination, SH3TC2 mutations that cause neuropathy disrupt the SH3TC2/Rab11 interaction, and forced expression of dominant negative Rab11 strongly impairs myelin formation in vitro. Our data indicate that the SH3TC2/Rab11 interaction is relevant for peripheral nerve pathophysiology and place endosomal recycling on the
Pupil dynamics serve as a physiological indicator of cognitive processes and arousal states of the brain across a diverse range of behavioral experiments. Pupil diameter changes reflect brain state fluctuations driven by neuromodulatory systems. Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) has been used to identify global patterns of neuronal correlation with pupil diameter changes; however, the linkage between distinct brain state-dependent activation patterns of neuromodulatory nuclei with pupil dynamics remains to be explored. Here, we identified four clusters of trials with unique activity patterns related to pupil diameter changes in anesthetized rat brains. Going beyond the typical rs-fMRI correlation analysis with pupil dynamics, we decomposed spatiotemporal patterns of rs-fMRI with principal component analysis (PCA) and characterized the cluster-specific pupil-fMRI relationships by optimizing the PCA component weighting via decoding methods. This work shows that pupil dynamics are tightly coupled with ...
Researchers are trying to figure out which of the components exosomes carry are key for their communication. Felipe Court, Pontifica Universidad Católica, Santiago, Chile, studies how exosomes convey messages from Schwann cells to axons. These glial cells cozy up to mature axons in the peripheral nervous system and wrap myelin sheaths around them. Schwann cells inhibit the further growth of axons unless axons sustain damage, in which case Schwann cells undergo a sort of reprogramming. They then release exosomes that stimulate axonal regeneration when taken up by nearby sensory neurons in vitro, (see Lopez-Verilli et al., 2013). Just what in those exosomes might trigger the axons? Court suggested it was RNA.. Knowing that exosomes contain messenger RNA, scientists led by Court used high-throughput sequencing to identify what kinds of transcripts might be in exosomes from Schwann cells. The exosomes were rich in mRNAs that encode proteins involved in the assembly, organization, and regeneration ...
Our study indicates that CD8(+) T cells mediate cytotoxicity toward Schwann cells and play an important role in the development of DPN.
PubMed journal article [AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON REPAIR OF SCIATIC NERVE INJURY BY Schwann-LIKE CELLS DERIVED FROM UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
EPAC-SH187, a fourth generation EPAC-based FRET probe for cAMP detection was employed. This sensor consists of the cAMP-binding protein EPAC sandwiched between mTurquoise2, a very bright and bleaching resistant donor fluorescent protein, and a novel acceptor cassette consisting of a tandem of two Venus fluorophores (Klarenbeek et al., 2015). Briefly, SCs co-cultured with neurons were transfected with 1 μg of the probe with Lipofectamine 2000 (Life Technologies). Experiments were performed 24 h after transfection. Cells were monitored using an inverted fluorescence microscope (Eclipse-Ti; Nikon Instruments) equipped with the perfect focus system (PFS; Nikon Instruments). Excitation of the fluorophore was performed by an Hg arc lamp (100 W; Nikon) using a 435 nm filter (10 nm bandwidth). YFP and CFP intensities were recorded with a cooled CCD camera (C9100-13; Hamamatsu) equipped with a 515 nm dichroic mirror at 530 nm (25 nm bandwidth) and 470 nm (20 nm bandwidth), respectively. Signals were ...
The recent study follows the aim to develop a novel, biocompatible, and bioresorbable material for peripheral nerve tissue engineering based on polysialic acid (polySia), a homopolymer of alpha 2, 8-linked sialic acid residues. To reach this goal, at first protocols for efficient coating of cell culture surfaces with soluble polySia were established. In addition, primary cells of the central and peripheral nervous system such as neonatal and adult Schwann cells, neural progenitor cells, dorsal root ganglionic neurons and embryonic spinal motoneurons which are all possible candidates for reconstructive therapies were cultured on polySia substrates. Respective cell cultures were evaluated with regard to cell survival and cell proliferation. PolySia turned out to be stable under cell culture conditions. Induced degradation of PolySia and its degradation products had no negative effects on cell cultures. Furthermore, polySia used as a cell culture substrate revealed its compatibility for the chosen ...
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The nerve dysfunction in Guillain-Barré syndrome is caused by an immune attack on the nerve cells of the peripheral nervous system and their support structures. The nerve cells have their body (the soma) in the spinal cord and a long projection (the axon) that carries electrical nerve impulses to the neuromuscular junction where the impulse is transferred to the muscle. Axons are wrapped in a sheath of Schwann cells that contain myelin. Between Schwann cells are gaps (nodes of Ranvier) where the axon is exposed.[8] Different types of Guillain-Barré syndrome feature different types of immune attack. The demyelinating variant (AIDP, see below) features damage to the myelin sheath by white blood cells (T lymphocytes and macrophages); this process is preceded by activation of a group of blood proteins known as complement. In contrast, the axonal variant is mediated by IgG antibodies and complement against the cell membrane covering the axon without direct lymphocyte involvement.[8] Various ...
Glial cell - is the non-neuronal cell associated with the neuron cell processes. There are different glia types in the central nervous system (oligodendrocytes) and associated with the peripheral nerves (Schwann cells). ...
Glial cells regulate multiple aspects of synaptogenesis. In the absence of Schwann cells, a peripheral glial cell, motor neurons initially innervate muscle but then degenerate. Here, using a genetic approach, we show that neural activity-regulated negative factors produced by muscle drive neurodegeneration in Schwann cell-deficient mice. We find that thrombin, the hepatic serine protease central to the hemostatic coagulation cascade, is one such negative factor. Trancriptomic analysis shows that expression of the antithrombins serpin C1 and D1 is significantly reduced in Schwann cell-deficient mice. In the absence of peripheral neuromuscular activity, neurodegeneration is completely blocked, and expression of prothrombin in muscle is markedly reduced. In the absence of muscle-derived prothrombin, neurodegeneration is also markedly reduced. Together, these results suggest that Schwann cells regulate NMJs by opposing the effects of activity-regulated, muscle-derived negative factors and provide ...
Studying the function and malfunction of genes and proteins associated with inherited forms of peripheral neuropathies has provided multiple clues to our understanding of myelinated nerves in health and disease. Here, we have generated a mouse model for the peripheral neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4H by constitutively disrupting the mouse orthologue of the suspected culprit gene FGD4 that encodes the small RhoGTPase Cdc42-guanine nucleotide exchange factor Frabin. Lack of Frabin/Fgd4 causes dysmyelination in mice in early peripheral nerve development, followed by profound myelin abnormalities and demyelination at later stages. At the age of 60 weeks, this was accompanied by electrophysiological deficits. By crossing mice carrying alleles of Frabin/Fgd4 flanked by loxP sequences with animals expressing Cre recombinase in a cell type-specific manner, we show that Schwann cell-autonomous Frabin/Fgd4 function is essential for proper myelination without detectable primary contributions ...
Studying the function and malfunction of genes and proteins associated with inherited forms of peripheral neuropathies has provided multiple clues to our understanding of myelinated nerves in health and disease. Here, we have generated a mouse model for the peripheral neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4H by constitutively disrupting the mouse orthologue of the suspected culprit gene FGD4 that encodes the small RhoGTPase Cdc42-guanine nucleotide exchange factor Frabin. Lack of Frabin/Fgd4 causes dysmyelination in mice in early peripheral nerve development, followed by profound myelin abnormalities and demyelination at later stages. At the age of 60 weeks, this was accompanied by electrophysiological deficits. By crossing mice carrying alleles of Frabin/Fgd4 flanked by loxP sequences with animals expressing Cre recombinase in a cell type-specific manner, we show that Schwann cell-autonomous Frabin/Fgd4 function is essential for proper myelination without detectable primary contributions ...
Madison have found a switch that redirects helper cells in the peripheral nervous system into repair mode, a form that restores damaged axons.. Axons are long fibers on neurons that transmit nerve impulses. The peripheral nervous system, the signaling network outside the brain and spinal cord, has some ability to regenerate destroyed axons, but the repair is slow and often insufficient.. The new study suggests tactics that might trigger or accelerate this natural regrowth and assist recovery after physical injury, says John Svaren, a professor of comparative biosciences at the UW-Madison School of Veterinary Medicine. The finding may also apply to genetic abnormalities such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease or nerve damage from diabetes.. Svaren, senior author of a report published Aug. 30 in The Journal of Neuroscience, studied how Schwann cells, which hug axons in the peripheral nervous system, transform themselves to play a much more active and intelligent role after injury.. Schwann cells ...
A grant funded by the Muscular Dystrophy Association (MDA) was awarded to Bogdan K. Beirowski, MD, PhD, assistant professor of biochemistry.. Elisabetta Babetto, PhD, senior research scientist in biochemistry and research assistant professor of pharmacology and toxicology in the HJKRI, was awarded a grant funded by GBS/CIDP Foundation International.. Beirowski is principal investigator on the MDA-funded project titled Deciphering Metabolic Support of Axons by LKB1 Signaling in Schwann Cells.. He notes that axonal losses reduce neuronal connectivity and lead to the most debilitating symptoms in many neurological disorders.. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood, says Beirowski, principal investigator at the HJKRI. In CMT neuropathies, it remains unknown how malfunction in Schwann cells (SCs), the myelinating cells of the peripheral nervous system, results in axon degeneration.. Many neuroscientists consider the decay of the myelin sheaths, formed by SCs, as etiological ...
The nerve fibers are held together and supported within the funiculus by delicate connective tissue, called the endoneurium. It is continuous with septa which pass inward from the innermost layer of the perineurium, and shows a ground substance in which are imbedded fine bundles of fibrous connective tissue, primarily collagen, running for the most part longitudinally. It serves to support capillary vessels, arranged so as to form a net-work with elongated meshes. It is found in other places too, such as surrounding the Schwann cells on the peripheral side of the transitional zone on the auditory nerve.[1] ...
Our group investigates how chromatin-remodeling enzymes including histone deacetylases (HDACs) and demethylases (HDMs) control the maintenance and regeneration of the nervous system. Our work is focused on the functions of myelinating cells (Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system and oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system) in these processes.. HDACs and HDMs are key epigenetic regulators that modify chromatin architecture by deacetylating and demethylating histones, respectively. In addition, HDACs deacetylate and thereby modulate the activity of many transcription factors. These enzymes are thus very powerful transcriptional regulators controlling gene activity at different levels.. We have shown that HDAC1 and HDAC2, two members of the large HDAC family of enzymes, control the development of Schwann cells, from specification (Jacob et al., Journal of Neuroscience, 2014) to terminal differentiation (Jacob et al., Nature Neuroscience, 2011). Chromatin remodeling is thus critical ...
Light microscopy of myelinated nerves in a toluidine blue-stained section of the optic nerve. Axons appear as mostly empty-looking and pale grey-blue elongated profiles enclosed by deeply stained margins representing myelin sheaths produced by Schwann cells. Slender flattened nuclei between nerve fibres are the Schwann cell nuclei. There are about one million axons in each optic nerve. Magnification x550 when printed at 10 cm height. - Stock Image C026/4014
Cryoneurolysis is a minimally invasive, low side effect profile, evidence-supported intervention currently with FDA approval to produce lesions in peripheral nervous tissue, including for relief of pain associated with knee osteoarthritis. The mechanism of action on a peripheral nerve is temporary axonal signal disruption via Wallerian degeneration. While the axon and myelin sheath degenerate, the endoneurium, perineurium and epineurium are unaffected. Schwann cells and macrophages clear debris, and secrete growth factors that allow for axonal regrowth.
MDA-supported research in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is focused on figuring out what goes wrong at the molecular level in CMT-affected axons or the myelin sheaths that surround them, rather than on attempting to fix the problem directly or preserving nerve function in spite of it. A central theme emerging from the last decade of research is that myelin and axons require constant signals from... ...
We know that neurons are encapsulated by myelin. But what makes the myelin? The brain contains two major classes of cells: neurons and glia. Glia are responsible for creating the myelin sheath, as well as having many other functions. There are different kinds of glia, including Schwann cells, oligodendrocytes, astroctytes, microglia, and more. The Schwann cells…
Clinically available treatments are insufficient to achieve full functional recovery in large (|3cm) peripheral nerve injuries (PNI). The objectives in this thesis were 1) to study often overlooked elements of intrinsic PNI repair including release of inhibitory CSPGs and post-injury responses of inflammatory macrophages and dedifferentiated Schwann cells; 2) to create biomaterial scaf-folds featuring topographical and adhesive cues to enhance neurite outgrowth; and 3) to test the ability of those cues to direct macrophages and Schwann cells towards a pro-regenerative phe-notype. It is hypothesized that recapitulating the positive and negative cues of the PNI microenvi-ronment can better improve regeneration. The effect of a characteristic CSPG, Chondroitin Sul-fate A (CSA), was tested on neurite dynamics of dissociated chick embryo dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons using time lapse video microscopy. DRG growth was recorded on different ad-hesive substrates, including a novel, porcine-derived spinal
Principal Investigator:KAWABUCHI Masaru, Project Period (FY):1996 - 1997, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:General anatomy (including Histology/Embryology)
Three months after gastric partitioning for morbid obesity, two patients developed an unusual and severe form of polyneuropathy that affected their sense of position maximally. This disorder produced severe ataxia of the upper extremities and trunk, and pseudochorea. One patient died and the autopsy showed an extensive demyelinating polyneuropathy. Neuronal cell bodies in the anterior horns and dorsal root ganglia showed extensive accumulations of lipofuscin and Schwann cells showed extensive accumulations of lipid. This neuronal and Schwann cell lipidosis appears to result from starvation of the obese and has never been reported in other forms of human starvation or nutritional deficiency. ...
PRF readers can get free access to a selected Journal of Pain paper each month, thanks to the American Pain Society. Get the free full text of the selection from the December 2017 issue here.. ...
The 8th Research Postgraduate Symposium (RPS 2003), Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 13 December 2003 ...
SALT LAKE CITY - Researchers from the University of Utah have gained new insight into the regulation of adult nerve cell generation in the hypothalamus, the part of the brain that regulates many aspects of behavior, mood, and metabolism. In the Sept. 10, 2012, issue of Developmental Cell they report that a cell-to-cell communication network known as the Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role in both the production and specialization of nerve cell precursors in the hypothalamus.. The hypothalamus is a highly complex region of the brain that controls hunger, thirst, fatigue, body temperature, and sleep. It also links the central nervous system to the body system that regulates hormone levels. Recent studies have shown that the hypothalamus is one of the parts of the brain in which neurogenesis, the birth of new nerve cells, continues throughout adulthood.. In our earlier work, we discovered that Wnt signaling was required for neurogenesis in the embryonic zebrafish hypothalamus, says ...
Abstract. The transmembrane protein ADAM22 is expressed at high levels in the brain. From its molecular structure, ADAM22 is thought to be an adhesion molecule or a receptor because it has functional disintegrin-like and cysteine-rich sequences in its ectodomain. The phenotypic analysis of ADAM22-deficient mice has indicated the important roles played by ADAM22 in proper neuronal function and peripheral nerve development, however, the precise molecular function of ADAM22 is still unknown. To understand the function of ADAM22 on a molecular basis, we identified ADAM22 binding proteins by using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometric analysis. This analysis revealed that Leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) is the most potent ADAM22 binding protein in mouse brain. By our quantitative cell-ELISA system, we demonstrated the specific binding of LGI1 with ADAM22. Furthermore, we showed that LGI4, a putative ADAM22 ligand, also bound to ADAM22. Characterization of the binding specificity of LGI1 ...
The Schwann download studies in the development and cell have based by the forcing clear article( aspects) of solvable Schwann examples, providing copper-induced reading receptors. E) A exploring download studies in the development of hosting 3H natural technologies, helpful Canadian service, and research of the academic Schwann p. sampled by pentagonal Schwann products and their loci. F) A also available download studies in the development and provisional components( M) mixing many levels.
Trauma to either the central or peripheral nervous system often leads to significant loss of function and disability in patients. This high rate of long-term disability is due to the overall limited regenerative potential of nervous tissue, even though the peripheral nervous system (PNS) has more regenerative potential than the central nervous system (CNS). The supporting glial cells in the periphery, Schwann cells, are part of the reason for the improved recovery observed in the PNS. In the CNS, the glial populations, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, do not have as much potential to promote regeneration and are at times inhibitory to neuronal growth ...
Mouse monoclonal GFAP antibody. Excellent for detecting astrocyte intermediate filaments in the central nervous system. It has also been detected in the glial cells of the enteric nervous system and some Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous systems. IHC protocol available. IHC adn WB images available.
The ferments present in the organism likewise have arisen highly probably from the reaction of the protein substances with water (perhaps with the co-operation with oxygen). Only, because formed under special conditions provided in the living organism, they have also other properties than those of the putrefaction ferments formed outside the organism. The Schwann hypothesis, which considers putrefaction and decay as conditioned by lower organisms, by vital processes, must be reversed. That is to say the power depending on the atomic composition of the protein substances to decompose water and to form ferments is also in the organisms the cause of most fermentation processes, of most vital-chemical processes altogether.. ...
GO:0008347. The orderly movement of a glial cell, non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and participate in signal transmission in the nervous system. ...
Schwann cells[edit]. A study was performed to determine the effect of netrin-1 on schwann cell proliferation. Unc5b is the sole ... These data suggests that netrin-1 could be an endogenous trophic factor for Schwann cells in the injured peripheral nerves.[14] ... Cell migration[edit]. There are three phases in hermaphrodite distal tip cell migration in Caenorhabditis elegans which are ... It was also found that the netrin-1-induced Schwann cell proliferation was blocked by the specific inhibition of Unc5b ...
Neurons, Schwann cells, and fibroblasts work together to create a functional nerve. Schwann cells and neurons exchange ... X-linked CMT and Schwann cells[edit]. CMT can also be produced by X-linked mutations, and is named X-linked CMT (CMTX). In CMTX ... The mutation can appear in GJB1 coding for connexin 32, a gap junction protein expressed in Schwann cells. Because this protein ... Schwann cells create the myelin sheath, by wrapping its plasma membrane around the axon.[13] ...
Cell division by Hugo von Mohl 1835: Discovery and description of mitosis by Hugo von Mohl 1839: Cell theory by Theodor Schwann ... Discovery of Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system by Theodor Schwann 1836: Discovery and study of pepsin by Theodor ... Karenberg, Axel (26 October 2000). "Chapter 7. The Schwann cell". In Koehler, Peter J.; Bruyn, George W.; Pearce, John M. S. ( ... Molecular Cell Biology. 7 (4): 296-302. doi:10.1038/nrm1855. PMC 2464568. PMID 16482093. Bailey, L. E.; Ong, S. D. (1978). " ...
The macrophages, accompanied by Schwann cells, serve to clear the debris from the degeneration. Schwann cells respond to loss ... Axons have been observed to regenerate in close association to these cells. Schwann cells upregulate the production of cell ... hence the Schwann cells take the major role in myelin cleaning until then. Schwann cells have been observed to recruit ... Schwann cells also provide structural guidance to further enhance regeneration. During their proliferation phase, Schwann cells ...
Walled off lesion containing macrophages and other cells. Some peripheral neuropathies. Schwann cell antigen. Neuritis, ... These cells differentiate into epithelioid cells which wall off the infected cells, but results in significant inflammation and ... Pancreatic beta cell proteins (possibly insulin, glutamate decarboxylase). Insulitis, beta cell destruction. ... These can be macrophages that secrete IL-12, which stimulates the proliferation of further CD4+ Th1 cells. CD4+ T cells secrete ...
Schwann cells "The Neural Crest". Retrieved 2009-05-31. Grenier J, Teillet MA, Grifone R, Kelly RG, Duprez D (2009). Callaerts ... Jiang HB, Tian WD, Liu LK, Xu Y (June 2008). "In vitro odontoblast-like cell differentiation of cranial neural crest cells ... Odontoblasts (dentin-producing cells) of the teeth. Around the optic vesicle and the developing eye and contributes to many eye ... The endocranium and facial bones of the skull are ultimately derived from crest cells. Other Migration Locations: Into the ...
Sango, Kazunori; Yamauchi, Junji (2014-02-13). Schwann Cell Development and Pathology. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 83 ...
Neurons, Schwann cells, and fibroblasts work together to create a functional nerve. Schwann cells and neurons exchange ... X linked CMT and Schwann cellsEdit. CMT can also be produced by X-linked mutations, and is named X-linked CMT (CMTX). In CMTX, ... Demyelinating Schwann cells causes abnormal axon structure and function. They may cause axon degeneration, or they may simply ... The mutation can appear in GJB1 coding for connexin 32, a gap junction protein expressed in Schwann cells. In these cases, ...
... ependymal cells and oligodendrocytes. Two types of neuroglia found in the PNS are satellite cells and Schwann cells. In the ... Neuroglial cells are classified as follows:[5] *Microglial cells: Microglia are macrophage cells that make up the primary ... Satellite glial cell: Line the surface of neuron cell bodies in ganglia (groups of nerve body cells bundled or connected ... Schwann cells: The PNS equivalent of oligodendrocytes, they help maintain axons and form myelin sheaths in the PNS.[4] ...
Theodor Schwann proposed in 1839 that the tissues of all organisms are composed of cells. Schwann was expanding on the proposal ... Nerve fibers are cell processes Nerve fibers are outgrowths of nerve cells. Cell division Nerve cells are generated by cell ... ISBN 978-0-7735-4571-7. C.M., Goss (1937). "Historical background of Schwann's cell theory". Yale Journal of Biology and ... Neurons are cells These individual units are cells as understood from other tissues in the body. Specialization These units may ...
... by glial cells called Schwann cells. In the CNS, axons carry electrical signals from one nerve cell body to another. In the PNS ... or Schwann cell (PNS) process (a limb-like extension from the cell body) around the axon. Myelin reduces the capacitance of the ... Instead, they are ensheathed by non-myelinating Schwann cells known as Remak SCs and arranged in Remak bundles. In the CNS, non ... Monk KR, Feltri ML, Taveggia C (August 2015). "New insights on Schwann cell development". Glia. 63 (8): 1376-1393. doi:10.1002/ ...
Davies AM (1998). "Neuronal survival: early dependence on Schwann cells". Curr. Biol. 8 (1): R15-8. doi:10.1016/s0960-9822(98) ... kinase pathway is a dominant growth factor-activated cell survival pathway in LNCaP human prostate carcinoma cells". Cancer Res ... amplification with sensitivity to EGFR inhibitor gefitinib in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells". Clin. Cancer Res. ... Cell. Biol. 16 (10): 5276-87. doi:10.1128/MCB.16.10.5276. PMC 231527. PMID 8816440. Citri A, Skaria KB, Yarden Y (2003). "The ...
Parasympathetic ganglia derive from Schwann cell precursors". Science. 345 (6192): 87-90. doi:10.1126/science.1253286. ISSN ... "TGF-β promotes heterogeneity and drug resistance in squamous cell carcinoma". Cell. 160 (5): 963-976. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... Richardson, Douglas S.; Lichtman, Jeff W. (2015). "Clarifying Tissue Clearing". Cell. 162 (2): 246-257. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... Cell. 169 (1): 161-173.e12. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2017.03.008. ISSN 1097-4172. PMID 28340341. Spalteholz, Werner (1914). Über das ...
... by glial cells called Schwann cells. In the CNS, axons carry electrical signals from one nerve cell body to another. In the PNS ... or Schwann cell (PNS) process (a limb-like extension from the cell body) around the axon.[2][3] Myelin reduces the capacitance ... Instead, they are ensheathed by non-myelinating Schwann cells known as Remak SCs and arranged in Remak bundles.[18] In the CNS ... In the CNS, cells called oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs; the precursors of oligodendrocytes) differentiate into mature ...
Theodor Schwann: Discovery of properties of cells in animals. Karl Schwarzschild: astronomer, Schwarzschild metric, Deriving ... Paul Langerhans: Islets of Langerhans, Langerhans cells Max von Laue: Discoveries regarding the diffraction of X-rays in ... Collodion and Fuel cell Johann Lukas Schönlein: Professor of medicine, he discovered among other things the parasitic cause of ... which has helped explain how fuel cells produce energy without pollution, how catalytic converters clean up car exhausts and ...
Arroyo EJ, Bermingham JR, Rosenfeld MG, Scherer SS (Oct 1998). "Promyelinating Schwann cells express Tst-1/SCIP/Oct-6". The ... "The POU factor Oct-6 and Schwann cell differentiation". Science. 273 (5274): 507-10. Bibcode:1996Sci...273..507J. doi:10.1126/ ... a POU transcription factor expressed in embryonal stem cells and in the developing brain". The EMBO Journal. 9 (11): 3723-32. ...
Schwann cells are also frequently damaged, contributing to demyelination. Iron deposition is most prevalent in the inferior ... Amongst neuronal cells types, iron deposition appears to be preferential for oligodendroglial cells, which is supported by the ... In up to as many as half of all described cases the source of bleeding was never found.[citation needed] Blood cells are not ... Ferritin, an iron storage protein, is over-produced in response to excess heme by glial cells in order to sequester iron, with ...
"Transforming growth factors-beta 1 and beta 2 are mitogens for rat Schwann cells". Journal of Cell Biology. 109 (6 Pt 2): 3419- ... "Ras-mediated cell cycle arrest is altered by nuclear oncogenes to induce Schwann cell transformation". The EMBO Journal. 7 (6 ... subscription required) Ridley, Anne Jacqueline (1989). Mechanisms of oncogene action and interaction in Schwann cells. london. ... Ridley, Anne J (2015). "Rho GTPase signalling in cell migration". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 36: 103-112. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Varela-Rey, Marta (2014). "S-Adenosylmethionine Levels Regulate the Schwann Cell DNA Methylome". Neuron. 81 (5): 1024-1039. doi ... In eukaryotic cells, SAM-e serves as a regulator of a variety of processes including DNA, tRNA, and rRNA methylation; immune ... Cancer cell proliferation is dependent on having low levels of DNA methylation. In vitro addition has been shown to remethylate ... While multiple lines of evidence from laboratory tests on cells and animal models suggest that SAM might be useful to treat ...
... s are homogeneous tumors, consisting only of Schwann cells. The tumor cells always stay on the outside of the nerve, ... A schwannoma is a usually benign nerve sheath tumor composed of Schwann cells, which normally produce the insulating myelin ... They are universally S-100 positive, which is a marker for cells of neural crest cell origin. Schwannomas of the head and neck ...
The myelinating glial cells; oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS), and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous ... Complete neuron cell diagram Medullated nerve fibers stained with silver nitrate Internodal segment Schwann cell ... by the in-folding of the Schwann cell surface so that a double membrane of the opposing faces of the in-folded Schwann cell ... On the other hand, in the PNS, the basal lamina that surrounds the Schwann cells is continuous across the node. The nodes of ...
Schwann cells are glial cells that were originally discovered by Theodore Schwann, a co-founder of the cell theory, during the ... These cells also aid in the elimination of cellular debris, regeneration and upkeep of axons. Additionally, Schwann cells are ... type I are neurofibromas and are therefore composed of a variety of cells and elements including Schwann cells and mast cells ... Schwann cells aid in fixing axonal damage and promoting new growth. Due to their healing properties, these cells can be used in ...
These parts include satellite cells, Schwann cells, and sensory neurons. The novel protein product of the isoform is more ... product may play a role in the development and/or maintenance of peripheral sensory neurons or their supporting Schwann cells. ...
Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes. In the peripheral nervous system Schwann cells form the myelin sheath of a myelinated axon ... In the peripheral nervous system axons are myelinated by glial cells known as Schwann cells. In the central nervous system the ... Cells called guidepost cells assist in the guidance of neuronal axon growth. These cells that help axon guidance, are typically ... Schwann cells myelinate a single axon. An oligodendrocyte can myelinate up to 50 axons. The composition of myelin is different ...
... and may play a role in lipid transport in Schwann cells. Structurally, P2 belongs to the family of cytoplasmic fatty acid- ... "Ultrastructural localization of P2 protein in actively myelinating rat Schwann cells". J. Neurochem. 43 (4): 944-8. doi:10.1111 ...
Studies of these antibodies reveal large disruption of the Schwann cells. Anti-GQ1b IgG levels were elevated in patients with ... These antibodies were first found to react with cerebellar cells. These antibodies show highest association with certain forms ... Gregson NA, Pytharas M, Leibowitz S (1977). "The reactivity of anti-ganglioside antiserum with isolated cerebellar cells". ... indicating that gliadin specific T-cell could present these antigens to the immune system. IgG. In multiple sclerosis, ...
"Identification of Gas6 as a growth factor for human Schwann cells". J. Neurosci. 16 (6): 2012-9. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.16-06- ... Cell. Biol. 13 (8): 4976-85. doi:10.1128/MCB.13.8.4976. PMC 360142. PMID 8336730. Saccone S, Marcandalli P, Gostissa M, ... Nakano T, Ishimoto Y, Kishino J, Umeda M, Inoue K, Nagata K, Ohashi K, Mizuno K, Arita H (1997). "Cell adhesion to ... Gas6 is a gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain-containing protein thought to be involved in the stimulation of cell ...
Denervenated motor Schwann cells upregulate BDNF and p75, whereas sensory pathway Schwann cells upregulate a number of other ... PMR indicates that a regenerating motor neuron will choose a motor pathway Schwann cell over a cutaneous pathway Schwann cell ... they must regrow and enter back through one of the Schwann cells that makes up the distal stump of the gap. These Schwann cells ... Schwann cells are the myelination cells that surround nerves. When multiple nerves are cut, ...
The birth of the cell. Yale University Press, New Haven. *↑ Schwann, Theodor 1847 [1839]. Microscopic investigations on the ... The nucleus is the core element of the cell.. The key works of Schwann and Schleiden were published in 1838 and 1839.[2] These ... He was long supposed to be the co-founder of the cell theory, with Theodor Schwann and Rudolf Virchow. However, a recent study ... Landmark papers in cell biology. Bethesda MD and Cold Spring Harbor NY: The American Society for Cell Biology and Cold Spring ...
Glial cells such as Schwann cells in the periphery or, within the cord itself, oligodendrocytes, wrap themselves around the ... Anaplastic cells have lost total control of their normal functions and many have deteriorated cell structures. Anaplastic cells ... Necrotic cells send the wrong chemical signals which prevent phagocytes from disposing of the dead cells, leading to a buildup ... anaplasia: the cells in the neoplasm have an obviously different form (in size and shape). Anaplastic cells display marked ...
Theodor Schwann in 1839.[4] 19 years later, Rudolf Virchow contributed to the cell theory, arguing that all cells come from the ... Cell movement - Chemotaxis, contraction, cilia and flagella.. *Cell signaling - Regulation of cell behavior by signals from ... Prokaryotic cells are much smaller than eukaryotic cells, making prokaryotic cells the smallest form of life.[11] Cytologists ... The growth process of the cell does not refer to the size of the cell, but instead the density of the number of cells present ...
They are also known as olfactory Schwann cells, because they ensheath the non-myelinated axons of olfactory neurons in a ... be rejected by the body and biological functions such as cell adhesion and growth will be enhanced through cell-cell and cell- ... "CD46 on glial cells can function as a receptor for viral glycoprotein-mediated cell-cell fusion". Glia. 52 (3): 252-8. doi: ... Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), also known as olfactory ensheathing glia or olfactory ensheathing glial cells, are a type ...
Schwann cells, on the other hand, can wrap around only one axon. Each oligodendrocyte forms one segment of myelin for several ... Oligodendrocytes are a type of glial cell. They arise during development from oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs),[7] which ... Oligodendrocytes interact closely with nerve cells and provide trophic support by the production of glial cell line-derived ... as saltatory propagation of action potentials occurs at the nodes of Ranvier in between Schwann cells (of the PNS) and ...
a b c d e f g E., Sadava, David (1993) Cell biology : organelle structure and function Jones and Bartlett Publishers ISBN ... Epitelioen oinaldean eta muskulu zelulen, Schwann zelulen (nerbio ehunean) eta adipozitoen inguruan topatzen den 40nm-120nm ... a b c d e f g (Ingelesez) «1416023887 - Cell Biology, Updated Edition: with Student Consult Online Access by Thomas D Pollard ... The Plant Cell Wall» Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4th edition . Noiz kontsultatua: 2018-12-08 . ...
His most widely known scientific contribution is his cell theory, which built on the work of Theodor Schwann. He was one of the ... Virchow's cell, a macrophage in Hansen's disease. *Virchow's cell theory, omnis cellula e cellula - every living cell comes ... introduced the third dictum in cell theory: Omnis cellula e cellula ("All cells come from cells").[9] He was a co-founder of ... who showed the origins of cells was the division of pre-existing cells.[28] He did not initially accept the evidence for cell ...
Mazzarello, P (1999). "A unifying concept: the history of cell theory". Nature Cell Biology 1 (1): E13-E15. PMID 10559875. doi: ... Kasneje, v letu 1838, sta se Schleiden in Schwann začela zavzemati za danes splošni ideji, da (1) je osnovna enota organizma ... Thanbichler M, Wang S, Shapiro L (2005). "The bacterial nucleoid: a highly organized and dynamic structure". J Cell Biochem 96 ...
Myelination: Schwann cell *Neurilemma. *Myelin incisure. *Node of Ranvier. *Internodal segment. *Satellite glial cell ...
mast cell granule. • Schwann cell microvillus. • Schmidt-Lanterman incisure. • nucleoplasm. • cell projection cytoplasm. • ... The involvement in oxidative stress diseases, cell signal transduction and cell proliferation process endows AKR1B1 the ... cell signal transduction and cell proliferation process including cardiovascular disorders, sepsis, and cancer.[13] ... Sato S, Lin LR, Reddy VN, Kador PF (August 1993). "Aldose reductase in human retinal pigment epithelial cells". Experimental ...
"Stroke and T-cells". Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program; Arumugam TV, Granger ... Peningkatan kadar S100-β tidak harus terjadi dengan cepat, dan masih banyak sel selain astrosit dan sel Schwann yang ... sickle cell anemia. Trombositemia dan sejenisnya. *Hypercoaguable states-puerperium. oral contraceptive use. 'sticky platelet ... "Group of Neuroplasticity and Regeneration, Institute of Neurosciences and Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology ...
Schwann cell. മയലിൻഷീത്ത്. നാഡീവ്യൂഹത്തിന്റെ ഏറ്റവും ലളിതമായ പ്രവർത്തനശൃംഖല റിഫ്ളക്സ് ആർക്ക് (Reflex arc) എന്ന പേരിൽ ... നാഡീകോശങ്ങൾക്കു പുറമേ ന്യൂറോലെമ്മ (Neurolemma), സാറ്റലൈറ്റ് കോശങ്ങൾ (satellite cells), ഗ്ലിയൽ കോശങ്ങൾ (glial cells), ... ഇവ പർക്കിൻജെ കോശങ്ങൾ (purkinje cells) എന്നറിയപ്പെടുന്നു. ശ്വേതദ്രവ്യത്തിൽ 4 നാഡീ സമൂഹങ്ങളാണുള്ളത്. ഇവ ഫസ്റ്റിജിയൽ (fastigial), ... effector cells) എത്തിക്കുകയും ചെയ്യുന്നു. എഫക്ടർ കോശങ്ങൾ സാധാരണയായി ഒരു പേശിയോ ...
In the 1830s, Charles Cagniard-Latour, Friedrich Traugott Kützing and Theodor Schwann used microscopes to study yeasts and ... Hans Buchner discovered that zymase catalyzed fermentation, showing that fermentation was catalyzed by enzymes within cells.[ ... 106] Eduard Buchner also discovered that fermentation could take place outside living cells.[107] ... Pasteur believed that fermentation was only due to living cells. ...
Dentate granule cell[edit]. The principal cell type of the dentate gyrus is the granule cell. The dentate granule cell has an ... Cerebellar granule cell[edit]. Main article: Cerebellar granule cell. The granule cells, produced by the rhombic lip, are found ... Together these cells form the glomeruli.[10] Granule cells are subject to feed-forward inhibition: granule cells excite ... Specific functions of different granule cells[edit]. Cerebellum granule cells. David Marr suggested that the granule cells ...
The function of neurons depends upon cell polarity. The distinctive structure of nerve cells allows action potentials to travel ... Synapses are essential to neuronal function: neurons are cells that are specialized to pass signals to individual target cells ... and for these signals to then be received and carried on by post-synaptic neurons or received by effector cells. Nerve cells ... causing voltage changes in the presynaptic cell to induce voltage changes in the postsynaptic cell. The main advantage of an ...
... schwann cell); g-இடைவெளிக் கணு (node of Ranvier); h-நரம்பிழை முனையம் (axon terminal) ... Herrup K, Yang Y (May 2007). "Cell cycle regulation in the postmitotic neuron: oxymoron or new biology?". Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 8 ... 1. கலவுடல் (Cell body) - இதற்குள் உயிரணுக் கரு, ஏனைய உயிரணு நுண்ணுறுப்புக்கள் காணப்படும். இந்தக் கலவுடலானது ஒழுங்கற்ற வடிவம் ... a-ஒருங்குமுனைப்பு (dendrite); b-கலவுடல் (cell body); c-உயிரணுக் கரு; d-நரம்பிழை (axon); e-மயலின் நரம்புறை (myelin sheath); f- ...
After the cell theory of Schwann and Schleiden (1838-39), this group was modified in 1848 by Carl von Siebold to include only ... A protist (/ˈproʊtɪst/) is any eukaryotic organism (that is, an organism whose cells contain a cell nucleus) that is not an ... Plankton Chronicles - Protists - Cells in the Sea - video. *Holt, Jack R. and Carlos A. Iudica. (2013). Diversity of Life. http ... In: Cell physiology sourcebook : essentials of membrane biophysics. Amsterdam; Boston: Elsevier/AP, 2012. ...
Schwann cells, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs or PMLs), B cells (B1a, MZ B, B2), ... cell projection. • cell surface. • cell body. Biological process. • interleukin-10 production. • positive regulation of ... TLR2 is also expressed by intestinal epithelial cells and subsets of lamina propria mononuclear cells in the gastrointestinal ... and T cells, including Tregs (CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells). In some cases, it occurs in a heterodimer (combination molecule), ...
Oligodendrocytes myelinate the part of the α-MN axon that lies in the central nervous system (CNS), while Schwann cells ... In the brainstem, α-MNs and other neurons reside within clusters of cells called nuclei, some of which contain the cell bodies ... α-MN axons have large diameters and are heavily myelinated by both oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells. ... While their cell bodies are found in the central nervous system (CNS), α motor neurons are also considered part of the somatic ...
"The Tasmanian devil transcriptome reveals Schwann cell origins of a clonally transmissible cancer". Science. 327 (5961): 84-7. ... "miR-181a is an intrinsic modulator of T cell sensitivity and selection". Cell. 129 (1): 147-61. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.03.008 ... miR-181a is essential for the survival of Purkinje cells and its absence leads to a slow degeneration of these cells. It has ... The expression of miR-181a correlates with a greater sensitivity of immature T cells in T cells, suggesting that miR-181a acts ...
The ribbon synapse is a special type of synapse found in sensory neurons such as photoreceptor cells, retinal bipolar cells, ... "Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 22 (4): 496-505. doi:10.1016/j.ceb.2010.05.001. PMC 2963628. PMID 20561775.. ... A cell membrane can be thought of as a capacitor in that positive and negative ions are stored on both sides of the membrane. ... The protein ELKS binds to the cell adhesion protein, β-neurexin, and other proteins within the complex such as Piccolo and ...
The bud continues to grow until it separates from the parent cell, forming a new cell.[38] The daughter cell produced during ... Schwann T (1837). "Vorläufige Mittheilung, bettreffend Versuche über die Weingährung und Fäulniss". Annalen der Physik und ... or daughter cell, is formed on the parent cell. The nucleus of the parent cell splits into a daughter nucleus and migrates into ... The dying yeast cells are then heated to complete their breakdown, after which the husks (yeast with thick cell walls that ...
It is produced by specialized cells: Schwann cells exclusively in the peripheral nervous system, and oligodendrocytes ... Several types of cells support an action potential, such as plant cells, muscle cells, and the specialized cells of the heart ( ... endocrine cells, and in some plant cells. In neurons, action potentials play a central role in cell-to-cell communication by ... the initial photoreceptor cells and the next layer of cells (comprising bipolar cells and horizontal cells) do not produce ...
Schwann cells, myofibroblast, chondrocytes and melanocytes.[37][38] Testicular cells[edit]. Multipotent stem cells with a ... Stem cell division and differentiation. A - stem cells; B - progenitor cell; C - differentiated cell; 1 - symmetric stem cell ... Cell Division[edit]. To ensure self-renewal, stem cells undergo two types of cell division (see Stem cell division and ... Hematopoietic stem cells[edit]. Main article: Hematopoietic stem cell. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are stem cells that can ...
Cells. *Photoreceptor cells (Cone cell, Rod cell) → (Horizontal cell) → Bipolar cell → (Amacrine cell) → Retina ganglion cell ( ... Parasol cell, Bistratified cell, Giant retina ganglion cells, Photosensitive ganglion cell) → Diencephalon: P cell, M cell, K ... Further complexity arises from the various interconnections among bipolar cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells in the ... ON bipolar cells or inhibit (hyperpolarize) OFF bipolar cells. Thus, it is at the photoreceptor-bipolar cell synapse where ...
In normal circumstances this protein is located in the cell membrane of Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes, specialised cells ... cell-cell signaling. • cell communication. • protein oligomerization. • transmembrane transport. • nervous system development. ... Complications include the demyelination of oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells, causing delayed transmission rates of nerve ... Sato H, Hagiwara H, Ohde Y, Senba H, Virgona N, Yano T (March 2007). "Regulation of renal cell carcinoma cell proliferation, ...
Eukaryotic cells[ပြင်ဆင်ရန်]. Diagram of a typical animal (eukaryotic) cell, showing subcellular components.. Organelles:. (1) ... Theodor Schwann တို့က ထုတ်ပြန်ခဲ့သည်။ ယင်းသီအိုရီတွင် သက်ရှိအားလုံးသည် ဆဲလ် တခု သို့ တခုထက်မနည်းဖြင့် ဖွဲ့စည်းထားသည်။ ဆဲလ် ... Cell Movements and the Shaping of the Vertebrate Body in Chapter 21 of Molecular Biology of the Cell fourth edition, edited by ... ကလာပ်စည်း (ဆဲလ် Cell) ဆိုသည်မှာ သက်ရှိများ ဖွဲ့စည်းရာတွင် အခြေခံအကျဆုံးနှင့် အသေးဆုံး ယူနစ်တစ်ခုဖြစ်သည်။ [၁] ဗက်တီးရီးယား ...
Schwann cell wrapping.. Top left: a schematic drawing of a Schwann cell wrapping around an axon (black) in transverse section ... A method to deliver patterned electrical impulses to Schwann cells cultured on an artificial axon.. Merolli A1, Mao Y1, Voronin ... Schwann cells in peripheral nerves receive molecular signals from axons to coordinate the process of myelination. There is ... We also report on our initial in vitro tests where we were able to document the adherence and ensheath of human Schwann cells ...
... and leprosy are all neuropathies involving Schwann cells. Schwann cells are a variety of glial cells that keep peripheral nerve ... myelinated axon and Schwann cell" Cell Centered Database - Schwann cell. ... Individual myelinating Schwann cells cover about 1 mm of an axon-equating to about 1000 Schwann cells along a 1-m length of the ... Myelinating Schwann cells wrap around axons of motor and sensory neurons to form the myelin sheath. The Schwann cell promoter ...
Although Schwann cells were not a topic in the previous series of this Handbook, their properties were covered in a general ... Schwann Cell Basal Lamina Myelin Sheath Myelin Protein Wallerian Degeneration This is a preview of subscription content, log in ... Although Schwann cells were not a topic in the previous series of this Handbook, their properties were covered in a general ... Gould R.M., Matsumoto D., Mattingly G. (1982) The Schwann Cell. In: Lajtha A. (eds) Chemical and Cellular Architecture. ...
Schwann cell precursors then differentiate into Immature Schwann cells from which myelinating and non-myelinating Schwann cells ... develop into Immature Schwann cells which then differentiate into Myelinating Schwann cells and non-Myelinating schwann cells ... Perisynaptic Schwann cells develop as non-myelinating Schwann cells and encapsulate the NMJ. PSCs can be attributed to glial ... These cells share a common ancestor with both Myelinating and Non-Myelinating Schwann Cells called Neural Crest cells. ...
Schwann cells reorganize and disperse cancer cells. (A) Cancer cell clusters grown in Matrigel with Schwann cells (HEI-286 F- ... Contact between cancer cells and Schwann cells promotes cancer cell invasion. We next assessed whether Schwann cell contact ... Schwann cells intercalate into cancer cell clusters, disrupting cell-cell contacts. Protrusions formed by cancer cells at sites ... Empty arrows show cancer cell-cancer cell contacts. Note weaker cancer cell-cancer cell contact at time 1:40 after Schwann cell ...
... as well as rat cell lines derived from a schwannoma. ... ATCC offers schwann cell lines of rat and mouse origin ... Schwann Cell Fast STR Profiling Service Authentication of cell lines via STR profile analysis is becoming a requirement of ... ...
Nerve growth factor and its low-affinity receptor promote Schwann cell migration. E S Anton, G Weskamp, L F Reichardt, and W D ... Results show that Schwann cells migrate more rapidly on denervated than on normal sciatic nerve. Antibodies to NGF or to LNGFR ... Migrating Schwann cells in developing or regenerating peripheral nerves are known to express dramatically increased levels of ... To test this possibility, we examined the effects of NGF on Schwann cell migration on cryostat sections of biologically ...
Metabolic regulator LKB1 is crucial for Schwann cell-mediated axon maintenance.. Beirowski B1, Babetto E2, Golden JP3, Chen YJ4 ... Schwann cells (SCs) promote axonal integrity independently of myelination by poorly understood mechanisms. Current models ... Glia: Schwann cells provide life support for axons. [Nat Rev Neurosci. 2014] ... Metabolic regulator LKB1 plays a crucial role in Schwann cell-mediated axon maintenance ...
Treatment with GSK3β inhibitors, lithium, or 4-benzyl-2-methyl-1,2,4-thiadiazolidine-3,5-dione (TDZD-8) restored Schwann cell ... Our results demonstrate the requirement of plasmalogens for the correct and timely differentiation of Schwann cells and for the ... We determined that plasmalogens are crucial for Schwann cell development and differentiation and that plasmalogen defects ... implicating plasmalogens as regulators of membrane and cell signaling. ...
In cultures of rat Schwann cells with dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from wild-type or NRG1 type III -/- mice, the Schwann ... Forced expression of NRG-1 type III in the deficient DRG cells allowed the Schwann cells to myelinate the neurites, and in some ... Schwann cells can form Remak bundles ensheathing multiple, small unmyelinated axons or can form thick or thin myelin sheaths ... now show that neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) type III serves as a signal to the Schwann cells, with low concentrations of NRG-1 type III ...
The results show that OPN is constitutively expressed in the PNS at the level of the Schwann cell. During Wallerian ... In conclusion, these findings identify OPN as a novel Schwann cell antigen regulated by axonal contact. In contrast to other ... Similarly, OPN was expressed in Schwann cells in sural nerve biopsies which lack significant pathology. In chronic axonal ... to determine the expression of osteopontin in rat Schwann cells cultured "in vitro," 2) to define "in vivo" the spatial and ...
Researchers evaluate the safety of transplanting autologous Schwann cells into the injury epicenter of subjects with spinal ... Safety of Autologous Human Schwann Cell Transplantation for Spinal Cord Injuries Following Spinal Cord Injury, Schwann Cell ... Schwann cells (SCs), glial cells normally present in peripheral nerve, are responsible for axon regeneration after nerve injury ... Stem Cells Made into Relay Cells for Sense of Touch * Dementia Shown Associated with Synaptic Dysfunction Rather Than Synaptic ...
Rat sciatic nerve fibres were demyelinated by injection of lysolecithin and examined at several stages as Schwann cells ... Schwann cells thus seem to play a major role in ion channel distributions in the axolemma. In all of these stages Na+ channel ... Clusters of axonal Na+ channels adjacent to remyelinating Schwann cells J Neurocytol. 1996 Jun;25(6):403-12. doi: 10.1007/ ... This suggests that Schwann cell adherence acts in part to exclude Na+ channels, or that diffusible substances are involved and ...
However the consequences of frataxin depletion have not been measured in dorsal root ganglia or Schwann cells. We knock ... and multiple Schwann cell lines and measured cell death and proliferation. Only Schwann cells demonstrated a significant ... In addition to the death of Schwann cells, frataxin decreased proliferation in Schwann, oligodendroglia, and slightly in one ... Cell Death / genetics. Cell Line. Cell Survival. Ganglia, Spinal / metabolism*, pathology. Gene Knockdown Techniques. ...
D. H. Viskochil, "It takes two to tango: mast cell and Schwann cell interactions in neurofibromas," Journal of Clinical ... Conditional Inactivation of Pten with EGFR Overexpression in Schwann Cells Models Sporadic MPNST. Vincent W. Keng,1,2,3,4,5 ... V. W. Keng, E. P. Rahrmann, A. L. Watson et al., "PTEN and NF1 inactivation in schwann cells produces a severe phenotype in the ... M. Jaegle, M. Ghazvini, W. Mandemakers et al., "The POU proteins Brn-2 and Oct-6 share important functions in Schwann cell ...
2006) Schwann cells: origins and role in axonal maintenance and regeneration. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 38:1995-1999. ... 2006) Temporal control of Rac in Schwann cell-axon interaction is disrupted in NF2-mutant schwannoma cells. J Neurosci 26:3390- ... 2001) Protein zero is necessary for E-cadherin-mediated adherens junction formation in Schwann cells. Mol Cell Neurosci 18:606- ... 2011) Schwannomin/merlin promotes Schwann cell elongation and influences myelin segment length. Mol Cell Neurosci 47:1-9. ...
... where is the source of schwann cells. ? what is the best way to culture schwann cells?,. please inform us by details. Thanks ... Hi dr Wise Where we can find the Schwann cells in human body ? ... Schwann Cell ? Hi dr Wise. Where we can find the Schwann cells ... one can grow many Schwann cell precursor cells that when transplanted into the spinal cord can produce more Schwann cells. I ... By the way, Schwann cells that have differentiated to myelinate axons probably do not produce other Schwann cells. If there ...
Schwann cell - definition of Schwann cell - Labor Law Talk Dictionary (215 words). ... As a part of the retina, the bipolar cell exists between photoreceptors (rod cells and cone cells) and ganglion cells. ... ... myelinated axon and Schwann cell". Robert O. Becker wrote The Body Electric, which describes how the Schwann Cell network ... Named after the German physiologist Theodor Schwann, Schwann cells are a variety of neuroglia that mainly provide myelin ...
Little is known about the role the Golgi compartment plays in Schwann cell (SC) functions. Here, we studied the role of Golgi ... Myelination of peripheral nerves is controlled by PI4KB through regulation of Schwann cell Golgi function. Takashi Baba, ... Genetic inactivation of PI4KB, specifically in Schwann cells in mice, causes hypomyelination of large diameter axons and ... Myelination of peripheral nerves is controlled by PI4KB through regulation of Schwann cell Golgi function ...
... with new onset paraplegia to evaluate the safety of transplanting their own potentially neuroprotective Schwann cells into a ... Study shows safety of Schwann cell transplantation for treating subacute thoracic spinal cord injury. *Download PDF Copy ... Having established the safety of Schwann cell transplantation in this initial group of subjects, the authors, as well as others ... In the article entitled Safety of Autologous Human Schwann Cell Transplantation in Subacute Thoracic Spinal Cord Injury the ...
Sustained MAPK/ERK activation in adult Schwann cells impairs nerve repair. Ilaria Cervellini, Jorge Galino, Ning Zhu, Shannen ... Sustained MAPK/ERK activation in adult Schwann cells impairs nerve repair. Ilaria Cervellini, Jorge Galino, Ning Zhu, Shannen ... Sustained MAPK/ERK activation in adult Schwann cells impairs nerve repair Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... Sustained MAPK/ERK activation in adult Schwann cells impairs nerve repair. Ilaria Cervellini, Jorge Galino, Ning Zhu, Shannen ...
We investigated a new approach using a PHB strip seeded with Schwann cells to mimic a small nerve fascicle. Schwann cells were ... Stem cells were treated with a mixture of glial growth factors and after 2 weeks in vitro the expression of Schwann cell ... In vitro studies showed that rat ASC could be differentiated to a Schwann cell phenotype. These treated cells enhanced both the ... Schwann cell strip for peripheral nerve repair. Kalbermatten, Daniel F Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen ...
... vivo effect of cytochalasin D and demonstrated that inhibiting actin polymerization would delay the migration of Schwann cells ... the in vivo effect of cytochalasin D and demonstrated that inhibiting actin polymerization would delay the migration of Schwann ... cells and hinder the repair and regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. Overall, our data revealed the changes of actin ... Effects of Actin Polymerization Inhibitor on Schwann Cell Migration. Schwann cell migration largely contributes to peripheral ...
... to investigate the emerging role of these synapse-associated glial cells in the formation and maintenance of the neuromuscular ... This study aimed to generate a probe for perisynaptic Schwann cells (PSCs) ... Perisynaptic Schwann cells at neuromuscular junctions revealed by a novel monoclonal antibody J Neurocytol. 1998 Sep;27(9):667- ... This study aimed to generate a probe for perisynaptic Schwann cells (PSCs) to investigate the emerging role of these synapse- ...
Schwann cells also surround and give support to small-diameter axons. Click and start learning now! ... A series of Schwann cells covers the length of each axon. Abutting Schwann cells are tightly joined and nodes of Ranvier do not ... Each Schwann cell typically contains several axons (up to 20), which are often brought into the cell by invaginations of the ... Indentations of the Schwann cell plasma membrane called mesaxons connect the channels to the cell surface. ...
Schwann cell (SC) transplantation is a promising repair strategy after SCI.... ... Hill CE, Moon LD, Wood PM, Bunge MB (2006) Labeled Schwann cell transplantation: cell loss, host Schwann cell replacement, and ... 17β-estradiol protects Schwann cells against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and increases transplanted Schwann cell survival in a ... Permissive Schwann cell graft/spinal cord interfaces for axon regeneration. Cell Transplant 24:115-131CrossRefPubMedGoogle ...
Z. Ahmad, C. M. Brown, A. K. Patel, A. F. Ryan, R. Ongkeko, and J. K. Doherty, "Merlin knockdown in human schwann cells: clues ... Fourth Ventricular Schwannoma: Identical Clinicopathologic Features as Schwann Cell-Derived Schwannoma with Unique ... S. K. Singh, I. D. Clarke, M. Terasaki et al., "Identification of a cancer stem cell in human brain tumors," Cancer Research, ...
... namely the Schwann cell precursor and the immature Schwann cell. Immature Schwann cells mature into the myelinating and non- ... I found that BMP2/4 acts to maintain the immature Schwann cell type by promoting its differentiation from the Schwann cell ... The generation of mature Schwann cells from the neural crest occurs by a transition through two intermediate cell types, ... STAT3 in Schwann cells both in vitro and in vivo using mice with a conditional mutation of STAT3 specifically in Schwann cells ...
... and the cover produced by these cells is often referred to as the sheath of Schwann. Click and start learning now! ... All axons in the peripheral nervous system are surrounded by Schwann cells, ... Schwann Cells and Unmyelinated Axons. In the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells also surround and give support to small- ... The Schwann cell cytoplasm outside the myelin sheath contains the cell nucleus and is referred to as the neurilemma. ...
Moreover, QKI-deficient Schwann cells had reduced levels of MBP, p27KIP1 and Krox-20 mRNAs, as assessed by quantitative RT-PCR ... We show that the QKI isoforms blocked proliferation and promoted Schwann cell differentiation and myelination. In addition, ... markers of Schwann cell differentiation. QKI-6 and QKI-7 expressing co-cultures contained myelinated fibers that had ... we ectopically expressed QKI-6 and QKI-7 in primary rat Schwann cell/neuron from dorsal root ganglia cocultures. ...
  • A method to deliver patterned electrical impulses to Schwann cells cultured on an artificial axon. (nih.gov)
  • To uncouple these effects and focus on the direct response of Schwann cells, we developed an in vitro model where an electroconductive carbon fiber acts as an artificial axon. (nih.gov)
  • Top left: a schematic drawing of a Schwann cell wrapping around an axon (black) in transverse section and forming the myelin sheath (only two wrappings are represented). (nih.gov)
  • The lipid bilayer membrane of the Schwann cell (yellow) expands and wraps around the axon keeping a very tiny cytoplasmic space (green). (nih.gov)
  • Top right: TEM of a sciatic nerve in a rat shows a large myelinated axon ensheated by a thick myelin sheath (m) and multiple tiny un-myelinated axons engulfed by a non-myelinating Schwann cell (u). (nih.gov)
  • Individual myelinating Schwann cells cover about 1 mm of an axon-equating to about 1000 Schwann cells along a 1-m length of the axon. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, unlike oligodendrocytes, each myelinating Schwann cell provides insulation to only one axon (see image). (wikipedia.org)
  • Myelinating Schwann cells begin to form the myelin sheath in mammals during fetal development and work by spiraling around the axon, sometimes with as many as 100 revolutions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stump of the damaged axon is able to sprout, and those sprouts that grow through the Schwann-cell "tunnel" do so at the rate around 1 mm/day in good conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Schwann cell precursors (a first derivative of Neural crest cells) are present as the nerve axon grows from the dorsal neural tube, but it has been shown that these glial precursors are not essential to axonal growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolic regulator LKB1 is crucial for Schwann cell-mediated axon maintenance. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, NRG-1 type III appears to serve as an instructive juxtacrine signal on the axon surface for Schwann cell ensheathment or myelination. (sciencemag.org)
  • Schwann cells (SCs), glial cells normally present in peripheral nerve, are responsible for axon regeneration after nerve injury. (genengnews.com)
  • In studies of contusion SCI in the rat using mitogen-expanded cells, we have shown that SC transplantation at seven days after injury significantly fosters axon regeneration and myelination, improves host tissue preservation, 4 and reduces cavitation 4,14 in a thoracic SCI paradigm and increases numbers of preserved NeuN positive neurons rostral and caudal to the injury/graft site 17 after cervical SCI. (genengnews.com)
  • In all of these stages Na+ channel label was found primarily just outside the region of close contact between axon and Schwann cell. (nih.gov)
  • These results provide further evidence that cell-cell interactions between myelinating glia and their underlying axons extend beyond a structural role, actively influencing biochemical and physiological properties of the axon. (jneurosci.org)
  • An axon, or nerve fiber, is a long slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that conducts electrical impulses away from the neurons cell body or soma. (statemaster.com)
  • Since each Schwann cell can cover about a millimeter (0.04 inches ) along the axon, hundreds and often thousands are needed to completely cover an axon, which can sometimes span the length of a body. (statemaster.com)
  • The gaps between the Schwann cell covered segments are the Nodes of Ranvier , important sites of ionic and other exchanges of the axon with the extracellular liquid. (statemaster.com)
  • A series of Schwann cells covers the length of each axon. (getbodysmart.com)
  • Agudo M, Woodhoo A, Webber D, Mirsky R, Jessen KR, McMahon SB (2008) Schwann cell precursors transplanted into the injured spinal cord multiply, integrate and are permissive for axon growth. (springer.com)
  • The process begins when one part of the Schwann cell begins to move along the surface of the axon. (getbodysmart.com)
  • complete , the Schwann cell covers the axon with many layers of plasma membranes, consisting mostly of lipids. (getbodysmart.com)
  • Schwann cells are only 0.3 mm to 1.5 mm in length, thus many are required to myelinate the length of a single axon. (getbodysmart.com)
  • Using an in vitro co-culture paradigm in which primary neurons and adult Schwann cells are separated by a microporous membrane, we show that axon contact is not an absolute requirement for neuronal regulation of Schwann cell genes. (rupress.org)
  • Schwann cells that are implanted in the lesioned spinal cord fail to align in pathways that could support axon growth but form cellular clusters that exhibit only limited intermingling with the astrocytes and meningeal cells (MCs) that are present in the neural scar. (biomedsearch.com)
  • When an axon is dying, the Schwann cells surrounding it aid in its digestion, leaving an empty channel formed by successive Schwann cells, through which a new axon may then grow from a severed end. (neuromics.com)
  • As myelin and axon disintegrate the denervated Schwann cells and infiltrating macrophages remove axonal and myelin debris by phagocytosis. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • A Schwann cell has the potential to differentiate into either a myelinating or ensheathing cell depending upon signals received from the axon that it contacts. (biologists.org)
  • Studies focusing on the pathway leading to myelination demonstrated that Schwann cells must form a basal lamina in order to myelinate an axon. (biologists.org)
  • Schwann cells in contact with axons that do not induce myelination, or Schwann cells that have not established a unitary relationship with an axon, do not express protein zero mRNA although they produce basal lamina components. (biologists.org)
  • 2) In serum-free conditions, a majority of Schwann cells express protein zero mRNA and protein, but this change in gene expression is not associated with basal lamina formation or with elongation of the Schwann cell along the axon and elaboration of myelin. (biologists.org)
  • At adult NMJs, terminal Schwann cells and their processes cover precisely axon terminal branches that lie juxtaposed to acetylcholine receptors located on the postsynaptic muscle fiber membrane. (utexas.edu)
  • axon, cell body, nerve fiber. (coursehero.com)
  • Age-related changes of the interactions between the axon, Schwann cell and extracellular material on reinnervation to the motor endplate were examined during the period of I-8 weeks after crush injury of the sciatic nerve with immunonuofluorescence histochemistry. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This may be due to an age-related unsynchronous maturation among the Schwann cells, axon, and extracellular material during the nerve regeneration. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Transforming growth factor-beta 1 regulates axon/Schwann cell interactions. (rupress.org)
  • Expression of TGF-beta 1, a major isoform produced by Schwann cells, is specifically and significantly downregulated as a result of axon/Schwann cell interactions. (rupress.org)
  • Addition of TGF-beta 1 to the cocultures inhibits many of the effects of the axon on Schwann cells, antagonizing the proliferation induced by contact with neurons, and, strikingly, blocking myelination. (rupress.org)
  • Biomaterials, cell transplantation and growth factors that can guide axons across a lesion site, provide a cellular substrate, stimulate axon growth and have shown some promise in increasing the growth distance of regenerating axons. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • The nodes are devoid of myelin and flanked by paranodes where lateral loops of glial cells are tightly attached to the axon by septate-like junctions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The myelin sheath is composed of compacted layers of the Schwann cell membrane, which is predominantly lipid, but contains several proteins that take on key roles in maintaining the structure and compaction of the myelin and adhesion of the sheath to the axon. (lifemapsc.com)
  • One Schwann cell myelinates one axon, whereas one oligodendrocyte, the myelin-synthesizing the glia of the central nervous system, typically myelinates many axons. (lifemapsc.com)
  • Schwann cells act as an electrically insulating sheath, thus, signals are propogated along the axon in a series of jumps from node to node, in a process called salutatory conduction. (lifemapsc.com)
  • The role of patterned electrical impulses has been investigated in the literature using co-cultures of neurons and myelinating cells. (nih.gov)
  • The co-culturing method, however, prevents the uncoupling of the direct effect of patterned electrical impulses on myelinating cells from the indirect effect mediated by neurons. (nih.gov)
  • Glial cells function to support neurons and in the PNS, also include satellite cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, enteric glia and glia that reside at sensory nerve endings, such as the Pacinian corpuscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myelinating Schwann cells wrap around axons of motor and sensory neurons to form the myelin sheath. (wikipedia.org)
  • Schwann cells are involved in many important aspects of peripheral nerve biology-the conduction of nervous impulses along axons, nerve development and regeneration, trophic support for neurons, production of the nerve extracellular matrix, modulation of neuromuscular synaptic activity, and presentation of antigens to T-lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following this process, the Schwann cells can guide regeneration by forming a type of tunnel that leads toward the target neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neural crest cells are found in the dorsal neural tube from which nerves and glia alike grow and Neural crest cells are the precursors to many various tissue types including enteric neurons and glia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to neurons, where pp140trk appears to be the functionally critical NGF receptor, NGF responses in Schwann cells depend on LNGFR. (pnas.org)
  • In cultures of rat Schwann cells with dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from wild-type or NRG1 type III -/- mice, the Schwann cells robustly myelinated the wild-type neurites but failed to myelinate the NRG-1 type III-deficient neurites. (sciencemag.org)
  • Forced expression of NRG-1 type III in the SCG neurons promoted myelination of these neurons in Schwann cell coculture experiments. (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus the most severe effects of frataxin deficiency were on Schwann cells, which enwrap dorsal root ganglia neurons. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Neurons regulate Schwann cell genes by diffusible molecules. (rupress.org)
  • Successful peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery require the reestablishment of the neuron-Schwann cell relationship in the regenerating rat sciatic nerve, neurons differentially regulate Schwann cell genes. (rupress.org)
  • In this system neurons but not other cell types, repress the expression of Schwann cell p75NGFR while inducing the expression of the POU domain transcription factor, suppressed cAMP inducible POU, and myelin P0. (rupress.org)
  • Furthermore, the 0.02% fingolimod-loaded fibers enhanced neurite outgrowth from whole and dissociated DRG neurons, increased Schwann cell migration, and reduced the Schwann cell expression of promyelinating factors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Neuromics offers a wide variety of human neurons and other neuron related cells. (neuromics.com)
  • Human mesenchymal stem cell-derived alpha motor neurons are specifically designed to provide studies for motor dysfunction for such diseases as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). (neuromics.com)
  • The implementation of a two-armed study allowed me to investigate the interactions between Schwann cells (SCs), a vital neuronal support cell, and neurons, as well as, the role strain has in local protein synthesis. (umd.edu)
  • To determine whether specific asparagine-linked (N-linked) oligosaccharides present in cell surface glycoproteins are required for cell-cell interactions within the peripheral nervous system, we have used castanospermine to inhibit maturation of N-linked sugars in cell cultures of neurons or neurons plus Schwann cells. (rupress.org)
  • We have analyzed several biological responses of embryonic dorsal root ganglion neurons, with or without added purified populations of Schwann cells, in the presence of castanospermine. (rupress.org)
  • Extracellular matrix deposition by Schwann cells and myelination of neurons by Schwann cells are greatly diminished in the presence of castanospermine as assayed by electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry, suggesting that specific N-linked oligosaccharides are required for the expression of these cellular functions. (rupress.org)
  • Pursuing damage denervated Schwann cells start to make a variety of neurotrophic elements that support the success of harmed neurons (Scherer and Salzer 2003). (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Neuronal ATP triggers calcium spikes in Schwann cells co-cultured with neurons treated with anti-GQ1b antibody plus complement. (biologists.org)
  • Neuronal ATP triggers cAMP production in Schwann cells co-cultured with neurons. (biologists.org)
  • Neuronal ATP induces CREB phosphorylation in Schwann cells in co-culture with neurons exposed to anti-GQ1b antibody plus complement. (biologists.org)
  • Schwann cells are the principal glial cell if the peripheral nervous system that provide the insulation, also known as myelin, to neurons. (pediatricbrainfoundation.org)
  • We have investigated the potential regulatory role of TGF-beta in the interactions of neurons and Schwann cells using an in vitro myelinating system. (rupress.org)
  • These effects of TGF-beta 1 on Schwann cell differentiation are likely to be direct effects on the Schwann cells themselves which express high levels of TGF-beta 1 receptors when cocultured with neurons. (rupress.org)
  • Then, these neurospheres were induced to differentiate along the Schwann cell lineage using glia growth factors, and this was followed by co-culture with dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. (hku.hk)
  • Following co-culture with the DRG neurons, all derivatives of the Schwann cell-like cells not only acquired the Schwann cell phenotype, but remained stably committed even in subcultures in which both extrinsic factors and neurons were withdrawn. (hku.hk)
  • To test this possibility, we examined the effects of NGF on Schwann cell migration on cryostat sections of biologically relevant NGF-poor and NGF-rich substrates--normal or denervated peripheral (sciatic) nerve, untreated or pretreated with NGF. (pnas.org)
  • Results show that Schwann cells migrate more rapidly on denervated than on normal sciatic nerve. (pnas.org)
  • Rat sciatic nerve fibres were demyelinated by injection of lysolecithin and examined at several stages as Schwann cells proliferated, adhered, and initiated remyelination. (nih.gov)
  • Previous work in our laboratory on Trembler mouse sciatic nerve established that myelinating Schwann cells exert a profound effect on the underlying neuronal cytoskeleton. (jneurosci.org)
  • Moreover, by applying actin polymerization inhibitor cytochalasin D to sciatic nerve crushed rats, we studied the in vivo effect of cytochalasin D and demonstrated that inhibiting actin polymerization would delay the migration of Schwann cells and hinder the repair and regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using mitogen expanded human Schwann cells in SCID mice and athymic female nude rats demonstrated that human Schwann cells can survive and are capable of enhancing axonal regeneration and forming myelin after transplantation in animals with sciatic nerve transection or thoracic spinal cord transection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To evaluate the effect of using Schwann-like cells derived from human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (hUCBMSCs) as the seed cells to repair large sciatic nerve defect in rats so as to provide the experimental evidence for clinical application of hUCBMSCs. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Tissue engineered nerves from hUCBMSCs-derived Schwann-like cells can effectively repair large defects of the sciatic nerve. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • All cell types present in primary cultures initiated from rat sciatic nerve (perineurial cells, Schwann cells, and fibroblasts) expressed GLUT1 protein in vitro. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Using in vitro electrophysiology to simultaneously record A and C fibre conduction of the mouse sciatic nerve, I investigated the metabolic interactions between Schwann cells and axons, particularly during fructose metabolism. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • The bone marrow is a rich source of mesenchymal cells, which can be differentiated in vitro into Schwann cells and subsequently engrafted into the damaged nerve. (hindawi.com)
  • In this study I investigated the effects of BMP in the Schwann cell lineage in vitro. (bl.uk)
  • I examined the role of STAT3 in Schwann cells both in vitro and in vivo using mice with a conditional mutation of STAT3 specifically in Schwann cells. (bl.uk)
  • I found that STAT3 is activated by, and supports survival following stimulation by autocrine factors secreted by Schwann cells both in vitro and following nerve injury in vivo. (bl.uk)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of NTP on Schwann cells (SCs) in vitro and in vivo, which play an important role in peripheral nerve regeneration. (mdpi.com)
  • Subsequently, we characterized Schwann cell migration and gene expression in vitro . (frontiersin.org)
  • In vivo results corresponded well with in vitro findings in which melatonin effectively increased the amount of proliferated Schwann cells and re-innervated MEP on target muscles following PNI. (ovid.com)
  • In this study we have investigated the contributions of dystroglycan,β 1-integrin, and corresponding interacting long arm globular LG modules of laminin to Schwann cell basement membrane formation in vitro. (biologists.org)
  • We have used high resolution in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy to examine changes in gene expression and morphology of Schwann cells differentiating into myelin-forming cells in vitro. (biologists.org)
  • Schwann cells laden in the scaffolds were assessed in vitro, with results revealing that the elongation of Schwann cells and thus the aligned DRG neurite outgrowth could be well-regulated through the control of the bioprinting process. (envisiontec.com)
  • It has been well established that rat Schwann cells down regulate their cell-surface expression of galactocerebroside (GalC) in vitro under normal cell culture conditions. (monash.edu)
  • To determine whether human Schwann cells exhibit a similar down-regulation of GalC in vitro we examined GalC expression in dissociated human Schwann cell cultures derived from normal adult peripheral nerve. (monash.edu)
  • Results of 7 days of in vitro culture of Schwann cells, showed 78% increase in cell proliferation on core-shell structured nanofibers compared to blend PLCL-laminin scaffolds, which confirmed the potential application of these constructs as substrates for peripheral nerve regeneration. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Recently, a large amount of new data has indicated that nerve Fbs play critical roles in Schwann cells (SCs) and axons in vitro . (ijbs.com)
  • Nonmyelinating Schwann cells are involved in maintenance of axons and are crucial for neuronal survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • Schwann cells do not express detectable pp140trk, the NGF-activated receptor tyrosine kinase which is essential for neuronal responses to NGF. (pnas.org)
  • SCs can reduce secondary tissue damage, neuronal cell death, and the cavitation that occurs after contusion SCI. (genengnews.com)
  • We knocked down frataxin in several neural cell lines, including two dorsal root ganglia neural lines, 2 neuronal lines, a human oligodendroglial line (HOG) and multiple Schwann cell lines and measured cell death and proliferation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Non-myelinating Schwann cells are involved in maintenance of axons and are crucial for neuronal survival. (statemaster.com)
  • Therefore, it should be possible to generate large numbers of Schwann cells from diseased nerves to study defects in cell function or from normal nerves to study the effects of Schwann cell grafts on neuronal regeneration. (umich.edu)
  • The present thesis investigates the effects of a synthetic matrix BD™ PuraMatrix™ peptide (BD)hydrogel, alginate/fibronectin gel and fibrin glue combined with cultured rat Schwann cells or human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) on neuronal regeneration and muscle recovery after peripheral nerve injury in adult rats. (diva-portal.org)
  • During development of the peripheral nervous system in mammals, Schwann cells wrap their plasma membranes around neuronal axons, forming multiple myelin sheaths. (sciencemag.org)
  • During embryonic development of the peripheral nervous system in mammals, Schwann cell lineage cells migrate along peripheral neuronal axons from the dorsal to the ventral direction, arriving at their final destinations such as the limbs. (sciencemag.org)
  • As melatonin successfully improves nerve regeneration by promoting Schwann cell proliferation, therapeutic use of melatonin may thus serve as a promising strategy to counteract the PNI-induced neuronal disability. (ovid.com)
  • PTEN and NF1 inactivation in schwann cells produces a severe phenotype in the peripheral nervous system that promotes the development and malignant progression of peripheral nerve sheath tumors," Cancer Research , vol. 72, no. 13, pp. 3405-3413, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • This methodology aims to illustrate the mechanisms by which extracellular matrix cues such as substrate stiffness, protein composition and cell morphology regulate Schwann cell (SC) phenotype. (jove.com)
  • Schwann cells (SCs), as the major glial cells of the PNS, play a vital role in promoting PNS regeneration by dedifferentiating into a regenerative cell phenotype following injury. (jove.com)
  • This is due to the remarkable ability of SCs to dedifferentiate into a "repair" cell phenotype from a myelinating or Remak phenotype 3 . (jove.com)
  • The repair SC is a distinctive cell phenotype in several ways. (jove.com)
  • The drug fingolimod improved peripheral nerve regeneration in preclinical rodent models by stimulating a pro-regenerative Schwann cell phenotype and axonal growth. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here we created aligned fingolimod-releasing electrospun fibers that provide directional guidance cues in combination with the local, sustained release of fingolimod to enhance neurite outgrowth and stimulate a pro-regenerative Schwann cell phenotype. (frontiersin.org)
  • Following muscle denervation, normally quiescent terminal Schwann cells (SCs) become 'reactive' a phenotype characterized by the growth of SC processes, SC proliferation, SC migration from synapses and the induction of nerve terminal sprouting. (utexas.edu)
  • In the case of purified Schwann cells, treatment with TGF-beta 1 increases their proliferation, and it promotes a pre- or nonmyelinating Schwann cell phenotype characterized by increased NCAM expression, decreased NGF receptor expression, inhibition of the forskolin-mediated induction of the myelin protein P0, and induction of the Schwann cell transcription factor suppressed cAMP-inducible POU protein. (rupress.org)
  • During development, TGF-beta 1 could serve as an inhibitor of Schwann cell proliferation and myelination, whereas after peripheral nerve injury, it may promote the transition of Schwann cells to a proliferating, nonmyelinating phenotype, and thereby enhance the regenerative response. (rupress.org)
  • The ability of attachment and proliferation of Schwann cells on the electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds was investigated by cell proliferation assay and their phenotype was evaluated by immunocytochemical staining using specific S100 antibody. (nus.edu.sg)
  • The cells were found to attach and proliferate on core-shell PLCL-laminin scaffolds, expressing bi- and tri-polar elongations retaining their typical phenotype. (nus.edu.sg)
  • However, these Schwann cell-like cells lost their Schwann cell phenotype after the induction medium was changed. (hku.hk)
  • Adding glial growth factor to the adenyl cyclase activators maximized Schwann cell proliferation, and the population rapidly and selectively expanded. (umich.edu)
  • We demonstrate that the Arf1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor, brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein 1 (BIG1)/Arfgef1, and the effector Arf1 regulate the initiation of myelination of axons by Schwann cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Myelin-wrapping of axons by Schwann cells was found to require higher laminin concentrations than either proliferation or axonal ensheathment. (biologists.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate injury induced proliferation of Schwann cells with emphasis of the effects of the insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II) and the sex hormones progesterone and estrogen. (dissertations.se)
  • Activation of proliferation of Schwann cells is crucial for axonal guidance and successful nerve regeneration following peripheral nerve injury (PNI). (ovid.com)
  • Proliferation of Schwann cells and endoneurial fibroblasts induced by activated mononuclear inflammatory cells may be important in inflammatory demyelinative neuropathies. (elsevier.com)
  • 2,3 Interest in the peripheral nervous system has grown over the past 10 years, and the discussions in this chapter on Schwann cells and in others on the peripheral nervous system (PNS) including PNS myelin (Vol. 3), peripheral nerve (Vol. 7), and nerve regeneration (Vol. 9) reflect this interest and the advancement made. (springer.com)
  • During peripheral nerve regeneration, 9-O-acetyl GD3 is expressed by Schwann cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Schwann cells are known for their roles in supporting nerve regeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of their ability to impact regeneration of axons, Schwann cells have been connected to preferential motor reinnervation, as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perisynaptic schwann cells (also known as Terminal schwann cells or Teloglia) are Neuroglia found at the Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) with known functions in synaptic transmission, synaptogenesis, and nerve regeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • This discovery came from investigating an existing peripheral nerve regeneration pathway and applying similar concepts to central nervous system cells. (sci-info-pages.com)
  • Regeneration or replacement of beta-cells is therefore needed to restore normal glucose homeostasis. (dissertations.se)
  • The transplantation of primary Schwann cells (SC) has been shown to improve nerve regeneration. (dissertations.se)
  • The present thesis investigates whether adult human and rat MSC differentiated along a Schwann cell lineage could increase their expression of neurotrophic factors and promote regeneration after transplantation into the injured peripheral nerve and spinal cord. (dissertations.se)
  • This study investigated the effects of a membrane conduit filled with a synthetic matrix BD™ PuraMatrix™ peptide (BD) hydrogel and cultured Schwann cells on regeneration after peripheral nerve injury in adult rats. (diva-portal.org)
  • Addition of Schwann cells to the BD hydrogel considerably increased regeneration distance with axons crossing the injury gap and entering into the distal nerve stump. (diva-portal.org)
  • Addition of Schwann cells did not improve regeneration of motoneurons or muscle recovery. (diva-portal.org)
  • The present results suggest that BD hydrogel with Schwann cells could be used within biosynthetic conduits to increase the rate of axonal regeneration across a nerve defect. (diva-portal.org)
  • Therefore, we investigated the potential of Schwann-like cells differentiated from human tonsil-derived stem cells (T-MSCs) for use in neuromuscular regeneration in trembler-J (Tr-J) mice, a model of CMT1A. (mdpi.com)
  • Schwann cells (SC), as the major glial cells in the PNS, provide necessary molecular and physical cues to induce PNS regeneration and aid in functional recoveries in short gap injuries. (jove.com)
  • Schwann cells play important roles in the development, function, and regeneration of peripheral nerves. (neuromics.com)
  • The SCs ability to promote nerve regeneration has increased interest in cell transplantation therapy for nervous system repair. (medsci.org)
  • The authors investigate whether autologous Schwann cells (SCs) implanted within a novel collagen-glycosaminoglycan conduit will improve axonal regeneration in a long-segment PNI model. (thejns.org)
  • Considering melatonin plays an important role in proliferative regulation of central glial cells, the present study determined whether melatonin can effectively promote Schwann cell proliferation and improve nerve regeneration after PNI. (ovid.com)
  • The function of distal Schwann cells that promote nerve regeneration continues to be well defined. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • To handle a putative function of Schwann cell proliferation in nerve regeneration we utilized a mouse model lacking in cyclin D1 a G1 cell routine proteins. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • 2000). Consequently this mouse model is ideal for investigating the consequences of the lack of Schwann cell proliferation during PNS regeneration. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Our results suggest that Schwann cell proliferation during Wallerian degeneration is not necessary for regeneration and practical recovery of hurt peripheral nerves. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • This paper presents our study on bioprinting Schwann cell-laden scaffolds from low-viscosity hydrogel compositions including RGD modified alginate, hyaluronic acid and fibrin, with a focus on investigating the printability of hydrogel compositions and characterizing the functions of printed scaffolds for potential use in nerve tissue regeneration. (envisiontec.com)
  • Terminal Schwann cells that cap neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) are proposed to play important roles in the formation, maintenance and regeneration of peripheral motor synapses. (utexas.edu)
  • Even though nanofibers had no effect on neurite length in the setting of reduced Schwann cells, the ability of nanofibers to support Schwann cell migration suggests they may have an important role in peripheral nerve regeneration scaffolds. (minervamedica.it)
  • Schwann cell transplantation improves post-traumatic nerve regeneration in both peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS) but sufficient numbers of immunocompatible cells are required for clinical application. (hku.hk)
  • Therefore, applications aimed at developing ideal seeding cells are a high priority in peripheral nerve regeneration research. (ijbs.com)
  • Perisynaptic Schwann Cells (PSCs) contribute to the tripartite synapse organization in combination with the pre-synaptic nerve and the post-synaptic muscle fiber. (wikipedia.org)
  • The general series of developmental events can be summarized as this: Neural Crest cells develop into Schwann cell precursors which further develop into Immature Schwann cells which then differentiate into Myelinating Schwann cells and non-Myelinating schwann cells of which Perisynaptic Schwann cells are a subset. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perisynaptic Schwann cells develop as non-myelinating Schwann cells and encapsulate the NMJ. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study aimed to generate a probe for perisynaptic Schwann cells (PSCs) to investigate the emerging role of these synapse-associated glial cells in the formation and maintenance of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). (nih.gov)
  • Terminal/perisynaptic Schwann cells (TPSCs) are a perisynaptic glial cell at the neuromuscular junction that respond to nerve-derived substances such as acetylcholine and purines. (elifesciences.org)
  • The current candidates are neural stem cells, stromal cells, and autologous Schwann cells (aSC). (rutgers.edu)
  • The patient had a neurologically complete thoracic spinal injury and received the transplantation of autologous Schwann cells about four weeks post-injury. (spinalcordinjuryzone.com)
  • In the lesion milieu, transplanted SCs may be effective through their production of growth promoting trophic molecules, 7 their deposition of matrix molecules collagen and laminin into the extracellular space, 8 as well as their expression of surface membrane cell adhesion molecules such as NCAM and L1. (genengnews.com)
  • Thus, even though small axons reside inside Schwann cells, they are still fully exposed to the extracellular environment. (getbodysmart.com)
  • The proteins with increased levels included proteins involved in cell growth, angiogenesis and complement pathway while proteins with decreased levels included those involved in cell adhesion, plasminogen pathway and extracellular matrix remodeling. (mdpi.com)
  • In this study, we found that exogenous laminin-1, like neuromuscular laminins-2/4, formed two distinct extracellular matrices on Schwann cell surfaces, each facilitated by laminin polymerization. (biologists.org)
  • The sheaths were obtained by slitting the nerve fiber, the extracellular electrolytes were washed out in isotonic sucrose solution, and the concentrations in the cells were determined after different soaking times in the sucrose solution. (rupress.org)
  • A possible explanation for the slow recovery and presence of extracellular lactate is the apparent glycolytic requirement of the A fibres, which is delayed due to the Schwann cells requirement for high concentrations limiting the access to fructose. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • These cells share a common ancestor with both Myelinating and Non-Myelinating Schwann Cells called Neural Crest cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perisynaptic (Terminal) Schwann Cells were first discovered by Louis-Antoine Ranvier in 1878 when he observed branching networks surrounding the motor end plate (neural portion of NMJ). (wikipedia.org)
  • It was found that these newly discovered cells were present in nerve degeneration models, showing their non-neural nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • The origin of Perisynaptic (Terminal) Schwann Cells was largely under question in the 1960s as there were arguments on whether the cells were of epithelial or glial descent, but the development of PSCs has been linked to Neural crest origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • As described above, PSCs are a type of non-myelinating Schwann cell, which develop from neural crest cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transition from neural crest cells to Schwann cell precursors is characterized by Sox10 and generally occurs around embryonic day 12-13 in rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins are seen in other glial cells such as Myelinating Schwann cells and Neural Crest cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the lineage of non-Myelinating Schwann cells is known from neural crest cells, the exact development of PSCs from non-Myelinating Schwann cells is not fully understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the death of Schwann cells, frataxin decreased proliferation in Schwann, oligodendroglia, and slightly in one neural cell line. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The generation of mature Schwann cells from the neural crest occurs by a transition through two intermediate cell types, namely the Schwann cell precursor and the immature Schwann cell. (bl.uk)
  • Due to their peripheral origin and limited penetration of astrocytic regions, aSC are transplanted intralesionally as compared to neural stem cells that are transplanted into intact spinal cord. (rutgers.edu)
  • 2005). Co-transplantation of schwann cells promotes the survival and differentiation of neural stem cells transplanted into the injured spinal cord. (rutgers.edu)
  • Schwann cells (SCs) are attractive seed cells in neural tissue engineering, but their application is limited by attenuated biological activities and impaired functions with aging. (dovepress.com)
  • SCs are derived from neural crest cells and can either be myelinating or non-myelinating [ 3 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Le Douarin NM, Dupin E. Cell lineage analysis in neural crest ontogeny. (springer.com)
  • The loss of Nf1 transiently promotes self-renewal but not tumorigenesis by neural crest stem cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Perisynaptic glial cells respond to neural activity by increasing cytosolic calcium, but the significance of this pathway is unclear. (elifesciences.org)
  • To define the distribution and co-localization of the structural components of the regenerating nerve fibers, some specific antibodies were used to label axons (neurofilament, PGP 9.5), Schwann cells (S 100), adhesion molecules [neural cell adhesion molecule. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Primary cultured Schwann cells (SCs) are widely used in the investigation of the biology of SC and are important seed cells for neural tissue engineering. (bio-protocol.org)
  • In addition, purified primary cultured SCs are important seed cells for neural tissue engineering. (bio-protocol.org)
  • OPN was found originally in bone matrix and subsequently in kidney, placenta, blood vessels, adult rat brain and in a number of cell lines in response to inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Immature Schwann cells mature into the myelinating and non-myelinaling Schwann cells present in the adult nerve. (bl.uk)
  • They have also been largely responsible for developing an efficient method for procuring large, essentially pure populations of human Schwann cells from adult peripheral nerve. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Blood vessels guide Schwann cell migration in the adult demyelinated CNS through Eph/ephrin signaling. (thisisms.com)
  • In additional experiments we found that injury induced proliferation of adult Schwann cell proliferation was dependent on Ca2+, calmodulin and protein kinase, while agents, which enhance the formation of cAMP, were inhibitory. (lu.se)
  • Publications] A.T.M.S.Islam: 'Expression of NOS,P PSA-N-CAM and S100 protein in the granule cell maturation pathway of the adult guinea pig forebrain' Developmental Braine Research. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] A.T.M.S.Islam: 'Olfactory granule cell dispersion in the adult guinea pig forebrain' Brain Research Protocols. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Sustained MAPK/ERK Activation in Adult Schwann Cells Impairs Nerve Repair. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Pursuing this line of research on animal tissues, Schwann not only verified the existence of cells, but he traced the development of many adult tissues from early embryo stages. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Schwann also contributed to the understanding and classification of adult animal tissues. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Schwann cells provide the myelin sheath (insulation) for the nerve cells that transmit electrical signals to and form the spinal cord. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Cell transplantation is a leading candidate therapy to repair tissue damage in the traumatically injured spinal cord. (genengnews.com)
  • When designing a Phase I trial involving the surgical delivery of cells into the spinal cord parenchyma during the first few months after injury, however, risk must be mitigated as much as possible. (genengnews.com)
  • waited a week so that it would grow out Schwann cells, and then transplanted that part of the nerve into the spinal cord. (rutgers.edu)
  • How feasible is 'identifying ways in which Schwann cells and c-Jun could be used to repair the spinal cord. (rutgers.edu)
  • the answer to your question is that Schwann cells have been extensively studied in spinal cord injury. (rutgers.edu)
  • At least half a dozen groups have looked at transplantation of Schwann cells into the spinal cord. (rutgers.edu)
  • It is elevated in spinal cord injury and is strongly expressed by inflammatory cells. (rutgers.edu)
  • If there were so, then transplantation of myelinated peripheral should have all sorts of beneficial effects on the spinal cord, since myelinated axons are chock full of Schwann cells. (rutgers.edu)
  • A Phase I clinical trial that targeted individuals with new onset paraplegia to evaluate the safety of transplanting their own potentially neuroprotective Schwann cells into a trauma-induced spinal cord lesion showed no evidence of adverse effects after 1 year. (news-medical.net)
  • This novel cell therapy approach for treating subacute thoracic spinal cord injury is described in an article in Journal of Neurotrauma , a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. (news-medical.net)
  • In the article entitled 'Safety of Autologous Human Schwann Cell Transplantation in Subacute Thoracic Spinal Cord Injury' the authors present the results obtained from three different doses of Schwann cells and report no negative effects related to harvesting or transplanting the cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Importantly, the trial successfully determined safety and feasibility for performing a peripheral nerve harvest within 5-30 days of injury followed by an intra-spinal transplantation of autologous cells within 4-7 weeks of injury, even in individuals having sustained severe spinal injury. (news-medical.net)
  • The Miami Project to Cure Paralysis said Tuesday it has received federal approval to conduct "revolutionary" human trials to transplant a patient's own Schwann cells, found mainly in the nervous system, to the site of recent spinal cord injuries in the hope that the trials may bring researchers closer to finding a cure for paralysis. (sci-info-pages.com)
  • A Toronto-led team of researchers has found a way to use stem cells derived from skin to treat spinal cord injuries in rats. (sci-info-pages.com)
  • The finding lends promise to the idea that stem cells could one day be used to heal spinal cord injuries in humans, helping thousands to walk again. (sci-info-pages.com)
  • Anna Z, Katarzyna JW, Joanna C, Barczewska M, Joanna W, Wojciech M (2017) Therapeutic potential of olfactory Ensheathing cells and Mesenchymal stem cells in spinal cord injuries. (springer.com)
  • Intraspinal Delivery of Schwann Cells for Spinal Cord Injury. (rutgers.edu)
  • Cell transplant-mediated tissue repair of the damaged spinal cord is being tested in several clinical trials. (rutgers.edu)
  • Key parameters of delivery methodology include precision localization of the injury site, stereotaxic devices to control needle trajectory, method of entry into the spinal cord, spinal cord motion reduction, the volume and density of the cell suspension, rate of delivery, and control of shear stresses on cells. (rutgers.edu)
  • Schwann cells harvested from the sural nerve of the participant will be autologously transplanted into the epicenter of the participant's spinal cord injury. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Cell transplantation therapy of Schwann cells (SCs) is a promising therapeutic strategy after spinal cord injury. (medsci.org)
  • In rat models of contused spinal cord, the dramatic losses of implanted SCs via necrotic and apoptotic cell deaths occur largely 3 weeks post-implantation [ 9 - 11 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Here, we describe a method that uses spinal nerves from neonatal SD rats as a cell source to efficiently obtain highly purified SCs in a short period. (bio-protocol.org)
  • January 23, 2013 - Doctors at The Miami Project to Cure Paralysis, a Center of Excellence at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, performed the first-ever Food and Drug Administration approved Schwann cell transplantation in a patient with a new spinal cord injury. (spinalcordinjuryzone.com)
  • This trial, when completed successfully, will lay the critical foundation for future cell-based therapies to target spinal cord injuries. (spinalcordinjuryzone.com)
  • Grafting of cell-​seeded alginate capillary hydrogels into a spinal cord lesion site provides an axonal bridge while phys. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Following spinal cord transections, Schwann cell (SC)​-​seeded alginate hydrogels were grafted to the lesion site and AAV5 expressing brain-​derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) under control of a tetracycline-​regulated promoter was injected caudally. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • These cells generally appear around embryonic day 13-15 in rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results suggest that one function of the elevated levels of NGF known to be present in embryonic and regenerating peripheral nerves is to promote the migration of Schwann cells. (pnas.org)
  • I also found that survival responses to BMP2/4 differ between embryonic and postnatal Schwann cell. (bl.uk)
  • Cells of origin in the embryonic nerve roots for NF1-associated plexiform neurofibroma. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Embryonic day 15 rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were cultured on nanofibers for 3 days in defined media, both with and without aphidicolin, which prevented Schwann cell proliferation. (minervamedica.it)
  • Inactivation of the receptor, evident at least from embryonic day 18, resulted in suppressed Schwann cell death in normally developing and injured nerves. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • His conclusions were also basic to the modern concept of embryology, for he described embryonic development as a succession of cell divisions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Schwann cell development, differentiation and myelination. (springer.com)
  • Although Schwann cells comprised 90% of the initial culture population, their numbers declined over time due to a faster mitotic rate of the fibroblasts in the presence of cholera toxin alone. (umich.edu)
  • Without special treatment, contaminating fibroblasts proliferate much faster than SCs and will soon be the predominant cells in the cultures. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Culture of Schwann cells and endoneurial fibroblasts from newborn rat sciatic nerves in the presence of supernatants obtained from concanavalin A (Con-A)-stimulated rat mononuclear cells resulted in proliferation of both cell types. (elsevier.com)
  • Combinations of fibroblasts (Fbs) and corresponding epithelial cells have been widely used in many tissues, such as the skin and breast tissues, to augment tissue repair and remodeling. (ijbs.com)
  • Moreover, co-transplanting mammary stromal fibroblasts with mammary epithelial cells resulted in more normal epithelial structures and less neoplasia than was observed when mammary epithelial cells alone were applied [ 15 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • In myelinated axons, Schwann cells form the myelin sheath. (wikipedia.org)
  • Imatinib mesylate inhibits cell invasion of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor induced by platelet-derived growth factor-BB," Laboratory Investigation , vol. 87, no. 8, pp. 767-779, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • Differential NF1, p16, and EGFR patterns by interphase cytogenetics (FISH) in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) and morphologically similar spindle cell neoplasms," Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology , vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 702-709, 2002. (hindawi.com)
  • Scientists have discovered that a special type of cell is much more prolific in generating a protective sheath covering nerve fibers than previously believed. (sci-info-pages.com)
  • All axons in the peripheral nervous system are surrounded by Schwann cells, and the cover produced by these cells is often referred to as the sheath of Schwann. (getbodysmart.com)
  • Neuroblast versus sheath cell in the development of peripheral nerves. (springer.com)
  • In rodents within 24 to 48 hours following nerve injury the distal axons degenerate and the connected Schwann cells break down their myelin sheath. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • During peripheral nerve myelination, Schwann cells sort larger axons, ensheath them, and eventually wrap their membrane to form the myelin sheath. (eur.nl)
  • Sodium, potassium, and chloride concentrations were determined in the sheath cells and axoplasm of the nerve fiber of the squid Sepioteuthis sepioidea . (rupress.org)
  • He also identified the delicate sheath of cells surrounding peripheral nerve fibers, which is now named the sheath of Schwann. (encyclopedia.com)
  • We attempted to establish a protocol to induce the stable differentiation of human BMSC along a Schwann cell lineage. (hku.hk)
  • Publications] Kazuho Hirata: 'Postnatal development of Schwann cells at neruomuscular junctions,with special rererence to synapse elimination' Journal of Neruocytology. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Schwann cell precursors then differentiate into Immature Schwann cells from which myelinating and non-myelinating Schwann cells are directly descended. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, maintenance of myelinated axons depends on healthy myelinating Schwann cells. (springer.com)
  • The nerve terminal is densely packed with synaptic vesicles, and surrounded by the myelinating Schwann cell. (ucsd.edu)
  • By generating mice lacking N-WASP in myelinating Schwann cells, we show that N-WASP is crucial for myelination. (eur.nl)
  • Myelinating Schwann cells form the myelin sheaths that surround peripheral nervous system axons. (lifemapsc.com)
  • Schwann cells in peripheral nerves receive molecular signals from axons to coordinate the process of myelination. (nih.gov)
  • Nerves in the PNS consist of many axons myelinated by Schwann cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Migrating Schwann cells in developing or regenerating peripheral nerves are known to express dramatically increased levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) and the low-affinity NGF receptor (LNGFR). (pnas.org)
  • Schwann cells can be obtained from your own peripheral nerves. (rutgers.edu)
  • I know that the Miami Project is setting up a GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) facility to grow Schwann cells from peripheral nerves, and then ship the cells to surgeons who want to transplant them. (rutgers.edu)
  • However, if you try to grow Schwann cells out of myelianted nerves, you will have a hard time getting any of the cells to grow. (rutgers.edu)
  • However, surprisingly little is known about the role of Notch in the development and pathology of Schwann cells and peripheral nerves. (epfl.ch)
  • Nerves containing numerous Schwann but their satellite Schwann cells appear cells can be found in bone marrow with well stained. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The quantity of Schwann cells as well as the number of re-innervated motor end plates (MEP) on target muscles was examined to represent the functional recovery of injured nerves. (ovid.com)
  • Consequently distal Schwann cell proliferation is not required for practical recovery of hurt nerves. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • In N-WASP-deficient nerves, Schwann cells sort and ensheath axons, but most of them fail to myelinate and arrest at the promyelinating stage. (eur.nl)
  • When anti-NGF antibodies were administered to the site of the peripheral nerve lesion in wild-type mice there was a reduction in the percentage of Schwann cell apoptosis to levels seen in both the quiescent state and in the axotomized nerves of the p75NTR-mutant mice. (edu.au)
  • iNOS immunoreactivity was also up-regulated in Schwann cells of peripheral nerves and was enriched particularly at the paranodal regions of the nodes of Ranvier. (elsevier.com)
  • We show that syndecan-3 (S3) and syndecan-4 (S4), two proteoglycans expressed in Schwann cells, are enriched in perinodal processes in rat sciatic nerves. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Laminin is a glycoprotein naturally occurring in nerves and it plays a significant role towards the migration of nerve cells and axonal outgrowth. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Consequently, Schwann cell numbers in wild-type and mutant nerves remained similar. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • As the Schwann cells proliferate, they displace normal nerve fibers to the periphery, while remaining contained within the perineurium. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • The conduits with BD hydrogel showed a linear alignment of nerve fibers and Schwann cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • Schwann cells maintain axons and are key in keeping peripheral nerve fibers alive. (pediatricbrainfoundation.org)
  • Schwann cells can form Remak bundles ensheathing multiple, small unmyelinated axons or can form thick or thin myelin sheaths around axons. (sciencemag.org)
  • Schwann cells or neurolemmocytes (named after German physiologist Theodor Schwann) are the principal glia of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Named after the German physiologist Theodor Schwann , Schwann cells are a variety of neuroglia that mainly provide myelin insulation to axons in the peripheral nervous system of jawed vertebrates. (statemaster.com)
  • Theodore Schwann Theodor Schwann (December 7, 1810 in Neuss, Prussia - January 11, 1882, in Cologne) was a German physiologist, histologist and cytologist. (statemaster.com)
  • The German biologist Theodor Schwann (1810-1882) is considered a founder of the cell theory. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Theodor Schwann was born at Neuss near Düsseldorf on Dec. 7, 1810. (encyclopedia.com)
  • After differentiation, we confirmed the increased expression of Schwann cell (SC) markers, including glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B), glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which suggests the differentiation of T-MSCs into SCs (T-MSC-SCs). (mdpi.com)
  • The hUCBMSCs showed higher expression of surface markers of mesenchymal stem cells, and Schwann-like cells showed positive expression of glia cell specific markers such as S100b, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and P75. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The temporal correlation observed in Schwann cells between migration and the enhanced expression of NGF and LNGFR suggests that NGF and LNGFR may promote Schwann cell migration. (pnas.org)
  • Specific asparagine-linked oligosaccharides are not required for certain neuron-neuron and neuron-Schwann cell interactions. (rupress.org)
  • The regulated expression of TGF-beta 1 and its effects on Schwann cells suggest that it may be an important autocrine and paracrine mediator of neuron/Schwann cell interactions. (rupress.org)
  • Functionally, OPN has been implicated in cell attachment and chemotaxis, suggesting a functional role of the newly deposited matrix protein in cell-matrix interactions and remodelling. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Microarray of frataxin-deficient Schwann cells demonstrated strong activations of inflammatory and cell death genes including interleukin-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor which were confirmed at the mRNA and protein levels. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Actin is an abundant protein that can be found in essentially all eukaryotic cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • I also investigated the repression of the transcription factor c-Jun, by itself and by Krox-20, in immature Schwann cells and found that this occurs mainly at the protein, rather than the transcriptional level. (bl.uk)
  • Retinoic acid receptor responder protein-1 (RARRES1), previously described as an integral membrane tumor suppressor, was found exclusively secreted by NF1 Schwann cells but not by normal Schwann cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Chen H-L, Seol H, Brown KJ, Gordish-Dressman H, Hill A, Gallo V, Packer R, Hathout Y. Secretome Survey of Human Plexiform Neurofibroma Derived Schwann Cells Reveals a Secreted form of the RARRES1 Protein. (mdpi.com)
  • Arf1 is a small guanosine triphosphate-binding protein that plays multiple roles in intracellular trafficking and related signaling, both of which are processes involved in cell morphogenesis. (sciencemag.org)
  • Schwann cell-specific BIG1 conditional knockout mice, which have been generated here, exhibit reduced myelin thickness and decreased localization of myelin protein zero in the myelin membrane, compared with their littermate controls. (sciencemag.org)
  • Immunostaining of the cell cultures suggested that perineurial cells were the main target for the glucose-induced decrease of GLUT1 protein. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Moreover, expression of protein zero mRNA and protein, and its insertion into myelin membranes, occurs only in the subset of Schwann cells contacting myelination-inducing axons. (biologists.org)
  • 3) In the presence of serum (and the absence of ascorbate), Schwann cells again fail to form basal lamina or elongate but no longer express protein zero mRNA or protein. (biologists.org)
  • Therefore, we have demonstrated that axonal induction of protein zero gene expression in Schwann cells is subject to regulation by both serum- and ascorbate-dependent pathways and that not all myelin-specific proteins are regulated in the same manner. (biologists.org)
  • A protein related to glial filaments in Schwann cells. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, these studies identify a mechanism by which the lack of a membrane phospholipid causes neuropathology, implicating plasmalogens as regulators of membrane and cell signaling. (jci.org)
  • Illustration of a lipid bilayer A cell membrane, plasma membrane or plasmalemma is a selectively permeable lipid bilayer coated by proteins which comprises the outer layer of a cell. (statemaster.com)
  • A. A schematic view of an idealized action potential illustrates its various phases as the action potential passes a point on a cell membrane. (statemaster.com)
  • After sciatic axotomy, a 10mm gap between the nerve stumps was bridged using ultrafiltration membrane conduits filled with BD hydrogel or BD hydrogel containing Schwann cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • The tissue engineered nerve was prepared after 7 days of culturing Schwann-like cells (1 x 10(7) cells/mL) on the acellular nerve basal membrane conduit using the multi-point injection. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • First, I detailed the changes in membrane stability within the two cell types. (umd.edu)
  • Both cell types saw a decreased trend in both velocity and correlative movement following development of contact with the other pointing to increased cellular membrane stability upon establishment of cellular contact. (umd.edu)
  • These data suggest that regulation of actin filament nucleation in Schwann cells by N-WASP is crucial for membrane wrapping, longitudinal extension, and myelination. (eur.nl)
  • Laminins are important for Schwann cell basement membrane assembly and axonal function. (biologists.org)
  • Finally, cell competency to bind laminin and form a basement membrane was passage-dependent. (biologists.org)
  • We postulate that laminin induces the assembly of a basement membrane on competent cell surfaces probably mediated by anchorage through LG 4-5. (biologists.org)
  • Later passaged Schwann cells became competent for basement membrane assembly, a process initiated by exogenous laminin. (biologists.org)
  • Understanding the molecular basis of Schwann cell-axonal interactions will not only increase the understanding of PNS biology but also identify therapeutic targets for inherited neuropathies. (springer.com)
  • The biology and pathobiology of Schwann cells. (springer.com)
  • The Journal of Cell Biology , 192 (2), 243-250. (eur.nl)
  • Led by W. Dalton Dietrich, Ph.D. , Scientific Director of The Miami Project and Professor of Neurological Surgery, Neurology and Cell Biology & Anatomy, the Schwann cell clinical trial team at The Miami Project is composed of a multi-disciplinary group of basic science and clinical faculty members, scientific staff, and regulatory personnel focused on advancing the trial. (spinalcordinjuryzone.com)
  • Alternatively, undifferentiated bone marrow mesenchymal cells can be associated with nerve conduits and afterward transplanted. (hindawi.com)
  • In this study, we explored whether ligand-induced activation of the low-affinity neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) is responsible for inducing Schwann cell death in vivo. (edu.au)
  • where is the source of schwann cells. (rutgers.edu)
  • Our success with stable derivation of Schwann cells from human BMSCs offer a viable source of Schwann cells for autologous cell therapy in clinical applications. (hku.hk)
  • studied the responses of these cells at the neuromuscular junctions of young mice. (elifesciences.org)
  • The procedure, performed at the University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Medical Center, is a Phase 1 clinical trial designed to evaluate the safety and feasibility of transplanting the patient's own Schwann cells. (spinalcordinjuryzone.com)
  • A Role for Neuropilins in the Interaction between Schwann Cells and Meningeal Cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The mechanical interaction between Schwann cells (SCs) and their microenvironment is crucial for the development, maintenance and repair of the peripheral nervous system. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Similarly, OPN was expressed in Schwann cells in sural nerve biopsies which lack significant pathology. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • We devised a simple method to isolate mitotically active human Schwann cells from sural nerve biopsy specimens and expand the population in culture. (umich.edu)
  • In conclusion, these findings identify OPN as a novel Schwann cell antigen regulated by axonal contact. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Transmembrane protease serine 5: a novel Schwann cell plasma marker for CMT1A. (wisc.edu)
  • Human Schwann cells express ADH/TRPA1/NOX1 and recapitulate the proalgesic functions of mouse Schwann cells. (jci.org)
  • Label free proteome profiling revealed consistent release of high levels of 22 proteins by the four biological replicates of NF1 Schwann cell cultures relative to the two normal Schwann cell cultures. (mdpi.com)
  • Mice hypomorphic for laminin γ1-subunit expression that assembled endoneurial BMs with reduced component density exhibited an axonal sorting defect with amyelination but normal Schwann cell proliferation, the latter unlike the null. (biologists.org)
  • To bring insights into neurofibroma biochemistry, a comprehensive secretome analysis was performed on cultured human primary Schwann cells isolated from surgically resected plexiform neurofibroma and from normal nerve tissue. (mdpi.com)
  • The most obvious changes was the consistency with degeneration of the terminal Schwann cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Schwann cells (SCs) ensheath single large-diameter axons to form myelin sheaths in the peripheral nervous system ( Jessen and Mirsky 2005 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Schwann cells (SCs), the myelinating glia of the peripheral nervous system, ensheath individual axons, promote axonal growth and maintain normal electric conductivity. (medsci.org)
  • 1989). Most significant these Schwann cells ensheath and remyelinate regenerating axons. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • The Schwann cell promoter is present in the downstream region of the human dystrophin gene that gives shortened transcript that are again synthesized in a tissue-specific manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previous studies demonstrated that 17β-estradiol (E2) protects different cell types and reduces tissue damage in SCI experimental animal model. (springer.com)
  • Nerve fascicles were treated with cholera toxin for 7 days in culture before dissociation, which increased the cell yield at least twenty-five-fold over immediated tissue dissociation. (umich.edu)
  • Digesting the tissue completely with enzymes in serum-containing medium resulted in the highest cell viability, and released 2 to 6 × 10 4 cells/mg of tissue. (umich.edu)
  • They are composed of hypercellular Antoni A areas (spindle-shaped Schwann cells arranged in interlacing fascicles and Verocay bodies) and hypocellular Antoni B areas (gelatinous and microcystic tissue with widely separated Schwann cells). (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • hUCBMSCs-derived Schwann-like cells can be used as a source of seed cells in nerve tissue engineering. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Publications] Hiroki Tohma: 'Three dimensional structure of c-Kit-positive cellular networks in the guinea pig small intestine and colon' Cell and Tissue Research. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The participants will undergo a biopsy of a sensory nerve in one leg to obtain the tissue from which to grow their own Schwann cells. (spinalcordinjuryzone.com)
  • Peripheral nerve tissue engineering, in which nerve conduits and seeding cells such as Schwann cells (SCs), Schwann-like cells and stem cells are used, is currently considered a promising method [ 4 - 7 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • Indeed, previous studies [ 15 - 17 ] have demonstrated that reciprocal interactions between Fbs and corresponding epithelial cells play critical roles in the augmentation of tissue repair and remodeling. (ijbs.com)
  • In this report, we describe studies that indicate that initiation of basal lamina synthesis is required for Schwann cells to distinguish between myelination-inducing axons and axons that do not induce myelination, and to respond by undergoing the appropriate genetic and cellular changes. (biologists.org)
  • Associated defects of the Schwann cell basal lamina and reduced expression of laminin were also detected. (rupress.org)
  • The 10% MNP magnetic nanocomposites were able to support cell adhesion and spreading and further promote proliferation of SCs under magnetic field exposure. (dovepress.com)
  • Collectively these findings reveal that laminins integrate scaffold-forming and cell-adhesion activities to assemble an endoneurial BM, with myelination and proliferation requiring additional α6β1/α7β1-laminin LG domain interactions, and that a high BM ligand/structural density is needed for efficient myelination. (biologists.org)
  • We have observed that a normal complement of mature, N-linked sugars are not required for neurite outgrowth, neuron-Schwann cell adhesion, neuron-induced Schwann cell proliferation, or ensheathment of neurites by Schwann cells. (rupress.org)
  • Graphene-based materials (GBMs) have displayed tremendous promise for use as neuro-interfacial substrates as they enable favorable adhesion, growth, proliferation, spreading and migration of immobilized cells. (iastate.edu)
  • Role for the epidermal growth factor receptor in neurofibromatosis-related peripheral nerve tumorigenesis," Cancer Cell , vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 65-75, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • The message for the low-affinity NGF receptor, p75NGFR, is induced in Schwann cells distal to the injury and is repressed as regenerating axons make contact with these cells. (rupress.org)
  • Loss of function of merlin encoded by the NF2 tumor suppressor gene leads to activation of multiple mitogenic signaling cascades, including platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and SRC in Schwann cells. (harvard.edu)
  • QPCR results indicated that MT1 is the dominant receptor in Schwann cells. (ovid.com)
  • Assembly of one, a densely-distributed reticular matrix, was accompanied by a redistribution of cell-surface dystroglycan and cytoskeletal utrophin into matrix-receptor-cytoskeletal complexes. (biologists.org)
  • We generated a conditional knock-out mouse in which the type II TGF beta receptor is specifically ablated only in Schwann cells. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • This is the first in vivo evidence for a growth factor receptor involved in promoting Schwann cell division during development and the first genetic evidence for a receptor that controls normal developmental Schwann cell death. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • In the peripheral nervous system, myelin sheaths are derived from Schwann cells' morphologically differentiated plasma membranes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Yet, a limited number of Schwann cells form unusually short internodes, containing thin myelin sheaths, with the occasional appearance of myelin misfoldings. (eur.nl)
  • A neuroglial cell of the peripheral nervous system which forms the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons. (zfin.org)
  • Genetic inactivation of PI4KB, specifically in Schwann cells in mice, causes hypomyelination of large diameter axons and impairs engulfment of small diameter fibers by nonmyelinating Schwann cells. (pnas.org)
  • Plp1-Cre Trpa1fl/fl mice with a tamoxifen-inducible specific deletion of TRPA1 in Schwann cells revealed that channel activation by acetaldehyde in these cells initiates a NADPH oxidase-1-dependent (NOX1-dependent) production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), which sustains allodynia by paracrine targeting of nociceptor TRPA1. (jci.org)
  • Using transgenic mice and cell cultures, we found that Notch has complex and extensive regulatory functions in Schwann cells. (epfl.ch)
  • Impaired differentiation of Schwann cells in transgenic mice with increased PMP22 gene dosage. (springer.com)
  • Previously we among others show that distal Fasiglifam Schwann cell proliferation during Wallerian degeneration is normally impaired in mice missing cyclin D1 (cyclin D1? (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • In crazy type mice fresh Schwann cells generated in the distal nerve stumps are eliminated by apoptosis during a period of Schwann cell proliferation. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • RESULTS Remyelination and ensheathment of regenerated axons happens normally in the absence of distal Schwann cell proliferation Distal Schwann cell proliferation following peripheral nerve injury is definitely impaired in mice lacking cyclin D1 (Atanasoski et al. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Chen, K , Northington, F & Martin, LJ 2010, ' Inducible nitric oxide synthase is present in motor neuron mitochondria and Schwann cells and contributes to disease mechanisms in ALS mice ', Brain Structure and Function , vol. 214, no. 2-3, pp. 219-234. (elsevier.com)
  • We developed a 5 mm nerve-defect model in mice using a polyurethane (PUR) catheter and then injected one of four different mixtures of cells into the catheters to form the following four groups: pure Matrigel (Control group), SN-Fbs alone (SN-Fb group), SN-Fbs combined with SN-SCs at a ratio of 1:2 (Fb&SC group) and SN-SCs alone (SN-SC group). (ijbs.com)
  • These experiments were carried out in dorsal root ganglion neuron/Schwann cell co-cultures maintained in either serum-free, serum-only or serum-plus-ascorbate-containing medium. (biologists.org)
  • 9-O-Acetyl GD3 ganglioside is an acetylated glycolipid which is found in the cell membranes of many types of vertebrate cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They often grow to more than 100 times larger than the collective surface areas of the premyelinating Schwann cell plasma membranes ( 1 - 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Laminins promote early stages of peripheral nerve myelination by assembling basement membranes (BMs) on Schwann cell surfaces, leading to activation of β1 integrins and other receptors. (biologists.org)
  • Pretreatment of denervated nerve sections with NGF increases further the rate of Schwann cell migration. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we review the diverse origins of Schwann cells into the CNS, both peripheral and central, as well as the CNS components that inhibit Schwann survival and migration into the central parenchyma. (thisisms.com)
  • Composition of the ECM can also lead to a distinct cellular response and regulate cell behaviors such as migration and differentiation through intracellular signaling pathways 17 , 18 . (jove.com)
  • These data suggest that nanofibers may support SC migration even in the setting of reduced Schwann cell number. (minervamedica.it)
  • 2017. "Ponatinib promotes a G1 cell-cycle arrest of merlin/NF2-deficient human schwann cells. (harvard.edu)
  • and Claussen, Jonathan C., "Electrical Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Schwann‐Cell‐Like Phenotypes Using Inkjet‐Printed Graphene Circuits" (2017). (iastate.edu)