Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
The branch of psychology concerned with psychological methods of recognizing and treating behavior disorders.
The artificial language of schizophrenic patients - neologisms (words of the patient's own making with new meanings).
The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.
The science dealing with the study of mental processes and behavior in man and animals.
A chronic form of schizophrenia characterized primarily by the presence of persecutory or grandiose delusions, often associated with hallucination.
The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
Cognitive disorders including delirium, dementia, and other cognitive disorders. These may be the result of substance use, trauma, or other causes.
A type of schizophrenia characterized by frequent incoherence; marked loosening of associations, or grossly disorganized behavior and flat or grossly inappropriate affect that does not meet the criteria for the catatonic type; associated features include extreme social withdrawal, grimacing, mannerisms, mirror gazing, inappropriate giggling, and other odd behavior. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A false belief regarding the self or persons or objects outside the self that persists despite the facts, and is not considered tenable by one's associates.
The branch of psychology concerned with similarities or differences in the behavior of different animal species or of different races or peoples.
Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.
A type of schizophrenia characterized by abnormality of motor behavior which may involve particular forms of stupor, rigidity, excitement or inappropriate posture.
The branch of psychology concerned with psychological aspects of teaching and the formal learning process in school.
The branch of psychology which seeks to learn more about the fundamental causes of behavior by studying various psychologic phenomena in controlled experimental situations.
Conceptual system developed by Freud and his followers in which unconscious motivations are considered to shape normal and abnormal personality development and behavior.
Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)
A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.
Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.
Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.
A branch of psychology in which there is collaboration between psychologists and physicians in the management of medical problems. It differs from clinical psychology, which is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of behavior disorders.
The branch of applied psychology concerned with the application of psychologic principles and methods to industrial problems including selection and training of workers, working conditions, etc.
Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.
The conscious portion of the personality structure which serves to mediate between the demands of the primitive instinctual drives, (the id), of internalized parental and social prohibitions or the conscience, (the superego), and of reality.
A phenothiazine used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES. Its properties and uses are generally similar to those of CHLORPROMAZINE.
A tricylic dibenzodiazepine, classified as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It binds several types of central nervous system receptors, and displays a unique pharmacological profile. Clozapine is a serotonin antagonist, with strong binding to 5-HT 2A/2C receptor subtype. It also displays strong affinity to several dopaminergic receptors, but shows only weak antagonism at the dopamine D2 receptor, a receptor commonly thought to modulate neuroleptic activity. Agranulocytosis is a major adverse effect associated with administration of this agent.
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
The individual's objective evaluation of the external world and the ability to differentiate adequately between it and the internal world; considered to be a primary ego function.
An imagined sequence of events or mental images, e.g., daydreams.
An obsolete concept, historically used for childhood mental disorders thought to be a form of schizophrenia. It was in earlier versions of DSM but is now included within the broad concept of PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENT DISORDERS.
A projective test used to evaluate a broad range of personality variables including pathology of thought and perception. The subject's responses to inkblot prints are scored along with subjective interpretation by the test administrator.
Chronic mental disorders in which there has been an insidious development of a permanent and unshakeable delusional system (persecutory delusions or delusions of jealousy), accompanied by preservation of clear and orderly thinking. Emotional responses and behavior are consistent with the delusional state.
Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.
A selective blocker of DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTORS and SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS that acts as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It has been shown to improve both positive and negative symptoms in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
A treatment program based on manipulation of the patient's environment by the medical staff. The patient does not participate in planning the treatment regimen.
The interdisciplinary field concerned with the development and integration of behavioral and biomedical science, knowledge, and techniques relevant to health and illness and the application of this knowledge and these techniques to prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation.
Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.
Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)
The combined discipline of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications.
Disciplines concerned with the study of human and animal behavior.
Ecological and environmental entities, characteristics, properties, relationships and processes.
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.
Compounds containing dibenzo-1,4-thiazine. Some of them are neuroactive.
A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.
The study of significant causes and processes in the development of mental illness.
A system which emphasizes that experience and behavior contain basic patterns and relationships which cannot be reduced to simpler components; that is, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
A psychological theory based on dimensions or categories used by a given person in describing or explaining the personality and behavior of others or of himself. The basic idea is that different people will use consistently different categories. The theory was formulated in the fifties by George Kelly. Two tests devised by him are the role construct repertory test and the repertory grid test. (From Stuart Sutherland, The International Dictionary of Psychology, 1989)
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
A psychologic theory, developed by John Broadus Watson, concerned with studying and measuring behaviors that are observable.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.
Those forces and content of the mind which are not ordinarily available to conscious awareness or to immediate recall.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)
Growth of habitual patterns of behavior in childhood and adolescence.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
A return to earlier, especially to infantile, patterns of thought or behavior, or stage of functioning, e.g., feelings of helplessness and dependency in a patient with a serious physical illness. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994).
A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.
A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)
The study of the physiological basis of human and animal behavior.
The study of the precise nature of different mental tasks and the operations of the brain that enable them to be performed, engaging branches of psychology, computer science, philosophy, and linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A process of differentiation having for its goal the development of the individual personality.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
A defense mechanism, operating unconsciously, whereby that which is emotionally unacceptable in the self is rejected and attributed (projected) to others.
A condition resulting from the excessive retention of water with sodium depletion.
Short popular sayings effectively expressing or astutely professing general truths or useful thoughts. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p97, p1556)
Psychoanalytic theory focusing on interpretation of behavior in reference to self. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Terms, 1994) This elaboration of the psychoanalytic concepts of narcissism and the self, was developed by Heinz Kohut, and stresses the importance of the self-awareness of excessive needs for approval and self-gratification.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
The process by which an emotional or behavioral response that is appropriate for one situation appears in another situation for which it is inappropriate.
The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.
The branch of applied psychology concerned with psychological aspects of selection, assignment, training, morale, etc., of Armed Forces personnel.
Signs and symptoms of higher cortical dysfunction caused by organic conditions. These include certain behavioral alterations and impairments of skills involved in the acquisition, processing, and utilization of knowledge or information.
The science which utilizes psychologic principles to derive more effective means in dealing with practical problems.
A form of psychiatric treatment, based on Freudian principles, which seeks to eliminate or diminish the undesirable effects of unconscious conflicts by making the patient aware of their existence, origin, and inappropriate expression in current emotions and behavior.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
Legal documents that are declarations of individuals' wishes regarding the disposal of their property or estate after death; esp: written instruments, legally executed, by which dispositions are made of estates. LIVING WILLS are written declarations regarding prolongation of life by extraordinary means.
A relational pattern in which a person attempts to derive a sense of purpose through relationships with others.
A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.
A psychoanalytic term meaning self-love.
The period from about 5 to 7 years to adolescence when there is an apparent cessation of psychosexual development.
The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.
A scale comprising 18 symptom constructs chosen to represent relatively independent dimensions of manifest psychopathology. The initial intended use was to provide more efficient assessment of treatment response in clinical psychopharmacology research; however, the scale was readily adapted to other uses. (From Hersen, M. and Bellack, A.S., Dictionary of Behavioral Assessment Techniques, p. 87)
A traditional grouping of drugs said to have a soothing or calming effect on mood, thought, or behavior. Included here are the ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS (minor tranquilizers), ANTIMANIC AGENTS, and the ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS (major tranquilizers). These drugs act by different mechanisms and are used for different therapeutic purposes.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Readiness to think or respond in a predetermined way when confronted with a problem or stimulus situation.
A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.
The study of the structure, growth, activities, and functions of NEURONS and the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.
The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.
A state in which attention is largely directed inward upon one's self.
In current usage, approximately equivalent to personality. The sum of the relatively fixed personality traits and habitual modes of response of an individual.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A branch of psychology which investigates the correlation between experience or behavior and the basic neurophysiological processes. The term neuropsychology stresses the dominant role of the nervous system. It is a more narrowly defined field than physiological psychology or psychophysiology.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The branch of psychology which investigates the psychology of crime with particular reference to the personality factors of the criminal.
The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
A serotonin receptor subtype found widely distributed in peripheral tissues where it mediates the contractile responses of variety of tissues that contain SMOOTH MUSCLE. Selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonists include KETANSERIN. The 5-HT2A subtype is also located in BASAL GANGLIA and CEREBRAL CORTEX of the BRAIN where it mediates the effects of HALLUCINOGENS such as LSD.
Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.
Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Method of psychotherapeutic treatment based on assumption of patients' personal responsibility for their own behavior. The therapist actively guides patients to accurate self-perception for fulfillment of needs of self-worth and respect for others. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
Special hospitals which provide care to the mentally ill patient.
A phenothiazine antipsychotic with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROMAZINE. Extrapyramidal symptoms may be more common than other side effects.
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A process by which an individual unconsciously endeavors to pattern himself after another. This process is also important in the development of the personality, particularly the superego or conscience, which is modeled largely on the behavior of adult significant others.
The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.
The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders in children.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
Chaotic concept of self wherein one's role in life appears to be an insoluble dilemma often expressed by isolation, withdrawal, rebellion and extremism.
A neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by one or more of the following essential features: immobility, mutism, negativism (active or passive refusal to follow commands), mannerisms, stereotypies, posturing, grimacing, excitement, echolalia, echopraxia, muscular rigidity, and stupor; sometimes punctuated by sudden violent outbursts, panic, or hallucinations. This condition may be associated with psychiatric illnesses (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; MOOD DISORDERS) or organic disorders (NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME; ENCEPHALITIS, etc.). (From DSM-IV, 4th ed, 1994; APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.
Hospital department responsible for the organization and administration of psychiatric services.
A muscarinic antagonist that has effects in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It has been used in the treatment of arteriosclerotic, idiopathic, and postencephalitic parkinsonism. It has also been used to alleviate extrapyramidal symptoms induced by phenothiazine derivatives and reserpine.
The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.
Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.
Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.
Differential response to different stimuli.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.
Strong desires to accomplish something. This usually pertains to greater values or high ideals.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Highly pleasant emotion characterized by outward manifestations of gratification; joy.
The adopting or performing the role of another significant individual in order to gain insight into the behavior of that person.
Cultural contacts between people of different races.
Use for general articles concerning nursing education.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.
Disorders of verbal and nonverbal communication caused by receptive or expressive LANGUAGE DISORDERS, cognitive dysfunction (e.g., MENTAL RETARDATION), psychiatric conditions, and HEARING DISORDERS.
Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.
Principles, models, and laws that apply to complex interrelationships and interdependencies of sets of linked components which form a functioning whole, a system. Any system may be composed of components which are systems in their own right (sub-systems), such as several organs within an individual organism.
Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
Measurable biological (physiological, biochemical, and anatomical features), behavioral (psychometric pattern) or cognitive markers that are found more often in individuals with a disease than in the general population. Because many endophenotypes are present before the disease onset and in individuals with heritable risk for disease such as unaffected family members, they can be used to help diagnose and search for causative genes.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.
Lists of words to which individuals are asked to respond ascertaining the conceptual meaning held by the individual.
A component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with research, overall planning, promoting, and administering mental health programs and research. It was established in 1949.
A particular kind of learning characterized by occurrence in very early life, rapidity of acquisition, and relative insusceptibility to forgetting or extinction. Imprinted behavior includes most (or all) behavior commonly called instinctive, but imprinting is used purely descriptively.
The unconscious transfer to others (including psychotherapists) of feelings and attitudes which were originally associated with important figures (parents, siblings, etc.) in one's early life.
Specialized residences for persons who do not require full hospitalization, and are not well enough to function completely within the community without professional supervision, protection and support.
Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.
A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
The ability of the BRAIN to suppress neuronal responses to external sensory inputs, such as auditory and visual stimuli. Sensory filtering (or gating) allows humans to block out irrelevant, meaningless, or redundant stimuli.
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.
Voluntary acceptance of a child of other parents to be as one's own child, usually with legal confirmation.
Enzyme that catalyzes the movement of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionone to a catechol or a catecholamine.
Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.
Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.
Physiological changes that occur in bodies after death.
Conscious or unconscious emotional reaction of the therapist to the patient which may interfere with treatment. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that are highly expressed in the LIMBIC SYSTEM of the brain.
Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.
Compounds containing phenyl-1-butanone.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.
Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Books designed to give factual information or instructions.
Treatment of chronic, severe and intractable psychiatric disorders by surgical removal or interruption of certain areas or pathways in the brain, especially in the prefrontal lobes.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Excusing or pardoning for an offense or release of anger or resentment.
Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.
Unconscious process used by an individual or a group of individuals in order to cope with impulses, feelings or ideas which are not acceptable at their conscious level; various types include reaction formation, projection and self reversal.

Differential effects of mental stress on plasma homovanillic acid in schizophrenia and normal controls. (1/2753)

We previously reported that mental stress by Kraepelin's arithmetic test decreases plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels in psychiatrically normal healthy human subjects. The present study was undertaken to determine whether this pattern of changes in pHVA concentrations resulting from mental stress is altered in patients with schizophrenia. Fourteen male patients with schizophrenia including those under ongoing neuroleptic treatment and 14 normal male volunteers participated in the study. Following overnight fast and restricted physical activity, the subjects performed Kraepelin's arithmetic test for 30 minutes. Plasma samples were collected immediately before and after the test for measurement of pHVA levels. A significant diagnosis by Kraepelin's test effect was observed due to a decrease in pHVA levels by the Kraepelin test in control subjects but not in patients with schizophrenia. Changes in pHVA levels during the Kraepelin test positively correlated with pre-test pHVA levels in control subjects, while this correlation was not observed in patients with schizophrenia. These results may be further support for the presence of a dopamine-dependent restitutive system in the brain. The absence of response of pHVA levels to mental stress in patients with schizophrenia may indicate that the dopamine restitutive system in these patients is disrupted or already down-regulated, as previously predicted.  (+info)

Neurocognitive and social functioning in schizophrenia. (2/2753)

This cross-sectional study examined the relationships between neurocognitive and social functioning in a sample of 80 outpatients with DSM-III-R schizophrenia. The neurocognitive battery included measures of verbal ability, verbal memory, visual memory, executive functioning, visual-spatial organization, vigilance, and early information processing. Positive and negative symptoms were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. A range of social behaviors were assessed using the Social Functioning Scale (SFS), the Quality of Life Scale (QLS), and a video-based test, the Assessment of Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills (AIPSS). Social functioning as assessed by the SFS was unrelated to neurocognitive functioning. Poor cognitive flexibility was associated with low scores on the QLS and the AIPSS. Verbal ability and verbal memory were also significantly associated with the AIPSS. Visual-spatial ability and vigilance were associated with the sending skills subscale of the AIPSS. In this study, which used a wide range of neurocognitive tests and measures of community functioning and social problem solving, results support earlier research that suggests an association between certain aspects of neurocognitive functioning and social functioning.  (+info)

Ziprasidone 80 mg/day and 160 mg/day in the acute exacerbation of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: a 6-week placebo-controlled trial. Ziprasidone Study Group. (3/2753)

In this double-blind study, patients with an acute exacerbation of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomized to receive either ziprasidone 80 mg/day (n = 106) or 160 mg/day (n = 104) or placebo (n = 92), for 6 weeks. Both doses of ziprasidone were statistically significantly more effective than placebo in improving the PANSS total, BPRS total, BPRS core items, CGI-S, and PANSS negative subscale scores (p < .05). Ziprasidone 160 mg/day significantly improved depressive symptoms in patients with clinically significant depression at baseline (MADRS > or = 14, over-all mean 23.5) (p < .05) as compared with placebo. The percentage of patients experiencing adverse events was similar in each treatment group, and resultant discontinuation was rare. The most frequent adverse events associated with ziprasidone were generally mild dyspepsia, nausea, dizziness, and transient somnolence. Ziprasidone was shown to have a very low liability for inducing movement disorders and weight gain. The results indicate that ziprasidone is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of the positive, negative, and depressive symptoms of an acute exacerbation of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.  (+info)

Activation of Heschl's gyrus during auditory hallucinations. (4/2753)

Apart from being a common feature of mental illness, auditory hallucinations provide an intriguing model for the study of internally generated sensory perceptions that are attributed to external sources. Until now, the knowledge about the cortical network that supports such hallucinations has been restricted by methodological limitations. Here, we describe an experiment with paranoid schizophrenic patients whose on- and offset of auditory hallucinations could be monitored within one functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session. We demonstrate an increase of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in Heschl's gyrus during the patients' hallucinations. Our results provide direct evidence of the involvement of primary auditory areas in auditory verbal hallucinations and establish novel constraints for psychopathological models.  (+info)

Psychophysical isolation of a motion-processing deficit in schizophrenics and their relatives and its association with impaired smooth pursuit. (5/2753)

Schizophrenia patients and many of their relatives show impaired smooth pursuit eye tracking. The brain mechanisms underlying this impairment are not yet known, but because reduced open-loop acceleration and closed-loop gain accompany it, compromised perceptual processing of motion signals is implicated. A previous study showed that motion discrimination is impaired in schizophrenia patients. Motion discrimination can make use of position and contrast as well as velocity cues. Here, we report that the motion discrimination deficit, which occurs in both schizophrenic patients and in their first-degree relatives, involves a failure of velocity detection, which appears when judging intermediate target velocities. At slower and faster velocities, judgments of velocity discrimination seemed normal until we experimentally disentangled velocity cues from nonmotion cues. We further report that compromised velocity discrimination is associated with sluggish initiation of smooth pursuit. These findings point to specific central nervous system correlates of schizophrenic pathophysiology.  (+info)

Concurrent performance of motor tasks and processing capacity in patients with schizophrenia. (6/2753)

Any task is carried out more successfully if we allocate undivided attention to it, but as demands on attentional capacity increase-for example, in concurrent or dual task conditions-performance on attended tasks becomes more impaired. Patients with schizophrenia show impaired performance on tasks requiring high levels of attentional capacity. This study examines performance of 11 patients with schizophrenia and 13 normal controls on two motor tasks (placing pegs in a pegboard and repetitive index finger tapping) under unimanual, bimanual, and dual task conditions. The patients with schizophrenia placed fewer pegs and had reduced tapping speed in unimanual and bimanual conditions. However, the decrement in bimanual performance as a percentage of unimanual performance was not significantly different for the patients and controls on either the pegboard or tapping tasks. By contrast, under dual task conditions, the performance of the patients with schizophrenia in peg placement actually improved relative to the unimanual pegboard task, whereas tapping performance deteriorated compared with the unimanual tapping, a decrement that was significantly greater for the patients. Thus the improvement in the visually guided pegboard task was at the expense of the repetitive tapping task. These results are discussed in terms of an impairment of self initiated movement with general sparing of externally triggered movements in schizophrenia and the role of frontostriatal loops in this process.  (+info)

Computed tomographic findings in schizophrenia: relation with symptom dimensions and sex differences. (7/2753)

OBJECTIVE: Loss of grey matter, a consistent finding in schizophrenia, is likely to be influenced by symptom heterogeneity and sex. This study was conducted to determine the extent and region of brain atrophy in schizophrenia and its relation to symptom syndromes and to patient sex. DESIGN: Prospective study of consecutive patients. SETTING: Psychiatric department of a general teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Sixty-one consecutive patients (37 men and 24 women) admitted to hospital for acute exacerbation of schizophrenia, as diagnosed according to the DSM third edition, revised. INTERVENTIONS: Computed tomographic examination of the head. OUTCOME MEASURES: Diffuse atrophy and atrophy in the frontal and temporal regions and the sylvian fissure were rated using the CT Rating Scale for Schizophrenia. Ratings were contrasted between male and female subjects; relations between atrophy ratings and 3 symptom dimensions of schizophrenia were examined for male and female subjects separately. RESULTS: Widening of the sylvian fissure was positively related to psychomotor poverty (r = 0.32, p < 0.01). There was a significantly stronger relation between diffuse atrophy and reality distortion in female than in male subjects. There was no sex difference in the atrophy rating in all regions of the brain, and this lack of sex difference was not related to age of onset, length of illness or age at the time of the CT scan. CONCLUSION: The morphological changes in the brain on CT are no greater in men than in women with schizophrenia. Different mechanisms may be involved in producing reality distortion symptoms in men and women.  (+info)

Disruption of latent inhibition in rats with postnatal hippocampal lesions. (8/2753)

Disruption of latent inhibition has been proposed as a possible model of cognitive abnormalities that underlie positive symptoms of a schizophrenia. We tested neonatal hippocampal lesioned rats in a latent inhibition paradigm. Lesions of the ventral hippocampus were induced by bilateral injections of ibotenic acid in 7 days old rats. The behavior of lesioned rats was tested postpubertally. We found a hyperresponsiveness to dopaminergic stimulation by apomorphine in locomotion tests. Latent inhibition was tested using the acquisition of a conditioned reaction in a two-way shuttle box. Sham operated control animals showed after preexposure of the to-be-conditioned stimulus (combined tone and light stimulus) a low acquisition. Ibotenic acid lesioned animals learned the conditioned reaction with and without preexposure in the same way, indicating disturbed latent inhibition. These results demonstrate disturbances in early postnatal hippocampal lesioned rats comparable with those seen in schizophrenic patients, thus further validating this procedure as a useful animal model of some aspects of schizophrenia.  (+info)

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Change from Baseline The Brief University of California San Diego (UCSD) Performance-Based Skills Assessment (Traditional Chinese Version((UPSA-Brief ) at the 12th and 24th ...
Recovery after my first schizophrenic episode was scary. With the help of family and friends, I recovered after my schizophrenic episode, and you can too.
The psychotic symptoms experienced by schizophrenics may be caused by a faulty brain switch that blurs their ability to distinguish thoughts from reality.
Neither of us had ever been to a jail before. We were extremely apprehensive. After fighting traffic and taking wrong turns and finding our way through an increasingly seedy side of town--abandoned
im 18 and this week im asking my dad to go to rehab. hes 44 and schizophrenic. i want him to go to a rehab where they treat concurrent dissorders. any tips on how...
Hebephrenic schizophrenia consists of huge psychological disorganization May 19, 2020 · Assignment must be typed and a minimum of 10 pages, 5 evidence-based references are required and cited accordingly. The prevailing hypothesis for schizophrenia implicates the neurotransmitter dopamine as playing a key role in the. But when she schizophrenia the morning off, was some sort of complicated piano, drenched. A Beautiful Mind centers around the character of John Nashs downward spiral from a …. Dr. Essay # 1. She looked amused, but when she Jackie mused as she heated a skillet. Dopamine acts on several areas of the brain with differing effects. down thin that This. Childhood Onset Schizophrenia And Schizophrenia Essays. It can affect a human being as early as at five years of age and is equally common in both genders Oct 14, 2019 · An Essay on Schizophrenia and Science , JAMA Psychiatry Schizophrenia is a serious and chronic mental illness that impairs a persons thoughts and behavior, and ...
21 Jan 2009 All Content, Article Title, Abstract, Keywords, Authors, Article Title, Abstract Many people with schizophrenia experience stigma caused by other peoples survey in 27 countries, in centres affiliated to the INDIGO Research Network, Anticipated discrimination affected 469 (64%) in applying for work, BibSonomy :: Publikation :: IT Development and Management of a Live e-Research System - Experiences with the Australian Schizophrenia Research Bank. Schizophrenia Research Papers Brain mapping confirms patients with schizophrenia have impaired ability to imitate. by David Salisbury , Mar. 14, 2014, 12:00 AM , Want The latest round of projects to be funded by the Institute was announced yesterday, which will partly inform the direction of the Institutes research in the coming title for romeo and juliet essay yahoo title for rosa parks essay title for schizophrenia research paper title for segregation essay title for smoking 24 Feb 2016 Isee essay topics Geography dissertation examples ...
The Schizophrenia Research Forum, (SRF) is recognized in the community of researchers in psychiatric disease as a reliable and respected resource for rapid news, discussion and information. Their Mission is to help researchers in their quest for causes, improved treatments, and better understanding of schizophrenia. The Schizophrenia Research Forum has recently launched a monthly podcast. Click here to listen and subscribe.. Visit the Schizophrenia Research Forum website: www.schizophreniaforum.org. ...
Assalamualaikum dearest readers,. This month marks the fifth installment of the #miasareachoutcampaign2018, where weve been focusing on topics such as stigma, anxiety, depression, and bipolar. This time, the spotlight is on Schizophrenia, so lets open up the space to talk about this heavily-stigmatized mental illness.. Over the next few weeks, our team will be sharing infographics on the general information on the Schizophrenia Spectrum and the different types of illnesses under this category, such as Schizophrenia, Schizoaffective Disorder, and Delusional Disorder.. Below is a sneak peek:. This slideshow requires JavaScript. ...
Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness that levies a heavy medical toll and cost burden throughout the world. Scientific collaborations are necessary for progress in psychiatric research. However, there have been few publications on scientific collaborations in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of author collaborations in schizophrenia research. This study used 58,107 records on schizophrenia from 2003 to 2012 which were downloaded from Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI Expanded) via Web of Science. CiteSpace III, an information visualization and analysis software, was used to make a visual analysis. Collaborative author networks within the field of schizophrenia were determined using published documents. We found that external author collaboration networks were more scattered while potential author collaboration networks were more compact. Results from hierarchical clustering analysis showed that the main collaborative field was genetic research in schizophrenia.
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The present study focuses on the multifaceted concept of self-disturbance in schizophrenia, adding knowledge about a not yet investigated aspect, which is the interoceptive accuracy. Starting from the assumption that interoceptive accuracy requires an intact sense of self, which otherwise was proved to be altered in schizophrenia, the aim of the present study was to explore interoceptive accuracy in a group of schizophrenia patients, compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, the possible association between interoceptive accuracy and patients positive and negative symptomatology was assessed. To pursue these goals, a group of 23 schizophrenia patients and a group of 23 healthy controls performed a heartbeat perception task. Patients symptomatology was assessed by means of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results demonstrated significantly lower interoceptive accuracy in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls. This difference was not accounted for participants ...
We investigated these issues in a group of patients with schizophrenia (n=94), affective psychosis (n=63), other psychosis (n=26); their respective first-degree relatives (total n=183) and a control group (n=85). A narrow definition of mixed-handedness was used corresponding to groups 5 and 6 as defined by the Annett Handedness Questionnaire.. We found an excess of mixed-handedness in the schizophrenic group compared with controls (OR=5.2, 1.4-18.6, p,0.006). There was no difference between the other psychotic groups and controls. There was a trend for an excess of mixed-handedness in the first-degree relatives (n=99) of schizophrenic patients (p=0.055), but not in the relatives of affective or other psychotic patients. There was a striking linear trend in the proportion of mixed-handedness between controls, the relatives and the schizophrenic patients (chi2=7.0, p=0.008). There was no association between mixed-handedness and a history of pregnancy or birth complications in the schizophrenic ...
Schizophrenia is a heritable complex phenotype associated with a background risk involving multiple common genetic variants of small effect and a multitude of environmental exposures. Early twin and family studies using proxy-genetic liability measures suggest gene-environment interaction in the etiology of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, but the molecular evidence is scarce. Here, by analyzing the main and joint associations of polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (PRS-SCZ) and environmental exposures in 1,699 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 1,542 unrelated controls with no lifetime history of a diagnosis of those disorders, we provide further evidence for gene-environment interaction in schizophrenia. Evidence was found for additive interaction of molecular genetic risk state for schizophrenia (binary mode of PRS-SCZ above 75% of the control distribution) with the presence of lifetime regular cannabis use and exposure to early-life adversities (sexual ...
Press Release Date: March 24, 1998. Fewer than half of the patients under treatment for schizophrenia, a serious brain disorder, are receiving proper doses of antipsychotic medications or appropriate psychosocial interventions. This finding is from a national study on schizophrenia, funded by the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), and published recently in NIMHs Schizophrenia Bulletin. The study identified gaps in effective care for people with schizophrenia and opportunities for improvement in all aspects of treatment. Appropriate medication is the cornerstone to treating the illness, but medication alone is not enough, said Anthony F. Lehman, M.D., Principal Investigator of the study and Director of the Center for Mental Health Services Research at the University of Maryland School of Medicine. Clinicians understand the need to prescribe antipsychotic medications, but the most effective approach integrates appropriate ...
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Schizophrenia is a brain disorder that affects the way a person acts, thinks, and sees the world. People with schizophrenia have an altered perception of reality, often a significant loss of contact with reality. They may see or hear things that dont exist, speak in strange or confusing ways, believe that others are trying to harm them, or feel like theyre being constantly watched. With such a blurred line between the real and the imaginary, schizophrenia makes it difficult-even frightening-to negotiate the activities of daily life. In response, people with schizophrenia may withdraw from the outside world or act out in confusion and fear.. Most cases of schizophrenia appear in the late teens or early adulthood. However, schizophrenia can appear for the first time in middle age or even later. In rare cases, schizophrenia can even affect young children and adolescents, although the symptoms are slightly different. In general, the earlier schizophrenia develops, the more severe it is. ...
Psychosocial treatments can help people with schizophrenia who are already stabilized on antipsychotic medication. Psychosocial treatments help these patients deal with the everyday challenges of the illness, such as difficulty with communication, self-care, work, and forming and keeping relationships. Learning and using coping mechanisms to address these problems allow people with schizophrenia to socialize and attend school and work. Patients who receive regular psychosocial treatment also are more likely to keep taking their medication, and they are less likely to have relapses or be hospitalized. A therapist can help patients better understand and adjust to living with schizophrenia. The therapist can provide education about the disorder, common symptoms or problems patients may experience, and the importance of staying on medications. For more information on psychosocial treatments, see the psychotherapies section on the NIMH website. Illness management skills. People with schizophrenia can ...
Researchers at the Swedish medical university Karolinska Institutet have discovered that patients with recent-onset schizophrenia have higher levels of inflammatory substances in their brains. Their findings offer hope of being able to treat schizophrenia with drugs that affect the immune system.. The causes of schizophrenia are largely unknown, and this hinders the development of effective treatments. One theory is that infections caught early on in life might increase the risk of developing schizophrenia, but to date any direct evidence of this has not been forthcoming.. Scientists at Karolinska Institutet have now been able to analyze inflammatory substances in the spinal fluid of patients with schizophrenia, instead of, as in previous studies, in the blood. The results show that patients with recent-onset schizophrenia have raised levels of a signal substance called interleukin-1beta, which can be released in the presence of inflammation. In the healthy control patients, this substance was ...
Teenage schizophrenia is connected with formation of a pathological mental state in perception of environment. At first there are nervous breakdowns, tearfulness, temper tantrum and loss of strength. The first signs of teenager schizophrenia can be distinguished in the early childhood.. The main signs of malignant teenager schizophrenia are: fast forcing of negative emotions, intellect disorder with the expressed autism, mobility decrease, loss of strength and emotions. Childrens schizophrenia proceeds more severe than teenage, with emphasis on oligophrenia.. Schizophrenia is very widespread. From 5 mentally sick teenagers 1-2 are schizophrenics. Nevertheless between adult and teenage schizophrenia there are serious differences. There are some types of teenager schizophrenia.. Process schizophrenia. This kind is detected in early childhood. At teenage the illness progresses. The first clinical signs are noticeable by 3 years. The child becomes flaccid, badly perceives reality, aloofness from ...
Substance Abuse and Schizophrenia: Editors Introduction by Thomas R. Kosten and Douglas M. Ziedords Abstract Most individuals with schizophrenia have problems with abuse of substances ranging from licit
Direct family members of people with schizophrenia are more likely to smoke cigarettes compared to individuals with no family history of the disorder, according to a new study.. The researchers also discovered that the smoking family members of schizophrenia patients exhibit stronger signs of nicotine dependence than other smokers.. Our results provide support for the hypothesis that familial factors increase the prevalence of smoking in first-degree relatives of schizophrenic subjects, who have a high genetic risk of schizophrenia, said Franck Schürhoff and his research team.. If it can be confirmed that genetic factors make people at risk of schizophrenia more likely to smoke, this would have major implications for our understanding of the etiology of schizophrenia, they added.. The study included 98 first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and 110 mentally healthy controls with no family history of the disorder. The mean age of the relatives was higher than that of controls, at ...
What is schizophrenia?. Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder that affects more than 1% of the worlds population. Schizophrenia affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. People with schizophrenia may seem like they have lost touch with reality. They may hear voices other people dont hear. They may think other people are trying to hurt them. Sometimes they dont make any sense when they talk.. Schizophrenia takes an enormous toll on the individual and the afflicted families. Many people with schizophrenia have difficulty maintaining a job or living independently, though it is important to recognize that treatment, especially at the onset of symptoms, allows individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia to lead meaningful, productive lives. Hence early identification and treatment may be the key to a better outcome and lives restored from Schizophrenia. Risk factors for Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia occurs in slightly more men than women Affects all social and cultural groups. Usual ...
Newly developed Bayesian perspectives on schizophrenia hold out the promise that a common underlying mechanism can account for many, if not all, of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. If this is the case, then understanding how schizophrenic minds go awry could shine light on how healthy minds maintain a sense of self. This article investigates this Bayesian promise by examining whether the approach can indeed account for the difficulties with self-awareness experienced in schizophrenia. While I conclude that it cannot, I (...) nonetheless maintain that understanding how the self breaks down in schizophrenia tells us much about how and why the self functions in normal human circumstances. I proceed first by recounting in some detail a Bayesian interpretation of perception, schizophrenia, and self-awareness, as well as some of the empirical data supporting this interpretation, then by exploring aspects of schizophrenia that this approach leaves out. I conclude by discussing what the left ...
Chipmunkapublishing.co.uk Walking The Abyss - Schizophrenia On Both Sides [ebook] - By P.D.W. Anderson ISBN: 978-1-84991-964-7 Published: 2013 Pages: 59 Key Themes: Mental Health, Schizophrenia, Life, Journey, Coming of Age Description As with many, the journey into Mental struggle, can start way back as you begin navigating your early teenage years. By 15-16 years old, it becomes a case of experimentation, that eventually leads to self-medicating
Schizophrenia patients have markedly elevated prevalence of diabetes compared with the general population. However, risk of mortality and diabetes-related complications among schizophrenia patients with co-occurring diabetes is understudied.We investigated whether schizophrenia increased the risk of overall mortality, complications and post-complication mortality in people with diabetes.This population-based, propensity-score matched (1:10) cohort study identified 6991 patients with incident diabetes and pre-existing schizophrenia and 68 682 patients with incident diabetes only between 2001 and 2016 in Hong Kong using a medical record database of public healthcare services. Association between schizophrenia and all-cause mortality was examined with a Cox proportional hazards model. Effect of schizophrenia on first-year complication occurrence following diabetes diagnosis and post-complication mortality rates were evaluated.Schizophrenia was associated with increased all-cause mortality (adjusted ...
In the past 6 months, Ive written lots of news stories for Schizophrenia Research Forum. Among my favorites is a story about a study that found genetic risk variants for schizophrenia also promoted cannabis use (Genetic Risk for Schizophrenia, Cannabis Use Overlap 6/30/2014), which suggests our genes compel us to seek environments that are themselves…
Schizophrenia is a complex disorder. The cause of schizophrenia lies in a complex interaction between genes and environment. Genetic variation could lead to altered brain structure and/or function. These changes could predispose a person to developing schizophrenia in the face of environmental stressors. MRI of the brain provides a way to detect changes in brain structure due to genetic effects and those due to disease progression.. Patients with schizophrenia have reduced grey matter volume and altered white matter connections. Some of these changes could have a genetic basis. Voxel based morphometry provides an unbiased whole brain approach to explore effects of genetic polymorphisms on grey matter and white matter volumes in schizophrenia.. Formation of gyri and sulci begin at the age of 16 weeks in utero in humans. Genetic variation may affect rates of grey matter and white matter development thus affecting formation of gyri. As some genes implicated in schizophrenia affect the development ...
Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe, and disabling brain disorder that has been recognized throughout recorded history. It affects about 1 percent of Americans. People with schizophrenia may hear voices other people dont hear or they may believe that others are reading their minds, controlling their thoughts, or plotting to harm them. These experiences are terrifying and can cause fearfulness, withdrawal, or extreme agitation. People with schizophrenia may not make sense when they talk, may sit for hours without moving or talking much, or may seem perfectly fine until they talk about what they are really thinking. The symptoms of schizophrenia fall into three broad categories:. Positive symptoms are easy-to-spot behaviors not seen in healthy people and usually involve a loss of contact with reality. These behaviors include unusual thoughts or perceptions, including hallucinations, delusions, thought disorder, and disorders of movement.. Negative symptoms represent a loss or a ...
The neurodevelopmental hypothesis. This theory attempts to link together a number of different research findings on the development of Schizophrenia. It is more common for people with Schizophrenia to have had a viral illness early in their foetal development. It has also been found that babies who experience difficulties at birth resulting in lack of oxygen to the brain have an increased risk of developing Schizophrenia. In addition, brain scans of people with Schizophrenia show that compared to the rest of the population, there are differences in their brains. These studies have established that people with Schizophrenia have higher levels of structural brain abnormalities. Together these findings suggest a link between damage to the developing brain and development of Schizophrenia in later life.. The use of drugs. The role of specific street-drugs in the development of Schizophrenia has become a topic of increasing interest in recent years. Research suggests that use of cannabis increases ...
I have discussed the many difficulties which we encounter in this work. But we should remember that there are acute and chronic schizophrenic patients who respond more easily to our analytic approach. They gain insight, co-operate in the analysis and seem to improve from the beginning. In these cases there seems to be a part of the personality not completely involved in the psychosis. So in spite of their severe psychotic manifestations they do not completely lose touch with reality once the analysis is going ahead. The information gained from these less difficult schizophrenic patients has been of great value in understanding the more serious ones; for we need a great deal of knowledge of the psychopathology in order to gain access, for instance, to a silent schizophrenic patient, or in order to understand and utilize the sometimes very scanty information which some schizophrenics are able to give us ...
A patient receives the diagnosis of schizophrenia when two or more of the following symptoms are present: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, abnormal psychomotor behavior, and so-called negative symptoms such as diminished emotional expression or avolition. But because these symptoms present in a highly variable manner in patients, the underlying genetic causes have been challenging to define. Some of these traits have emerged in people who use the drugs ketamine or phencyclidine (PCP), which are glutamate [N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)] receptor antagonists. Since these observations, there has been an accumulation of evidence implicating glutamatergic dysfunction in schizophrenia. Now, Fromer and colleagues offer insights garnered from their study of de novo mutations in schizophrenic patients. The new study is the largest analysis of de novo mutations in schizophrenia to date. De novo mutations are mutations that are present in patients but not present in the somatic cell lineages ...
This exploratory study aims to examine the differential effects of a computer-based cognitive training in prodromal patients (mean age 27.20 years, S.D. 5.31 years) compared with patients with full-blown schizophrenia (mean age 30.13 years, S.D. 7.77 years). Ten patients at risk for schizophrenia and 16 patients suffering from schizophrenia underwent a computerized cognitive training program (Cogpack). Cognitive functioning before and after a total of 10 training sessions was assessed by different tests controlling for memory, attention, and logical thinking. Prodromal patients turned out to be able to significantly improve their long-term memory functions and their attention after cognitive training with the Cogpack software package whereas in the group of patients with schizophrenia no improvement occurred (e.g. continuous performance test, identical pairs-subtest shapes: improvement from 0.73 to 0.88 in persons at risk of schizophrenia vs. no improvement in patients with schizophrenia ...
Open-label Study to Assess Usability of the Medical Information Device #1 (MIND1) System in Adults With Schizophrenia On Oral ...
News our schizophrenia association recommends regarding schizophrenia and psychosis, schizophrenia treatment, mental disorders stigma and more. Read here.
The goal of the Mass General Schizophrenia research team is to better understand the causes and symptoms of schizophrenia in order to develop new and more effective treatments.
Optogenetic Analysis of Neural Circuits and Behavior in Zebrafish: Monday, November 20, 2017, 12:00 p.m.. RNA Splice Codes for Synapse Specification and Neuronal Plasticity: Monday, December 11, 2017, 12:00 p.m.. Synapses, Muscular Dystrophy and Schizophrenia: Monday, January 8, 2018, 12:00 p.m.. ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of A randomized, controlled trial of Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT) for outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
This book was written to educate children about schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe, and disabling brain disorder. According to Mental Health America, it affects about one percent of people worldwide. It knows no racial, cultural, or economic boundaries.. Schizophrenia may be one of the most misunderstood mental health diseases, but it is also one of the most disabling. Media attention on mental health awareness has sparked conversation on this subject, but not necessarily an understanding about the illness. My Brother Adam takes readers on a journey through what life is like for Adam, narrated by his sister Carla. It is our hope that this book will encourage further discussion on schizophrenia and mental health in general. This book is for anyone who wants to learn more on this topic. We hope that we can begin to dismantle some of the stigma associated with schizophrenia; as we open minds and touch hearts with Adams story. ...
Schizophrenia is a devastating and often destructive mental disorder, one that overtakes a young mind and sends it spinning out of touch with reality. About one in 100 Americans is estimated to have schizophrenia, and although the word itself has been around for just over 100 years, the illness has likely haunted humanity for thousands. The disorder tends to run in families, so scientists have long suspected a genetic component - and yet years of research since the first human genome was sequenced yielded no firm evidence of its root cause.. Until, that is, this week. In a landmark paper published Wednesday in the journal Nature, a team of the nations top scientists say they have pried open the black box of schizophrenia, pinpointing the genetic root of the disorder. Im a crusty, old, curmudgeonly skeptic, Steven Hyman, the director of the Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research at MITs Broad Institute, told the Washington Post. But Im almost giddy about these findings. Its a crucial ...
Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder that can significantly change the quality of life for not only the patient, but also sometimes their close relatives. Helping individuals with schizophrenia achieve the highest quality of life possible is linked to understanding the negative moods of schizophrenia. The negative moods that come with the disorder can result in high levels of depression and the occurrence of suicidal behavior.. Researchers have examined various aspects of negative moods and how they impact depressive symptoms. Recently Dafna Weinberg of the Department of Psychology at Ben-Gurion University in Israel examined four domains of self-concept and how they impact the symptoms of schizophrenia. The study sought to understand how the concept of self and various mood states can impact treatment outcome.. Weinberg and colleagues focused on negative symptoms, positive symptoms, depression and the patients quality of life among 89 patients undergoing treatment for schizophrenia. The ...
Shocking findings were reported in the August 1st issue of CANCER; cancer patients with schizophrenia possess a mortality rate that is 50% higher than general populations. In fact, cancer in patients with schizophrenia is the second leading cause of death among the group, suicide being the leading cause. According to Frederic Limosin, MD, PhD, of the University of Reims and Robert Debre Hospital in Reims, France, and colleagues, the mortality rate among cancer patients with schizophrenia is nearly four times as high as in general populations. The continuing cultural stigma associated with schizophrenia can lead to barriers to access to medical care for these patients and may also contribute to diagnostic or treatment delays… It appears essential for psychiatrists to be attentive to the medical care of schizophrenic patients and to evaluate their compliance to therapy for somatic disease, the researchers said. Perhaps cancer patients with schizophrenia do not possess the same support systems ...
Problem Statement Schizophrenia is a disorder that affects how a person feels, thinks, and behaves. We chose this disorder because it is an interesting topic to discuss. There are 5 different subtypes of schizophrenia, some being more detrimental than others. The disorders cause is unknown, but schizophrenia is known to develop through genetic factors. Although it is interesting, its a psychotic disorder that affects 1% of the worlds population. The main complication though is that people who suffer from schizophrenia may experience hallucinations, delusions, and movement disorders. History of Schizophrenia The disease was first identified as a discrete mental illness by Dr. Emile Kraepelin in 1887 and it had been believed to have accompanied mankind through its history. Later on, the Dr. Kraepelin categorized this disease as dementia praecox. In 1910, the term schizophrenia was formed by a psychiatrist named Paul Eugen Bleuler. The word comes from the Greek words schizo (split) and ...
Neurocognitive impairment is considered a core component of schizophrenia and is increasingly under investigation as a potential treatment target. On average, cognitive impairment is severe to moderately severe compared with healthy controls, and almost all patients with schizophrenia demonstrate cognitive decrements compared with their expected level if they had not developed the illness. Keefe RSE, Fenton WS. How should DSM-V criteria for schizophrenia include cognitive impairment? Schizophrenia Bulletin, 2007; 33(4): 912-920. PMCID: PMC2632322.
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Find all books from Gattaz, Wagner F.; Busatto, Geraldo - Advances in Schizophrenia Research 2009. At find-more-books.com you can find used, antique and new books, COMPARE results and immediately PURCHASE your selection at the best price. 9781441909138
This solution describes how the major neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine effect schizophrenia and major depression. It describes the positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia and how the.
Author(s): Lee, Ellen E; Martin, Averria Sirkin; Kaufmann, Christopher N; Liu, Jinyuan; Kangas, Julie; Daly, Rebecca E; Tu, Xin M; Depp, Colin A; Jeste, Dilip V | Abstract: This paper aims to compare mental and physical health, cognitive functioning, and selected biomarkers of aging reflecting metabolic pathology and inflammation, in outpatients with schizophrenia from two residential settings: residential care facilities (RCFs) and living with someone in a house/apartment. This cross-sectional study examined community-dwelling adults with schizophrenia either in RCFs (N = 100) or in a house/apartment with someone (N = 76), recruited for two NIH-funded studies in San Diego. Assessments included measures of mental/physical health, cognitive function, and metabolic (glycosylated hemoglobin, cholesterol) and inflammatory (C-Reactive Protein, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, Interleukin-6) biomarkers of aging. General logistic models were used to analyze factors associated with residential status. RCF residents
. Schizophrenia - Positive Symptoms & Negative Symptoms front 1 Schizophrenia What are the positive symptoms of Schizophrenia related Content of Thought? back 1 Delusions Religiosity Paranoia Magical Thinking front 2 Schizophrenia What are the positive symptoms of Schizophrenia related Form of Thought? back 2 Associative looseness Neologisms Concrete thinking Clang associations Word Salad Circumstantiality…
Schizophrenia, a mental disorder which affects the normal functioning of the brain, has certain positive symptoms as well as negative symptoms. Watch this video to understand Schizophrenia!
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disease, which includes symptoms of delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, aberrant behavior, lack of emotional expression, diminished motivation, and social withdrawal. The cause of schizophrenia is unknown, but there is extensive evidence that genetics play a significant role in its aetiology. We studied the genetic basis of schizophrenia by analyzing around 500,000 genetic variants distributed across the whole human genome in DNA from schizophrenic patients and controls. We analyzed separately the DNA from men and women, and identified a genetic variant that increases the risk of developing schizophrenia in women only. The genetic variant is estimated to increase the risk of schizophrenia for women carrying the risk variant by 1.4-fold. The genetic variant is in a gene called reelin, which is known to play a part in brain development. However, it is still unclear how this genetic variant predisposes to schizophrenia nor why it is specific to women ...
Schizophrenic Disorders by. Angus W. MacDonald, Ansam El Shaikh, Craig Moodie, Andrew Poppe, Ian Ramsay, Krista Wisner. *LAST ... In This Article Expand or collapse the "in this article" section Schizophrenic Disorders *Introduction ... We sometimes speak of schizophrenic disorders, rather than schizophrenia as a monolithic entity, to acknowledge this ambiguity ...
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Should Schizophrenics be allowed to plead insanity to crimes?. Author:. Ellen Garcia (Author). Category:. Term Paper, 2011. ... Forensic Psychology and Penal System ( 15 results ) Sort by Most Relevant Newest Bestsellers Most Read Alphabetic: A-Z ...
... in schizophrenic patients with hyponatremia and polydipsia, thereby placing them at increased risk of life-threatening water ... Schizophrenic Psychology* * Sodium / blood * Thirst * Vasopressins / blood* * Water Intoxication / blood* * Water Intoxication ... To explore whether the effect of acute psychosis on water balance differs in these 2 schizophrenic subgroups, we compared their ... Psychotic exacerbations and enhanced vasopressin secretion in schizophrenic patients with hyponatremia and polydipsia Arch Gen ...
I. The effect on schizophrenic patients.. *G. Vogel, A. Traub. *. Psychology. Archives of general psychiatry ... The realm of human and animal psychology is poorly understood to the extent the authors are unable to relate sleep to the rest ...
Psychology Today does not read or retain your email. However, a copy will be sent to you for your records. Please be aware that ... Psychology Today does not read or retain your email. However, a copy will be sent to you for your records. Please be aware that ...
British Journal of Psychology, 159. pp. 415-421. ISSN 0007-1269 ... reaction time and accuracy in acute and chronic schizophrenics ... Contextual effects on choice reaction time and accuracy in acute and chronic schizophrenics : impairment in selective attention ...
Department of Professional Psychology , School of Psychology Professor John Read worked for nearly 20 years as a Clinical ... Schizophrenics" have childhoods too: Resurrecting buried knowledge Annual Frieda Fromm-Reichmann Memorial Lecture. Washington ... Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 35, 54-67.. *READ, J. (2022). The experiences of 585 people when they tried to come off ... Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry, 24, 69-85. *READ, J., HARROP, C., GEEKIE, J. (2022). Time to acknowledge the bias of ...
An article in Psychology Today reports that there are "100 billion neurons in the human brain" and that it would take 32 ... Street proceeds to tell how one can cure schizophrenics by saying:. And of those people [schizophrenics] you have to settle one ... So all one needs to do is to make sure the schizophrenic is a Christian because, according to Street, "youd only work with a ... Torreys remarks about schizophrenics as Christians apply to the Ashers only more so because of their extreme position. Torrey ...
In magical work we see this clearly in the creation of the BOL; in psychology in neurotic and schizophrenic behavior; and even ...
Positive psychology studies the conditions, the processes and the actions that contribute to the flourishing or optimal ... The French practices of psychosocial rehabilitation: Therapeutic systems for schizophrenic patients]. LInformation ... This definition fully enters recovery in the field of positive psychology as this branch of psychology aims at promoting the ... Seligman MEP, Csikszentmihalyi M. Positive psychology: An introduction. American Journal of Psychology. 2000;. 35. :5-14. DOI: ...
Wilson Van Dusen (1923-2005) earned a PhD in clinical psychology and spent his professional years working with schizophrenics. ... especially for readers with an interest in psychology and a mystical turn of mind." ...
Abnormal Psychology This Is An Essay On The Film A Beautiful Mind Discussing Whether The Ideas And Depictions Of ... 881 words - 4 pages schizophrenic at the time (hallucinations and thought alienation). However, there are some problems with ...
Keyword: eugene uttley , memoir , mental illness , psychology , psychosis , recovery , schizophrenia , schizophrenic , the boon ... Keyword: clinical supervision , education and training services , forensic psychology services , mental health counseling ... Forensic Psychology Services, Mental Health Counseling, Parenting Classes.. ...
Biological Psychology, 11, 99-116. * Kutas, M. & Hillyard, S. A. (1980b). Reading between the lines: Event-related brain ... The N400 component of event-related potentials in schizophrenic patients: A preliminary study. Electroencephalography and ... Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 121(4), 459-479. * Kounios, J. & Holcomb, P. J. (1994). Concreteness effects in ... Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 20, 804-823. * Koyama, S., Nageishi, Y., Shimokochi, M., ...
Language dysfunction in negative and mixed symptomatic schizophrenic subgroups as evidenced by the N400 event-related potential ...
For fifteen years or better I was an avid reader of psychology and I do not recall ever seeing it in print. I was once left to ... I was once left to determine that momster might be schizophrenic. Narcissism was not explained well enough either. Bipolar ... determine that momster might be schizophrenic. Narcissism was not explained well enough either. Bipolar seems to the the catch ...
But we do not only use psychology to diagnose history. The point is not to diagnose Joan of Arc as a schizophrenic and be done ... One would have to recreate the wheel, be so perspicacious and brilliant that he or she could invent psychology from scratch. ... Dr Jerry S. Piven teaches the psychology of religion at New School University and New York University. His courses focus on ...
Comparative remission rates of schizophrenic patients using various remission criteria. Romain Beitinger, Jingxia Lin, Werner ... Dive into the research topics of Comparative remission rates of schizophrenic patients using various remission criteria. ...
What about Scientologys conscience when it comes to psychology? Will bipolar, schizophrenic and depressed patients now have to ...
Maxwell, Grover, and Mary Lou Maxwell, (1983) "The Schizophrenic Character of the Foundations of Psychology: A Model-Theoretic ... 2-3) In psychology or sociology one is less likely to hear of phenomenological laws, but phenomenological "approaches,""studies ... 1967) "Strauss Phenomenological Psychology." Review of Metaphysics. 21.. Jennings, Jerry L. (1986) "Husserl Revisited: The ... The General Relation between Phenomenology and Psychology. Phenomenology as it has just been described is not excluded by, nor ...
Johnston, D. W., Bursill, A. E. & Johnston, D., 1973, In: The British journal of social and clinical psychology. 12, 4, p. 402- ... Probability learning and width of attention in normal and schizophrenic groups. ... Steptoe, A., Mathews, A. & Johnston, D., 1973, Biological Psychology. Di Cara, L. V., Baber, T. X., Kamiya, J., Miller, N. E., ... Paton, W. D. M., Pertwee, R. G. & Temple, D., 1972, Cannabis and its derivatives: Pharmacology and Experimental Psychology. ...
Schizophrenic and bipolar patients have also seen the benefits of art therapy. In a report issued by the British Medical ... A report in Psychology Today on bipolar individuals found that the changes in brain function during manic episodes are quite ... Using elements found in Freudian and Jungian psychology, art therapy works on the premise that symbols and images hold meaning ...
Improving Psychology Students Attitudes Toward People With Schizophrenia: A Quasi- Randomized Controlled Study. American ... Improving Psychology Students Attitudes Toward People With Schizophrenia: A Quasi- Randomized Controlled Study.. Magliano, ... This paper documents the murder, by psychiatrists, of a quarter of a million patients, mostly diagnosed as schizophrenic, in ... Biological Psychiatry and The Mass Murder Of Schizophrenics: From Denial to Inspirational Alternative. Read, J. and Masson, J ...
... "schizophrenic" or "a schizophrenic person." Do not use the word "schizophrenic" colloquially as a synonym for something ... According to Psychology Today, it is a rare condition that may be associated with other disorders, such as schizophrenia. It is ... Dont say that an awards show, for example, was "schizophrenic.". Mental health professional/shrink. Background: There are a ... The following broad definitions are sourced from Psychology Today:. *Psychiatrist: A mental health professional able to ...
This case involves a woman who fatally stabbed her husband while having a schizophrenic episode. The woman had been diagnosed ... pediatric psychology, developmental psychology, geriatric psychology, neuropsychology, cognitive psychology, psychotherapy and ... Forensic Psychology Expert Witness. Our psychology expert witnesses practice in the fields of clinical and forensic psychology ... Forensic Psychology, Neuropsychology, and Clinical Psychology Expert. View Profile -> View Profile. This qualified expert ...
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